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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351636/effectiveness-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-immunoprophylaxis-on-bronchiolitis-hospitalizations-among-high-risk-infants
#1
Pingsheng Wu, Gabriel J Escobar, Tebeb Gebretsadik, Kecia N Carroll, Sherian X Li, Eileen M Walsh, Edward F Mitchel, Chantel Sloan, William D Dupont, Chang Yu, Jeffrey R Horner, Tina V Hartert
We sought to determine the real-world effectiveness of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) immunoprophylaxis in a population-based cohort to inform policy. The study population included infants born 1996-2008 and enrolled in Kaiser Permanente Northern California. During the RSV season (November-March), RSV immunoprophylaxis administration and the following 30 days were defined as RSV immunoprophylaxis protected period(s), and all other days as unprotected period(s). Bronchiolitis hospitalizations were determined using the International Classification of Diseases Ninth Revision codes during RSV season...
January 17, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351501/pediatric-anaphylaxis-in-the-prehospital-setting-incidence-characteristics-and-management
#2
Emily Andrew, Ziad Nehme, Stephen Bernard, Karen Smith
OBJECTIVE: Although hospital presentations for pediatric anaphylaxis have been described in the literature, a minimal amount is known regarding the incidence, characteristics, and management of pediatric anaphylaxis presenting to emergency medical services (EMS). METHODS: We performed a retrospective observational study of pediatrics (≤16 years) presenting to EMS in Victoria, Australia. Patients with suspected anaphylaxis were included if they were treated with epinephrine before or after EMS arrival...
January 19, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351496/implementation-of-a-prehospital-protocol-change-for-asthmatic-children
#3
Anriada Nassif, Daniel G Ostermayer, Kim B Hoang, Mary K Claiborne, Elizabeth A Camp, Manish I Shah
BACKGROUND: Respiratory distress due to asthma is a common reason for pediatric emergency medical services (EMS) transports. Timely initiation of asthma treatment, including glucocorticoids, improves hospital outcomes. The impact of EMS-administered glucocorticoids on hospital-based outcomes for pediatric asthma patients is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of an evidence-based pediatric EMS asthma protocol update, inclusive of oral glucocorticoid administration, on time to hospital discharge...
January 19, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351004/duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-dmd-an-updated-review-of-common-available-therapies
#4
Arash Salmaninejad, Saeed Farajzadeh Valilou, Hadi Bayat, Nader Ebadi, Abdolreza Daraei, Meysam Yousefi, Abolfazl Nesaei, Majid Mojarrad
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal progressive pediatric muscle disorder and genetically inherited as an X-linked disease that caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. DMD leads to progressive muscle weakness, degeneration, and wasting; finally, follows with the premature demise in affected individual's due to respiratory and/or cardiac failure typically by age of 30. For decades, scientists tried massively to find an effective therapy method, but there is no absolute cure currently for patients with DMD, nevertheless, recent advanced progressions on the treatment of DMD will be hopeful in the future...
January 19, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350418/species-differences-in-circulation-and-inflammatory-responses-in-children-with-common-respiratory-adenovirus-infections
#5
Haruna Nakamura, Takao Fujisawa, Shigeru Suga, Kiyosu Taniguchi, Mizuho Nagao, Masahiro Ito, Hitoshi Ochiai, Masami Konagaya, Nozomu Hanaoka, Tsuguto Fujimoto
BACKGROUND: Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) cause severe inflammatory respiratory infections, but previous epidemiological studies lacked analysis of the characteristics of the inflammation. METHODS: Consecutive patients <13 years old with acute febrile illness during a 2-year period were tested. HAdV strains were isolated from nasopharyngeal swabs, and molecular identification was performed by hexon, fiber and species-specific PCR methods. Blood inflammatory markers, including the white blood cell (WBC) count, CRP and 29 cytokines, were measured...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346238/trends-in-severe-pediatric-emergency-conditions-in-a-national-cohort-2008-to-2014
#6
Kenneth A Michelson, Joel D Hudgins, Laura G Burke, Todd W Lyons, Michael C Monuteaux, Richard G Bachur, Jonathan A Finkelstein
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and recent trends in serious pediatric emergency conditions. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample from 2008 through 2014, and included patients with age below 18 years with a serious condition, defined as each diagnosis group in the diagnosis grouping system with a severity classification system score of 5. We calculated national incidences for each serious condition using annualized weighted condition counts divided by annual United States census child population counts...
