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Bo Wang, Shuangshuang Han
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), resulting from external force on the head, usually leads to long-term deficits in motor and cognitive functions. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-mediated excessive inflammation could exacerbate brain damage after TBI. The present study therefore investigated the potential neuroprotective effects of iNOS inhibition after TBI. Male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to controlled cortical impact injury and then treated with high selective iNOS inhibitor 1400W. Expression of iNOS mRNA was determined by quantitative RT-PCR...
March 20, 2018: Cerebellum
Chu-Chu Qi, Qing-Jun Wang, Xue-Zhu Ma, Hai-Chao Chen, Li-Ping Gao, Jie Yin, Yu-Hong Jing
BACKGROUND: Following a social defeat, the balanced establishment and extinction of aversive information is a beneficial strategy for individual survival. Abnormal establishment or extinction is implicated in the development of mental disorders. This study investigated the time course of the establishment and extinction of aversive information from acute social defeat and the temporal responsiveness of the basolateral amygdala (BLA), ventral hippocampus (vHIP) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in this process...
March 19, 2018: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Crystle J Kelly, Marco Martina
Functional deactivation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is a critical step in the neuropathic pain phenotype. We performed optogenetic circuit dissection to study the properties of ventral hippocampal (vHipp) and thalamic (MDTh) inputs to L5 pyramidal cells in acute mPFC slices and to test whether alterations in these inputs contribute to mPFC deactivation in neuropathic pain. We found that: (1) both the vHipp and MDTh inputs elicit monosynaptic excitatory and polysynaptic inhibitory currents. (2) The strength of the excitatory MDTh input is uniform, while the vHipp input becomes progressively stronger along the dorsal-ventral axis...
March 17, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Chong Liao, Song Wu, Yue-Jia Luo, Qing Guan, Fang Cui
Social decision-making engages traditional decision-making processes (e.g. valuation), as well as social cognition processes (e.g. inferring the affective and mental states of another person). Neuroimaging and neuro-stimulation studies have suggested the involvement of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in a variety of social decision-making tasks. Yet no study has investigated the effect of the cortical excitability of mPFC in the decision-making of costly helping behavior. Here, we used tDCS to demonstrate the causal relationship between the cortical excitability of mPFC and costly helping decision-making...
March 14, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Christopher Wass, Bruno Sauce, Alessandro Pizzo, Louis D Matzel
In both humans and mice, performance on tests of intelligence or general cognitive ability (GCA) is related to dopamine D1 receptor-mediated activity in the prelimbic cortex, and levels of DRD1 mRNA predict the GCA of mice. Here we assessed the turnover rate of D1 receptors as well as the expression level of the D1 chaperone protein (DRiP78) in the medial PPC (mPFC) of mice to determine whether rate of receptor turnover was associated with variations in the GCA of genetically heterogeneous mice. Following assessment of GCA (aggregate performance on four diverse learning tests) mice were administered an irreversible dopamine receptor antagonist (EEDQ), after which the density of new D1 receptors were quantified...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Shingo Matsuda, Daisuke Matsuzawa, Daisuke Ishii, Haruna Tomizawa, Eiji Shimizu
Onset of fear-related disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder is enhanced from adolescence until adulthood. However, the biological mechanisms underlying this vulnerability remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated contextual fear memory and extinction in 4-, 6-, 8-, 10-, and 15-week-old female mice. We also measured phosphorylation of ERK2 in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the dorsal hippocampus in the mPFC following fear conditioning or extinction in 6- and 15-week-old mice. We found that 10- and 15-week-old mice showed stronger fear memory and more resistance to fear extinction than 6-week-old mice...
March 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Gábor Csifcsák, Nya Mehnwolo Boayue, Oula Puonti, Axel Thielscher, Matthias Mittner
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) above the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (lDLPFC) has been widely used to improve symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the effects of different stimulation protocols in the entire frontal lobe have not been investigated in a large sample including patient data. METHODS: We used 38 head models created from structural magnetic resonance imaging data of 19 healthy adults and 19 MDD patients and applied computational modeling to simulate the spatial distribution of tDCS-induced electric fields (EFs) in 20 frontal regions...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Michelle Achterberg, Anna C K van Duijvenvoorde, Mara van der Meulen, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg, Eveline A Crone
Middle childhood marks an important phase for developing and maintaining social relations. At the same time, this phase is marked by a gap in our knowledge of the genetic and environmental influences on brain responses to social feedback and their relation to behavioral aggression. In a large developmental twin sample (509 7- to 9-year-olds), the heritability and neural underpinnings of behavioral aggression following social evaluation were investigated, using the Social Network Aggression Task (SNAT). Participants viewed pictures of peers that gave positive, neutral, or negative feedback to the participant's profile...
