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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527646/high-dose-amino-acid-administration-achieves-an-anabolic-response-in-type-2-diabetic-patients-that-is-independent-of-glycaemic-control-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#1
Chelsia Gillis, Patricia S Roque, Jürgen Bläss, Albert Urwyler, Harald Schepperle, Guido Kunz, Thomas Peters, Thomas Schricker, Linda Wykes, Andrea Kopp Lugli
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Surgical stress provokes protein catabolism and hyperglycaemia that is enhanced in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and increases perioperative morbidity. This study hypothesized that perioperative administration of high dose intravenous (IV) amino acids (AA) will augment protein balance in T2DM patients receiving tight plasma glucose control via continuous IV insulin compared to standard plasma glucose control via subcutaneous (SC) insulin sliding scale. METHODS: Eighteen patients with well-controlled T2DM (HbA1C% < 7...
May 3, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508522/in-situ-observation-of-twin-boundary-sliding-in-single-crystalline-cu-nanowires
#2
Yonghai Yue, Qi Zhang, Xuejiao Zhang, Zhenyu Yang, Penggang Yin, Lin Guo
Using a homemade, novel, in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) double tilt tensile device, plastic behavior of single crystalline Cu nanowires of around 150 nm are studied. Deformation twins occur during the tests as predesigned before the experiments. In situ observation of twin boundary sliding (TBS) caused by full dislocation (extended dislocation) is first revealed at the atomic scale which is confirmed by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation results. Combined with twin boundary migration and multiple dislocations nucleated from surface, TBS causes a superlarge fracture strain which is over 166% and a severe necking which is over 93%, far beyond the typical values for most nanomaterials without twins...
May 16, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504271/probing-nanofriction-and-aubry-type-signatures-in-a-finite-self-organized-system
#3
J Kiethe, R Nigmatullin, D Kalincev, T Schmirander, T E Mehlstäubler
Friction in ordered atomistic layers plays a central role in various nanoscale systems ranging from nanomachines to biological systems. It governs transport properties, wear and dissipation. Defects and incommensurate lattice constants markedly change these properties. Recently, experimental systems have become accessible to probe the dynamics of nanofriction. Here, we present a model system consisting of laser-cooled ions in which nanofriction and transport processes in self-organized systems with back action can be studied with atomic resolution...
May 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501919/automated-cytological-detection-of-barrett-s-neoplasia-with-infrared-spectroscopy
#4
Oliver Old, Gavin Lloyd, Martin Isabelle, L Max Almond, Catherine Kendall, Karol Baxter, Neil Shepherd, Angela Shore, Nick Stone, Hugh Barr
BACKGROUND: Development of a nonendoscopic test for Barrett's esophagus would revolutionize population screening and surveillance for patients with Barrett's esophagus. Swallowed cell collection devices have recently been developed to obtain cytology brushings from the esophagus: automated detection of neoplasia in such samples would enable large-scale screening and surveillance. METHODS: Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to develop an automated tool for detection of Barrett's esophagus and Barrett's neoplasia in esophageal cell samples...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499077/unconventional-behavior-of-friction-at-the-nanoscale-beyond-amontons-law
#5
Jingrun Chen, Wang Gao
Using a many body van der Waals (vdW) corrected density functional theory approach, we study the atomic-scale friction for a prototypical tip-substrate system of a Si tip and a graphene substrate. In a loading-sliding process, the tip-substrate distance is found to be essential for nanofrictional behavior, through determining the competition between vdW contributions and electronic contributions. As the tip approaches the substrate, this competition results in a smooth transition of normal forces from attraction to repulsion, and the friction coefficient in turn undergoes a sign change from negativity to positivity with possible giant magnitudes and strong anisotropy...
May 12, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498899/magenta-a-galaxy-implemented-tool-for-complete-tn-seq-analysis-and-data-visualization
#6
Katherine Maia McCoy, Margaret L Antonio, Tim van Opijnen
Motivation: Transposon insertion sequencing (Tn-Seq) is a microbial systems-level tool, that can determine on a genome-wide scale and in high-throughput, whether a gene, or a specific genomic region, is important for fitness under a specific experimental condition. Results: Here, we present MAGenTA, a suite of analysis tools which accurately calculate the growth rate for each disrupted gene in the genome to enable the discovery of: a) new leads for gene function, b) non coding RNAs; c) genes, pathways and ncRNAs that are involved in tolerating drugs or induce disease; d) higher order genome organization; and e) host-factors that affect bacterial host susceptibility...