January 16, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346225/validating-lung-models-using-the-asl-5000-breathing-simulator
#7
Amanda Dexter, Neil McNinch, Destiny Kaznoch, Teresa A Volsko
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to validate pediatric models with normal and altered pulmonary mechanics. METHODS: PubMed and CINAHL databases were searched for studies directly measuring pulmonary mechanics of healthy infants and children, infants with severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia and neuromuscular disease. The ASL 5000 was used to construct models using tidal volume (VT), inspiratory time (TI), respiratory rate, resistance, compliance, and esophageal pressure gleaned from literature...
January 17, 2018: Simulation in Healthcare: Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343421/frequency-of-small-colony-variants-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#8
Nuntra Suwantarat, Mayer Rubin, Latetia Bryan, Tsigereda Tekle, Michael P Boyle, Karen C Carroll, Mark T Jennings
BACKGROUND: Small-colony variants (SCVs) are a distinct phenotype of Staphylococcus aureus, known for their role in chronic, difficult to treat infections, including cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. The goal of this study was to characterize SCV MRSA infection in an adult and pediatric CF population and to identify antibiotic susceptibility patterns unique to SCV MRSA. METHODS: We recovered methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) from respiratory culture samples from CF patients at the Johns Hopkins Hospital during a 6month study period...
December 2, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343232/intravenous-dexmedetomidine-pre-medication-reduces-the-required-minimum-alveolar-concentration-of-sevoflurane-for-smooth-tracheal-extubation-in-anesthetized-children-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#9
Meiqin Di, Zhuqing Yang, Dansi Qi, Hongyan Lai, Junzheng Wu, Huacheng Liu, Xuefei Ye, Wangning ShangGuan, Qingquan Lian, Jun Li
BACKGROUND: It has been known that Dexmedetomidine pre-medication enhances the effects of volatile anesthetics, reduces the need of sevoflurane, and facilitates smooth extubation in anesthetized children. This present study was designed to determine the effects of different doses of intravenous dexmedetomidine pre-medication on minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane for smooth tracheal extubation (MACEX) in anesthetized children. METHODS: A total of seventy-five pediatric patients, aged 3-7 years, ASA physical status I and II, and undergoing tonsillectomy were randomized to receive intravenous saline (Group D0), dexmedetomidine 1 μg∙kg-1 (Group D1), or dexmedetomidine 2 μg∙kg-1 (Group D2) approximately 10 min before anesthesia start...
January 17, 2018: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343170/accuracy-of-ultrasonographic-measurements-of-inferior-vena-cava-to-determine-fluid-responsiveness-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Daniele Orso, Irene Paoli, Tommaso Piani, Francesco L Cilenti, Lorenzo Cristiani, Nicola Guglielmo
OBJECTIVE: Fluid responsiveness is the ability to increase the cardiac output in response to a fluid challenge. Only about 50% of patients receiving fluid resuscitation for acute circulatory failure increase their stroke volume, but the other 50% may worsen their outcome. Therefore, predicting fluid responsiveness is needed. In this purpose, in recent years, the assessment of the inferior vena cava (IVC) through ultrasound (US) has become very popular. The aim of our work was to systematically review all the previously published studies assessing the accuracy of the diameter of IVC or its respiratory variations measured through US in predicting fluid responsiveness...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342464/risk-factors-for-intraoperative-hypocapnia-in-pediatric-neurosurgical-patients-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#11
In-Kyung Song, Soolyoen Choi, Seohee Lee, Eun-Hee Kim, Ji-Hyun Lee, Hee-Soo Kim, Jin-Tae Kim
BACKGROUND: Hypocapnia has been associated with an increased risk and adverse outcomes in the injured brain. This study aimed to identify risk factors of intraoperative hypocapnia in pediatric neurosurgical patients when tidal volumes and respiratory rates were determined based on their weight and age, respectively. METHODS: Electronic medical records of pediatric patients (≤18 years) who underwent neurosurgery from December 2014 to January 2016 were retrospectively reviewed...
