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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527692/regional-differences-in-dopamine-receptor-blockade-affect-timing-impulsivity-that-are-altered-by-d-amphetamine-on-differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate-responding-drl-behavior-in-rats
#1
Ruey-Kuang Cheng, Ruey-Ming Liao
The ability to control when to start an action and when to stop is crucial in human and animal behavior. A failure to suppress premature behavior or carry out an action in a timely manner is commonly seen in several neuropsychological disorders. Despite the phenomenon, the exact neural mechanisms underlying this timing impulsivity remain to be elucidated. Systemic injection of d-amphetamine (AMP) has been shown to disrupt rat's performance in the differential reinforcement of low-rate (DRL) task that requires both optimal timing and proper impulsive control as measured by peak time and non-reinforced responses, respectively...
May 17, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526817/myelination-of-the-brain-in-major-depressive-disorder-an-in-vivo-quantitative-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#2
Matthew D Sacchet, Ian H Gotlib
Evidence from post-mortem, genetic, neuroimaging, and non-human animal research suggests that Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is associated with abnormalities in brain myelin content. Brain regions implicated in this research, and in MDD more generally, include the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC), insula, subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC), and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). We examined whether MDD is characterized by reduced myelin at the whole-brain level and in NAcc, LPFC, insula, sgACC, and mPFC...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526611/alcohol-induces-input-specific-aberrant-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-rat-dorsomedial-striatum
#3
Tengfei Ma, Britton Barbee, Xuehua Wang, Jun Wang
Accumulated evidence suggests that the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) of the basal ganglia plays an essential role in pathological excessive alcohol consumption. The DMS receives multiple glutamatergic inputs. However, whether and how alcohol consumption distinctly affects these excitatory afferents to the DMS remains unknown. Here, we used optogenetics to selectively activate the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and basolateral amygdala (BLA) inputs in DMS slices, and measured the effects of alcohol consumption on glutamatergic transmission in these corticostriatal and amygdalostriatal circuits...
May 16, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525960/the-behavioral-and-neural-signatures-of-distinct-conceptions-of-fairness
#4
Laura Niemi, Emily Wasserman, Liane Young
Adhering to standard procedures (impartiality), returning favors (reciprocity), or giving based on individuals' needs (charity) may all be considered moral and/or fair ways to allocate resources. However, these allocation behaviors may be perceived as differently motivated, and their moral evaluation may make different demands on theory of mind (ToM)-the capacity to process information about mental states, including motives. In Studies 1-2, we examined participants' moral judgments of allocations based on (a) impartiality, (b) reciprocity, (c) charity, and (d) unspecified criteria as depicted in vignettes, as well as participants' perceptions of allocators' motivations...
May 19, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523568/role-of-dopamine-projections-from-ventral-tegmental-area-to-nucleus-accumbens-and-medial-prefrontal-cortex-in-reinforcement-behaviors-assessed-using-optogenetic-manipulation
#5
Xiao Han, Man-Yi Jing, Tai-Yun Zhao, Ning Wu, Rui Song, Jin Li
Dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are predicted to play important roles in reward. In pharmacological studies, the rewarding effects of methamphetamine are mediated by DA neurons localized in the VTA. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) and medial prefrontal cortices (mPFC) are the main projections from the VTA. However, the role of these projections remains unclear, particularly the mPFC projections. In the present study, DAT-Cre transgenic mice received an injection of adeno-associated viral vectors encoding channelrhodopsin2 (ChR2) or control vector into the VTA resulting in the selective expression of these opsins in DA neurons...
May 19, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523221/reading-lines-within-the-cocaine-addicted-brain
#6
Glenn A Doyle, Tara T Doucet-O'Hare, Matthew J Hammond, Richard C Crist, Adam D Ewing, Thomas N Ferraro, Deborah C Mash, Haig H Kazazian, Wade H Berrettini
INTRODUCTION: Long interspersed element (LINE)-1 (L1) is a type of retrotransposon capable of mobilizing into new genomic locations. Often studied in Mendelian diseases or cancer, L1s may also cause somatic mutation in the developing central nervous system. Recent reports showed L1 transcription was activated in brains of cocaine-treated mice, and L1 retrotransposition was increased in cocaine-treated neuronal cell cultures. We hypothesized that the predisposition to cocaine addiction may result from inherited L1s or somatic L1 mobilization in the brain...
May 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521140/distinct-sources-of-deterministic-and-stochastic-components-of-action-timing-decisions-in-rodent-frontal-cortex
#7
Masayoshi Murakami, Hanan Shteingart, Yonatan Loewenstein, Zachary F Mainen
The selection and timing of actions are subject to determinate influences such as sensory cues and internal state as well as to effectively stochastic variability. Although stochastic choice mechanisms are assumed by many theoretical models, their origin and mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we investigated this issue by studying how neural circuits in the frontal cortex determine action timing in rats performing a waiting task. Electrophysiological recordings from two regions necessary for this behavior, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and secondary motor cortex (M2), revealed an unexpected functional dissociation...
