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Samantha I Cunningham, Dardo Tomasi, Nora D Volkow
Neuroimaging studies have identified functional interactions between the thalamus, precuneus, and default mode network (DMN) in studies of consciousness. However, less is known about the structural connectivity of the precuneus and thalamus to regions within the DMN. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to parcellate the precuneus and thalamus based on their probabilistic white matter connectivity to each other and DMN regions of interest (ROIs) in 37 healthy subjects from the Human Connectome Database. We further assessed resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) among the precuneus, thalamus, and DMN ROIs...
October 14, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Lauren P Shapiro, Ryan G Parsons, Anthony J Koleske, Shannon L Gourley
The prevalence of depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and drug and alcohol use disorders peaks during adolescence. Further, up to 50% of "adult" mental health disorders emerge in adolescence. During adolescence, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) undergoes dramatic structural reorganization, in which dendritic spines and synapses are refined, pruned, and stabilized. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that underlie these processes should help to identify factors that influence the development of psychiatric illness...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Wenchao Qiu, Yuan Gao, Chuanyong Yu, Ailiang Miao, Lu Tang, Shuyang Huang, Zheng Hu, Jing Xiang, Xiaoshan Wang
Purpose: Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) is a common syndrome of idiopathic generalized epilepsy. However, little is known about the brain structural changes in this type of epilepsy, especially in the default mode network (DMN) regions. This study aims at using the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) technique to quantify structural abnormalities of DMN nodes in CAE patients. Method: DTI data were acquired in 14 CAE patients (aged 8.64 ± 2.59 years, seven females and seven males) and 16 age- and sex-matched healthy controls...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Xu Ling-Zhi, Xu De-Feng, Han Ying, Liu Li-Jing, Sun Cheng-Yu, Deng Jia-Hui, Zhang Ruo-Xi, Yuan Ming, Zhang Su-Zhen, Li Zhi-Meng, Xu Yi, Li Jin-Sheng, Xie Su-Hua, Li Su-Xia, Zhang Hong-Yan, Lu Lin
BACKGROUND: Morinda officinalis oligosaccharides (MOs) have been reported to exert neuroprotective and antidepressant-like effects in the forced swim test (FST) in mice. However, the mechanisms that underlie the antidepressant-like effects of MOs are unclear. METHODS: Chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) and FST were used to explore the antidepressant-like effects of MOs and resilience to stress in rats. The PI3K inhibitor LY294002 was microinjected in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) to explore the role of GSK-3β in the antidepressant-like effects of MOs...
October 11, 2016: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Weiqing Liu, Dong Wang, Wenjuan Hong, Yi Yu, Jinsong Tang, Jicai Wang, Fang Liu, Xiufeng Xu, Liwen Tan, Xiaogang Chen
Although N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonists-induced hypoglutamate rodent models are the most well-established models for preclinical studies of schizophrenia-related deficits, they also evoke a wide spectrum of psychotomimetic side effects. It is significant to increase the specificity of hypoglutamate rodent models. In this study, the recognition memory was evaluated in rats by object recognition test (ORT), sensorimotor gating was evaluated by prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex (PPI), and locomotor activity was measured using open field test...
October 7, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Daniel S Schechter, Dominik A Moser, Virginie C Pointet, Tatjana Aue, Ludwig Stenz, Ariane Paoloni-Giacobino, Wafae Adouan, Aurélia Manini, Francesca Suardi, Marylene Vital, Ana Sancho Rossignol, Maria I Cordero, Molly Rothenberg, François Ansermet, Sandra Rusconi Serpa, Alexandre G Dayer
BACKGROUND: Methylation of the serotonin 3A receptor gene (HTR3A) has been linked to child maltreatment and adult psychopathology. The present study examined whether HTR3A methylation might be associated with mothers' lifetime exposure to interpersonal violence (IPV), IPV-related psychopathology, child disturbance of attachment, and maternal neural activity. METHODS: Number of maternal lifetime IPV exposures and measures of maternal psychopathology including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depression and aggressive behavior (AgB), and a measure of child attachment disturbance known as "secure base distortion" (SBD) were assessed in a sample of 35 mothers and children aged 12-42 months...
October 5, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Jared B Smith, Zhifeng Liang, Glenn D R Watson, Kevin D Alloway, Nanyin Zhang
The claustrum is a brain region whose function remains unknown, though many investigators suggest it plays a role in conscious attention. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) has revealed how anesthesia alters many functional connections in the brain, but the functional role of the claustrum with respect to the awake versus anesthetized states remains unknown. Therefore, we employed a combination of seed-based RS-fMRI and neuroanatomical tracing to reveal how the anatomical connections of the claustrum are related to its functional connectivity during quiet wakefulness and the isoflurane-induced anesthetic state...
