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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063192/soft-selective-sweeps-in-fungicide-resistance-adaptation-recurrent-mutations-without-fitness-costs-in-grapevine-downy-mildew
#1
Chloé E L Delmas, Yann Dussert, Laurent Delière, Carole Couture, Isabelle D Mazet, Sylvie Richart Cervera, François Delmotte
Adaptation produces hard or soft selective sweeps depending on the supply of adaptive genetic polymorphism. The evolution of pesticide resistance in parasites is a striking example of rapid adaptation that can shed light on selection processes. Plasmopara viticola, which causes grapevine downy mildew, forms large populations, in which resistance has rapidly evolved due to excessive fungicide use. We investigated the pathways by which fungicide resistance has evolved in this plant pathogen, to determine whether hard or soft selective sweeps were involved...
January 7, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040419/a-novel-treatment-strategy-for-newly-diagnosed-high-grade-t1-bladder-cancer-gemcitabine-and-cisplatin-adjuvant-chemotherapy-a-single-institution-experience
#2
Guo-Liang Yang, Lian-Hua Zhang, Qiang Liu, Zhao-Liang Wang, Xue-Hui Duan, Yi-Ran Huang, Juan-Jie Bo
BACKGROUND: Management of high-grade T1 (formerly T1G3) bladder cancer continues to be controversial. Should patients with T1G3 bladder cancer have an immediate radical cystectomy or should they receive intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin-preserving bladder? Gemcitabine and cisplatin (GC) adjuvant chemotherapy may help to strike a balance between intravesical and early cystectomy. For purposes of this study, we continue to refer high-grade T1 lesion as "T1G3." OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the characteristics and the long-term outcome of GC adjuvant chemotherapy in T1G3 bladder cancer after transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT)...
February 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027584/il6-dependent-genomic-instability-heralds-accelerated-carcinogenesis-following-liver-regeneration-on-a-background-of-chronic-hepatitis
#3
Tali Lanton, Anat Shriki, Yael Nechemia-Arbely, Rinat Abramovitch, Orr Levkovitch, Revital Adar, Nofar Rosenberg, Mor Paldor, Daniel Goldenberg, Amir Sonnenblick, Amnon Peled, Stefan Rose-John, Eithan Galun, Jonathan H Axelrod
: Liver cancer, which typically develops on a background of chronic liver inflammation, is now the second leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. For these patients surgical resection is a principal treatment modality that offers a chance of prolonged survival. However, tumor recurrence after resection, the mechanisms of which remain obscure, markedly limits the long-term survival of these patients. We have previously shown that partial hepatectomy (PH) in Mdr2 knockout (Mdr2(-/-) ) mice, a model of chronic inflammation-associated liver cancer, significantly accelerates hepatocarcinogenesis...
December 27, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002528/redundant-plantar-skin-folds
#4
Laura Otilia Damian, Siao Pin Simon, Ioana Felea, Carolina Botar-Jid, Bogdan Stancu, Liliana Rogojan, Cristina Ana Maria Pamfil, Adriana Albu, Simona Rednic
A 46-year-old female patient presented with photosensitivity, symmetric arthritis, episodic plantar pain and strikingly redundant plantar skin folds, likely due to lipoatrophy after recurrent episodes of plantar panniculitis. In this context, leukopenia with lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia and positive antinuclear antibodies were revelatory for systemic lupus erythematosus. However, a small cerebriform plantar collagenoma, along with discrete dysmorphic features with downslanting palpebral fissures and mild right ptosis, second and third syndactyly and a larger first right toe since childhood, and early-onset bilateral ovarian cystadenoma, suggested a minimal Proteus syndrome...
2016: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999676/recurrent-pneumothorax-related-to-diffuse-dendriform-pulmonary-ossification-in-genetically-predisposed-individual
#5
Amy Po Yu Tsai, John C English, Darra Murphy, Don D Sin
Diffuse pulmonary ossification (DPO) is a rare disease with unknown pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and treatment options. This report describes the diagnosis of DPO in an otherwise healthy 26-year-old man with recurrent spontaneous pneumothorax. His father was diagnosed with a similar lung condition in his 30's with computed tomography (CT) images that were strikingly similar to those of the patient. This report suggests that DPO can induce spontaneous pneumothorax and its pathogenesis may have a possible genetic predisposition that needs further research...