May 11, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495320/comparison-of-2-intravenous-insulin-protocols-glycemia-variability-in-critically-ill-patients
#7
Marta Gómez-Garrido, Ana M Rodilla-Fiz, María Girón-Lacasa, Laura Rodríguez-Rubio, Anselmo Martínez-Blázquez, Fernando Martínez-López, María Dolores Pardo-Ibáñez, Juan M Núñez-Marín
OBJECTIVE: Glycemic variability is an independent predictor of mortality in critically ill patients. The objective of this study was to compare two intravenous insulin protocols in critically ill patients regarding the glycemic variability. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study performed by reviewing clinical records of patients from a Critical Care Unit for 4 consecutive months. First, a simpler Scale-Based Intravenous Insulin Protocol (SBIIP) was reviewed and later it was compared for the same months of the following year with a Sliding Scale-Based Intravenous Insulin Protocol (SSBIIP)...
May 2017: Endocrinol Diabetes Nutr
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493060/synthetic-turf-fields-crumb-rubber-and-alleged-cancer-risk
#8
Archie Bleyer
Most synthetic turf fields have crumb rubber interspersed among the simulated grass fibers to reduce athletic injuries by allowing users to turn and slide more readily as they play sports or exercise on the fields. Recently, the crumbs have been implicated in causing cancer in adolescents and young adults who use the fields, particularly lymphoma and primarily in soccer goalkeepers. This concern has led to the initiation of large-scale studies by local and federal governments that are expected to take years to complete...
May 11, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480119/evaluation-of-android-smartphones-for-telepathology
#9
Donald Ekong, Fang Liu, G Thomas Brown, Arunima Ghosh, Paul Fontelo
BACKGROUND: In the year 2014, Android smartphones accounted for one-third of mobile connections globally but are predicted to increase to two-thirds by 2020. In developing countries, where teleconsultations can benefit health-care providers most, the ratio is even higher. This study compared the use of two Android phones, an 8 megapixel (MP) and a 16 MP phone, for capturing microscopic images. METHOD: The Android phones were used to capture images and videos of a gastrointestinal biopsy teaching set of referred cases from the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP)...
2017: Journal of Pathology Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446376/comparison-of-virtual-reality-exergaming-and-home-exercise-programs-in-patients-with-subacromial-impingement-syndrome-and-scapular-dyskinesis-short-term-effect
#10
Nihan Ozunlu Pekyavas, Nevin Ergun
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the short term effects of home exercise program and virtual reality exergaming in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome (SAIS). METHODS: A total of 30 patients with SAIS were randomized into two groups which are Home Exercise Program (EX Group) (mean age: 40.6 ± 11.7 years) and Virtual Reality Exergaming Program (WII Group) (mean age: 40.33 ± 13.2 years). Subjects were assessed at the first session, at the end of the treatment (6 weeks) and at 1 month follow-up...
April 24, 2017: Acta Orthopaedica et Traumatologica Turcica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441461/sliding-scale-hcg-trigger-yields-equivalent-pregnancy-outcomes-and-reduces-ovarian-hyperstimulation-syndrome-analysis-of-10-427-ivf-icsi-cycles
#11
Vinay Gunnala, Alexis Melnick, Mohamad Irani, David Reichman, Glenn Schattman, Owen Davis, Zev Rosenwaks
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate pregnancy outcomes and the incidence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) using a sliding scale hCG protocol to trigger oocyte maturity and establish a threshold level of serum b-hCG associated with optimal oocyte maturity. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort. SETTING: Academic medical center. PATIENTS: Fresh IVF cycles from 9/2004-12/2011. INTERVENTION: 10,427 fresh IVF-ICSI cycles met inclusion criteria...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441344/collagenous-extracellular-matrix-biomaterials-for-tissue-engineering-lessons-from-the-common-sea-urchin-tissue
#12
REVIEW
Kheng Lim Goh, David F Holmes
Scaffolds for tissue engineering application may be made from a collagenous extracellular matrix (ECM) of connective tissues because the ECM can mimic the functions of the target tissue. The primary sources of collagenous ECM material are calf skin and bone. However, these sources are associated with the risk of having bovine spongiform encephalopathy or transmissible spongiform encephalopathy. Alternative sources for collagenous ECM materials may be derived from livestock, e.g., pigs, and from marine animals, e...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441007/rough-structure-of-electrodeposition-as-a-template-for-an-ultrarobust-self-cleaning-surface
#13
Yongquan Qing, Chuanbo Hu, Chuanning Yang, Kai An, Fawei Tang, Junyang Tan, Changsheng Liu
Superhydrophobic surfaces with self-cleaning properties have been developed based on roughness on the micro- and nanometer scales and low-energy surfaces. However, such surfaces are fragile and stop functioning when exposed to oil. Addressing these challenges, here we show an ultrarobust self-cleaning surface fabricated by a process of metal electrodeposition of a rough structure that is subsequently coated with fluorinated metal-oxide nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction were employed to characterize the surfaces...
