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Ai Ting Tan, Ai Wen Tan, Farazila Yusof
Techniques to improve solder joint reliability have been the recent research focus in the electronic packaging industry. In this study, Cu/SAC305/Cu solder joints were fabricated using a low-power high-frequency ultrasonic-assisted reflow soldering approach where non-ultrasonic-treated samples were served as control sample. The effect of ultrasonic vibration (USV) time (within 6s) on the solder joint properties was characterized systematically. Results showed that the solder matrix microstructure was refined at 1...
January 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Michael A Rieger, Joseph D Dougherty
Mice produce ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) in multiple communicative contexts, including adult social interaction (e.g., male to female courtship), as well as pup calls when separated from the dam. Assessment of pup USV has been widely applied in models of social and communicative disorders, dozens of which have shown alterations to this conserved behavior. However, features such as call production rate can vary substantially even within experimental groups and it is unclear to what extent aspects of USV represent stable trait-like influences or are vulnerable to an animal's state...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Jumpei Matsumoto, Hiroshi Nishimaru, Yusaku Takamura, Susumu Urakawa, Taketoshi Ono, Hisao Nishijo
Although, clinical studies reported hyperactivation of the auditory system and amygdala in patients with auditory hallucinations (hearing others' but not one's own voice, independent of any external stimulus), neural mechanisms of self/other attribution is not well understood. We recorded neuronal responses in the dorsal amygdala including the lateral amygdaloid nucleus to ultrasonic vocalization (USVs) emitted by subjects and conspecifics during free social interaction in 16 adult male rats. The animals emitting the USVs were identified by EMG recordings...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Małgorzata H Lehner, Ewa Taracha, Ewelina Kaniuga, Aleksandra Wisłowska-Stanek, Marek Gryz, Alicja Sobolewska, Danuta Turzyńska, Anna Skórzewska, Adam Płaźnik
This study utilised the two injection protocol of sensitisation (TIPS) and the conditioned place preference test to validate and extend previous findings on the effects of amphetamine on positive reinforcement-related 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalisation (USV) in rats. We also examined changes in the expression of c-Fos and the NMDA receptor 2B (GluN2B) subunit, markers of neuronal activity and plasticity, in brain regions of rats in response to TIPS. We used low anxiety-responsive (LR) and high anxiety-responsive (HR) rats, which are known to exhibit different fear-conditioned response strengths, different susceptibilities to amphetamine in the TIPS procedure and different amphetamine-dependent 50 kHz USV responses...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Yoav Litvin, Cortney A Turner, Mariel B Rios, Pamela M Maras, Sraboni Chaudhury, Miriam R Baker, Peter Blandino, Stanley J Watson, Huda Akil, Bruce McEwen
We aimed to determine the short-term effects of early-life stress in the form of maternal separation (MS) on anxiety-like behavior in male rat pups. In order to assess anxiety, we measured 40kHz separation-induced ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) on postnatal day (PND) 11. We further aimed to evaluate the potential involvement of two neurochemical systems known to regulate social and anxiety-like behaviors throughout life: oxytocin (OT) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2). For these purposes, we tested the effects of neonatal administration (on PND1) of an acute dose of FGF2 on USV and its potential interaction with MS...
September 28, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
Jaylyn Waddell, Tianqi Yang, Eric Ho, Kristen A Wellmann, Sandra M Mooney
Prenatal ethanol exposure can result in social deficits in humans and animals, including altered social interaction and poor communication. Rats exposed to ethanol prenatally show reduced play fighting, and a combination of prenatal ethanol exposure and neonatal whisker clipping further reduces play fighting compared with ethanol exposure alone. In this study, we explored whether expression of hedonic ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) correlated with the number of playful attacks by ethanol-exposed rats, rats subjected to postnatal sensory deprivation by whisker clipping or both compared to control animals...
2016: Brain Sciences
Yangjie Wei, Yuwei Zhang
Real-time and accurate detection of the sailing or water area will help realize unmanned surface vehicle (USV) systems. Although there are some methods for using optical images in USV-oriented environmental modeling, both the robustness and precision of these published waterline detection methods are comparatively low for a real USV system moving in a complicated environment. This paper proposes an efficient waterline detection method based on structure extraction and texture analysis with respect to optical images and presents a practical application to a USV system for validation...
