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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550674/-a-comparison-of-dosimetric-variance-for-external-beam-partial-breast-irradiation-using-three-dimensional-and-four-dimensional-computed-tomography
#1
B Guo, J B Li, W Wang, M Xu, Q Shao, T H Liu
Objective: To investigate the potential dosimetric benefits of four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) compared to three-dimensional CT (3DCT) in the planning of radiotherapy for external-beam partial breast irradiation (EB-PBI). Methods: Three-DCT and 4DCT scan sets were acquired for 20 patients who underwent EB-PBI. For each patient a conventional 3D conformal plan (3D-CRT) was generated based on end-inhalation phase (EI). The treatment plan based on the 4DCT EI phase images was copied and applied to the end-exhalation phase (EE) and 3DCT images (defined as EB-PBI(EI), EB-PBI(EE), EB-PBI(3D), respectively)...
April 23, 2017: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548897/evening-light-exposure-to-computer-screens-disrupts-human-sleep-biological-rhythms-and-attention-abilities
#2
A Green, M Cohen-Zion, A Haim, Y Dagan
The use of electronic devices with light-emitting screens has increased exponentially in the last decade. As a result, humans are almost continuously exposed to unintentional artificial light. We explored the independent and combined effects of two aspects of screen illumination, light wavelength, and intensity, on sleep, its biological regulation, and related functional outcomes. The 2 × 2 repeated-measure design included two independent variables: screen light intensity (low ([LI] versus high [HI]) and wavelength (short [SWL] versus long [LWL])...
May 26, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548285/neonatal-hypoxia-ischemia-in-rat-increases-doublecortin-concentration-in-the-cerebrospinal-fluid
#3
Catherine Brégère, Urs Fisch, Martin H Sailer, Wolfgang S Lieb, Laurie Chicha, Fabienne Goepfert, Thomas Kremer, Raphael Guzman
Doublecortin (DCX) is a microtubule-associated protein widely used as an indicator of neurogenesis in immunohistochemical analyses of the postmortem adult brain. A recent study reported that DCX can be quantified in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from healthy rats between postnatal day 0 (P0) and P30. However, it is currently unclear whether the concentration of DCX in the CSF (CSF-DCX) may represent a measure of endogenous neurogenesis. To address this question, the present study examined the impact of a neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury, known to induce neurogenesis, on CSF-DCX...
May 26, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546705/sinonasal-mass-a-recent-study-of-its-clinicopathological-profile
#4
P Agarwal, R Panigrahi
A variety of non-neoplastic and neoplastic conditions involving the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses (PNS), and nasopharynx are commonly encountered in clinical practice. The objectives of the study were to identify various pathological conditions that present with sinus or nasal mass, to understand their varied clinical behavior, to know the distribution of various lesions among the different age and sex groups, and to study the management of sinonasal masses and its outcome on follow-up. A prospective study was carried out from September 2013 to August 2015, in the Otorhinolaryngology Department of Hi-Tech Medical College & Hospital, Bhubaneswar, Odisha...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545527/what-intrinsic-factors-influence-responsiveness-to-acupuncture-in-pain-a-review-of-pre-clinical-studies-that-used-responder-analysis
#5
Yu-Kang Kim, Ji-Yeun Park, Seung-Nam Kim, Mijung Yeom, Seungmin Lee, Ju-Young Oh, Hyangsook Lee, Younbyoung Chae, Dae-Hyun Hahm, Hi-Joon Park
BACKGROUND: Not many studies have investigated individual sensitivity to acupuncture. To explore the intrinsic factors related to individual responses to acupuncture, we reviewed published pre-clinical studies using responder analysis on pain. METHODS: We searched the PubMed and EMBASE databases to June 2015. We included pre-clinical reports describing responders and non-responders to anti-nociceptive and analgesic effects of acupuncture in animal study. We identified the potential intrinsic factors which might be related with the response to acupuncture...
May 25, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544514/dynamic-enhancer-function-in-the-chromatin-context
#6
REVIEW
Ido Goldstein, Gordon L Hager
Enhancers serve as critical regulatory elements in higher eukaryotic cells. The characterization of enhancer function has evolved primarily from genome-wide methodologies, including chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-seq), DNase-I hypersensitivity (DNase-seq), digital genomic footprinting (DGF), and the chromosome conformation capture techniques (3C, 4C, and Hi-C). These population-based assays average signals across millions of cells and lead to enhancer models characterized by static and sequential binding...
