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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927240/temporal-dynamics-of-hippocampal-and-medial-prefrontal-cortex-interactions-during-the-delay-period-of-a-working-memory-guided-foraging-task
#1
Maxym Myroshnychenko, Jeremy K Seamans, Anthony G Phillips, Christopher C Lapish
Connections between the hippocampus (HC) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are critical for working memory; however, the precise contribution of this pathway is a matter of debate. One suggestion is that it may stabilize retrospective memories of recently encountered task-relevant information. Alternatively, it may be involved in encoding prospective memories, or the internal representation of future goals. To explore these possibilities, simultaneous extracellular recordings were made from mPFC and HC of rats performing the delayed spatial win-shift on a radial maze...
September 12, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926000/the-bdnf-val66met-polymorphism-regulates-glucocorticoid-induced-corticohippocampal-remodeling-and-behavioral-despair
#2
M Notaras, X Du, J Gogos, M van den Buuse, R A Hill
The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism has been associated with sensitivity to stress and affective disorders. We therefore sought to model the inter-causality of these relationships under controlled laboratory conditions. We subjected humanized BDNF Val66Met (hBDNF(Val66Met)) transgenic mice to a history of stress, modeled by chronic late-adolescent corticosterone (CORT) exposure, before evaluating affective-related behavior using the forced-swim test (FST) in adulthood. While hBDNF(Met/Met) mice had a depression-like phenotype in the FST irrespective of CORT, hBDNF(Val/Val) wildtype mice had a resilient phenotype but developed an equally robust depressive-like phenotype following CORT...
September 19, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924188/dopamine-d1-receptor-subtype-mediates-acute-stress-induced-dendritic-growth-in-excitatory-neurons-of-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-and-contributes-to-suppression-of-stress-susceptibility-in-mice
#3
R Shinohara, M Taniguchi, A T Ehrlich, K Yokogawa, Y Deguchi, Y Cherasse, M Lazarus, Y Urade, A Ogawa, S Kitaoka, A Sawa, S Narumiya, T Furuyashiki
Dopamine in prefrontal cortices is implicated in cognitive and emotional functions, and the dysfunction of prefrontal dopamine has been associated with cognitive and emotional deficits in mental illnesses. These findings have led to clinical trials of dopamine-targeting drugs and brain imaging of dopamine receptors in patients with mental illnesses. Rodent studies have suggested that dopaminergic pathway projecting to the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) suppresses stress susceptibility. Although various types of mPFC neurons express several dopamine receptor subtypes, previous studies neither isolated a role of dopamine receptor subtype nor identified the site of its action in mPFC...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923595/attentional-deficits-and-altered-neuronal-activation-in-medial-prefrontal-and-posterior-parietal-cortices-in-mice-with-reduced-dopamine-transporter-levels
#4
Anita Cybulska-Klosowicz, Marta Laczkowska, Renata Zakrzewska, Aleksandra Kaliszewska
The executive control function of attention is regulated by the dopaminergic (DA) system. Dopamine transporter (DAT) likely plays a role in controlling the influence of DA on cognitive processes. We examined the effects of DAT depletion on cognitive processes related to attention. Mice with the DAT gene genetically deleted (DAT+/- heterozygotes) were compared to wild type (WT) mice on the Attentional Set-Shifting Task (ASST). Changes in neuronal activity during the ASST were shown with early growth response genes 1 and 2 (egr-1 and egr-2) immunohistochemistry in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and in the posterior parietal cortex (PPC)...
September 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923479/neuralrepresentation-of-cost-benefit-selectionsin-medial-prefrontal-cortex-of-rats
#5
Hua Tang, Xuan Sun, Bao-Ming Li, Fei Luo
Decision making refers to the process that subjects use to choose between competing courses of action based on the expected costs and benefits of their consequences. However, few studies have addressed the neuronal mechanisms behind the processes of howcosts and benefits influence decision making. Here we investigated the neuronal representation of costs and benefitstowards a goal-directed action under a differential reward schedule by training rats to perform a "Do more, get more" (DM-GM) task utilizinga nosepoke operandum, where longer nosepoke durations resulted in correspondingly larger rewards...
