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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645370/xenopus-laevis-as-model-system-to-study-dna-damage-response-and-replication-fork-stability
#1
Vincenzo Sannino, Federica Pezzimenti, Stefania Bertora, Vincenzo Costanzo
Although many players of the DNA damage response and DNA repair have been identified in several systems their biochemical role is still poorly understood. The use of the Xenopus laevis egg extract cell-free system allowed biochemical dissection of DNA replication and cell cycle events in a complex biological context. The possibility of manipulating the protein content by using protein depletion procedures makes egg extract a powerful system to study proteins whose inactivation results in cellular lethality...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644715/biological-responses-of-the-american-coot-fulica-americana-in-wetlands-with-contrasting-environmental-conditions-basin-of-m%C3%A3-xico
#2
María Eugenia López-Islas, Itzel Ibarra-Meza, Esperanza Ortiz-Ordóñez, Liliana Favari, J Elías Sedeño-Díaz, Eugenia López-López
Wetland ecosystems are subject to severe impacts (physical and chemical) and to the input of various xenobiotics that provoke toxicological consequences. Waterbirds are potential sentinel species of these environments. To analyze how habitat conditions affect the health of Fulica americana, early-warning biomarkers, histopathology, somatic indices, and water quality were examined in two wetlands of the Basin of Mexico: Xochimilco, an urban wetland highly eutrophic with a mixture of pollutants, and Tecocomulco (the reference site), a rural wetland with hunting migratory birds in winter, and with some agricultural contaminants...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643254/gene-targeting-in-rabbits-single-step-generation-of-knock-out-rabbits-by-microinjection-of-crispr-cas9-plasmids
#3
Yoshihiro Kawano, Arata Honda
The development of genome editing technology has allowed gene disruptions to be achieved in various animal species and has been beneficial to many mammals. Gene disruption using pluripotent stem cells is difficult to achieve in rabbits, but thanks to advances in genome editing technology, a number of gene disruptions have been conducted. This paper describes a simple and easy method for carrying out gene disruptions in rabbits using CRISPR/Cas9 in which the gene to be disrupted is marked, the presence or absence of off-target candidates is checked, and a plasmid allowing simultaneous expression of Cas9 and sgRNA is constructed...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643143/egg-parasitoid-complex-of-the-corn-leafhopper-dalbulus-maidis-delong-hemiptera-cicadellidae-in-argentina
#4
E Luft Albarracin, S V Triapitsyn, E G Virla
The corn leafhopper, Dalbulus maidis (DeLong), is the most important leafhopper pest of maize, Zea mays, in the Americas. A survey of the diversity of its egg parasitoids was carried out in northwestern Argentina. During summer from 2004 to 2007, the samples were collected, using sentinel eggs of D. maidis on corn leaves, exposed in 48 cornfields. Sixteen species belonging to four families of Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera) were identified. Among the parasitoid groups, Trichogrammatidae was the most represented family with eight species, followed by Mymaridae with six species...
June 22, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632934/a-prospective-microbiome-wide-association-study-of-food-sensitization-and-food-allergy-in-early-childhood
#5
Jessica H Savage, Kathleen A Lee-Sarwar, Joanne Sordillo, Supinda Bunyavanich, Yanjiao Zhou, George O'Connor, Megan Sandel, Leonard Bacharier, Robert Zeiger, Erica Sodergren, George M Weinstock, Diane R Gold, Scott T Weiss, Augusto A Litonjua
BACKGROUND: Alterations in the intestinal microbiome are prospectively associated with the development of asthma; less is known regarding the role of microbiome alterations in food allergy development. METHODS: Intestinal microbiome samples were collected at age 3-6 months in children participating in the follow-up phase of an interventional trial of high dose Vitamin D given during pregnancy. At age 3, sensitization to foods (milk, egg, peanut, soy, wheat, walnut) was assessed...