January 18, 2018: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341504/a-multi-institutional-analysis-of-children-on-long-term-non-invasive-respiratory-support-and-their-outcomes
#12
Monica L Koncicki, Philip Zachariah, Adam R Lucas, Jeffrey D Edwards
OBJECTIVES: To characterize a multi-institutional cohort of children with chronic respiratory failure that use long-term, non-invasive respiratory support, perform a time-to-event analysis of transitions to transtracheal ventilation and identify factors associated with earlier transition to transtracheal ventilation. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study of patients less than 21 years of age with diagnoses associated with chronic respiratory failure and discharged on non-invasive respiratory support was performed using data from the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) between 2007 and 2015...
January 17, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339536/length-of-stay-and-hospital-revisit-after-bacterial-tracheostomy-associated-respiratory-tract-infection-hospitalizations
#13
Christopher J Russell, Mary R Mamey, Joyce Y Koh, Sheree M Schrager, Michael N Neely, Susan Wu
OBJECTIVES: To identify factors associated with longer length of stay (LOS) and higher 30-day hospital revisit rates for children hospitalized with bacterial tracheostomy-associated respiratory tract infections (bTARTIs). METHODS: This was a multicenter, retrospective cohort study using administrative data from the Pediatric Health Information System database between 2007 and 2014 of patients 30 days to 17 years old with a principal discharge diagnosis of bTARTI or a principal discharge diagnosis of bTARTI symptoms with a secondary diagnosis of bTARTI...
January 16, 2018: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339125/prevalence-and-outcomes-of-primary-immunodeficiency-in-hospitalized-children-in-the-united-states
#14
Zachary Rubin, Andrea Pappalardo, Alan Schwartz, James W Antoon
BACKGROUND: Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDDs) are rare yet life-threatening chronic conditions in children. The prevalence and outcomes of PIDDs in the pediatric population in the United States are not well understood. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the epidemiology of children hospitalized with PIDD in the United States and (2) characterize the clinical outcomes of hospitalized children with PIDDs. METHODS: Retrospective cohort analysis of the 2003-2012 Kids' Inpatient Database of children aged 2-18 years admitted with a primary or secondary diagnosis code of PIDD was performed...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338964/validation-of-the-children-s-sleep-habits-questionnaire-in-a-sample-of-greek-children-with-allergic-rhinitis
#15
A Mavroudi, E-A Chrysochoou, R J Boyle, G Trypsianis, I Xinias, D Cassimos, G Imvrios, M Katotomichelakis, A Karagiannidou, N Karantaglis, G Kourentas, J O Warner
BACKGROUND: Obstructive respiratory disorders, such as allergic rhinitis and asthma may impair sleep quality. The aim of this study is to validate the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) for Greek children from 6 to 14 years of age. No validated tool has been developed so far to assess sleep disturbances in Greek school-aged children. METHODS: We examined the reliability and validity of the CSHQ in a sample of children with allergic rhinitis (AR) and a non-clinical population of parents of these children as a proxy measure of children's AR quality of life (QoL) as evaluated by the Pediatric Allergic Rhinitis Quality of Life (PedARQoL) questionnaire...
