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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913904/association-between-brain-structural-anomalies-electroencephalogram-and-history-of-seizures-in-mucopolysaccharidosis-type-ii-hunter-syndrome
#1
Ramón Ernesto Jiménez-Arredondo, Aniel Jessica Leticia Brambila-Tapia, Francisco Miguel Mercado-Silva, Martha Ortiz-Aranda, Verónica Benites-Godinez, Graciela Olmos-García-de-Alba, Luis Eduardo Figuera
Mucopolysaccharidosis type II or Hunter syndrome (MPS II) is a genetic disease that can course with intellectual impairment and central nervous system (CNS) alterations. To date, no report has documented electroencephalogram (EEG) measures associated with CNS alterations, detected by imaging studies, and the history of seizures in patients with MPS II. Therefore, we decided to search this association. We included 9 patients with MPS II and performed imaging studies of the brain to detect the presence of cortico-subcortical atrophy, enlarged subarachnoid space and supratentorial ventricular size...
December 2, 2016: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913431/pro-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-probdnf-mediated-p75ntr-activation-promotes-depolarizing-actions-of-gaba-and-increases-susceptibility-to-epileptic-seizures
#2
Baptiste Riffault, Nazim Kourdougli, Camille Dumon, Nadine Ferrand, Emmanuelle Buhler, Fabienne Schaller, Caroline Chambon, Claudio Rivera, Jean-Luc Gaiarsa, Christophe Porcher
The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is synthesized as a precursor, namely proBDNF, which can be processed into mature BDNF (mBDNF). Evidences suggest that proBDNF signaling through p75(NTR) may account for the emergence of neurological disorders. These findings support the view that the relative availability of mBDNF and proBDNF forms is an important mechanism underlying brain circuit formation and cognitive functions. Here we describe novel insights into the proBDNF/p75(NTR) mechanisms and function in vivo in modulating neuronal circuit and synaptic plasticity during the first postnatal weeks in rats...
December 1, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913320/the-concept-of-effective-inflow-application-to-interictal-localization-of-the-epileptogenic-focus-from-ieeg
#3
Ioannis Vlachos, Balu Krishnan, David Treiman, Konstantinos Tsakalis, Dimitris Kugiumtzis, Leon Iassemidis
GOAL: Accurate determination of the epileptogenic focus is of paramount diagnostic and therapeutic importance in epilepsy. The current gold standard for focus localization is from ictal (seizure) onset and thus requires the occurrence and recording of multiple typical seizures of a patient. Localization of the focus from seizure-free (interictal) periods remains a challenging problem, especially in the absence of interictal epileptiform activity. METHODS: By exploring the concept of effective inflow, we developed a focus localization algorithm (FLA) based on directed connectivity between brain sites...
November 29, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913266/cost-utility-of-video-electroencephalography-monitoring-followed-by-surgery-in-adults-with-drug-resistant-focal-epilepsy-in-thailand
#4
Pimprapa Kitwitee, Kanjana Unnwongse, Teeradej Srikijvilaikul, Tinonkorn Yadee, Chulaporn Limwattananon
OBJECTIVES: This study assessed, whether video-electroencephalography (VEEG) monitoring followed by surgery was cost-effective in adult patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy under Thai healthcare context, as compared to continued medical treatment without VEEG. METHODS: Total cost (in Thai Baht, THB) and effectiveness (in quality-adjusted life years, QALYs) were estimated over a lifetime horizon, using a decision tree and a Markov model. Data on short-term surgical outcomes, direct health care costs, and utilities, were collected from Thai patients in a specialized hospital...