June 20, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631833/tools-to-minimize-inter-laboratory-variability-in-vitellogenin-gene-expression-monitoring-programs
#6
Aaron Jastrow, Denise A Gordon, Kasie M Auger, Elizabeth C Punska, Kathleen F Arcaro, Kristen Keteles, Dana Winkelman, David Lattier, Adam Biales, James M Lazorchak
The egg yolk precursor protein vitellogenin is widely used as a biomarker of estrogen exposure in male fish. However, standardized methodology is lacking and little is known regarding the reproducibility of results among laboratories using different equipment, reagents, protocols, and employing different data analysis programs. To address this data gap we tested the reproducibility across labs to evaluate vitellogenin gene (vtg) expression and assessed the value of using a freely available software data analysis program...
June 20, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628614/lamphimerus-a-novel-lamp-assay-for-detecting-amphimerus-sp-dna-in-human-stool-samples
#7
William Cevallos, Pedro Fernández-Soto, Manuel Calvopiña, Cristina Fontecha-Cuenca, Hiromu Sugiyama, Megumi Sato, Julio López Abán, Belén Vicente, Antonio Muro
BACKGROUND: Amphimeriasis is a fish-borne disease caused by the liver fluke Amphimerus spp. that has recently been reported as endemic in the tropical Pacific side of Ecuador with a high prevalence in humans and domestic animals. The diagnosis is based on the stool examination to identify parasite eggs, but it lacks sensitivity. Additionally, the morphology of the eggs may be confounded with other liver and intestinal flukes. No immunological or molecular methods have been developed to date...
June 19, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624461/emetine-inhibits-replication-of-rna-and-dna-viruses-without-generating-drug-resistant-virus-variants
#8
Nitin Khandelwal, Yogesh Chander, Thachamvally Riyesh, Krishan Dutt Rawat, Pratibha Saini, Chikkahonnaiah Nishanth, Shalini Sharma, Naresh Jindal, Bhupendra N Tripathi, Sanjay Barua, Naveen Kumar
At a noncytotoxic concentration, emetine was found to inhibit replication of DNA viruses [buffalopoxvirus (BPXV) and bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1)] as well as RNA viruses [peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV)]. Using the time-of-addition and virus step-specific assays, we showed that emetine treatment resulted in reduced synthesis of viral RNA (PPRV and NDV) and DNA (BPXV and BHV-1) as well as inhibiting viral entry (NDV and BHV-1). In addition, emetine treatment also resulted in decreased synthesis of viral proteins...
June 14, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619282/the-first-cub-domain-containing-serine-protease-from-chlamys-farreri-which-might-be-involved-in-larval-development-and-immune-response
#9
Chuanyan Yang, Leilei Wang, Huan Zhang, Qilin Yi, Lingling Wang, Hao Wang, Linsheng Song
Serine proteases (SPs) are one of the most well understood enzyme families, which play an important role in regulating many physiological events. In the present study, one CUB-domain containing serine protease was identified from Chlamys farreri (designated as CfCUBSP). The full-length cDNA of CfCUBSP was of 3181 bp with an open reading frame of 2688 bp encoding a polypeptide of 896 amino acids. CfCUBSP shared closer phylogenetic relationship with those multi-domain SPs which consisted of one SP domain, and different numbers of CUB domain and LDLa domain than other SPs...
June 13, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616480/culex-pipiens-and-culex-torrentium-populations-from-central-europe-are-susceptible-to-west-nile-virus-infection
#10
Mayke Leggewie, Marlis Badusche, Martin Rudolf, Stephanie Jansen, Jessica Börstler, Ralf Krumkamp, Katrin Huber, Andreas Krüger, Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit, Egbert Tannich, Stefanie C Becker
West Nile virus (WNV), a Flavivirus with an avian primary host, is already widespread in Europe and might also pose an infection risk to Germany, should competent mosquito vectors be present. Therefore, we analysed the ability of WNV to infect German Culex mosquitoes with special emphasis on field collected specimens of Culex torrentium and Culex pipiens biotype pipiens. We collected egg rafts of Culex mosquitoes over two subsequent seasons at two geographically distinct sampling areas in Germany and differentiated the samples by molecular methods...
