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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340526/an-experimental-study-on-flow-and-heat-transfer-characteristics-of-ethanol-polyalphaolefin-nanoemulsion-flowing-through-circular-minichannels
#1
Vu Trinh, Jiajun Xu
This work experimentally studied the convective flow and heat transfer characteristics of a novel nanostructured heat transfer fluid: "ethanol/polyalphaolefin nanoemulsion" flowing through 12 circular minichannels of 1-mm diameter each. Ethanol/polyalphaolefin nanoemulsion is a thermodynamically stable system formed by dispersing ethanol into a mixture of "polyalphaolefin (PAO)" and surfactants. In this study, ethanol/PAO nanoemulsion is used as the working fluid to study the effect of ethanol nanodroplets on its convective flow and heat transfer characteristics...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340524/controlled-hydrothermal-synthesis-and-photoluminescence-of-nanocrystalline-znga2o4-cr-3-monospheres
#2
Tian Luan, Jinhan Liu, Xiaoxue Yuan, Ji-Guang Li
The hydrothermal synthesis of nanocrystalline ZnGa2O4:Cr(3+) (ZGC) red phosphor monospheres was accomplished in this work, and the effects of system pH, reactant content, reaction time, and citrate anions (Cit(3-)) on the phase and morphology evolution of the product were systematically studied. Under the optimized conditions of Cit(3-)/M = 1.0 molar ratio (M = total cations), pH = 5.0, and 0.2 mmol of Zn(2+), well-dispersed ZGC monospheres with an average diameter of ~454 ± 56 nm (average crystallite size ~15 nm) were successfully obtained via hydrothermal reaction at 180 °C for 18 h...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340506/neuromedin-u-alters-bioenergetics-and-expands-the-cancer-stem-cell-phenotype-in-her2-positive-breast-cancer
#3
Vanesa G Martinez, John Crown, Richard K Porter, Lorraine O'Driscoll
Neuromedin U (NmU) is a neuropeptide belonging to the neuromedin family. Recently, we reported a significant association between NmU and breast cancer, particularly correlating with increased aggressiveness, resistance to HER2-targeted therapies and overall significantly poorer outcome for patients, although the mechanism through which it exerts this effect remained unexplained. Investigating this, here we found that ectopic over-expression of NmU in HER2-positive breast cancer cells induced aberrant metabolism, with increased glycolysis, likely due to enhanced pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase activity...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340481/metabolic-profiling-of-tyrosine-tryptophan-and-glutamate-in-human-urine-using-gas-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-combined-with-single-spe-cleanup
#4
Hyun Ju Shin, Na Hyun Park, Wonwoong Lee, Man Ho Choi, Bong Chul Chung, Jongki Hong
The tyrosine, tryptophan, and glutamate metabolic pathways play key roles on pathological state of neuronal functions and the change of their levels in biological systems reflects the progress degree of neuronal diseases. Comprehensive profiling of these metabolites is important to find new biomarkers for diagnosis or prognosis of various neuronal diseases. However, the overall profiling analysis of various neurochemicals in biological sample is confronted with several limitations due to their low concentration and physicochemical properties and the coexistence of matrices...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340416/nonradical-oxidation-from-electrochemical-activation-of-peroxydisulfate-at-ti-pt-anode-efficiency-mechanism-and-influencing-factors
#5
Haoran Song, Linxia Yan, Jun Ma, Jin Jiang, Guangqiang Cai, Wenjuan Zhang, Zhongxiang Zhang, Jiaming Zhang, Tao Yang
Electrochemical activation of peroxydisulfate (PDS) at Ti/Pt anode was systematically investigated for the first time in this work. The synergistic effect produced from the combination of electrolysis and the addition of PDS demonstrates that PDS can be activated at Ti/Pt anode. The selective oxidation towards carbamazepine (CBZ), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), propranolol (PPL), benzoic acid (BA) rather than atrazine (ATZ) and nitrobenzene (NB) was observed in electrochemical activation of PDS process. Moreover, addition of excess methanol or tert-butanol had negligible impact on CBZ (model compound) degradation, demonstrating that neither sulfate radical (SO4(-)) nor hydroxyl radical (HO) was produced in electrochemical activation of PDS process...
March 21, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340354/mechanism-of-substrate-translocation-in-an-alternating-access-transporter
#6
Naomi R Latorraca, Nathan M Fastman, A J Venkatakrishnan, Wolf B Frommer, Ron O Dror, Liang Feng
Transporters shuttle molecules across cell membranes by alternating among distinct conformational states. Fundamental questions remain about how transporters transition between states and how such structural rearrangements regulate substrate translocation. Here, we capture the translocation process by crystallography and unguided molecular dynamics simulations, providing an atomic-level description of alternating access transport. Simulations of a SWEET-family transporter initiated from an outward-open, glucose-bound structure reported here spontaneously adopt occluded and inward-open conformations...
