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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901546/poroelasticity-driven-lubrication-in-hydrogel-interfaces
#1
Erik R Reale, Alison C Dunn
It is widely accepted that hydrogel surfaces are slippery, and have low friction, but dynamic applied stresses alter the hydrogel composition at the interface as water is displaced. The induced osmotic imbalance of compressed hydrogel which cannot swell to equilibrium should drive the resistance to slip against it. This paper demonstrates the driving role of poroelasticity in the friction of hydrogel-glass interfaces, specifically how poroelastic relaxation of hydrogels increases adhesion. We translate the work of adhesion into an effective surface energy density that increases with the duration of applied pressure from 10 to 50 mJ m(-2), as measured by micro-indentation...
November 30, 2016: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882973/the-evolving-quality-of-frictional-contact-with-graphene
#2
Suzhi Li, Qunyang Li, Robert W Carpick, Peter Gumbsch, Xin Z Liu, Xiangdong Ding, Jun Sun, Ju Li
Graphite and other lamellar materials are used as dry lubricants for macroscale metallic sliding components and high-pressure contacts. It has been shown experimentally that monolayer graphene exhibits higher friction than multilayer graphene and graphite, and that this friction increases with continued sliding, but the mechanism behind this remains subject to debate. It has long been conjectured that the true contact area between two rough bodies controls interfacial friction. The true contact area, defined for example by the number of atoms within the range of interatomic forces, is difficult to visualize directly but characterizes the quantity of contact...
November 23, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878999/experimental-evaluation-of-multiscale-tendon-mechanics
#3
REVIEW
Fei Fang, Spencer P Lake
Tendon's primary function is a mechanical link between muscle and bone. The hierarchical structure of tendon and specific compositional constituents are believed to be critical for proper mechanical function. With increased appreciation for tendon importance and the development of various technological advances, this review paper summarizes recent experimental approaches that have been used to study multiscale tendon mechanics, includes an overview of studies that have evaluated the role of specific tissue constituents, and also proposes challenges/opportunities facing tendon study...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872547/measuring-dental-students-preference-a-comparison-of-light-microscopy-and-virtual-microscopy-as-teaching-tools-in-oral-histology-and-pathology
#4
Ohoud Alotaibi, Dalal ALQahtani
OBJECTIVES: Light microscopy used to be the traditional modality of teaching histology and pathology disciplines. Recent advances and innovations in the information technology field have revolutionized the use of hard- and software in medical education. An example of such an innovation is the so-called virtual microscopy. Many schools have started to adopt virtual microscopy as a new method aimed at enhancing student learning. Nonetheless, few reports have described the experiences of introducing virtual microscopy in dental education...
October 2016: Saudi Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853798/a-langevin-model-for-fluctuating-contact-angle-behaviour-parametrised-using-molecular-dynamics
#5
E R Smith, E A Müller, R V Craster, O K Matar
Molecular dynamics simulations are employed to develop a theoretical model to predict the fluid-solid contact angle as a function of wall-sliding speed incorporating thermal fluctuations. A liquid bridge between counter-sliding walls is studied, with liquid-vapour interface-tracking, to explore the impact of wall-sliding speed on contact angle. The behaviour of the macroscopic contact angle varies linearly over a range of capillary numbers beyond which the liquid bridge pinches off, a behaviour supported by experimental results...
November 17, 2016: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846410/a-structural-and-temporal-study-of-the-surfactants-behenyltrimethylammonium-methosulfate-and-behenyltrimethylammonium-chloride-adsorbed-at-air-water-and-air-glass-interfaces-using-sum-frequency-generation-spectroscopy
#6
Sami A Goussous, Mike T L Casford, Simon A Johnson, Paul B Davies
Molecular scale information about the structure of surfactants at interfaces underlies their application in consumer products. In this study the non-linear optical technique of Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy has been used to investigate the structure and temporal behaviour of two cationic surfactants used frequently in hair conditioners. SFG spectra of films of behenyltrimethylammonium methosulfate (BTMS) and behenyltrimethylammonium chloride (BTAC) were recorded at the air/water interface and on glass slides following Langmuir Blodgett (LB) deposition...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821581/association-between-the-use-of-long-acting-insulin-and-hypoglycemia-in-nondiabetic-patients-in-the-surgical-intensive-care-unit
#7
Jordan Masse, Christopher Alan Giuliano, Sara Brown, Renee Alexander Paxton
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between long-acting insulin and hypoglycemia in nondiabetic surgical intensive care patients. METHODS: This single-center, retrospective cohort study evaluated glycemic control in nondiabetic critically ill surgical patients receiving long-acting insulin plus sliding scale versus those receiving sliding scale alone. Patients were matched based on sliding scale order and type of surgery. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients who experienced hypoglycemia (glucose values <70 mg/dL)...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818565/multi-scale-learning-based-segmentation-of-glands-in-digital-colonrectal-pathology-images
#8
Yi Gao, William Liu, Shipra Arjun, Liangjia Zhu, Vadim Ratner, Tahsin Kurc, Joel Saltz, Allen Tannenbaum
Digital histopathological images provide detailed spatial information of the tissue at micrometer resolution. Among the available contents in the pathology images, meso-scale information, such as the gland morphology, texture, and distribution, are useful diagnostic features. In this work, focusing on the colon-rectal cancer tissue samples, we propose a multi-scale learning based segmentation scheme for the glands in the colon-rectal digital pathology slides. The algorithm learns the gland and non-gland textures from a set of training images in various scales through a sparse dictionary representation...