2016: Sensors
Yumi Saito, Shoko Yuki, Yoshimasa Seki, Hiroko Kagawa, Kazuo Okanoya
Emotional contagion occurs when an individual acquires the emotional state of another via social cues, and is an important component of empathy. Empathic responses seen in rodents are often explained by emotional contagion. Rats emit 50kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) in positive contexts, and emit 22kHz USVs in negative contexts. We tested whether rats show positive or negative emotional contagion after hearing conspecific USVs via a cognitive bias task. We hypothesized that animals in positive emotional states would perceive an ambiguous cue as being good (optimistic bias) whereas animals in negative states would perceive the same cue as being bad (pessimistic bias)...
August 31, 2016: Behavioural Processes
Lauren D Claypoole, Betty Zimmerberg, Lauren L Williamson
Disruptions in homeostasis, such as the induction of inflammation, occurring during the neonatal period of development often produce changes in the brain, physiology, and behavior that persist through the life span. This study investigated the potential effects that an immune challenge delivered during neonatal development would have on anxiety behavior and stress reactivity later in life within a selectively-bred strain of rat. The rats have been bred for multiple generations to display either high or low anxiety-like phenotypic behavior...
August 30, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Anastasiya Kobrina, Micheal L Dent
Mice are frequently used as animal models for human hearing research, yet their auditory capabilities have not been fully explored. Previous studies have established auditory threshold sensitivities for pure tone stimuli in CBA/CaJ mice using ABR and behavioral methodologies. Little is known about how they perceive their own ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), and nothing is known about how aging influences this perception. The aim of the present study was to establish auditory threshold sensitivity for several USV types, as well as to track these thresholds across the mouse's lifespan...
August 27, 2016: Hearing Research
Hyopil Kim, Junehee Son, Hyoungseob Yoo, Hakyoo Kim, Jihae Oh, DaeHee Han, Yoon Hwang, Bong-Kiun Kaang
A primary characteristic of autism, which is a neurodevelopmental disorder, is impaired social interaction and communication. Furthermore, patients with autism frequently show abnormal social recognition. In mouse models of autism, social recognition is usually assessed by examining same-sex social behavior using various tests, such as the three-chamber test. However, no studies have examined the ability of male mice with autism to recognize the estrous cycle of female partners. In this study, we investigated the sexual behaviors, especially mounting and ultrasonic vocal communication (USV), of BTBR T+ tf/J (BTBR) mice, which are used as a well-known mouse model of autism, when they encountered estrus or diestrus female mice...
August 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
Kazutaka Mogi, Ayaka Takakuda, Chihiro Tsukamoto, Rumi Oyama, Shota Okabe, Nobuyoshi Koshida, Miho Nagasawa, Takefumi Kikusui
The importance of the mother-infant bond for the development of offspring health and sociality has been studied not only in primate species but also in rodent species. A social bond is defined as affiliative behaviors toward a specific partner. However, controversy remains concerning whether mouse pups can distinguish between their own mother and an alien mother, and whether mothers can differentiate their own pups from alien pups. In this study, we investigated whether mutual recognition exists between mother and infant in ICR mice...
August 24, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Xiaowen Yin, Ling Chen, Yong Xia, Qunkang Cheng, Jiabei Yuan, Yan Yang, Zhaoxin Wang, Haojie Wang, Jianshu Dong, Yuqiang Ding, Xudong Zhao
Maternal deprivation (MD) is frequently used as an early life stress model in rodents to investigate behavioral and neurological responses under stressful conditions. However, the effect of MD on the early postnatal development of rodents, which is when multiple neural systems become established, is rarely investigated due to methodological limitations. Ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are one of the few responses produced by neonatal rodents that can be quantitatively analyzed, and the quantification of USVs is regarded as a novel approach to investigate possible alterations in the neurobehavioral and emotional development of infant rodents under stress...
