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YiQi C Lin, Leah L Zhao, Paul B S Clarke
RATIONALE: Adult rat 22- and 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are commonly considered as indices of negative and positive affect, respectively. More specifically, we have proposed that positive affective states are revealed by a predominance of trill over flat 50-kHz call subtypes. However, the 50-kHz call subtypes emitted during aversive drug states remain largely uninvestigated. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether acute morphine withdrawal affects 50-kHz call rates or alters the relative prevalence of trill and flat calls...
April 16, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Zhichao Lv, Jie Zhang, Jiucai Jin, Qi Li, Baoru Gao
The Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV) integrated with an acoustic modem is a novel mobile vehicle for data collection, which has an advantage in terms of mobility, efficiency, and collection cost. In the scenario of data collection, the USV is controlled autonomously along the planning trajectory and the data of underwater nodes are dynamically collected. In order to improve the efficiency of data collection and extend the life of the underwater nodes, a mobile data collection protocol for underwater nodes using the USV was proposed...
April 16, 2018: Sensors
Xiaozheng Mou, Han Wang
This paper proposes a wide-baseline stereo-based static obstacle mapping approach for unmanned surface vehicles (USVs). The proposed approach eliminates the complicated calibration work and the bulky rig in our previous binocular stereo system, and raises the ranging ability from 500 to 1000 m with a even larger baseline obtained from the motion of USVs. Integrating a monocular camera with GPS and compass information in this proposed system, the world locations of the detected static obstacles are reconstructed while the USV is traveling, and an obstacle map is then built...
April 4, 2018: Sensors
Ji-Hye Lee, Sunwhi Kimm, Jung-Soo Han, June-Seek Choi
Being chased by a predator or a dominant conspecific can induce significant stress. However, only a limited number of laboratory studies have employed chasing by itself as a stressor. In this study, we developed a novel stress paradigm in which rats were chased by a fast-moving object in an inescapable maze. In Experiment 1, defensive behaviors and stress hormone changes induced by chasing stress were measured. During the chasing stress, the chasing-stress group (n = 9) froze and emitted 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), but the no-chasing control group (n = 10) did not...
March 25, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Rainer K W Schwarting
Ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) are widely studied in mice and rats, and in case of rats, the bulk of empirical evidence is based on outbred rats, which in most studies belong to either Long Evans, Sprague-Dawley or Wistar stocks. It is known that these stocks can differ in terms of specific brain variables and also behaviorally, but there is only few evidence so far showing whether these stocks behave in similar or substantially different ways in paradigms which are often used to study USV. Therefore, we have started a larger series of comparative studies, where we analyzed different classes of USV in rats from these three stocks spanning from pups to adults...
March 21, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Gisele de Oliveira Guaita, Debora Dalla Vecchia, Roberto Andreatini, Donita L Robinson, Rainer K W Schwarting, Claudio Da Cunha
RATIONALE: We have recently shown that the benzodiazepine diazepam inhibits dopamine release in the NAc and blocks the increased release of dopamine induced by DL-amphetamine. Rewarding stimuli and many drugs of abuse can induce dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens as well as 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) in rats. OBJECTIVES: In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that diazepam can also block the increase in locomotor activity and USVs elicited by amphetamine...
March 23, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Chicora F Oliver, Steven J Simmons, Sunil U Nayak, Garry R Smith, Allen B Reitz, Scott M Rawls
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Little is known about how chemokine systems influence the behavioral effects of designer cathinones and psychostimulants. The chemokine CXCL12 and its principal receptor target, CXCR4, are of particular interest because CXCR4 activation enhances mesolimbic dopamine output that facilitates psychostimulant reward, reinforcement, and locomotor activation. Repeated cocaine enhances CXCL12 gene expression in the midbrain and produces conditioned place preference (CPP) that is inhibited by a CXCR4 antagonist...
