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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327562/transition-of-temporal-scaling-behavior-in-percolation-assisted-shear-branching-structure-during-plastic-deformation
#1
Jingli Ren, Cun Chen, Gang Wang, Peter K Liaw
This paper explores the temporal scaling behavior induced shear-branching structure in response to variant temperatures and strain rates during plastic deformation of Zr-based bulk metallic glass (BMG). The data analysis based on the compression tests suggests that there are two states of shear-branching structures: the fractal structure with a long-range order at an intermediate temperature of 223 K and a larger strain rate of 2.5 × 10(-2) s(-1); the disordered structure dominated at other temperature and strain rate...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326784/drop-impact-on-oblique-superhydrophobic-surfaces-with-two-tier-roughness
#2
Rui Zhang, Pengfei Hao, Feng He
This paper investigates the complex physical phenomenon of oblique drop impact on superhydrophobic substrates with two-tier roughness (patterned with varied submillimeter-scale posts and coated with nano-particles). Experimental results show that the impact Weber number of drops and the solid fraction of the submillimeter-scale post structures are crucial for the outcomes of oblique drop collisions. Water droplets with 10<Wen<245 are found to rebound on all the test substrates. As the surface solid fraction decreases, four possible bouncing patterns occur in sequence, sliding rebound, stretched rebound, penetration rebound and breakup rebound...
March 22, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291248/a-curated-collection-of-tissue-microarray-images-and-clinical-outcome-data-of-prostate-cancer-patients
#3
Qing Zhong, Tiannan Guo, Markus Rechsteiner, Jan H Rüschoff, Niels Rupp, Christian Fankhauser, Karim Saba, Ashkan Mortezavi, Cédric Poyet, Thomas Hermanns, Yi Zhu, Holger Moch, Ruedi Aebersold, Peter J Wild
Microscopy image data of human cancers provide detailed phenotypes of spatially and morphologically intact tissues at single-cell resolution, thus complementing large-scale molecular analyses, e.g., next generation sequencing or proteomic profiling. Here we describe a high-resolution tissue microarray (TMA) image dataset from a cohort of 71 prostate tissue samples, which was hybridized with bright-field dual colour chromogenic and silver in situ hybridization probes for the tumour suppressor gene PTEN. These tissue samples were digitized and supplemented with expert annotations, clinical information, statistical models of PTEN genetic status, and computer source codes...
March 14, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287577/small-scale-propagation-of-human-ipscs-in-serum-free-conditions-for-routine-immunocytochemical-characterization
#4
Mandi J Corenblum, Lalitha Madhavan
There is great interest in utilizing human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) for disease modeling and cell therapeutics due to their patient specificity and characteristic stemness. However, the pluripotency of iPSCs, which is essential to their functionality, must be confirmed before these cells can be used in such applications. While a rigorous characterization of iPSCs, through different cellular and functional assays is necessary to establish their pluripotency, routine assessment of pluripotency maintenance can be achieved more simply and effectively through immunocytochemical techniques...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282496/driving-surface-chemistry-at-the-nanometer-scale-using-localized-heat-and-stress
#5
Shivaranjan Raghuraman, Meagan B Elinski, James D Batteas, Jonathan R Felts
Driving and measuring chemical reactions at the nanoscale is crucial for developing safer, more efficient and environ-ment-friendly reactors and for surface engineering. Quantitative understanding of surface chemical reactions in real operating environments is challenging due to resolution and environmental limitations of existing techniques. Here we report an atomic force microscope technique that can measure reaction kinetics driven at the nanoscale by multi-physical stimuli in an ambient environment. We demonstrate the technique by measuring local reduction of graphene oxide as a function of both temperature and force at the sliding contact...
March 10, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275606/studies-on-the-histopathology-of-temporal-arteritis
#6
Angeline L Wang, Meisha L Raven, Krishna Surapaneni, Daniel M Albert
AIMS: The aim of this paper was to identify the location and to grade the severity of most significant inflammation within positive temporal artery biopsies along with other key clinical and histologic characteristics. METHODS: Charts and pathology slides for 70 patients diagnosed with temporal arteritis at the University of Wisconsin (UW) Hospital and Clinics from 1989 to 2015 were reviewed. A subset of 48 specimens was immunostained for CD68 and graded on a scale from 0 to +++; the location of staining was recorded...
January 2017: Ocular Oncology and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265076/spatial-confinement-of-active-microtubule-networks-induces-large-scale-rotational-cytoplasmic-flow
#7
Kazuya Suzuki, Makito Miyazaki, Jun Takagi, Takeshi Itabashi, Shin'ichi Ishiwata
Collective behaviors of motile units through hydrodynamic interactions induce directed fluid flow on a larger length scale than individual units. In cells, active cytoskeletal systems composed of polar filaments and molecular motors drive fluid flow, a process known as cytoplasmic streaming. The motor-driven elongation of microtubule bundles generates turbulent-like flow in purified systems; however, it remains unclear whether and how microtubule bundles induce large-scale directed flow like the cytoplasmic streaming observed in cells...