March 2017: Respirology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978446/students-perceptions-of-their-learning-experiences-a-repeat-regional-survey-of-healthcare-students
#6
Claire Hamshire, Neil Barrett, Mark Langan, Edwin Harris, Christopher Wibberley
BACKGROUND: Student experience is an international concern and recent research has focused on initiatives to improve students' learning experiences and ultimately reduce attrition levels. OBJECTIVE: To determine similarities and differences between students' perceptions of their learning experiences between 2011 and 2015 in relation to campus-based learning, placement-based learning and personal circumstances. DESIGN: A repeat online survey in 2011 and 2015; using a questionnaire developed from thematic analysis of narrative interviews with a subsample of the target population...
February 2017: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965065/recurrent-themes-in-the-history-of-the-home-use-of-electrical-stimulation-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs-and-the-medical-battery-1870-1920
#7
REVIEW
Anna Wexler
BACKGROUND: In recent years, neuroscientists and ethicists have warned of the dangers of the unsupervised home use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), in which individuals stimulate their own brains with low levels of electricity for self-improvement purposes. Although the home use of tDCS is often referred to as a novel phenomenon, in reality the late nineteenth and early twentieth century saw a proliferation of electrical stimulation devices for home use. In particular, the use of an object known as the medical battery bears a number of striking similarities to the modern-day use of tDCS...
November 29, 2016: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938890/hybrid-nuss-procedure-for-pectus-excavatum-with-severe-retrosternal-adhesions-after-sternotomy
#8
Shuai Li, Dehua Yang, Yazhen Ma, Shao-Tao Tang, Li Yang, Shiwang Li, Guoqing Cao, Kang Li, Xi Zhang, Xingjian Hu
BACKGROUND: The most striking feature of pectus excavatum (PE) after previous congenital heart disease (CHD) surgery through a median sternotomy is the postsurgical adhesions between the sternum and heart. For patients with severe adhesions, passing the introducer can be difficult and hazardous when performing a Nuss repair. We describe a hybrid Nuss procedure using a small subxiphoid incision for blunt and sharp anterior mediastinal dissection and using a thoracoscope to ensure the whole process of dissection is under direct visualization...
December 6, 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907930/microrna-profiling-in-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma-tissues-potentially-links-tumorigenesis-and-recurrence-with-obesity
#9
X Shu, M A Hildebrandt, J Gu, N M Tannir, S F Matin, J A Karam, C G Wood, X Wu
BACKGROUND: Twenty to 40% localised RCC patients may experience recurrence after curative surgery. Limited miRNA predictors have been identified for ccRCC recurrence. METHODS: Through a multi-phase study design, we analysed miRNAs in tissues obtained from 203 ccRCC patients. Paired t-test was used for tumour-normal comparisons and Cox regression model was performed to compute hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% CIs. RESULTS: A 17-miRNA signature was identified that can concordantly classify >95% of tumour/adjacent normal samples...
January 3, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892764/stat3-mediated-smad3-activation-underlies-oncostatin-m-induced-senescence
#10
Benjamin L Bryson, Damian J Junk, Rocky Cipriano, Mark W Jackson
Cytokines in the developing tumor microenvironment (TME) can drive transformation and subsequent progression toward metastasis. Elevated levels of the Interleukin-6 (IL-6) family cytokine Oncostatin M (OSM) in the breast TME correlate with aggressive, metastatic cancers, increased tumor recurrence, and poor patient prognosis. Paradoxically, OSM engages a tumor-suppressive, Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3)-dependent senescence response in normal and non-transformed human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC)...