March 10, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Luan Castro Tonelli, Markus Wöhr, Rainer Schwarting, Liana Melo-Thomas
Paradoxical kinesia is a sudden transient ability of akinetic patients to perform motor tasks they are otherwise unable to perform. This phenomenon is known to depend on the patient's emotional state and external stimuli. Paradoxical kinesia can be induced by appetitive 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) in rats displaying catalepsy following systemic haloperidol. We investigated the role of the inferior colliculus (IC) in paradoxical kinesia induced by 50-kHz USV, since the IC modulates haloperidol-induced catalepsy...
March 14, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Nicola Simola, Giulia Costa
The emission of 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) is increasingly emerging as a potential behavioral marker of the subjective effects that psychoactive drugs elicit in rats. However, multiple categories of 50-kHz USVs have been identified, which are thought to possess different behavioral significance. Besides, limited information is available on how psychoactive drugs affect the emission of categorized 50-kHz USVs. To further elucidate this issue, we evaluated the numbers of multiple categories of 50-kHz USVs emitted by rats repeatedly treated with amphetamine (1 or 2 mg/kg, i...
March 2, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Gen-Ichi Tasaka, Casey J Guenthner, Amos Shalev, Omri Gilday, Liqun Luo, Adi Mizrahi
Cortical neurons are often functionally heterogeneous even for molecularly defined subtypes. In sensory cortices, physiological responses to natural stimuli can be sparse and vary widely even for neighboring neurons. It is thus difficult to parse out circuits that encode specific stimuli for further experimentation. Here, we report the development of a Cre-reporter mouse that allows recombination for cellular labeling and genetic manipulation, and use it with an activity-dependent Fos-CreERT2 driver to identify functionally active circuits in the auditory cortex...
February 28, 2018: Nature Communications
Francesca Rizzo, Ester Nespoli, Alireza Abaei, Izhar Bar-Gad, Dinesh K Deelchand, Jörg Fegert, Volker Rasche, Bastian Hengerer, Tobias M Boeckers
Tourette's syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized primarily by motor and vocal tics. Comorbidities such as attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are observed in over 50% of TS patients. We applied aripiprazole in a juvenile rat model that displays motor tics and hyperactivity. We additionally assessed the amount of ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) as an indicator for the presence of vocal tics and evaluated the changes in the striatal neurometabolism using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) at 11...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Moon Yi Ko, Eun Young Jang, June Yeon Lee, Su Phil Kim, Sung Hun Whang, Bong Hyo Lee, Hee Young Kim, Char Ha Yang, Hee Jung Cho, Young Seob Gwak
Spinal cord injury (SCI) frequently results in chronic neuropathic pain (CNP). However, the understanding of brain neural circuits in CNP modulation is unclear. The present study examined the changes of ventral tegmental area (VTA) putative GABAergic and dopaminergic neuronal activity with CNP attenuation in rats. SCI was established by T10 clip compression injury (35 g, 1 min) in rats, and neuropathic pain behaviors, in vivo extracellular single cell recording of putative VTA GABA/dopamine neurons, extracellular GABA level, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and vesicular GABA transporters (VGAT) were measured in the VTA, respectively...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Yong Ma, Mengqi Hu, Xinping Yan
This paper investigates the path planning problem for unmanned surface vehicle (USV), wherein the goal is to find the shortest, smoothest, most economical and safest path in the presence of obstacles and currents, which is subject to the collision avoidance, motion boundaries and velocity constraints. We formulate this problem as a multi-objective nonlinear optimization problem with generous constraints. Then, we propose the dynamic augmented multi-objective particle swarm optimization algorithm to achieve the solution...
February 15, 2018: ISA Transactions
Eiki Kimura, Chiharu Tohyama
Mammalian attachment behaviors, such as crying, are essential for infant survival by receiving food, protection, and warmth from caregivers. Ultrasonic vocalization (USV) of infant rodents functions to promote maternal proximity. Impaired USV emission has been reported in mouse models of autism spectrum disorder, suggesting that USV is associated with higher brain function. In utero and lactational dioxin exposure is known to induce higher brain function abnormalities in adulthood; however, whether perinatal dioxin exposure affects behavior during infancy is unclear...