May 17, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521123/rat-mpfc-and-m2-play-a-waiting-game-at-different-timescales
#8
Angela J Langdon, Andrew M Wikenheiser, Geoffrey Schoenbaum
In this issue of Neuron, Murakami et al. (2017) relate neural activity in frontal cortex to stochastic and deterministic components of waiting behavior in rats; they find that mPFC biases waiting time, while M2 is ultimately responsible for trial-to-trial variability in decisions about how long to wait.
May 17, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520647/altered-brain-structure-and-function-associated-with-sensory-and-affective-components-of-classic-trigeminal-neuralgia
#9
Yuan Wang, Dong-Yuan Cao, Bethany Remeniuk, Samuel Krimmel, David A Seminowicz, Ming Zhang
Classic trigeminal neuralgia (CTN) is a chronic neuropathic pain state characterized by intense, piercing spasms of the orofacial region, and may be attributable to abnormal pain processing in the central nervous system. Our study investigated neuronal alterations using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), diffuse tensor imaging (DTI), and resting state functional connectivity in 38 CTN patients and 38 matched healthy controls. For VBM analyses, CTN patients displayed gray matter volume (GMV) reductions in the anterior and mid cingulate cortex (ACC and MCC), insula, secondary somatosensory cortex (S2), primary motor cortex (M1), premotor area (PMA), and several regions in the temporal lobe...
May 16, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516336/changes-of-functional-connectivity-of-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-women-with-primary-dysmenorrhea
#10
Peng Liu, Yanfei Liu, Geliang Wang, Ru Li, Ying Wei, Yingying Fan, Yang Yu, Demao Deng, Wei Qin
Primary dysmenorrhea (PDM), a common gynecological disorder, is associated with structural and functional alterations in several subregions of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). However, systematic functional connectivity of the ACC subregions in PDM has not been clarified. In this study, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from forty-eight PDM patients and thirty-eight matched female healthy controls to investigate the functional connectivity of ACC subregions in PDM. Compared to healthy controls, PDM patients exhibited increased connectivity between the caudal ACC (cACC) and primary somatosensory cortex (SI), between the perigenual ACC (pACC) and caudate, and between the subgenual ACC (sACC) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)...
May 17, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507036/medial-prefrontal-cortex-and-dorsomedial-striatum-are-necessary-for-the-trial-unique-delayed-nonmatching-to-location-tunl-task-in-rats-role-of-nmda-receptors
#11
Don A Davies, Jessica L Hurtubise, Quentin Greba, John G Howland
The trial-unique, delayed nonmatching-to-location (TUNL) task is a recently developed behavioral task that measures spatial working memory and a form of pattern separation in touchscreen-equipped operant conditioning chambers. Limited information exists regarding the neurotransmitters and neural substrates involved in the task. The present experiments tested the effects of systemic and intracranial injections of NMDA receptor antagonists on the TUNL task. After training, male Long Evans rats systemically injected with the competitive NMDA receptor antagonist CPP (10 mg/kg) had impaired accuracy regardless of the degree of stimuli separation or length of delay between the sample and test phases...
June 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503670/encoding-of-contextual-fear-memory-requires-de-novo-proteins-in-the-prelimbic-cortex
#12
Valerio Rizzo, Khalid Touzani, Bindu L Raveendra, Supriya Swarnkar, Joan Lora, Beena M Kadakkuzha, Xin-An Liu, Chao Zhang, Doron Betel, Robert W Stackman, Sathyanarayanan V Puthanveettil
BACKGROUND: Despite our understanding of the significance of the prefrontal cortex in the consolidation of long-term memories (LTM), its role in the encoding of LTM remains elusive. Here we investigated the role of new protein synthesis in the mouse medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in encoding contextual fear memory. METHODS: Because a change in the association of mRNAs to polyribosomes is an indicator of new protein synthesis, we assessed the changes in polyribosome-associated mRNAs in the mPFC following contextual fear conditioning (CFC) in the mouse...
March 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502844/a-novel-approach-to-map-induced-activation-of-neuronal-networks-using-chemogenetics-and-functional-neuroimaging-in-rats-a-proof-of-concept-study-on-the-mesocorticolimbic-system
#13
Theresia J M Roelofs, Jeroen P H Verharen, Geralda A F van Tilborg, Linde Boekhoudt, Annette van der Toorn, Johannes W de Jong, Mieneke C M Luijendijk, Willem M Otte, Roger A H Adan, Rick M Dijkhuizen
Linking neural circuit activation at whole-brain level to neuronal activity at cellular level remains one of the major challenges in neuroscience research. We set up a novel functional neuroimaging approach to map global effects of locally induced activation of specific midbrain projection neurons using chemogenetics (Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADD)-technology) combined with pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI) in the rat mesocorticolimbic system. Chemogenetic activation of DREADD-targeted mesolimbic or mesocortical pathways, i...