May 2, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435080/investigating-mechanisms-of-tendon-damage-by-measuring-multi-scale-recovery-following-tensile-loading
#14
Andrea H Lee, Spencer E Szczesny, Michael H Santare, Dawn M Elliott
Tendon pathology is associated with damage. While tendon damage is likely initiated by mechanical loading, little is known about the specific etiology. Damage is defined as an irreversible change in the microstructure that alters the macroscopic mechanical parameters. In tendon, the link between mechanical loading and microstructural damage, resulting in macroscopic changes, is not fully elucidated. In addition, tendon damage at the macroscale has been proposed to initiate when tendon is loaded beyond a strain threshold, yet the metrics to define the damage threshold are not determined...
April 20, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430477/spatiotemporal-patterns-in-ultraslow-domain-wall-creep-dynamics
#15
Ezequiel E Ferrero, Laura Foini, Thierry Giamarchi, Alejandro B Kolton, Alberto Rosso
In the presence of impurities, ferromagnetic and ferroelectric domain walls slide only above a finite external field. Close to this depinning threshold, they proceed by large and abrupt jumps called avalanches, while, at much smaller fields, these interfaces creep by thermal activation. In this Letter, we develop a novel numerical technique that captures the ultraslow creep regime over huge time scales. We point out the existence of activated events that involve collective reorganizations similar to avalanches, but, at variance with them, display correlated spatiotemporal patterns that resemble the complex sequence of aftershocks observed after a large earthquake...
April 7, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422856/a-cross-sectional-evaluation-of-meditation-experience-on-electroencephalography-data-by-artificial-neural-network-and-support-vector-machine-classifiers
#16
Yu-Hao Lee, Ya-Ju Hsieh, Yung-Jong Shiah, Yu-Huei Lin, Chiao-Yun Chen, Yu-Chang Tyan, JiaCheng GengQiu, Chung-Yao Hsu, Sharon Chia-Ju Chen
To quantitate the meditation experience is a subjective and complex issue because it is confounded by many factors such as emotional state, method of meditation, and personal physical condition. In this study, we propose a strategy with a cross-sectional analysis to evaluate the meditation experience with 2 artificial intelligence techniques: artificial neural network and support vector machine. Within this analysis system, 3 features of the electroencephalography alpha spectrum and variant normalizing scaling are manipulated as the evaluating variables for the detection of accuracy...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415221/dynamic-phases-of-active-matter-systems-with-quenched-disorder
#17
Cs Sándor, A Libál, C Reichhardt, C J Olson Reichhardt
Depinning and nonequilibrium transitions within sliding states in systems driven over quenched disorder arise across a wide spectrum of size scales ranging from atomic friction at the nanoscale, flux motion in type II superconductors at the mesoscale, colloidal motion in disordered media at the microscale, and plate tectonics at geological length scales. Here we show that active matter or self-propelled particles interacting with quenched disorder under an external drive represents a class of system that can also exhibit pinning-depinning phenomena, plastic flow phases, and nonequilibrium sliding transitions that are correlated with distinct morphologies and velocity-force curve signatures...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407731/segmentum-a-tool-for-copy-number-analysis-of-cancer-genomes
#18
Ebrahim Afyounian, Matti Annala, Matti Nykter
BACKGROUND: Somatic alterations, including loss of heterozygosity, can affect the expression of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Whole genome sequencing enables detailed characterization of such aberrations. However, due to the limitations of current high throughput sequencing technologies, this task remains challenging. Hence, accurate and reliable detection of such events is crucial for the identification of cancer-related alterations. RESULTS: We introduce a new tool called Segmentum for determining somatic copy numbers using whole genome sequencing from paired tumor/normal samples...
April 13, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405922/new-semi-pilot-scale-reactor-to-study-the-photocatalytic-inactivation-of-phages-contained-in-aerosol
#19
Mariángeles Briggiler Marcó, Antonio Carlos Negro, Orlando Mario Alfano, Andrea Del Luján Quiberoni
The aims of this work were to design and build a photocatalytic reactor (UV-A/TiO2) to study the inactivation of phages contained in bioaerosols, which constitute the main dissemination via phages in industrial environments. The reactor is a close system with recirculation that consists of a stainless steel camera (cubic form, side of 60 cm) in which air containing the phage particles circulates and an acrylic compartment with six borosilicate plates covered with TiO2. The reactor is externally illuminated by 20 UV-A lamps...
April 12, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405667/multiscale-mechanics-of-the-lateral-pressure-effect-on-enhancing-the-load-transfer-between-polymer-coated-cnts
#20
Fatemeh Yazdandoost, Reza Mirzaeifar, Zhao Qin, Markus J Buehler
While individual carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are known as one of the strongest fibers ever known, even the strongest fabricated macroscale CNT yarns and fibers are still significantly weaker than individual nanotubes. The loss in mechanical properties is mainly because the deformation mechanism of CNT fibers is highly governed by the weak shear strength corresponding to sliding of nanotubes on each other. Adding polymer coating to the bundles, and twisting the CNT yarns to enhance the intertube interactions are both efficient methods to improve the mechanical properties of macroscale yarns...
May 4, 2017: Nanoscale
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