February 2016: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807840/validation-of-biomarker-proteins-using-reverse-capture-protein-microarrays
#9
Catherine Jozwik, Ofer Eidelman, Joshua Starr, Harvey B Pollard, Meera Srivastava
Genomics has revolutionized large-scale and high-throughput sequencing and has led to the discovery of thousands of new proteins. Protein chip technology is emerging as a miniaturized and highly parallel platform that is suited to rapid, simultaneous screening of large numbers of proteins and the analysis of various protein-binding activities, enzyme substrate relationships, and posttranslational modifications. Specifically, reverse capture protein microarrays provide the most appropriate platform for identifying low-abundance, disease-specific biomarker proteins in a sea of high-abundance proteins from biological fluids such as blood, serum, plasma, saliva, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid as well as tissues and cells obtained by biopsy...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802615/non-equilibrium-phase-behavior-and-friction-of-confined-molecular-films-under-shear-a-non-equilibrium-molecular-dynamics-study
#10
Sz Maćkowiak, D M Heyes, D Dini, A C Brańka
The phase behavior of a confined liquid at high pressure and shear rate, such as is found in elastohydrodynamic lubrication, can influence the traction characteristics in machine operation. Generic aspects of this behavior are investigated here using Non-equilibrium Molecular Dynamics (NEMD) simulations of confined Lennard-Jones (LJ) films under load with a recently proposed wall-driven shearing method without wall atom tethering [C. Gattinoni et al., Phys. Rev. E 90, 043302 (2014)]. The focus is on thick films in which the nonequilibrium phases formed in the confined region impact on the traction properties...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799716/the-effects-of-wall-slide-and-sling-slide-exercises-on-scapular-alignment-and-pain-in-subjects-with-scapular-downward-rotation
#11
Tae-Ho Kim, Jin-Yong Lim
[Purpose] The present study was performed to evaluate the changes in the scapular alignment, pressure pain threshold and pain in subjects with scapular downward rotation after 4 weeks of wall slide exercise or sling slide exercise. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-two subjects with scapular downward rotation participated in this study. The alignment of the scapula was measured using radiographic analysis (X-ray). Pain and pressure pain threshold were assessed using visual analogue scale and digital algometer. Patients were assessed before and after a 4 weeks of exercise...
September 2016: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795661/patch-based-convolutional-neural-network-for-whole-slide-tissue-image-classification
#12
Le Hou, Dimitris Samaras, Tahsin M Kurc, Yi Gao, James E Davis, Joel H Saltz
Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) are state-of-the-art models for many image classification tasks. However, to recognize cancer subtypes automatically, training a CNN on gigapixel resolution Whole Slide Tissue Images (WSI) is currently computationally impossible. The differentiation of cancer subtypes is based on cellular-level visual features observed on image patch scale. Therefore, we argue that in this situation, training a patch-level classifier on image patches will perform better than or similar to an image-level classifier...
June 2016: Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790441/risk-stratification-in-paragangliomas-with-pass-pheochromocytoma-of-the-adrenal-gland-scaled-score-and-immunohistochemical-markers
#13
Maithili Mandar Kulkarni, Siddhi Gaurish Sinai Khandeparkar, Sanjay D Deshmukh, R R Karekar, Vandana L Gaopande, Avinash R Joshi, Mrunal V Kesari, R R Shelke
INTRODUCTION: Paragangliomas (PGLs) are rare tumours that arise in sympathetic and parasympathetic paraganglia and are derived from neural crest cells. Presence of metastasis is the only absolute criterion for malignancy. There is no single histo-morphological feature indicating malignant potential and multiple parameters have been proposed to prognosticate the individual case. This includes studies conducted using Pheochromocytoma of the Adrenal Gland Scaled Score (PASS) and Immunohistochemical (IHC) markers...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777983/shewanella-baltica-ecotypes-have-wide-transcriptional-variation-under-the-same-growth-conditions
#14
W S Hambright, Jie Deng, James M Tiedje, Ingrid Brettar, Jorge L M Rodrigues
In bacterial populations, subtle expressional differences may promote ecological specialization through the formation of distinct ecotypes. In a barrier-free habitat, this process most likely precedes population divergence and may predict speciation events. To examine this, we used four sequenced strains of the bacterium Shewanella baltica, OS155, OS185, OS195, and OS223, as models to assess transcriptional variation and ecotype formation within a prokaryotic population. All strains were isolated from different depths throughout a water column of the Baltic Sea, occupying different ecological niches characterized by various abiotic parameters...