May 22, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543070/tnf-%C3%AE-has-both-stimulatory-and-inhibitory-effects-on-mouse-monocyte-derived-osteoclastogenesis
#7
Yixuan Cao, Ineke D C Jansen, Sara Sprangers, Teun J de Vries, Vincent Everts
Phenotypically different osteoclasts may be generated from different subsets of precursors. To what extent the formation of these osteoclasts is influenced or mediated by the inflammatory cytokine TNF-α, is unknown and was investigated in this study. The osteoclast precursors early blasts (CD31(hi) Ly-6C(-) ), myeloid blasts (CD31(+) Ly-6C(+) ) and monocytes (CD31(-) Ly-6C(hi) ) were sorted from mouse bone marrow using flow cytometry and cultured with M-CSF and RANKL, with or without TNF-α. Surprisingly, TNF-α prevented the differentiation of TRAcP(+) osteoclasts generated from monocytes on plastic; an effect not seen with early blasts and myeloid blasts...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537894/intratumoral-depletion-of-regulatory-t-cells-using-cd25-targeted-photodynamic-therapy-in-a-mouse-melanoma-model-induces-antitumoral-immune-responses
#8
Dong Sun Oh, Heegon Kim, Ji Eun Oh, Hi Eun Jung, Yun Soo Lee, Ji-Ho Park, Heung Kyu Lee
Tumor immunotherapy aims to overcome the immunosuppressive microenvironment within tumors, and various approaches have been developed. Tumor-associated T regulatory cells (Tregs) suppress the activation and expansion of tumor antigen-specific effector T cells, thus, providing a permissive environment for tumor growth. Therefore, optimal strategies need to be established to deplete tumor-infiltrated Tregs because systemic depletion of Tregs can result in reduced anti-tumor effector cells and autoimmunity. Here, to selectively deplete Tregs in tumors, we intratumorally injected anti-CD25 antibodies conjugated to Chlorin e6 (Ce6), a photosensitizer that absorbs light to generate reactive oxygen species...
May 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534119/splenic-ly6c-hi-monocytes-contribute-to-adverse-late-post-ischemic-left-ventricular-remodeling-in-heme-oxygenase-1-deficient-mice
#9
Mateusz Tomczyk, Izabela Kraszewska, Krzysztof Szade, Karolina Bukowska-Strakova, Marco Meloni, Alicja Jozkowicz, Jozef Dulak, Agnieszka Jazwa
Heme oxygenase-1 (Hmox1) is a stress-inducible protein crucial in heme catabolism. The end products of its enzymatic activity possess anti-oxidative, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties. Cardioprotective effects of Hmox1 were demonstrated in experimental models of myocardial infarction (MI). Nevertheless, its importance in timely resolution of post-ischemic inflammation remains incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to determine the role of Hmox1 in the monocyte/macrophage-mediated cardiac remodeling in a mouse model of MI...