2016: PloS One
Ewelina Kaniuga, Ewa Taracha, Tomasz Stępień, Teresa Wierzba-Bobrowicz, Adam Płaźnik, Stanisław J Chrapusta
Individuals predisposed to addiction constitute a minority of drug users, in both humans and animal models of the disorder, but there are no established characteristics that would allow identifying them beforehand. Our studies demonstrate that sensitization of rat 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalization (USV) response to amphetamine shows marked inter-individual diversity but substantial intra-individual stability. Low sensitization of the response shows relevance to the acquisition of self-administration of this drug and hence might be of predictive value regarding the risk of addiction...
October 1, 2016: Brain Research
Guoqing Xia, Guoqing Wang
This paper addresses the problem of integration of Inertial Navigation System (INS) and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) for the purpose of developing a low-cost, robust and highly accurate navigation system for unmanned surface vehicles (USVs). A tightly-coupled integration approach is one of the most promising architectures to fuse the GNSS data with INS measurements. However, the resulting system and measurement models turn out to be nonlinear, and the sensor stochastic measurement errors are non-Gaussian and distributed in a practical system...
2016: Sensors
Hanke Heun-Johnson, Pat Levitt
Animal models can help elucidate the mechanisms through which early-life stress (ELS) has pathophysiological effects on the developing brain. One model that has been developed for rodents consists of limiting the amount of bedding and nesting material during the first postnatal weeks of pup life. This ELS environment has been shown to induce "abusive" behaviors by rat dams towards pups, while mouse dams have been hypothesized to display "fragmented care". Here, as part of an ongoing study of gene-environment interactions that impact brain development, we analyzed long observation periods of wild-type C57Bl/6J dams caring for wild-type and Met heterozygous pups...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Michal Bialy, Wiktor Bogacki-Rychlik, Kaja Kasarello, Evgeni Nikolaev, Elzbieta M Sajdel-Sulkowska
It has been assumed that the 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are emitted by adult rats as a result of a negative emotional state. However, emission of the 22-kHz vocalizations by male rats has been also observed following ejaculation, which has a high rewarding value as shown by a conditioned place preference test. These observations suggest that 22-kHz USVs may also occur in response to a positive emotional state. The aim of this study was to determine whether the postejaculatory 22-kHz USVs are related to conditioning processes...
August 2016: Behavioral Neuroscience
Diána Balázsfi, Lívia Farkas, Péter Csikota, Anna Fodor, Sándor Zsebők, József Haller, Dóra Zelena
Stress and related disorders are in the focus of interest and glutamate is one of the most important neurotransmitters that can affect these processes. Glutamatergic neurons are characterized by vesicular glutamate transporters (VGluT1-3) among which vGluT3 is unique contributing to the non-canonical, neuromodulatory effect of glutamate. We aimed to study the role of vGluT3 in stress axis regulation and related anxiety during the early postnatal period using knockout (KO) mice with special focus on sex differences...
July 2016: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Siriporn Tonnonchiang, Nopamon Sritongkul, Pachee Chaudakshetrin, Malulee Tuntawiroon
OBJECTIVE: Thyroid cancer patients treated with 1-131 are potential source of radiation exposure to relatives who are knowingly and willingly exposed to ionizing radiation as a result of providing comfort to patients undergoing I-131 therapy. This study aims to determine radiation dose received by relatives who care for non self-supporting 1-131 patients at Siriraj Hospital. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Twenty caregivers of 20 patients underwent I-131 therapy for thyroid cancer with a standard protocol were given specific instructions with regard to radiation safety and provided with electronic digital dosimeter to continuously measure radiation dose received on daily basis, three days in the hospital...
February 2016: Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, Chotmaihet Thangphaet
Hiromi Wada
Perinatal hypothyroidism causes serious damage to auditory functions that are essential for vocalization development. In rat pups, perinatal hypothyroidism potentially affects the development of ultrasonic vocalization (USV) as a result of hearing deficits. This study examined the effect of perinatal hypothyroidism on the development of USVs in rat pups. Twelve pregnant rats were divided into three groups and treated with the anti-thyroid drug methimazole (MMI) via drinking water, from gestational day 15 to postnatal day (PND) 21...
May 27, 2016: Neurotoxicology
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