September 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774494/optimized-siftflow-for-registration-of-whole-mount-histology-to-reference-optical-images
#15
Rushin Shojaii, Anne L Martel
The registration of two-dimensional histology images to reference images from other modalities is an important preprocessing step in the reconstruction of three-dimensional histology volumes. This is a challenging problem because of the differences in the appearances of histology images and other modalities, and the presence of large nonrigid deformations which occur during slide preparation. This paper shows the feasibility of using densely sampled scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) features and a SIFTFlow deformable registration algorithm for coregistering whole-mount histology images with blockface optical images...
October 2016: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760392/nanoscale-analysis-of-degradation-processes-of-cellulose-fibers
#16
Lorenzo Teodonio, Mauro Missori, Dominika Pawcenis, Joanna Łojewska, Francesco Valle
Mapping the morphological and nano-mechanical properties of cellulose fibers within paper sheets or textile products at the nano-scale level by using atomic force microscopy is a challenging task due to the huge surface level variation of these materials. However this task is fundamental for applications in forensic or cultural heritage sciences and for the industrial characterization of materials. In order to correlate between nano-mechanical properties and local nanometer scale morphology of different layers of cellulose fibers, a new strategy to prepare samples of isolated cellulose fibers was designed...
October 5, 2016: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751859/abnormal-dynamics-of-cortical-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-chronic-headache-patients
#17
Zewei Wang, Qing Yang, Li Min Chen
The goals of this study are to characterize the temporal dynamics of inter-regional connectivity of the brain in chronic headache (CH) patients versus their age/gender matched controls (CONCH, n=28 pairs), and to determine whether dynamic measures reveal additional features to static functional connectivity and correlate with psychometric scores. Cortical thickness and inter-regional resting state fMRI connectivity were quantified and compared between CH and CONCH groups. Six cortical regions of interest (ROI) pairs that exhibited correlated cortical thickness and static functional connectivity abnormalities were selected for temporal dynamic analysis...
October 14, 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750430/sensitive-detection-of-cell-surface-membrane-proteins-in-living-breast-cancer-cells-by-using-multicolor-fluorescence-microscopy-with-a-plasmonic-chip
#18
Keiko Tawa, Shohei Yamamura, Chisato Sasakawa, Izumi Shibata, Masatoshi Kataoka
Plasmonic chip was applied to the live cancer cell imaging. The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is a surface marker that can be used to classify breast cancer cell lines into distinct differentiation states. EpCAM and the nuclei of two kinds of living breast cancer cells, MDA-MB231 and MCF-7, were stained with allophycocyanin (APC)-labeled anti-EpCAM antibody and 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), respectively, and the cells were scattered on either a plasmonic chip (metal-coated wavelength-scale grating substrate) or a control glass slide...
October 18, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749721/pediatric-type-1-diabetes-reducing-admission-rates-for-diabetes-ketoacidosis
#19
Jeniece Trast Ilkowitz, Steven Choi, Michael L Rinke, Kathy Vandervoot, Rubina A Heptulla
BACKGROUND: Diabetes ketoacidosis (DKA) is a life-threatening complication of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Reducing DKA admissions in children with T1DM requires a coordinated, comprehensive management plan. We aimed to decrease DKA admissions, 30-day readmissions, and length of stay (LOS) for DKA admissions. METHODS: A multipronged intervention was designed in 2011 to reach all patients: (1) increase insulin pump use and basal-bolus regimen versus sliding scales, (2) transform educational program, (3) increased access to medical providers, and (4) support for patients and families...
October 2016: Quality Management in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739687/individual-role-of-the-physicochemical-characteristics-of-nanopatterns-on-tribological-surfaces
#20
Prashant Pendyala, Harpreet Singh Grewal, Hong Nam Kim, Il-Joo Cho, Eui-Sung Yoon
Nanoscale patterns have dimensions that are comparable to the length scales affected by intermolecular and surface forces. In this study, we systematically investigated the individual roles of curvature, surface energy, lateral stiffness, material, pattern density on the characteristics of the adhesion and friction of nanopatterns. For this purpose, we used a combination of capillary force lithography and nanodrawing methods to fabricate cylindrical and mushroom-shaped pillars with flat- and round-top morphologies...
October 14, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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