February 14, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
Syed Hussain F Bukhari, Olivia E Clark, Lauren L Williamson
AIMS: This study examined the interaction between maternal high fructose diet and neonatal inflammation in neonates (P7), juveniles (P26-34) and adults on measures of anxiety-like behavior and cognition. The study aimed to assess the potential synergistic effects of these two forms of early-life inflammation. MAIN METHODS: We fed Sprague-Dawley dams with high fructose (60%) diet or normal chow. Each litter was treated with either saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on postnatal day (P)3 and P5 and two pups were tested for USVs after maternal separation on P7...
February 8, 2018: Life Sciences
Nitish Mittal, Neha Thakore, James M Reno, Richard L Bell, W Todd Maddox, Timothy Schallert, Christine L Duvauchelle
Ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are mediated through specific dopaminergic and cholinergic neural pathways and serve as real-time measures of positive and negative emotional status in rodents. Although most USV studies focus primarily on USV counts, each USV possesses a number of characteristics shown to reflect activity in the associated neurotransmitter system. In the present study, we recorded spontaneously emitted USVs from alcohol-naïve high alcohol drinking (HAD-1) and low alcohol drinking (LAD-1) rats...
September 14, 2017: Alcohol
Craig Powers, Regina Hanlon, David G Schmale Iii
Microorganisms are ubiquitous in freshwater aquatic environments, but little is known about their abundance, diversity, and transport. We designed and deployed a remote-operated water-sampling system onboard an unmanned surface vehicle (USV, a remote-controlled boat) to collect and characterize microbes in a freshwater lake in Virginia, USA. The USV collected water samples simultaneously at 5 and 50 cm below the surface of the water at three separate locations over three days in October, 2016. These samples were plated on a non-selective medium (TSA) and on a medium selective for the genus Pseudomonas (KBC) to estimate concentrations of culturable bacteria in the lake...
2018: PeerJ
Elizabeth L Berg, Nycole A Copping, Josef K Rivera, Michael C Pride, Milo Careaga, Melissa D Bauman, Robert F Berman, Pamela J Lein, Hala Harony-Nicolas, Joseph D Buxbaum, Jacob Ellegood, Jason P Lerch, Markus Wöhr, Jill L Silverman
Mutations in the SHANK3 gene have been discovered in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and the intellectual disability, Phelan-McDermid Syndrome. This study leveraged a new rat model of Shank3 deficiency to assess complex behavioral phenomena, unique to rats, which display a richer social behavior repertoire than mice. Uniquely detectable emissions of ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) in rats serve as situation-dependent affective signals and accomplish important communicative functions. We report, for the first time, a call and response acoustic playback assay of bidirectional social communication in juvenile Shank3 rats...
January 29, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Tobias Riede, Heather L Borgard, Bret Pasch
Some rodents produce ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) for social communication using an aerodynamic whistle, a unique vocal production mechanism not found in other animals. The functional anatomy and evolution of this sound production mechanism remains unclear. Using laryngeal airway reconstruction, we identified anatomical specializations critical for USV production. A robust laryngeal cartilaginous framework supports a narrow supraglottal airway. An intralaryngeal airsac-like cavity termed the ventral pouch was present in three muroid rodents (suborder Myomorpha), but was absent in a heteromyid rodent (suborder Castorimorpha) that produces a limited vocal repertoire and no documented USVs...
November 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Sarah M Zala, Doris Reitschmidt, Anton Noll, Peter Balazs, Dustin J Penn
House mice (Mus musculus) emit ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), which are surprisingly complex and have features of bird song, but their functions are not well understood. Previous studies have reported mixed evidence on whether there are sex differences in USV emission, though vocalization rate or other features may depend upon whether potential receivers are of the same or opposite sex. We recorded the USVs of wild-derived adult house mice (F1 of wild-caught Mus musculus musculus), and we compared the vocalizations of males and females in response to a stimulus mouse of the same- or opposite-sex...
2017: PloS One
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