October 6, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Luis R Jacinto, João J Cerqueira, Nuno Sousa
Theta oscillations within the hippocampus-amygdala-medial prefrontal cortex (HPC-AMY-mPFC) circuit have been consistently implicated in the regulation of anxiety behaviors, including risk-assessment. To study if theta activity during risk-assessment was correlated with exploratory behavior in an approach/avoidance paradigm we recorded simultaneous local field potentials from this circuit in rats exploring the elevated-plus maze (EPM). Opposing patterns of power variations in the ventral hippocampus (vHPC), basolateral amygdala (BLA), and prelimbic (PrL) mPFC, but not in the dorsal hippocampus (dHPC), during exploratory risk-assessment of the open arms preceded further exploration of the open arms or retreat back to the safer closed arms...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Antonio Ferragud, Adam D Howell, Catherine F Moore, Tina L Ta, Marius C Hoener, Valentina Sabino, Pietro Cottone
Compulsive, binge eating of highly palatable food constitutes a core feature of some forms of obesity and eating disorders, as well as of the recently proposed disorder of food addiction. Trace Amine-Associated Receptor 1 (TAAR1) is a highly conserved G-protein-coupled receptor bound by endogenous trace amines. TAAR1 agonists have been shown to reduce multiple behavioral effects of drugs of abuse through their actions on the mesocorticolimbic system. In this study, we hypothesized that TAAR1 may play a role in compulsive, binge-like eating; we tested this hypothesis by assessing the effects of a TAAR1 agonist, RO5256390, in multiple excessive feeding-related behaviors induced by limiting access to a highly palatable diet in rats...
October 6, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Devesh Mishra, Jose Ignacio Pena-Bravo, Kah-Chung Leong, Antonieta Lavin, Carmela M Reichel
World-wide methamphetamine (meth) use is increasing at a rapid rate; therefore, it has become increasingly important to understand the synaptic changes and neural mechanisms affected by drug exposure. In rodents, 6-h access to contingent meth results in an escalation of drug intake and impaired cognitive sequelae typically associated with changes within the corticostriatal circuitry. There is a dearth of knowledge regarding the underlying physiological changes within this circuit following meth self-administration...
October 5, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Katrin Döhnel, Tobias Schuwerk, Beate Sodian, Göran Hajak, Rainer Rupprecht, Monika Sommer
False belief reasoning is a key Theory of Mind (ToM) competence. By four years of age children understand that a person's behaviour can be based on a false belief about reality. Children cannot understand that a person's emotion can also be based on a false belief before the age of six. In order to generate hypothesis on basic processes distinguishing these two types of belief reasoning, the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in adults directly compares functional activity associated with these two false belief tasks...
October 5, 2016: Social Neuroscience
Anthony P King, Stefanie R Block, Rebecca K Sripada, Sheila A M Rauch, Katherine E Porter, Todd K Favorite, Nicholas Giardino, Israel Liberzon
Combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is common among returning veterans, and is a serious and debilitating disorder. While highly effective treatments involving trauma exposure exist, difficulties with engagement and early drop may lead to sub-optimal outcomes. Mindfulness training may provide a method for increasing emotional regulation skills that may improve engagement in trauma-focused therapy. Here, we examine potential neural correlates of mindfulness training and in vivo exposure (non-trauma focused) using a novel group therapy [mindfulness-based exposure therapy (MBET)] in Afghanistan (OEF) or Iraq (OIF) combat veterans with PTSD...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Jesus Martin-Cortecero, Angel Nuñez
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays a key role in higher functions such as memory and attention. In order to demonstrate sensory responses in the mPFC, we used electrophysiological recordings of urethane-anesthetized rats to record somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) or auditory-evoked potentials (AEPs) elicited by whisker deflections and click stimulation, respectively. Contralateral whisker stimulation or auditory stimuli were also applied to study sensory interference in the mPFC. Interference with other sensory stimuli or recent stimulation history reduced whisker responses in the infralimbic and prelimbic cortices of the ventral mPFC...
October 1, 2016: Neuroscience
Shuo Kang, Mariah M Wu, Roberto Galvez, Joshua M Gulley
Non-medical use of amphetamine (AMPH) among adolescents is prevalent, which is problematic given the potential consequences of developmental drug exposure on brain function and behavior. Previously we found in adult male rats that AMPH exposure starting before puberty induces a persistent decrease in dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) function in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Here we investigated if this dysfunction was associated with changes in D1R expression in the mPFC and nucleus accumbens (NAc). We also determined if starting drug exposure well before or near the onset of puberty would influence AMPH-induced changes in D1R expression and behavior...