July 2017: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533743/neonatal-hypoxia-ischaemia-mechanisms-models-and-therapeutic-challenges
#10
REVIEW
Lancelot J Millar, Lei Shi, Anna Hoerder-Suabedissen, Zoltán Molnár
Neonatal hypoxia-ischaemia (HI) is the most common cause of death and disability in human neonates, and is often associated with persistent motor, sensory, and cognitive impairment. Improved intensive care technology has increased survival without preventing neurological disorder, increasing morbidity throughout the adult population. Early preventative or neuroprotective interventions have the potential to rescue brain development in neonates, yet only one therapeutic intervention is currently licensed for use in developed countries...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533357/tlr9-expression-and-secretion-of-lif-by-prostate-cancer-cells-stimulates-accumulation-and-activity-of-polymorphonuclear-mdscs
#11
Haejung Won, Dayson Moreira, Chan Gao, Priyanka Duttagupta, Xingli Zhao, Edwin Manuel, Don Diamond, Yate-Ching Yuan, Zheng Liu, Jeremy Jones, Massimo D'Apuzzo, Sumanta Pal, Marcin Kortylewski
Proinflammatory signals promote prostate tumorigenesis and progression, but their origins and downstream effects remain unclear. We recently demonstrated that the expression of an innate immune receptor, TLR9, by prostate cancer cells is critical for their tumor-propagating potential. We investigated whether cancer cell-intrinsic TLR9 signaling alters composition of the prostate tumor microenvironment. We generated Ras/Myc (RM9) and Myc-driven (Myc-CaP) prostate cancer cells expressing the tetracycline-inducible gene Tlr9 (Tlr9(ON) ) or the control LacZ (LacZ(ON) )...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529765/signals-of-vagal-circuits-engaging-with-akt1-in-%C3%AE-7-nachr-cd11b-cells-lessen-e-coli-and-lps-induced-acute-inflammatory-injury
#12
Caiqi Zhao, Xi Yang, Emily M Su, Yuanyuan Huang, Ling Li, Michael A Matthay, Xiao Su
Vagal circuits-α7 nAChR (α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, coded by Chrna7) signaling utilizes spleen as a hub to dampen systemic inflammatory responses. Vagal innervations also extend to the distal airways and alveoli. Vagotomy and deficiency of α7 nAChR deteriorate E. coli and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung inflammatory responses; however, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we hypothesized that vagal circuits would limit splenic release and lung recruitment of α7 nAChR(+)CD11b(+) cells (CD11b is coded by Itgam, a surface marker of monocytes and neutrophils) via phosphorylation of AKT1 and that this process would define the severity of lung injury...
2017: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526759/il-2-high-tissue-resident-t-cells-in-the-human-liver-sentinels-for-hepatotropic-infection
#13
Laura J Pallett, Jessica Davies, Emily J Colbeck, Francis Robertson, Navjyot Hansi, Nicholas J W Easom, Alice R Burton, Kerstin A Stegmann, Anna Schurich, Leo Swadling, Upkar S Gill, Victoria Male, TuVinh Luong, Amir Gander, Brian R Davidson, Patrick T F Kennedy, Mala K Maini
The liver provides a tolerogenic immune niche exploited by several highly prevalent pathogens as well as by primary and metastatic tumors. We have sampled healthy and hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected human livers to probe for a subset of T cells specialized to overcome local constraints and mediate immunity. We characterize a population of T-bet(lo)Eomes(lo)Blimp-1(hi)Hobit(lo) T cells found within the intrahepatic but not the circulating memory CD8 T cell pool expressing liver-homing/retention markers (CD69(+)CD103(+) CXCR6(+)CXCR3(+))...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523387/seroprevalence-of-economically-important-viral-pathogens-in-swine-populations-of-trinidad-and-tobago-west-indies
#14
Jamie R V Sookhoo, Arianne Brown-Jordan, Lemar Blake, Ridley B Holder, Sharon M Brookes, Stephen Essen, Christine V F Carrington, Ian H Brown, Christopher A L Oura
The objective of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence and identify the strains of swine influenza virus (SwIV), as well as the seroprevalence of porcine parvovirus (PPV), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2), and classical swine fever virus (CSFV) in pigs in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T). Blood samples (309) were randomly collected from pigs at farms throughout T&T...
May 18, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521840/characterising-pvrbsa-an-exclusive-protein-from-plasmodium-species-infecting-reticulocytes
#15
Darwin A Moreno-Pérez, Luis A Baquero, Diana M Chitiva-Ardila, Manuel A Patarroyo
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax uses multiple ligand-receptor interactions for preferential invasion of human reticulocytes. Several of these ligands have been identified by in silico approaches based on the role displayed by their orthologs in other Plasmodium species during initial adhesion or invasion. However, the cell adhesion role of proteins that are exclusive to species that specifically invade reticulocytes (as P. vivax and P. cynomolgi) has not been evaluated to date. This study aimed to characterise an antigen shared between Plasmodium species that preferentially infect reticulocytes with a focus on assessing its binding activity to target cells...