November 29, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913086/punctate-white-matter-lesions-in-full-term-infants-with-neonatal-seizures-associated-with-slc13a5-mutations
#5
Lauren C Weeke, Eva Brilstra, Kees P Braun, Evelien Zonneveld-Huijssoon, Gajja S Salomons, Bobby P Koeleman, Koen L van Gassen, Henrica L van Straaten, Dana Craiu, Linda S de Vries
INTRODUCTION: Early-onset epileptic encephalopathy caused by biallelic SLC13A5 mutations is characterized by seizure onset in the first days of life, refractory epilepsy and developmental delay. Little detailed information about the brain MRI features is available in these patients. METHODS: Observational study describing the neuro-imaging findings in eight patients (five families) with mutations in the SLC13A5 gene. Seven infants had an MRI in the neonatal period, two had a follow-up MRI at the age of 6 and 18 months and one only at 13 months...
November 19, 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913085/anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis-and-rasmussen-like-syndrome-an-association
#6
Kevin Gurcharran, Shefali Karkare
BACKGROUND: N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis is an immune-mediated condition that has a broad spectrum of manifestations, including seizures, coma, psychosis, and focal neurological deficits. Although usually a diffuse process, unihemispheric involvement mimicking early stages of Rasmussen encephalitis can occur. Rasmussen's encephalitis is a unique syndrome characterized by progressive hemiplegia, drug-resistant focal epilepsy, cognitive decline, and hemispheric brain atrophy contralateral to the hemiplegia...
October 11, 2016: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913075/the-photosensitivity-model-is-not-a-model-for-partial-focal-seizures-rebuttal
#7
Roger J Porter
New, more effective and less toxic medications are desperately needed for patients with partial (focal) epilepsy. Many hurdles prevent the appropriate study of promising compounds. One of these hurdles is the gap between Phase I and Phase II-the expensive proof of concept to suggest that human trials in partial seizure patients will be successful. A short-cut, the photoparoxysmal response (PPR) model has recently been used to increase confidence in moving a compound into Phase II and III. This shortcut has substantial limitations...
November 22, 2016: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912169/non-harmonicity-in-high-frequency-components-of-the-intra-operative-corticogram-to-delineate-epileptogenic-tissue-during-surgery
#8
Evelien E Geertsema, Maryse A van 't Klooster, Nicole E C van Klink, Frans S S Leijten, Peter C van Rijen, Gerhard H Visser, Stiliyan N Kalitzin, Maeike Zijlmans
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to test the potential of auto-regressive model residual modulation (ARRm), an artefact-insensitive method based on non-harmonicity of the high-frequency signal, to identify epileptogenic tissue during surgery. METHODS: Intra-operative electrocorticography (ECoG) of 54 patients with refractory focal epilepsy were recorded pre- and post-resection at 2048Hz. The ARRm was calculated in one-minute epochs in which high-frequency oscillations (HFOs; fast ripples, 250-500Hz; ripples, 80-250Hz) and spikes were marked...
November 17, 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912112/ethnic-variation-of-genetic-idiopathic-generalized-epilepsy-in-malaysia
#9
Kheng Seang Lim, Ching Ching Ng, Chung Kin Chan, Wee Shean Foo, Joyce Siew Yong Low, Chong Tin Tan
PURPOSE: Ethnic variation in epilepsy classification was reported in the Epilepsy Phenome/Genome Project. This study aimed to determine the ethnic variation in the prevalence of genetic (idiopathic) generalized epilepsy (GGE) and GGE with family history in a multi-ethnic Asian population in Malaysia. METHOD: In this cross-sectional study, 392 patients with a clinical diagnosis of GGE were recruited in the neurology outpatient clinic, University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), from January 2011 till April 2016...
November 24, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912111/can-ictal-meg-obviate-the-need-for-phase-ii-monitoring-in-people-with-drug-refractory-epilepsy-a-prospective-observational-study
#10
Bhargavi Ramanujam, Kamal Bharti, Vibhin Viswanathan, Ajay Garg, Madhavi Tripathi, Chandrashekhar Bal, P Sarat Chandra, Manjari Tripathi
PURPOSE: To determine if ictal-magnetoencephalography (ictal-MEG) source localization (SL) added information towards delineating the ictal-onset zone (IOZ), whether and how it helped final decision-making in epilepsy-surgery. METHODS: Definite focal clusters on ictal-MEG were available for 32 DRE-patients, data was analyzed (single equivalent current dipole (ECD) model), SL done. Clinical history, long-term video-EEG (VEEG) monitoring, epilepsy-protocol MRI, FDG-PET, ictal-SPECT and interictal-MEG were discussed at the multispeciality Epilepsy Surgery Case-conference (ESC)...
