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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545900/environmental-contamination-with-toxocara-spp-eggs-in-public-parks-and-playground-sandpits-of-greater-lisbon-portugal
#1
David Otero, Ana Margarida Alho, Rolf Nijsse, Jeroen Roelfsema, Paul Overgaauw, Luís Madeira de Carvalho
Toxocarosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease transmitted from companion animals to humans. Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs is considered to be the main source of human infections. In Portugal, knowledge regarding the current situation, including density, distribution and environmental contamination by Toxocara spp., is largely unknown. The present study investigated environmental contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs, in soil and faecal samples collected from public parks and playground sandpits in Greater Lisbon, Portugal...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545561/sources-of-variability-in-the-measurement-of-ascaris-lumbricoides-infection-intensity-by-kato-katz-and-qpcr
#2
Alice V Easton, Rita G Oliveira, Martin Walker, Elise M O'Connell, Sammy M Njenga, Charles S Mwandawiro, Joanne P Webster, Thomas B Nutman, Roy M Anderson
BACKGROUND: Understanding and quantifying the sources and implications of error in the measurement of helminth egg intensity using Kato-Katz (KK) and the newly emerging "gold standard" quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) technique is necessary for the appropriate design of epidemiological studies, including impact assessments for deworming programs. METHODS: Repeated measurements of Ascaris lumbricoides infection intensity were made from samples collected in western Kenya using the qPCR and KK techniques...
May 25, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545533/food-beliefs-and-practices-among-the-kalenjin-pregnant-women-in-rural-uasin-gishu-county-kenya
#3
Roselyter Monchari Riang'a, Jacqueline Broerse, Anne Kisaka Nangulu
BACKGROUND: Understanding food beliefs and practices is critical to the development of dietary recommendations, nutritional programmes, and educational messages. This study aimed to understand the pregnancy food beliefs and practices and the underlying reasons for these among the contemporary rural Kalenjin communities of Uasin Gishu County, Kenya. METHODS: Through semi-structured interviews, data was collected from 154 pregnant and post-natal Kalenjin women about restricted and recommended foods, and why they are restricted or recommended during pregnancy...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541540/reproductive-status-of-drosophila-suzukii-diptera-drosophilidae-females-influences-attraction-to-fermentation-based-baits-and-ripe-fruits
#4
Katharine A Swoboda-Bhattarai, Douglas R McPhie, Hannah J Burrack
Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) is an invasive species that is a devastating pest of soft-skinned fruit crops. Although much effort has been directed toward developing traps and attractants to monitor for D. suzukii, current monitoring tools do not reliably predict fruit infestation. The objective of this study was to determine if D. suzukii females at different developmental stages are differentially attracted to monitoring traps with fermentation-based baits and ripe fruits. Females were collected on the surface of traps, within traps, and on ripe fruits during three experiments at field locations in North Carolina, USA, and were dissected to determine their reproductive status...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539518/spatial-patterns-of-anchoveta-engraulis-ringens-eggs-and-larvae-in-relation-to-pco2-in-the-peruvian-upwelling-system
#5
Sara G Shen, Andrew R Thompson, Jonathan Correa, Peer Fietzek, Patricia Ayón, David M Checkley
Large and productive fisheries occur in regions experiencing or projected to experience ocean acidification. Anchoveta (Engraulis ringens) constitute the world's largest single-species fishery and live in one of the ocean's highest pCO2 regions. We investigated the relationship of the distribution and abundance of Anchoveta eggs and larvae to natural gradients in pCO2 in the Peruvian upwelling system. Eggs and larvae, zooplankton, and data on temperature, salinity, chlorophyll a and pCO2 were collected during a cruise off Peru in 2013...