May 11, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501494/focused-microwave-irradiation-assisted-immunohistochemistry-to-study-effects-of-ketamine-on-perk-expression-in-the-mouse-brain
#14
Alda Fernandes, Yu-Wen Li
Ketamine produces rapid and long-lasting antidepressant effects in depressive patients. Preclinical studies demonstrate that ketamine stimulates AMPA receptor transmission and activates BDNF/TrkB-Akt/ERK-mTOR signaling cascades, leading to a sustained increase in synaptic protein synthesis and strengthening of synaptic plasticity, a potential mechanism underlying the antidepressant effects. The purpose of this study was to develop an immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay to map the distribution of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation in the mouse brain in response to systemic ketamine treatment...
May 10, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498964/superior-neuronal-detection-of-snakes-and-conspecific-faces-in-the-macaque-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#15
Ha Trong Dinh, Hiroshi Nishimaru, Jumpei Matsumoto, Yusaku Takamura, Quan Van Le, Etsuro Hori, Rafael S Maior, Carlos Tomaz, Anh Hai Tran, Taketoshi Ono, Hisao Nishijo
Snakes and conspecific faces are quickly and efficiently detected in primates. Because the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been implicated in attentional allocation to biologically relevant stimuli, we hypothesized that it might also be highly responsive to snakes and conspecific faces. In this study, neuronal responses in the monkey mPFC were recorded, while monkeys discriminated 8 categories of visual stimuli. Here, we show that the monkey mPFC neuronal responses to snakes and conspecific faces were unique...
May 11, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486837/distinct-effects-of-reminding-mortality-and-physical-pain-on-the-default-mode-activity-and-activity-underlying-self-reflection
#16
Zhenhao Shi, Shihui Han
Behavioral research suggests that reminding both mortality and negative affect influences self-related thoughts. Using functional MRI, we tested the hypothesis that reminders of mortality and physical pain decrease brain activity underlying self-related thoughts. Three groups of adults underwent priming procedures during which they answered questions pertaining to mortality, physical pain, or leisure time, respectively. Before and after priming, participants performed personality trait judgments on oneself or a celebrity, identified the font of words, or passively viewed a fixation...
May 9, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483674/the-postnatal-5-ht1a-receptor-regulates-adult-anxiety-and-depression-differently-via-multiple-molecules
#17
Chihiro Ishikawa, Takashi Shiga
Serotonin (5-HT) and the 5-HT1A receptor during development are known to modulate anxiety and depression in later life. However, the brain mechanisms linking the postnatal 5-HT system and adult behavior remain unknown. Here, we examined the effects of pharmacological 5-HT1A receptor activation during the postnatal period on anxiety and depression-like behavior in adult BALB/c male mice. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms, we measured mRNA expression of the 5-HT1A receptor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), GABAA receptor subunits, and AMPA receptor subunits in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), amygdala, and hippocampus...
May 5, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481349/thalamic-projections-sustain-prefrontal-activity-during-working-memory-maintenance
#18
Scott S Bolkan, Joseph M Stujenske, Sebastien Parnaudeau, Timothy J Spellman, Caroline Rauffenbart, Atheir I Abbas, Alexander Z Harris, Joshua A Gordon, Christoph Kellendonk
The mediodorsal thalamus (MD) shares reciprocal connectivity with the prefrontal cortex (PFC), and decreased MD-PFC connectivity is observed in schizophrenia patients. Patients also display cognitive deficits including impairments in working memory, but a mechanistic link between thalamo-prefrontal circuit function and working memory is missing. Using pathway-specific inhibition, we found directional interactions between mouse MD and medial PFC (mPFC), with MD-to-mPFC supporting working memory maintenance and mPFC-to-MD supporting subsequent choice...
May 3, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478685/resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-generalized-anxiety-disorder-and-social-anxiety-disorder-evidence-for-a-dimensional-approach
#19
Liron Rabany, Gretchen J Diefenbach, Laura B Bragdon, Brian P Pittman, Luis Zertuche, David F Tolin, John W Goethe, Michal Assaf
INTRODUCTION: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) are currently considered distinct diagnostic categories. Accumulating data suggest the study of anxiety disorders may benefit from the use of dimensional conceptualizations. One such dimension of shared dysfunction is emotion regulation (ER). The current study evaluated dimensional (ER) and categorical (diagnosis) neurocorrelates of fMRI resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) in participants with GAD and SAD, and healthy controls (HC)...
May 6, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475719/neuritin-enhances-synaptic-transmission-in-medial-prefrontal-cortex-in-mice-by-increasing-cav3-3-surface-expression
#20
Jun-Mei Lu, Dong-Dong Liu, Zhao-Yang Li, Chen Ling, Yan-Ai Mei
Neuritin is a neurotrophic factor involved in neural development and synaptic plasticity. However, its role in modulating synaptic transmission remains unclear. Here, we investigated the effects of neuritin on miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) and glutamate release in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in mice. Incubation of mPFC slices with neuritin for 45 min significantly increased mEPSC frequency and glutamate release as measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, which was mimicked by insulin and abrogated by an insulin receptor (IR) inhibitor...
May 4, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
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