March 12, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Josh M Cisler, Anthony Privratsky, Sonet Smitherman, Ryan J Herringa, Clinton D Kilts
Background: A wealth of research has investigated the impact of early life trauma exposure on functional brain activation during facial emotion processing and has often demonstrated amygdala hyperactivity and weakened connectivity between amygdala and medial PFC (mPFC). There have been notably limited investigations linking these previous node-specific findings into larger-scale network models of brain organization. Method: To address these gaps, we applied graph theoretical analyses to fMRI data collected during a facial emotion processing task among 88 adolescent girls (n = 59 exposed to direct physical or sexual assault; n = 29 healthy controls), aged 11-17, during fMRI...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Monika J M Murphy, Ariel Y Deutch
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is usually defined as the frontal cortical area receiving a mediodorsal thalamic innervation. Certain areas in the medial wall of the rat frontal area receive an MD innervation. A second frontal area that is the target of MD projections is located dorsal to the rhinal sulcus and often referred to as the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Both the mPFC and OFC are comprised of a large number of cytoarchitectonic regions. We assessed the afferent innervation of the different areas of the OFC, with a focus on projections arising from the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus, the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala, and the midbrain dopamine neurons...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Zhi-Fang Deng, Hui-Ling Zheng, Jian-Guo Chen, Yi Luo, Jun-Feng Xu, Gang Zhao, Jia-Jing Lu, Hou-Hong Li, Shuang-Qi Gao, Deng-Zheng Zhang, Ling-Qiang Zhu, Yong-Hui Zhang, Fang Wang
β-Catenin has been implicated in major depressive disorder (MDD), which is associated with synaptic plasticity and dendritic arborization. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are small noncoding RNAs containing about 22 nucleotides and involved in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological process, but their roles in MDD remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated the expression and function of miRNAs in the mouse model of chronic social defeat stress (CSDS). The regulation of β-catenin by selected miRNA was validated by silico prediction, target gene luciferase reporter assay, and transfection experiment in neurons...
March 7, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Anne T Park, Julia A Leonard, Patricia Saxler, Abigail B Cyr, John D E Gabrieli, Allyson P Mackey
Early life stress has been associated with disrupted functional connectivity between the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), but it is unknown how early in development stress-related differences in amygdala-mPFC connectivity emerge. In a resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) analysis with 79 four- to seven-year-old children, we found a significant correlation between more adverse experiences and weaker amygdala-mPFC rs-FC. We also found that weaker amygdala-mPFC rs-FC was associated with higher levels of aggressive behavior and attention problems...
March 6, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
John Peyton Bohnsack, Benjamin A Hughes, Todd K O'Buckley, Kamyra Edokpolor, Joyce Besheer, A Leslie Morrow
Alcohol use disorders are chronic debilitating diseases characterized by severe withdrawal symptoms that contribute to morbidity and relapse. GABAA receptor (GABAA R) adaptations have long been implicated in the chronic effects of alcohol and contribute to many withdrawal symptoms associated with alcohol dependence. In rodents, GABAA R hypofunction results from decreases in Gabra1 expression, although the underlying mechanism controlling Gabra1 expression after chronic ethanol exposure is still unknown. We found that chronic ethanol exposure using either ethanol gavage or two-bottle choice voluntary access paradigms decreased Gabra1 expression and increased Hdac2 and Hdac3 expression...