May 31, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537782/a-field-study-on-the-anthelmintic-resistance-of-parascaris-spp-in-arab-foals-in-riyadh-region-saudi-arabia
#6
Abdullah D Alanazi, Rami M Mukbel, Mohamed S Alyousif, Zafer S Al Shehri, Ibrahim O Alanazi, Hamdan I Al-Mohammed
BACKGROUND: In the last decade, Parascaris spp. resistance to anthelmintics has been recorded in many countries. In Saudi Arabia, there are limited data available on Parascaris spp. resistance to anthelmintics. OBJECTIVE: To determine the current status of ivermectin, abamectin and praziquantel combined, and fenbendazole resistance to Parascaris spp. in horses in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: Three hundred and forty one foals from eleven different farms were examined by faecal egg count (FEC)...
May 24, 2017: Veterinary Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536880/seasonal-variation-of-strongylosis-in-working-donkeys-of-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-studies
#7
Motuma Debelo Dibaba, A M Getachew, Zerihun Assefa, Alemayehu Fanta, Manyahilishal Etana, Seyoum Firew, Lemessa Goshu, F Burden
Helminths are one of the major health problems of working donkeys, often with heavy worm burden and contributing to their early demise and/or reduction in their work output. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies were conducted to investigate the current infection prevalence and level of strongyles infection donkeys would acquire through different seasons in the mid-lowland agro-ecological zones of Ethiopia. For this purpose, faecal samples from 206 (cross-sectional study) and 102 (longitudinal study) randomly selected donkeys were directly collected from the rectum and analysed...
May 24, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535838/are-sainfoin-or-protein-supplements-alternatives-to-control-small-strongyle-infection-in-horses
#8
C Collas, G Sallé, B Dumont, J Cabaret, J Cortet, W Martin-Rosset, L Wimel, G Fleurance
The spread of anthelmintic resistance in equine strongyle nematodes has become a major problem, advocating for the development of alternative control for strongyles. Our study consisted of both in vivo and in vitro experiments. We investigate for the first time the efficacy of a short-term consumption of tannin-rich sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) or extra proteins in naturally infected horses. We used 30 horses allocated into three groups of 10 individuals that received for 18 days either (i) a tannin-rich diet with 70% DM sainfoin pellets (Sd), (ii) a protein-rich diet with 52% DM Italian rye-grass pellets and 18% DM grinded linseed expeller (Pd), or (iii) a control diet with 45% DM barley and 25% DM cereal-based pellets (Cd)...
May 24, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532835/effect-of-cholesterol-loaded-cyclodextrin-supplementation-on-tyrosine-phosphorylation-and-apoptosis-like-changes-in-frozen-thawed-hariana-bull-spermatozoa
#9
Hanuman P Yadav, Anuj Kumar, Nadeem Shah, Dharmendra S Chauhan, Atul Saxena, Sarvajeet Yadav, Dilip Kumar Swain
The beneficial effects of cholesterol loaded cyclodextrin (CLC) addition were evaluated in cryopreserved bull semen. Forty ejaculates were collected from Hariana bulls (n = 4), pooled and divided into 4 aliquots. All the aliquots were initially diluted in to egg yolk tris citrate and supplemented with CLC @ 0.5 mg (Group-II), 1.0 mg (G-III) and 2.0 mg (G-IV) CLC/120 × 10(6) spermatozoa or without CLC (G-I) that served as control. Extended semen was cryopreserved at -196 °C for 24 h. Seminal attributes like motility, viability, cryocapacitation like changes, tyrosine phosphorylation, apoptosis like changes in terms of mitochondrial transmembrane potential and DNA integrity were evaluated after equilibration and thawing...
July 1, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532413/dietary-habits-oral-impact-on-daily-performance-and-type-2-diabetes-a-matched-case-control-study-from-sudan
#10
Hasaan G Mohamed, Kamal Mustafa, Salah O Ibrahim, Anne N Åstrøm
BACKGROUND: It is evident that social and behavioural factors influence on individuals' general health and quality of life. Nevertheless, information about the influence of dietary habits on oral health-related quality of life is limited; especially among patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). The aim of this study was to examine the influence of dietary habits and clinical oral health indicators on oral health-related quality of life in individuals with and without T2D. METHODS: A total of 149 T2D cases and 298 controls were recruited for this age and gender matched case-control study...