December 2016: One Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615874/cyathostomum-catinatum-infection-in-a-mule-of-palam-valley-india-a-case-report
#11
Aman D Moudgil, Adarsh Prashar, Pallavi Moudgil, Ankur Sharma, Manoj Sharma
The small strongyles also called as cyathostomes, cyathostomins or trichonemes, affect the health status of equines, leading to morbidity and mortality in heavily infested individuals. The present study was carried out with the aim to identify the cause of colic in a mule of Palam valley, Himachal Pradesh, India. The detailed faecal sample examination revealed heavy intensity of strongyle eggs with an egg per gram value of 2300. The collected faecal sample also exhibited presence of adult worms. The morphological observations after clearing the retrieved parasites revealed the presence of adults of Cyathostomum catinatum species...
June 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615861/in-vitro-ovicidal-activity-of-peganum-harmala-seeds-extract-on-the-eggs-of-fasciola-hepatica
#12
Mohammad Moazeni, Zahra Sadat Saadaty Ardakani, Mohammad Jamal Saharkhiz, Jafar Jalaei, Ali Asghar Khademolhoseini, Shahab Shams Esfand Abad, Amir Mootabi Alavi
Peganum harmala seeds extract has been previously reported to have antimicrobial and other medicinal properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ovicidal activity of the methanolic extract of P. harmala seeds against the eggs of F. hepatica. The phenolic compounds of the methanolic extract of P. harmala seeds were identified by HPLC analysis. Catechin, rutin, p-Coumaric acid, chloregenic acid and hesperetin were found to be the major phenolic compounds. F. hepatica eggs were collected from the gall bladder of naturally infected sheep...
June 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615845/efficacy-of-ivermectin-closantel-and-fenbendazole-against-gastrointestinal-nematodes-of-sheep-in-kashmir-valley
#13
S R Tramboo, R A Shahardar, I M Allaie, Z A Wani, Maria Abbas
The present work was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of ivermectin, closantel and fenbendazole under field conditions against Gastrointestinal Nematodes (GIN) of cross bred merino sheep in Budgam area of Kashmir Valley. A total of 115 sheep having Egg per gram of faeces (EPG) greater than or equal to 150 (mean EPG 258.89) were selected. The animals were randomly divided into four groups comprising of 30 animals each in three treatment groups (ivermectin, closantel and fenbendazole) and twenty-five in fourth untreated infected control group...
June 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614727/micronutrient-consumption-by-female-argiope-bruennichi-affects-offspring-survival
#14
Shawn M Wilder, Jutta M Schneider
Sexual cannibalism has long been hypothesized to be a foraging decision in which females consume males for the nutrients in their bodies. While few studies have documented fecundity benefits of sexual cannibalism, several recent studies have documented benefits of cannibalism to egg hatching success or offspring survival. We tested if small supplements of dietary essential nutrients fed to female spiders, Argiope bruennichi, would result in increases in offspring survival similar to those seen following sexual cannibalism...
June 11, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610222/-i-anagrus-i-i-nedotepae-i-sp-n-hymenoptera-mymaridae-an-egg-parasitoid-of-i-nedotepa-curta-i-hemiptera-cicadellidae-a-pest-of-coconut-palm-in-west-africa
#15
Serguei V Triapitsyn, K Eric Kwadjo, Yaima Arocha Rosete
A new Afrotropical species of Anagrus Haliday (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), A. nedotepae Triapitsyn sp. n., is described and illustrated. The type series was reared from parasitized eggs of the leafhopper Nedotepa curta Dmitriev (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) during a survey for its natural enemies in Côte d'Ivoire. This peculiar leafhopper, recently described from Ghana (Dmitriev 2016), lays its eggs on leaflets of coconut palm, and could be an economically important pest of this crop in West Africa, particularly because it is a suspected vector of the phytoplasma associated with the Côte d'Ivoire Lethal Yellowing disease of coconut, as characterized by Arocha-Rosete et al...