February 27, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Kazuaki Sawada, Ryosuke Kawakami, Ryuichi Shigemoto, Tomomi Nemoto
Three-dimensional (3D) super-resolution microscopy technique structured illumination microscopy (SIM) imaging of dendritic spines along the dendrite has not been previously performed in fixed tissues, mainly due to deterioration of the stripe pattern of the excitation laser induced by light scattering and optical aberrations. To address this issue and solve these optical problems, we applied a novel clearing reagent, LUCID, to fixed brains. In SIM imaging, the penetration depth and the spatial resolution were improved in LUCID-treated slices, and 160-nm spatial resolution was obtained in a large portion of the imaging volume on a single apical dendrite...
March 7, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Li Yin, Guangxian Pang, Chao Niu, Maidina Habasi, Jun Dou, Haji Akber Aisa
As an active compound, psoralen is present in various Chinese herbal medicines and has exhibited significant activity in skin disease treatment. Its derivative 8-methoxypsoralan (8-MOP) is the most commonly used drug to induce repigmentation of vitiligo. In our previous screening assays, 4-methyl-6-phenyl-2H-furo[3,2-g]chromen-2-one (MPFC), a psoralen derivative, was identified as more effective tyrosinase and melanin activator than the positive control 8-MOP in consideration of low doses, as well as low toxicity...
March 2, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Andrea N Goldstein-Piekarski, Brooke R Staveland, Tali M Ball, Jerome Yesavage, Mayuresh S Korgaonkar, Leanne M Williams
Default mode network (DMN) dysfunction (particularly within the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)) has been implicated in major depressive disorder (MDD); however, its contribution to treatment outcome has not been clearly established. Here we tested the role of DMN functional connectivity as a general and differential biomarker for predicting treatment outcomes in a large, unmedicated adult sample with MDD. Seventy-five MDD outpatients completed fMRI scans before and 8 weeks after randomization to escitalopram, sertraline, or venlafaxine-XR...
March 6, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Wei Cao, Shen Lin, Qiang-Qiang Xia, Yong-Lan Du, Qian Yang, Meng-Ying Zhang, Yi-Qing Lu, Jing Xu, Shu-Min Duan, Xia Jun, Guoping Feng, Junyu Xu, Jian-Hong Luo
Neuroligins (NLs) are critical for synapse formation and function. NL3 R451C is an autism-associated mutation. NL3 R451C knockin (KI) mice exhibit autistic behavioral abnormalities, including social novelty deficits. However, neither the brain regions involved in social novelty nor the underlying mechanisms are clearly understood. Here, we found decreased excitability of fast-spiking interneurons and dysfunction of gamma oscillation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which contributed to the social novelty deficit in the KI mice...
February 22, 2018: Neuron
Yan Li, Galen Missig, Beate C Finger, Samantha M Landino, Abigail J Alexander, Emery Mokler, James Robbins, Yunona Manasian, Woori Kim, Kwang-Soo Kim, Christopher J McDougle, William A Carlezon, Vadim Y Bolshakov
Inflammatory processes may be involved in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric illnesses including Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Evidence from studies in rodents indicates that immune activation during early development can produce core features of ASD (social interaction deficits, dysregulation of communication, increases in stereotyped behaviors and anxiety), although the neural mechanisms of these effects are not thoroughly understood. We treated timed-pregnant mice with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C), which simulates a viral infection, or vehicle on gestational day 12...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
C C van Schie, C D Chiu, S A R B Rombouts, W J Heiser, B M Elzinga
Introduction: The way we view ourselves may play an important role in our responses to interpersonal interactions. In this study, we investigate how feedback valence, consistency of feedback with self-knowledge and global self-esteem influence affective and neural responses to social feedback. Methods: Participants (N = 46) with a high range of self-esteem levels performed the social feedback task in an MRI scanner. Negative, intermediate and positive feedback was provided, supposedly by another person based on a personal interview...
February 27, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Jan-Willem Thielen, Donghyun Hong, Seyedmorteza Rohani Rankouhi, Jens Wiltfang, Guillén Fernández, David G Norris, Indira Tendolkar
The classical model of the declarative memory system describes the hippocampus and its interactions with representational brain areas in posterior neocortex as being essential for the formation of long-term episodic memories. However, new evidence suggests an extension of this classical model by assigning the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) a specific, yet not fully defined role in episodic memory. In this study, we utilized 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis to lend further support for the idea of a mnemonic role of the mPFC in humans...
February 27, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
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