May 22, 2017: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532295/resistance-to-a-triple-combination-anthelmintic-in-trichostrongylus-spp-on-a-commercial-sheep-farm-in-new-zealand
#11
Bas Hodgson, C J Mulvaney
AIM: To evaluate anthelmintic resistance to anthelmintics containing abamectin, levamisole, and oxfendazole (AB-LEV-OX), derquantal and abamectin (DEQ-AB), moxidectin, and monepantel in naturally acquired gastrointestinal nematodes present on a sheep farm. METHODS: A faecal nematode egg count reduction test (FECRT) was carried out on lambs that were approximately 7 months-old and infected with naturally acquired nematodes. Lambs were randomly allocated to one of five groups (n=15 per group): treatment with 2 mg/kg derquantel and 0...
May 22, 2017: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528816/vertical-transmission-of-microcystins-to-nile-crocodile-crocodylus-niloticus-eggs
#12
Alukhethi Singo, Jan G Myburgh, Peter N Laver, Elizabeth A Venter, Gezina C H Ferreira, Gertruida M Rösemann, Christo J Botha
Cyanobacteria or blue green algae are known for their extensive and highly visible blooms in eutrophic, stagnant freshwater bodies. Climate change and global warming have also contributed to a rise in toxic cyanobacterial blooms. One of the most important cyanobacteria is Microcystis aeruginosa, which can synthesize various microcystins that can affect the health of terrestrial and aquatic animals. Commercial Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) farming in South Africa is based on keeping breeders (adult males and females) in big dams on farms (captive-bred approach)...
May 18, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528261/perfluoroalkylated-acids-in-the-eggs-of-great-tits-parus-major-near-a-fluorochemical-plant-in-flanders-belgium
#13
Thimo Groffen, Ana Lopez-Antia, Wendy D'Hollander, Els Prinsen, Marcel Eens, Lieven Bervoets
Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are highly persistent substances which have been detected in wildlife around the world, including birds. Although bird eggs have often been used to determine and monitor PFAAs levels in the marine environment, this has rarely been done in the terrestrial environment. In the present study we examined the concentrations and composition profile of 12 PFAAs (4 perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs) and 8 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) in the eggs of great tits (Parus major) collected at a fluorochemical plant and in three other areas, representing a gradient in distance from the pollution source (from 1 to 70 km), in Antwerp, Belgium...
May 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526990/how-does-supplementary-feeding-affect-endoparasite-infection-in-wild-boar
#14
Ragne Oja, Kaisa Velström, Epp Moks, Pikka Jokelainen, Brian Lassen
Supplementary feeding is widely used in game management but may aid the transmission of parasites. Firstly, feeding sites attract animals and may be regarded as high-risk areas for parasite transmission. Secondly, high host population densities resulting from and supported by supplementary feeding, as well as accumulation of parasites in the environment, may increase parasite prevalence. Our aim was to investigate whether host density or the number of feeding sites drives endoparasite infection in an Estonian wild boar (Sus scrofa) population...
May 19, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526066/transovarial-transmission-of-denv-in-aedes-aegypti-in-the-amazon-basin-a-local-model-of-xenomonitoring
#15
Cristiano Fernandes da Costa, Ricardo Augusto Dos Passos, José Bento Pereira Lima, Rosemary Aparecida Roque, Vanderson de Souza Sampaio, Thais Bonifácio Campolina, Nágila Francinete Costa Secundino, Paulo Filemon Paolucci Pimenta
BACKGROUND: Transovarial transmission of dengue virus in Aedes spp. mosquitoes is considered an important mechanism for the maintenance of the virus in nature and may be implicated in the occurrence of outbreaks and epidemics of the disease. However, there are few studies involving transovarial transmission and viral vector monitoring as a surveillance tool and control strategy. The present study evaluated transovarial transmission of dengue virus in Aedes aegypti populations as a xenomonitoring strategy in municipalities of the Amazonas state...