March 23, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340353/molecular-structure-of-the-human-cftr-ion-channel
#7
Fangyu Liu, Zhe Zhang, László Csanády, David C Gadsby, Jue Chen
The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter that uniquely functions as an ion channel. Here, we present a 3.9 Å structure of dephosphorylated human CFTR without nucleotides, determined by electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM). Close resemblance of this human CFTR structure to zebrafish CFTR under identical conditions reinforces its relevance for understanding CFTR function. The human CFTR structure reveals a previously unresolved helix belonging to the R domain docked inside the intracellular vestibule, precluding channel opening...
March 23, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340143/protecting-pain-patients-the-evaluation-of-a-chronic-pain-educational-intervention
#8
Simon Holliday, Chris Hayes, Adrian Dunlop, Simon Morgan, Amanda Tapley, Kim Henderson, Briony Larance, Parker Magin
Introduction. : Advocacy and commercially funded education successfully reduced barriers to the provision of long-term opioid analgesia. The subsequent escalation of opioid prescribing for chronic noncancer pain has seen increasing harms without improved pain outcomes. Methods. : This was a one-group pretest-posttest design study. A multidisciplinary team developed a chronic pain educational package for general practitioner trainees emphasizing limitations, risk-mitigation, and deprescribing of opioids with transition to active self-care...
March 13, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340128/crossing-the-health-it-chasm-considerations-and-policy-recommendations-to-overcome-current-challenges-and-enable-value-based-care
#9
Julia Adler-Milstein, Peter J Embi, Blackford Middleton, Indra Neil Sarkar, Jeff Smith
While great progress has been made in digitizing the US health care system, today's health information technology (IT) infrastructure remains largely a collection of systems that are not designed to support a transition to value-based care. In addition, the pursuit of value-based care, in which we deliver better care with better outcomes at lower cost, places new demands on the health care system that our IT infrastructure needs to be able to support. Provider organizations pursuing new models of health care delivery and payment are finding that their electronic systems lack the capabilities needed to succeed...
March 15, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340092/community-based-effectiveness-trials-as-a-means-to-disseminate-evidence-based-and-culturally-responsive-behavioral-health-interventions
#10
Flavio F Marsiglia, Patricia Dustman, Mary Harthun, Chelsea Coyne Ritland, Adriana Umaña-Taylor
This article adds to the existing knowledge about innovative community-based approaches used to reduce and eliminate behavioral health disparities. Special attention is given to culturally appropriate interventions that increase access to care and that improve the quality of behavioral health services across different geographic regions and communities. Effectiveness trials are presented as appropriate tools to translate existing efficacious interventions into real-world settings. This article describes how to transition from efficacy to effectiveness, including factors essential to consider from the perspectives of university-based research teams and community-based organizations (CBOs)...
March 14, 2017: Health & Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339958/postconditioning-protects-renal-fibrosis-by-attenuating-oxidative-stress-induced-mitochondrial-injury
#11
Shuxian Zhang, Xiaohua Tan, Yan Chen, Xiuying Zhang
Background.: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a critical role in renal fibrosis. We hypothesize that mitochondrial DNA damage and DNA deletions caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) during renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) might lead to EMT in renal fibrosis. Methods.: Rats were classified into seven groups: sham-operation, IRI, postconditioning (POC), I/R + apocynin, POC +  apocynin, I/R + Mito-Tempol (Mito-T) and POC +  Mito-T...
March 3, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339833/vdac1-is-a-molecular-target-in-glioblastoma-with-its-depletion-leading-to-reprogrammed-metabolism-and-reversed-oncogenic-properties
#12
Tasleem Arif, Yakov Kerlin, Itay Nakdimon, Daniel Benharroch, Avijit Paul, Daniela Dadon-Klein, Varda Shoshan-Barmatz
Background.: Glioblastoma (GBM), an aggressive brain tumor with frequent relapses and a high mortality, still awaits an effective treatment. Like many cancers, GBM cells acquire oncogenic properties, including metabolic reprogramming, vital for growth. As such, tumor metabolism is an emerging avenue for cancer therapy. One relevant target is the voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1), a mitochondrial protein controlling cell energy and metabolic homeostasis. Methods...
February 28, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339829/perceived-office-environments-and-occupational-physical-activity-in-office-based-workers
#13
A Sawyer, L Smith, M Ucci, R Jones, A Marmot, A Fisher
Background: Individuals in office-based occupations have low levels of physical activity but there is little research into the socio-ecological correlates of workplace activity. Aims: To identify factors contributing to office-based workers' perceptions of the office environment and explore cross-sectional relationships between these factors and occupational physical activity. Methods: Participants in the Active Buildings study reported perceptions of their office environment using the Movement at Work Survey...