January 12, 2018: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338154/characteristics-etiology-and-treatment-of-pediatric-and-adult-anaphylaxis-in-iran
#16
Mohammad Nabavi, Mehrnoosh Lavavpour, Saba Arshi, Mohammad Hasan Bemanian, Hossein Esmaeilzadeh, Rasool Molatefi, Mahsa Rekabi, Javad Ahmadian, Narges Eslami, Sima Shokri, Kian Darabi, Gholam Reza Sedighi, Morteza Fallahpour
Despite the increasing prevalence of anaphylaxis, there is little information about the characteristics and practice of healthcare providers in treating anaphylaxis, so this study was conducted to record the characteristics and therapeutic approaches of anaphylaxis from May 2012 until April 2015, the data of all patients diagnosed with anaphylaxis in the Allergy department of three referral university hospitals in Tehran, Iran were recorded. Thereafter, the demographics, clinical features, triggers and therapeutic approach were evaluated...
December 2017: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337789/multicohort-analysis-of-whole-blood-gene-expression-data-does-not-form-a-robust-diagnostic-for-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#17
Timothy E Sweeney, Neal J Thomas, Judie A Howrylak, Hector R Wong, Angela J Rogers, Purvesh Khatri
OBJECTIVES: To identify a novel, generalizable diagnostic for acute respiratory distress syndrome using whole-blood gene expression arrays from multiple acute respiratory distress syndrome cohorts of varying etiologies. DATA SOURCES: We performed a systematic search for human whole-blood gene expression arrays of acute respiratory distress syndrome in National Institutes of Health Gene Expression Omnibus and ArrayExpress. We also included the Glue Grant gene expression cohorts...
February 2018: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336924/immunization-of-preterm-infants-with-gsk-s-hexavalent-combined-diphtheria-tetanus-acellular-pertussis-hepatitis-b-inactivated-poliovirus-haemophilus-influenzae-type-b-conjugate-vaccine-a-review-of-safety-and-immunogenicity
#18
Felix Omeñaca, Liliana Vázquez, Pilar Garcia-Corbeira, Narcisa Mesaros, Linda Hanssens, Jan Dolhain, Ivonne Puente Gómez, Johannes Liese, Markus Knuf
BACKGROUND: Infants with history of prematurity (<37 weeks gestation) and low birth weight (LBW, <2500 g) are at high risk of infection due to functional immaturity of normal physical and immunological defense mechanisms. Despite current recommendations that infants with history of prematurity/LBW should receive routine immunization according to the same schedule and chronological age as full-term infants, immunization is often delayed. METHODS: Here we summarize 10 clinical studies and 15 years of post-marketing safety surveillance of GSK's hexavalent vaccine (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib), a combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular-pertussis-hepatitis-B-inactivated-poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae-type-b (Hib) conjugate vaccine, when administered alone, or co-administered with pneumococcal conjugate, rotavirus, and meningococcal vaccines and respiratory syncytial virus IgG to infants with history of prematurity/LBW in clinical trials...
January 11, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334446/pediatric-community-acquired-pneumonia
#19
Stephanie Posten, Jennifer Reed
Pediatric community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is frequently encountered by medical providers and is one of the most common reasons for hospital admission. CAP is known to cause significant morbidity and mortality, causing greater than 2 million deaths annually worldwide in children younger than five years old. The Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) released guidelines in 2011 with recommendations regarding appropriate diagnosis and management of community acquired pneumonia for children greater than 3 months age, with the goal of assisting providers in clinical decision making...
December 2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333826/vitamin-d-deficiency-in-pediatric-clinical-practice
#20
Gustavo Cediel, Johanna Pacheco-Acosta, Carlos CastiUo-Durdn
INTRODUCTION: Vitamin D research suggests it has a role in disorders other than bone metabolism. OBJECTIVE: To update the information on vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in pediatric clinical disorders. METHODS: Search in virtual libraries, giving priority to clinical and longitudinal studies and meta-analyses on VDD in the pediatric age group published in the past 20 years. The terms "vitamin D deficiency", "children and adolescents" (both in Spanish and English) were used as search descriptors...
February 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
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