October 31, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912044/mutations-in-prosc-disrupt-cellular-pyridoxal-phosphate-homeostasis-and-cause-vitamin-b6-dependent-epilepsy
#11
Niklas Darin, Emma Reid, Laurence Prunetti, Lena Samuelsson, Ralf A Husain, Matthew Wilson, Basma El Yacoubi, Emma Footitt, W K Chong, Louise C Wilson, Helen Prunty, Simon Pope, Simon Heales, Karine Lascelles, Mike Champion, Evangeline Wassmer, Pierangelo Veggiotti, Valérie de Crécy-Lagard, Philippa B Mills, Peter T Clayton
Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), the active form of vitamin B6, functions as a cofactor in humans for more than 140 enzymes, many of which are involved in neurotransmitter synthesis and degradation. A deficiency of PLP can present, therefore, as seizures and other symptoms that are treatable with PLP and/or pyridoxine. Deficiency of PLP in the brain can be caused by inborn errors affecting B6 vitamer metabolism or by inactivation of PLP, which can occur when compounds accumulate as a result of inborn errors of other pathways or when small molecules are ingested...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911366/a-multimodal-imaging-and-stimulation-based-method-of-evaluating-connectivity-related-brain-excitability-in-patients-with-epilepsy
#12
Mouhsin M Shafi, Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli, Catherine J Chu, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Bernard S Chang
Resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) is a technique that identifies connectivity between different brain regions based on correlations over time in the blood-oxygenation level dependent signal. rs-fcMRI has been applied extensively to identify abnormalities in brain connectivity in different neurologic and psychiatric diseases. However, the relationship among rs-fcMRI connectivity abnormalities, brain electrophysiology and disease state is unknown, in part because the causal significance of alterations in functional connectivity in disease pathophysiology has not been established...
November 13, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909971/gastrodin-attenuates-pentylenetetrazole-induced-seizures-by-modulating-the-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-associated-inflammatory-responses-in-mice
#13
Liming Chen, Xinan Liu, Hua Wang, Min Qu
Gastrodin, the major component isolated from the rhizome of the Chinese traditional medicinal herb Gastrodia elata ("Tianma"), has a long history in the treatment of epilepsy and other neurological disorders. However, the molecular mechanisms are not clear. Here, we found that gastrodin ameliorated pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced epileptic seizures with improvement of the electroencephalographic pattern in mice. Further studies demonstrated that gastrodin decreased the levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α while increasing interleukin-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine in the brain...
December 1, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909631/a-nonoperative-approach-for-neurosurgical-management-of-a-sylvian-fissure-dermoid-cyst
#14
Ali S Haider, Clarence Kee, Danielle L DeBacker, Ian T Watson, Eliel N Arrey, Tijani Osumah, Dean Leonard, Chen Chen, Maryam Alam, L Gerard Toussaint Iii
The nonoperative management of sylvian fissure dermoid/epidermoid cysts presents a risk that is difficult to quantify. With rupture, potentially fatal complications such as chemical meningitis, hydrocephalus, fever, seizure, or meningeal irritation may occur. In this paper, we present an asymptomatic case of such a cyst with imaging evidence of prior rupture, and we review the literature for the likelihood of future complications. We use for illustration a case of a 68-year-old woman with imaging features of a sylvian fissure epithelial inclusion cyst who refused surgical intervention and review the literature for further investigation...