June 9, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610192/intraspecific-variation-in-adult-i-uvitellina-i-i-iraquensis-i-dronen-ali-amp-al-amura-2013-cyclocoelidae-haematotrephinae-from-two-collection-sites-of-white-tailed-lapwing-i-vanellus-i-i-leucurus-i-lichtenstein-charadriiformes-charadriidae-in-iraq
#16
Norman O Dronen, Nothiala R Al-Kassar, Atheer H Ali, Mohanad F Abdulhameed, Basim H Abdullah, Sabeeh H Al-Mayah
A total of 19 white-tailed lapwing, Vanellus leucurus, were collected from Huwazah Marsh, north-eastern Basrah Province, Iraq from February to March and in October, 2011 (collection site #1) and 60 V. leucurus were collected from Al-Hammar Marshes, Thi-Qar Province, southern Iraq from July to November, 2012 (collection site #2), and examined for cyclocoelids. Nineteen Uvitellina iraquensis Dronen, Ali & Al-Amura, 2013 from site #1 and 17 specimens from site #2 were fixed with minimal compression for comparisons of morphological characteristics, measurements, morphometric percentages and morphometric ratios commonly used to distinguish species of cyclocoelids...
March 9, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608420/reproductive-strategy-spawning-induction-spawning-temperatures-and-early-life-history-of-captive-sicklefin-chub-macrhybopsis-meeki
#17
J L Albers, M L Wildhaber
Macrhybopsis reproduction and propagule traits were studied in the laboratory using two temperature regimes and three hormone treatments to determine which methods produced the most spawns. Only sicklefin chub Macrhybopsis meeki spawned successfully although sturgeon chub Macrhybopsis gelida released unfertilized eggs. All temperature and hormone treatments produced M. meeki spawns, but two treatments had similar success rates at 44 and 43%, consisting of a constant daily temperature with no hormone added, or daily temperature fluctuations with hormone added to the water...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606855/variation-in-the-web-based-chemical-cues-of-argiope-keyserlingi
#18
Jessica Henneken, Jason Q D Goodger, Therèsa M Jones, Mark A Elgar
Pheromones are chemical compounds used to transmit information between individuals of the same species. Pheromone composition is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Numerous studies, predominately of insects, have demonstrated a role for diet in pheromone expression. The chemical composition of spider web-silk varies with diet and in many species these chemicals are crucial to mate choice processes. Here, we investigated individual variation in the chemical compounds found on the surface of web-silk of female Argiope keyserlingi, and further explored the degree to which they are influenced by diet, investment in egg sac production and site of collection...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606323/coprodiagnosis-of-echinococcus-granulosus-infection-in-dogs-from-ankara-turkey
#19
Hatice Öge, Semih Öge, Bahadır Gönenç, Oğuz Sarımehmetoğlu, Gökben Özbakış
The present study were undertaken to compare two isolation techniques (centrifugal flotation and sedimentation) for recovering taeniid eggs from faecal samples, to identify E. granulosus DNA from taeniid eggs by PCR, and to determine the prevalence of E. granulosus in dogs in villages. Faecal samples were collected from 100 dogs in Ankara province. Taenia spp. eggs were found in 27% of dogs faeces. Echinococcus granulosus-specific PCR was obtained in 14 (51.85%) of the taeniid eggs-positive samples. As well as finding Taenia eggs in dogs' faeces, we also found eggs of some helminthic parasites; such as Dipylidium caninum, Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Trichuris sp...
August 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605850/offspring-hg-exposure-relates-to-parental-feeding-strategies-in-a-generalist-bird-with-strong-individual-foraging-specialization
#20
Cátia S A Santos, Léa Blondel, Alejandro Sotillo, Wendt Müller, Eric W M Stienen, Pascal Boeckx, Amadeu M V M Soares, Marta S Monteiro, Susana Loureiro, Liesbeth de Neve, Luc Lens
Generalist species can potentially exploit a wide variety of resources, but at the individual level they often show a certain degree of foraging specialization. Specific foraging strategies, however, may increase exposure to environmental contaminants that can alter the cost-benefit balance of consuming particular food items. The Lesser Black-backed Gull (Larus fuscus) is known to opportunistically feed on a wide range of marine and terrestrial prey that differ in contaminant load, such as mercury (Hg) that strongly biomagnifies through the aquatic food web...
June 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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