October 1, 2016: Neuroscience
Yan Gu, Xueping Hu, Weigang Pan, Chun Yang, Lijun Wang, Yiyuan Li, Antao Chen
Feedback information is essential for us to adapt appropriately to the environment. The feedback-related negativity (FRN), a frontocentral negative deflection after the delivery of feedback, has been found to be larger for outcomes that are worse than expected, and it reflects a reward prediction error derived from the midbrain dopaminergic projections to the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), as stated in reinforcement learning theory. In contrast, the prediction of response-outcome (PRO) model claims that the neural activity in the mediofrontal cortex (mPFC), especially the ACC, is sensitive to the violation of expectancy, irrespective of the valence of feedback...
October 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
Martijn M Selten, Francisca Meyer, Wei Ba, Astrid Vallès, Dorien A Maas, Moritz Negwer, Vivian D Eijsink, Ruben W M van Vugt, Josephus A van Hulten, Nick H M van Bakel, Joey Roosen, Robert J van der Linden, Dirk Schubert, Michel M M Verheij, Nael Nadif Kasri, Gerard J M Martens
Schizophrenia is a complex disorder that affects cognitive function and has been linked, both in patients and animal models, to dysfunction of the GABAergic system. However, the pathophysiological consequences of this dysfunction are not well understood. Here, we examined the GABAergic system in an animal model displaying schizophrenia-relevant features, the apomorphine-susceptible (APO-SUS) rat and its phenotypic counterpart, the apomorphine-unsusceptible (APO-UNSUS) rat at postnatal day 20-22. We found changes in the expression of the GABA-synthesizing enzyme GAD67 specifically in the prelimbic- but not the infralimbic region of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), indicative of reduced inhibitory function in this region in APO-SUS rats...
September 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
Bradley K Taylor, Karin N Westlund
Central noradrenergic centers such as the locus coeruleus (LC) are traditionally viewed as pain inhibitory; however, complex interactions among brainstem pathways and their receptors modulate both inhibition and facilitation of pain. In addition to the well-described role of descending pontospinal pathways that inhibit spinal nociceptive transmission, an emerging body of research now indicates that noradrenergic neurons in the LC and their terminals in the dorsal reticular nucleus (DRt), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), spinal dorsal horn, and spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis participate in the development and maintenance of allodynia and hyperalgesia after nerve injury...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Zhensong Wang, Aiying Zhang, Bin Zhao, Jie Gan, Guangbin Wang, Fei Gao, Bo Liu, Tao Gong, Wen Liu, Richard A E Edden
BACKGROUND: It is increasingly being recognized that alterations of the GABAergic system are implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. This study aimed to explore in vivo gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels in the anterior cingulate cortex/medial prefrontal cortex (ACC/mPFC) and posterior-cingulate cortex (PCC) of postmenopausal women with depression using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-MRS). METHODS: Nineteen postmenopausal women with depression and thirteen healthy controls were enrolled in the study...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Maurizio S Riga, Vicent Teruel-Martí, Connie Sánchez, Pau Celada, Francesc Artigas
Vortioxetine (VOR) is a multimodal antidepressant drug. VOR is a 5-HT3-R, 5-HT7-R and 5-HT1D-R antagonist, 5-HT1B-R partial agonist, 5-HT1A-R agonist, and serotonin transporter (SERT) inhibitor. VOR shows pro-cognitive activity in animal models and beneficial effects on cognitive dysfunction in major depressive patients. Here we compared the effects of 14-day treatments with VOR and escitalopram (ESC, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) on neuronal activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Ten groups of rats (5 standard, 5 depleted of 5-HT with p-chlorophenylalanine -pCPA-, used as model of cognitive impairment) were fed with control food or with two doses of VOR-containing food...
September 23, 2016: Neuropharmacology
Annie Lee, Mingzhen Tan, Anqi Qiu
Brain network hubs are susceptible to normal aging processes and disruptions of their functional connectivity are detrimental to decline in cognitive functions in older adults. However, it remains unclear how the functional connectivity of network hubs cope with cognitive heterogeneity in an aging population. This study utilized cognitive and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data, cluster analysis, and graph network analysis to examine age-related alterations in the network hubs' functional connectivity of good and poor cognitive performers...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
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