March 1, 2017: Occupational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339648/three-dimensional-testicular-organoid-a-novel-tool-for-the-study-of-human-spermatogenesis-and-gonadotoxicity-in-vitro%C3%A2
#14
Samuel S Pendergraft, Hooman Sadri-Ardekani, Anthony Atala, Colin E Bishop
Existing methods for evaluating the potential gonadotoxicity of environmental agents and pharmaceutical compounds rely heavily on animal studies. The current gold standard in vivo functional assays in animals are limited in their human predictive capacity. In addition, existing human two-dimensional in vitro models of testicular toxicity do not accurately reflect the in vivo situation. A more reliable testicular in vitro model system is needed to better assess the gonadotoxic potential of drugs prior to progression into clinical trials...
February 17, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339614/integrin-linked-kinase-regulates-syncytialization-of-bewo-trophoblast-cells%C3%A2
#15
Trina M Butler, Justin A Pater, Daniel J MacPhee
During placental development, mononuclear villous cytotrophoblast cells differentiate and fuse with the overlying syncytiotrophoblast. This process requires the dissolution of E-cadherin (CDH1)-containing adherens junctions in cytotrophoblast. Integrin linked kinase (ILK) can downregulate CDH1 through poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) and Snail-1 (SNAI1) during epithelial-mesenchymal transition. ILK is known to be expressed in cytotrophoblast; thus, the role of a potential ILK-PARP1-SNAI1 pathway in aiding trophoblast syncytialization via the downregulation of CDH1 was examined...
January 27, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339602/gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-kisspeptin-and-gonadal-steroids-directly-modulate-nucleobindin-2-nesfatin-1-in-murine-hypothalamic-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-neurons-and-gonadotropes%C3%A2
#16
A Hatef, S Unniappan
Neuroendocrine regulation of metabolism and reproduction are tightly interlinked. Nesfatin-1 is an 82 amino acid metabolic peptide derived from nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2). NUCB2 mRNA and protein significantly increase in the hypothalamus of rats during puberty-to-adult transition. Administration of nesfatin-1 modulates circulating LH and testosterone in male rats. However, whether nesfatin-1 acts directly on neurons and gonadotropes remain unknown. In addition, whether reproductive hormones of the hypothalamo-pituitary gonadal axis modulate NUCB2/nesfatin-1 is unclear...
January 28, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339601/characterization-and-consistency-of-interactions-of-triggers-and-substrate-at-the-onset-of-paroxysmal-atrial-fibrillation
#17
David G Jones, Vias Markides, Anthony W C Chow, Richard J Schilling, Prapa Kanagaratnam, Tom Wong, D Wyn Davies, Nicholas S Peters
Aims: Initiating mechanisms of atrial fibrillation (AF) remain poorly understood, involving complex interaction between triggers and the atrial substrate. This study sought to classify the transitional phenomena, hypothesizing that there is consistency within and between patients in trigger-substrate interaction during transition to AF. Methods and results: Non-contact left atrial (LA) mapping was performed in 17 patients undergoing ablation for paroxysmal AF. All had spontaneous ectopy...
January 25, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339425/potential-role-of-the-ovol1-ovol2-axis-and-c-myc-in-the-progression-of-cutaneous-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#18
Takamichi Ito, Gaku Tsuji, Fumitaka Ohno, Takeshi Nakahara, Hiroshi Uchi, Masutaka Furue
OVOL1 and OVOL2 are ubiquitously conserved genes encoding C2H2 zinc-finger transcription factors in mammals. They promote epithelial cell proliferation, differentiation, and mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition, coordinately mediated via the Wnt signaling pathway. We previously reported that human OVOL1 and OVOL2 were preferentially expressed in the normal epidermis and hair follicles as well as their tumors, and found that OVOL1 is upregulated in Bowen's disease and downregulated in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma...
March 24, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339367/the-functional-significance-of-morphological-changes-in-the-dentitions-of-early-mammals
#19
Andrew J Conith, Michael J Imburgia, Alfred J Crosby, Elizabeth R Dumont
The Mesozoic marked a time of experimentation in the tooth morphology of early mammals. One particular experiment involved the movement of three points, or cusps, on the surface of a molar tooth from a line into a triangle. This transition is exemplified by two extinct insectivorous mammals, Morganucodon (cusps in a line) and Kuehneotherium (cusps in a triangle). Here we test whether this difference in cusp arrangement, alongside cusp heights and angles between cusps, is associated with differences in the ability of the teeth to fracture proxy-insect prey...
November 2016: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339281/gate-tunable-band-structure-of-the-laalo_-3-srtio_-3-interface
#20
A E M Smink, J C de Boer, M P Stehno, A Brinkman, W G van der Wiel, H Hilgenkamp
The two-dimensional electron system at the interface between LaAlO_{3} and SrTiO_{3} has several unique properties that can be tuned by an externally applied gate voltage. In this work, we show that this gate tunability extends to the effective band structure of the system. We combine a magnetotransport study on top-gated Hall bars with self-consistent Schrödinger-Poisson calculations and observe a Lifshitz transition at a density of 2.9×10^{13}cm^{-2}. Above the transition, the carrier density of one of the conducting bands decreases with increasing gate voltage...
March 10, 2017: Physical Review Letters
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