November 28, 2016: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889062/monoallelic-mutations-in-the-translation-initiation-codon-of-klhl24-cause-skin-fragility
#11
Yinghong He, Kristin Maier, Juna Leppert, Ingrid Hausser, Agnes Schwieger-Briel, Lisa Weibel, Martin Theiler, Dimitra Kiritsi, Hauke Busch, Melanie Boerries, Katariina Hannula-Jouppi, Hannele Heikkilä, Kaisa Tasanen, Daniele Castiglia, Giovanna Zambruno, Cristina Has
The genetic basis of epidermolysis bullosa, a group of genetic disorders characterized by the mechanically induced formation of skin blisters, is largely known, but a number of cases still remain genetically unsolved. Here, we used whole-exome and targeted sequencing to identify monoallelic mutations, c.1A>G and c.2T>C, in the translation initiation codon of the gene encoding kelch-like protein 24 (KLHL24) in 14 individuals with a distinct skin-fragility phenotype and skin cleavage within basal keratinocytes...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880722/deletion-of-8p-is-an-independent-prognostic-parameter-in-prostate-cancer
#12
Martina Kluth, Nina Nadine Amschler, Rami Galal, Christina Möller-Koop, Phillipp Barrow, Maria Christina Tsourlakis, Frank Jacobsen, Andrea Hinsch, Corinna Wittmer, Stefan Steurer, Till Krech, Franziska Büscheck, Till Sebastian Clauditz, Burkhard Beyer, Waldemar Wilczak, Markus Graefen, Hartwig Huland, Sarah Minner, Thorsten Schlomm, Guido Sauter, Ronald Simon
Deletion of chromosome 8p is the second most frequent genomic alteration in prostate cancer. To better understand its clinical significance, 8p deletion was analyzed by fluorescence in-situ hybridization on a prostate cancer tissue microarray. 8p deletion was found in 2,581 of 7,017 cancers (36.8%), and was linked to unfavorable tumor phenotype. 8p deletion increased from 29.5% in 4,456 pT2 and 47.8% in 1,598 pT3a to 53.0% in 931 pT3b-pT4 cancers (P < 0,0001). Deletions of 8p were detected in 25.5% of 1,653 Gleason ≤ 3 + 3, 36...
November 17, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864305/oncogenic-mechanisms-of-histone-h3-mutations
#13
Daniel N Weinberg, C David Allis, Chao Lu
Recurrent missense mutations in histone H3 were recently reported in pediatric gliomas and soft tissue tumors. Strikingly, these mutations only affected a minority of the total cellular H3 proteins and occurred at or near lysine residues at positions 27 and 36 on the amino-terminal tail of H3 that are subject to well-characterized posttranslational modifications. Here we review recent progress in elucidating the mechanisms by which these mutations perturb the chromatin landscape in cells through their effects on chromatin-modifying machinery, particularly through inhibition of specific histone lysine methyltransferases...
November 18, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855171/cholera-in-cameroon-2000-2012-spatial-and-temporal-analysis-at-the-operational-health-district-and-sub-climate-levels
#14
Moise C Ngwa, Song Liang, Ian T Kracalik, Lillian Morris, Jason K Blackburn, Leonard M Mbam, Simon Franky Baonga Ba Pouth, Andrew Teboh, Yang Yang, Mouhaman Arabi, Jonathan D Sugimoto, John Glenn Morris
INTRODUCTION: Recurrent cholera outbreaks have been reported in Cameroon since 1971. However, case fatality ratios remain high, and we do not have an optimal understanding of the epidemiology of the disease, due in part to the diversity of Cameroon's climate subzones and a lack of comprehensive data at the health district level. METHODS/FINDINGS: A unique health district level dataset of reported cholera case numbers and related deaths from 2000-2012, obtained from the Ministry of Public Health of Cameroon and World Health Organization (WHO) country office, served as the basis for the analysis...
November 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810699/improved-survival-in-metastatic-breast-cancer-1985-2016
#15
Marie Sundquist, Lars Brudin, Göran Tejler
PURPOSE: In the last 25 years new treatment options in breast cancer have evolved. We wanted to determine whether the survival of; patients with metastatic breast cancer have improved during this period. METHODS: Patients consecutively diagnosed with disseminated breast cancer 1985-2014 in the County of Kalmar, Sweden, were identified and followed to 2016. Survival was calculated for each successive 5 year interval. Separate analyses were performed for pts with ER and/or PR and HER2 positive tumours resp...