October 24, 2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908611/entorhinal-principal-neurons-mediate-brain-stimulation-treatments-for-epilepsy
#15
Zhenghao Xu, Yi Wang, Bin Chen, Cenglin Xu, Xiaohua Wu, Ying Wang, Shihong Zhang, Weiwei Hu, Shuang Wang, Yi Guo, Xiangnan Zhang, Jianhong Luo, Shumin Duan, Zhong Chen
Brain stimulation is an alternative treatment for epilepsy. However, the neuronal circuits underlying its mechanisms remain obscure. We found that optogenetic activation (1Hz) of entorhinal calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II α (CaMKIIα)-positive neurons, but not GABAergic neurons, retarded hippocampal epileptogenesis and reduced hippocampal seizure severity, similar to that of entorhinal low-frequency electrical stimulation (LFES). Optogenetic inhibition of entorhinal CaMKIIα-positive neurons blocked the antiepileptic effect of LFES...
November 23, 2016: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908525/the-photosensitivity-model-is-not-a-model-for-partial-focal-seizures
#16
Roger J Porter
New, more effective and less toxic medications are desperately needed for patients with partial (focal) epilepsy. Many hurdles prevent the appropriate study of promising compounds. One of these hurdles is the difficult gap between Phase I and Phase II-the expensive proof of concept to suggest that human trials in partial seizure patients will be successful. A short-cut, the photoparoxysmal response (PPR) model has recently been used to increase confidence in moving a compound into Phase II and III (K-N Trenite et al...
November 22, 2016: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908324/-psychotherapeutic-treatment-of-psychogenic-non-epileptic-seizures
#17
Dröfn Hilmarsdóttir, Steffen Birk, Charlotte Ulrikka Rask
Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) are seizures which clinically resemble epileptic seizures but are without concurrent abnormal electrical charges. Though PNES can be just as serious and disabling as epileptic seizures, specific treatment guidelines are lacking, and different types of treatments are used. In this article we address the current research on psychotherapeutic treatment for PNES by discussing recent reviews and six randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the subject. In conclusion, larger well-designed RCTs are needed in order to support the evidence for psychological interventions for this patient group...
November 28, 2016: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908322/-traumatic-bilateral-posterior-shoulder-dislocation-after-a-seizure
#18
Mazaher Azizpour, Peter Anton Suder, Rebekka Fonnesbæk
We report a rare case in which a 52-year-old man was found lying on the floor of a sauna. He was confused and complained of pain in both shoulders. He had previously had surgery of a benign meningioma. The initial X-ray examination of both shoulders showed bilateral posterior shoulder dislocation, but no fractures were detected. An attempt to reposition the shoulder dislocation was performed but with no success. Intraoperative examination on the next day detected bilateral fractures with partially destroyed joint head...
November 28, 2016: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908011/principal-dynamic-mode-analysis-of-neural-mass-model-for-the-identification-of-epileptic-states
#19
Yuzhen Cao, Liu Jin, Fei Su, Jiang Wang, Bin Deng
The detection of epileptic seizures in Electroencephalography (EEG) signals is significant for the diagnosis and treatment of epilepsy. In this paper, in order to obtain characteristics of various epileptiform EEGs that may differentiate different states of epilepsy, the concept of Principal Dynamic Modes (PDMs) was incorporated to an autoregressive model framework. First, the neural mass model was used to simulate the required intracerebral EEG signals of various epileptiform activities. Then, the PDMs estimated from the nonlinear autoregressive Volterra models, as well as the corresponding Associated Nonlinear Functions (ANFs), were used for the modeling of epileptic EEGs...
November 2016: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907964/critical-care-neurology-perspective-on-delirium
#20
Matthew B Maas, Andrew M Naidech
The evidence linking delirium to poor outcomes after critical illness is compelling, including higher mortality, prolonged mechanical ventilation, longer length of intensive care unit stay, and long-term cognitive impairments. The attitude toward delirium in the neurologic community is shifting away from viewing it as an unmodifiable, inevitable consequence of severe illness to treating it is as a neurologic emergency, akin to seizures or encephalitis. Delirium, like other manifestations of critical illness encephalopathy, is an organ dysfunction syndrome...
December 2016: Seminars in Neurology
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