May 18, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521605/chemoenzymatic-synthesis-and-characterization-of-n-glycolylneuraminic-acid-carrying-sialoglycopolypeptides-as-effective-inhibitors-against-equine-influenza-virus-hemagglutination
#16
Makoto Ogata, Ami Koizumi, Tadamune Otsubo, Kiyoshi Ikeda, Mao Sakamoto, Rena Aita, Tatsuya Kato, Enoch Y Park, Takashi Yamanaka, Kazuya I P J Hidari
A series of novel sialoglycopolypeptides carrying N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc)-containing trisaccharides having α(2 → 3)- and α(2 → 6)-linkages in the side chains of γ-polyglutamic acid (γ-PGA) were designed as competitive inhibitors against equine influenza viruses (EIV), which critically recognize the Neu5Gc residue for receptor binding. Using horse red blood cells (HRBC) we successfully evaluated the binding activity of the multivalent Neu5Gc ligands to both equine and canine influenza viruses in the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay...
May 18, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521403/comparative-study-on-dosimetry-of-vmat-and-imrt-in-assisted-radiotherapy-after-radical-resection-of-rectal-cancer
#17
Jianguo Shi, Fujun Yang, Xiangbai Ju, Yudong Huang, Fenge Jiang
The present study compared the dosimetric differences of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and 7-field intensity modulated radiation therapy technology (7F-IMRT) in assisted radiotherapy plan after resection of rectal carcinoma. Ten cases of patients at stages II-III of rectal cancer transabdominal resection with postoperative pelvic radiotherapy underwent 7F-IMRT and VMAT radiotherapy plan design using the CMS Monaco treatment planning system. We compared the dose distribution, the number of organs at risk and the number of machines in the two groups...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520957/stable-microbial-communities-in-the-sponge-crambe-crambe-from-inside-and-outside-a-polluted-mediterranean-harbor
#18
Shelby E Gantt, Susanna López-Legentil, Patrick M Erwin
Marine sponges have been shown to harbor diverse microbial symbiont communities that play key roles in host functioning, yet little is known about how anthropogenic disturbances impact sponge-microbe interactions. The Mediterranean sponge Crambe crambe is known to accumulate heavy metals in polluted harbors. In this study, we investigated whether the microbiome of C. crambe differed between sponges inhabiting a polluted harbor in Blanes (Spain) and a nearby (< 1 km) natural environment. Triplicate sponge and ambient seawater samples were collected from each site and the microbial composition of each sample was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis (Illumina Hi-Seq platform)...
May 18, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515279/regulatory-eosinophils-suppress-t-cells-partly-through-galectin-10
#19
Christine Lingblom, Jennie Andersson, Kerstin Andersson, Christine Wennerås
Eosinophils have the capacity to regulate the function of T cell subsets. Our aim was to test the hypothesis of the existence of a regulatory subset of eosinophils. Human eosinophils were incubated with T cells that were stimulated with allogeneic leukocytes or CD3/CD28 cross-linking. After 2 d of coculture, 11% of the eosinophils gained CD16 expression. A CD16(hi) subset of eosinophils, encompassing 1-5% of all eosinophils, was also identified in the blood of healthy subjects. FACS sorting showed that these CD16(hi) eosinophils were significantly stronger suppressors of T cell proliferation than were conventional CD16(neg) eosinophils...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514689/identification-of-a-human-clonogenic-progenitor-with-strict-monocyte-differentiation-potential-a-counterpart-of-mouse-cmops
#20
Shunsuke Kawamura, Nobuyuki Onai, Fuyuki Miya, Taku Sato, Tatsuhiko Tsunoda, Kazutaka Kurabayashi, Satoshi Yotsumoto, Shoko Kuroda, Katsuto Takenaka, Koichi Akashi, Toshiaki Ohteki
Monocytes give rise to macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) under steady-state and inflammatory conditions, thereby contributing to host defense and tissue pathology. A common monocyte progenitor (cMoP) that is strictly committed to the monocyte lineage has been recently identified in mice. Here, we identified human cMoPs as a CLEC12A(hi)CD64(hi) subpopulation of conventional granulocyte-monocyte progenitors (cGMPs) in umbilical cord blood and in bone marrow. Human cMoPs gave rise to monocyte subsets without showing any potential for differentiating into myeloid or lymphoid cells...
May 16, 2017: Immunity
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