May 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526064/seasonal-variation-in-the-prevalence-of-toxocara-eggs-on-children-s-playgrounds-in-the-city-of-hanover-germany
#16
Annika Kleine, Andrea Springer, Christina Strube
BACKGROUND: Roundworms of the genus Toxocara are worldwide distributed zoonotic parasites of carnivores. Based on case numbers and the potential impact on human health, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) categorised toxocarosis as one of the most important neglected parasitic diseases. As contact with contaminated soil, e.g. in sandpits, is considered the primary transmission route, data on playground contamination are needed to assess infection risk for children. Here, playground contamination rates and their seasonal variation in the city of Hanover, Germany, were investigated...
May 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525618/establishing-expanding-and-certifying-a-closed-colony-of-phlebotomus-argentipes-diptera-psychodidae-for-xenodiagnostic-studies-at-the-kala-azar-medical-research-center-muzaffarpur-bihar-india
#17
Puja Tiwary, Shakti Kumar Singh, Anurag Kumar Kushwaha, Edgar Rowton, David Sacks, Om Prakash Singh, Shyam Sundar, Phillip Lawyer
This pilot project was preliminary and essential to a larger effort to define the ability of certain human-subject groups across the infection spectrum to serve as reservoirs of Leishmania donovani infection to sand flies in areas of anthroponotic transmission such as in Bihar state, India. This is possible only via xenodiagnosis of well-defined subject groups using live vector sand flies. The objective was to establish at the Kala Azar Medical Research Center (KAMRC), Muzaffarpur, Bihar, India, a self-sustaining colony of Phlebotomus argentipes (Annandale & Brunneti), closed to infusion with wild-caught material and certified safe for human xenodiagnosis...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521744/determination-of-the-sources-and-antimicrobial-resistance-patterns-of-salmonella-isolated-from-the-poultry-industry-in-southern-ethiopia
#18
Reta Duguma Abdi, Fisseha Mengstie, Ashenafi Feyisa Beyi, Takele Beyene, Hika Waktole, Bedasso Mammo, Dinka Ayana, Fufa Abunna
BACKGROUND: Ethiopia set an ambitious masterplan to increase chicken meat and egg production from 2015 to 2020. Poultry breeding, multiplication and distribution centers in the country have received executive order to import, amplify and distribute commercial chickens to end users. The biosecurity and the pathogen fauna of the centers have not been evaluated as to whether the centers could implement the mission effectively without any risk. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the biosecurity practices and the pathogen prevalence, risk factors and their antimicrobial resistance (AMR) using Salmonella as case study...
May 18, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521317/mechanisms-of-tolerance-induction
#19
Anna Nowak-Węgrzyn, Pantipa Chatchatee
Food allergy results from failure in oral tolerance that usually occurs in infancy or early childhood. Exposure to peanut and hen's egg via the inflamed and disrupted epithelial barrier in children with severe atopic dermatitis is a risk factor for the development of allergy to these foods and supports the hypothesis that epicutaneous exposure in the absence of oral feeding is an important pathway of allergic IgE sensitization in infants. In recent years, the collective evidence has pointed toward the protective effect of an early feeding with peanut and egg in children with eczema, taking advantage of the pathways underlying oral tolerance to counteract epicutaneous exposure...
2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511862/effect-of-different-concentrations-of-egg-yolk-and-virgin-coconut-oil-in-tris-based-extenders-on-chilled-and-frozen-thawed-bull-semen
#20
A A Tarig, H Wahid, Y Rosnina, N Yimer, Y M Goh, F H Baiee, A M Khumran, H Salman, M Ebrahimi
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 8% virgin coconut oil (VCO) combined with different percentages of egg yolk in Tris extender on the quality of chilled and frozen-thawed bull semen. A total of 24 ejaculates from four bulls were collected using an electroejaculator. Semen samples were diluted with 8% VCO in Tris extender which contained different concentrations 0% (control), 4%, 8%, 12%, 16% and 20% egg yolk. The diluted semen samples were divided into two fractions: one was chilled and stored at 4°C until evaluation after 24, 72, and 144h; the second fraction was processed by chilling for 3h at 4°C to equilibrate, then packaged in 0...
April 10, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
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