September 15, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918364/volumetric-changes-in-the-aging-rat-brain-and-its-impact-on-cognitive-and-locomotor-functions
#6
Hamizah Shahirah Hamezah, Lina Wati Durani, Nor Faeizah Ibrahim, Daijiro Yanagisawa, Tomoko Kato, Akihiko Shiino, Sachiko Tanaka, Hanafi Ahmad Damanhuri, Wan Zurinah Wan Ngah, Ikuo Tooyama
Impairments in cognitive and locomotor functions usually occur with advanced age, as do changes in brain volume. This study was conducted to assess changes in brain volume, cognitive and locomotor functions, and oxidative stress levels in middle- to late-aged rats. Forty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: 14, 18, 23, and 27months of age. (1)H magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed using a 7.0-Tesla MR scanner system. The volumes of the lateral ventricles, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), hippocampus, striatum, cerebellum, and whole brain were measured...
September 13, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916627/interactions-between-medial-prefrontal-cortex-and-dorsomedial-striatum-are-necessary-for-odor-span-capacity-in-rats-role-of-glun2b-containing-nmda-receptors
#7
Don A Davies, Quentin Greba, Jantz C Selk, Jillian K Catton, Landon D Baillie, Sean J Mulligan, John G Howland
Working memory is involved in the maintenance and manipulation of information essential for complex cognition. While the neural substrates underlying working memory capacity have been studied in humans, considerably less is known about the circuitry mediating working memory capacity in rodents. Therefore, the present experiments tested the involvement of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and dorsal striatum (STR) in the odor span task (OST), a task proposed to assay working memory capacity in rodents. Initially, Long Evans rats were trained to dig in scented sand for food following a serial delayed nonmatching-to-sample rule...
October 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916503/altered-serotonergic-and-gabaergic-neurotransmission-in-a-mice-model-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#8
Christine Winter, Dana M Greene, Paraskevi Mavrogiorgou, Helge Schaper, Reinhard Sohr, Abel Bult-Ito, Georg Juckel
There is ample evidence that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is based on reduced serotonergic function. Replicated bidirectional selection for thermoregulatory nest-building behavior in the laboratory house mouse (Mus musculus) resulted in compulsive-like, non-compulsive-like and randomly bred control mice that represent a non-induced animal model of OCD. The present study aimed at investigating the neurochemical patterns in specific brain regions of compulsive-like (HA) versus non-compulsive-like (LA) and normal (CA) mice...
September 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913981/age-dependent-expression-of-nav1-9-channels-in-medial-prefrontal-cortex-mpfc-pyramidal-neurons-in-rats
#9
Maciej Gawlak, Bartłomiej Szulczyk, Adam Berlowski, Katarzyna Grzelka, Anna Stachurska, Justyna Pelka, Katarzyna Czarzasta, Maciej Malecki, Przemyslaw Kurowski, Ewa Nurowska, Pawel Szulczyk
Developmental changes that occur in the prefrontal cortex during adolescence alter behavior. These behavioral alterations likely stem from changes in prefrontal cortex neuronal activity, which may depend on the properties and expression of ion channels. Nav1.9 sodium channels conduct a Na(+) current that is TTX resistant with a low threshold and noninactivating over time. The purpose of this study was to assess the presence of Nav1.9 channels in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) layer II and V pyramidal neurons in young (20-day-old), late adolescent (60-day-old) and adult (6-7-month-old) rats...