February 2017: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807831/quantitative-clinical-imaging-methods-for-monitoring-intratumoral-evolution
#16
Joo Yeun Kim, Robert A Gatenby
Solid tumors are multiscale, open, complex, dynamic systems: complex because they have many interacting components, dynamic because both the components and their interactions can change with time, and open because the tumor freely communicates with surrounding and even distant host tissue. Thus, it is not surprising that striking intratumoral variations are commonly observed in clinical imaging such as MRI and CT and that several recent studies found striking regional variations in the molecular properties of cancer cells from the same tumor...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803193/imprints-and-dppa3-are-bypassed-during-pluripotency-and-differentiation-coupled-methylation-reprogramming-in-testicular-germ-cell-tumors
#17
J Keith Killian, Lambert C J Dorssers, Britton Trabert, Ad J M Gillis, Michael B Cook, Yonghong Wang, Joshua J Waterfall, Holly Stevenson, William I Smith, Natalia Noyes, Parvathy Retnakumar, J Hans Stoop, J Wolter Oosterhuis, Paul S Meltzer, Katherine A McGlynn, Leendert H J Looijenga
Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) share germline ancestry but diverge phenotypically and clinically as seminoma (SE) and nonseminoma (NSE), the latter including the pluripotent embryonal carcinoma (EC) and its differentiated derivatives, teratoma (TE), yolk sac tumor (YST), and choriocarcinoma. Epigenomes from TGCTs may illuminate reprogramming in both normal development and testicular tumorigenesis. Herein we investigate pure-histological forms of 130 TGCTs for conserved and subtype-specific DNA methylation, including analysis of relatedness to pluripotent stem cell (ESC, iPSC), primordial germ cell (PGC), and differentiated somatic references...
November 2016: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803053/polymorphisms-in-microrna-binding-sites-of-mucin-genes-as-predictors-of-clinical-outcome-in-colorectal-cancer-patients
#18
Veronika Vymetalkova, Barbara Pardini, Fabio Rosa, Katerina Jiraskova, Cornelia Di Gaetano, Petra Bendova, Miloslav Levy, Veronika Veskrnova, Tomas Buchler, Ludmila Vodickova, Alessio Naccarati, Pavel Vodicka
Polymorphisms in microRNA (miRNA) binding sites may affect miRNA/target gene interaction, resulting in differential mRNA/protein expression and susceptibility to common diseases. Mucins have been identified as markers of adverse prognosis. We hypothesized that genetic variations in miRNA binding sites located in mucin genes may modulate signaling response and the maintenance of genomic stability ultimately affecting cancer susceptibility, efficacy of chemotherapy and survival. In this study, we analyzed the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in predicted miRNA target sites (miRSNPs) of mucin genes with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk and clinical outcome...
January 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798559/targeting-the-atp-dependent-formation-of-herpesvirus-ribonucleoprotein-particle-assembly-as-an-antiviral-approach
#19
Sophie Schumann, Brian R Jackson, Ian Yule, Steven K Whitehead, Charlotte Revill, Richard Foster, Adrian Whitehouse
Human herpesviruses are responsible for a range of debilitating acute and recurrent diseases, including a number of malignancies. Current treatments are limited to targeting the herpesvirus DNA polymerases, but with emerging viral resistance and little efficacy against the oncogenic herpesviruses, there is an urgent need for new antiviral strategies. Here, we describe a mechanism to inhibit the replication of the oncogenic herpesvirus Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), by targeting the ATP-dependent formation of viral ribonucleoprotein particles (vRNPs)...
October 31, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768764/combination-of-cancer-stem-cell-markers-cd44-and-cd24-is-superior-to-aldh1-as-a-prognostic-indicator-in-breast-cancer-patients-with-distant-metastases
#20
Yoshiya Horimoto, Atsushi Arakawa, Noriko Sasahara, Masahiko Tanabe, Sei Sai, Takanori Himuro, Mitsue Saito
The combination of CD44 and CD24, or aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) alone, is a widely used cancer stem cell marker in breast cancer. However, no conclusion has yet been reached as to which marker is the best for characterizing cancer stemness. Immunohistochemical evaluation using cancer stem cell markers is clearly less common clinically than in basic experiments and how the expressions of these markers relate to patient outcomes remains controversial. To investigate whether combining these markers might improve the prediction of patient outcomes, we immunohistochemically examined clinical samples...
2016: PloS One
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