September 15, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900727/uhrf2-deletion-impairs-the-formation-of-hippocampus-dependent-memory-by-changing-the-structure-of-the-dentate-gyrus
#10
Xiao-Rong Chen, Shi-Cheng Sun, Shuai-Wen Teng, Liang Li, Yi-Fan Bie, Hui Yu, Da-Li Li, Zhe-Yu Chen, Yue Wang
Ubiquitin-like with PHD and ring finger domains 2 (Uhrf2) is distributed in many brain regions, including the cortex and hippocampus. Decreased Uhrf2 expression is involved in neurodegenerative disease. A recent study showed Uhrf2 deletion impaired spatial memory; however, the mechanism remains elusive. In our study, we determined that Uhrf2(+/-) and Uhrf2(-/-) mice had significant learning and memory deficiencies in contextual fear conditioning (CFC) and the novel place recognition test but not in the novel object recognition test...
September 12, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893650/adversity-in-early-adolescence-promotes-an-enduring-anxious-phenotype-and-increases-serotonergic-innervation-of-the-infralimbic-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#11
Cindy S Tao, Prateek Dhamija, Linda Booij, Janet L Menard
Stress during early development produces lasting effects on psychopathological outcomes. We analyzed the impact of prior intermittent, physical stress (IPS) during early adolescence (PD 22-33) on anxiety-like behaviour of female rats in adulthood. After behavioural testing, we used immunohistochemistry for the 5-HT transporter (SERT) to evaluate 5-HT innervation profiles in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and ventral hippocampus (VH). Administration of IPS (i.e., water immersion, elevated platform, foot shock) in early adolescence increased rats' anxiety-like behaviour in the elevated plus-maze but had no effects in the shock-probe burying test...
September 8, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893594/nitric-oxide-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-contributes-to-the-acquisition-of-cocaine-place-preference-and-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-laterodorsal-tegmental-nucleus
#12
Hironori Kamii, Naofumi Taoka, Masabumi Minami, Katsuyuki Kaneda
Nitric oxide (NO), a gaseous neurotransmitter, is involved in a variety of brain functions, including drug addiction. Although previous studies have suggested that NO plays an important role in the development of cocaine addiction, the brain region(s) in which NO acts and how it contributes to cocaine addiction remain unclear. In this study, we examined these issues using a cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm and ex vivo electrophysiological recordings in rats. Specifically, we focused on the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT), brain regions associated with cocaine CPP development and cocaine-induced plasticity...
September 8, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889923/social-risky-decision-making-reveals-gender-differences-in-the-tpj-a-hyperscanning-study-using-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy
#13
Mingming Zhang, Tao Liu, Matthew Pelowski, Huibin Jia, Dongchuan Yu
Previous neuroscience studies have investigated neural correlates of risky decision-making in a single-brain frame during pseudo social (predominantly non face-to-face) contexts. To fully understand the risky decision-making behavior in more natural social interactions, the present study employed a functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) hyperscanning technique to simultaneously measure pairs of participants' fronto-temporal activations in a face-to-face gambling card-game. The intra-brain results revealed that both those who identified as males and as females showed higher activations in their mPFC and in the inferior parts of the frontopolar area, as well as in the tempo-parietal junction (TPJ) in cases involving higher versus lower risk...
September 7, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888350/anterior-cingulate-cortex-grey-matter-volume-abnormalities-in-adolescents-with-ptsd-after-childhood-sexual-abuse
#14
Mirjam A Rinne-Albers, J Nienke Pannekoek, Marie-José van Hoof, Natasja D van Lang, Francien Lamers-Winkelman, Serge A Rombouts, Nic J van der Wee, Robert R Vermeiren
Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) substantially increase the risk of later psychiatric and somatic pathology. While neurobiological factors are likely to play a mediating role, specific insights are lacking. The scarce neuroimaging studies in traumatised pediatric populations have provided inconsistent results, potentially due to the inclusion of different types of trauma. To further improve our understanding of the neurobiology of pediatric psychotrauma, this study seeks to investigate abnormalities in grey matter volume (GMV) in a homogeneous group of adolescents with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) due to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and the relationship between GMV and symptom severity...
September 6, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870701/hyper-oligodendrogenesis-at-the-vascular-niche-and-reduced-blood-brain-barrier-integrity-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-during-protracted-abstinence
#15
Sucharita S Somkuwar, McKenzie J Fannon, Tran Bao Nguyen, Chitra D Mandyam
Alcoholism is a relapsing disorder with limited treatment options, in part due to our limited understanding of the disease etiology. We have recently shown that increased ethanol-seeking in a behavioral model of relapse in a rat model of alcoholism was associated with increased oligodendrogenesis which was positively correlated with platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1) expression in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). The current study investigated whether newly born oligodendrocytes form close physical associations with endothelial cells expressing PECAM-1 and whether these changes were accompanied by altered blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity...
September 1, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870510/repeated-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-improves-cognitive-dysfunction-and-synaptic-plasticity-deficit-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#16
Yi-Jen Wu, Chou-Ching Lin, Che-Ming Yeh, Miao-Er Chien, Ming-Chung Tsao, Philip Tseng, Chin-Wei Huang, Kuei-Sen Hsu
BACKGROUND: Cognitive dysfunction is commonly observed in diabetic patients. We have previously reported that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex can facilitate visuospatial working memory in diabetic patients with concomitant diabetic peripheral neuropathy and mild cognitive impairment, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the cellular mechanisms underlying the effect of tDCS on cognitive decline in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats...
August 24, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867482/neurochemical-differences-betweentarget-specific-populations-of-rat-dorsal-raphe-projection-neurons
#17
Eric W Prouty, Daniel J Chandler, Barry D Waterhouse
Serotonin (5-HT)-containing neurons in the dorsal raphe (DR) nucleus project throughout the forebrain and are implicated in many physiological processes and neuropsychiatric disorders. Diversity among these neurons has been characterized in terms of their neurochemistry and anatomical organization, but a clear sense of whether these attributes align with specific brain functions or terminal fields is lacking. DR 5-HT neurons can co-express additional neuroactive substances, increasing the potential for individualized regulation of target circuits...
August 31, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857602/the-role-of-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-in-the-generalization-of-conditioned-fear
#18
Kelsey N Spalding
OBJECTIVE: Fear generalization, the generalization of fear to innocuous stimuli, is a characteristic component of pathological anxiety. Neural models of fear generalization suggest the involvement of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). However, conflicting empirical findings complicate our understanding of the role of the mPFC in pathological anxiety. To address important unanswered questions in this area, a detailed review and synthesis of results from human and nonhuman animal investigations of conditioned fear generalization was conducted...
August 31, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851991/upregulation-of-prefrontal-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-5-mediates-neuropathic-pain-and-negative-mood-symptoms-after-spinal-nerve-injury-in-rats
#19
Geehoon Chung, Chae Young Kim, Yeong-Chan Yun, Sang Ho Yoon, Myoung-Hwan Kim, Yu Kyeong Kim, Sang Jeong Kim
Patients with chronic pain easily accompany the negative mood symptoms such as depression and anxiety, and these disturbances in turn affect the aversive perception of pain. However, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We hypothesized that the alteration of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) in the brain region underlies such a comorbidity of aversive states. We scanned the brain of chronic neuropathic pain model rats using positron emission tomography (PET) technique with an mGluR5-selective radiotracer [11C] ABP688 and found various brain regions with higher or lower level of mGluR5 compared to control rats...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843132/henry-where-have-you-lost-your-self
#20
Nathalie Philippi, Daniel Roquet, Hédi Ben Malek, Vincent Noblet, Anne Botzung, Benjamin Cretin, Frédéric Blanc
The Self is a complex construct encompassing distinct components, including episodic and semantic autobiographical memory, the Self-concept, and the subjective sense of Self, which highest level consists of Self-awareness. The neuro-anatomical correlates are complex, and it is debated as to whether a common region could support these different components of the Self, with a particular interest for the cortical midline structures and the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). Alzheimer's disease (AD) constitutes an interesting model for the study of Self as autobiographical memory typically deteriorates as the disease progresses...
July 14, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
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