March 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263255/self-efficacy-and-walking-performance-in-persons-with-multiple-sclerosis
#8
Robert W Motl, Julia M Balto, Ipek Ensari, Elizabeth A Hubbard
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Impairment of walking function is a prevalent and burdensome feature of multiple sclerosis (MS), and represents a primary focus of rehabilitation research and clinical care. Research examining self-efficacy as a correlate of walking performance in MS is lacking; self-efficacy represents a theory-based, modifiable target of rehabilitation approaches for improving walking outcomes. This cross-sectional study examined the association between self-efficacy and walking performance in persons living with MS...
April 2017: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261066/ring-attractor-dynamics-emerge-from-a-spiking-model-of-the-entire-protocerebral-bridge
#9
Kyobi S Kakaria, Benjamin L de Bivort
Animal navigation is accomplished by a combination of landmark-following and dead reckoning based on estimates of self motion. Both of these approaches require the encoding of heading information, which can be represented as an allocentric or egocentric azimuthal angle. Recently, Ca(2+) correlates of landmark position and heading direction, in egocentric coordinates, were observed in the ellipsoid body (EB), a ring-shaped processing unit in the fly central complex (CX; Seelig and Jayaraman, 2015). These correlates displayed key dynamics of so-called ring attractors, namely: (1) responsiveness to the position of external stimuli; (2) persistence in the absence of external stimuli; (3) locking onto a single external stimulus when presented with two competitors; (4) stochastically switching between competitors with low probability; and (5) sliding or jumping between positions when an external stimulus moves...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253867/the-shape-of-the-iceberg-quantification-of-submicroscopic-plasmodium-falciparum-and-plasmodium-vivax-parasitaemia-and-gametocytaemia-in-five-low-endemic-settings-in-ethiopia
#10
Fitsum G Tadesse, Lotus van den Hoogen, Kjerstin Lanke, Jodie Schildkraut, Kevin Tetteh, Abraham Aseffa, Hassen Mamo, Robert Sauerwein, Ingrid Felger, Chris Drakeley, Endalamaw Gadissa, Teun Bousema
BACKGROUND: The widespread presence of low-density asymptomatic infections with concurrent gametocytes may be a stumbling block for malaria elimination. This study investigated the asymptomatic reservoir of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections in schoolchildren from five settings in northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted in June and November 2015, enrolling 551 students from five schools and 294 students from three schools, respectively...
March 3, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252996/sliding-into-happiness-a-new-tool-for-measuring-affective-responses-to-words
#11
Amy Beth Warriner, David I Shore, Louis A Schmidt, Constance L Imbault, Victor Kuperman
Reliable measurement of affective responses is critical for research into human emotion. Affective evaluation of words is most commonly gauged on multiple dimensions-including valence (positivity) and arousal-using a rating scale. Despite its popularity, this scale is open to criticism: It generates ordinal data that is often misinterpreted as interval, it does not provide the fine resolution that is essential by recent theoretical accounts of emotion, and its extremes may not be properly calibrated. In 5 experiments, the authors introduce a new slider tool for affective evaluation of words on a continuous, well-calibrated and high-resolution scale...
March 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251155/histograms-of-oriented-3d-gradients-for-fully-automated-fetal-brain-localization-and-robust-motion-correction-in-3%C3%A2-t-magnetic-resonance-images
#12
Ahmed Serag, Gillian Macnaught, Fiona C Denison, Rebecca M Reynolds, Scott I Semple, James P Boardman
Fetal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a rapidly emerging diagnostic imaging tool. However, automated fetal brain localization is one of the biggest obstacles in expediting and fully automating large-scale fetal MRI processing. We propose a method for automatic localization of fetal brain in 3 T MRI when the images are acquired as a stack of 2D slices that are misaligned due to fetal motion. First, the Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG) feature descriptor is extended from 2D to 3D images. Then, a sliding window is used to assign a score to all possible windows in an image, depending on the likelihood of it containing a brain, and the window with the highest score is selected...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241723/-efficacy-of-coflex-in-the-treatment-of-lumbar-spondylolisthesis
#13
Y Hai, X L Meng, D Y Li, X N Zhang, Y S Wang
Objective: To study the clinical results of Coflex and lumbar posterior decompression and fusion in the treatment of lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis at L(4-5). Methods: Thirty-eight patients with Grade Ⅰ degenerative spondylolisthesis, from January 2008 to December 2011 in Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University were reviewed, and patients were divided into two groups by randomness. Group A was treated with Coflex and group B with pedicle instrumentation and interbody fusion. Fifteen patients were included in group A, and 23 patients were included in group B...
March 1, 2017: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236778/interactions-between-synaptic-homeostatic-mechanisms-an-attempt-to-reconcile-bcm-theory-synaptic-scaling-and-changing-excitation-inhibition-balance
#14
REVIEW
Tara Keck, Mark Hübener, Tobias Bonhoeffer
Homeostatic plasticity is proposed to be mediated by synaptic changes, such as synaptic scaling and shifts in the excitation/inhibition balance. These mechanisms are thought to be separate from the Bienenstock, Cooper, Munro (BCM) learning rule, where the threshold for the induction of long-term potentiation and long-term depression slides in response to changes in activity levels. Yet, both sets of mechanisms produce a homeostatic response of a relative increase (or decrease) in strength of excitatory synapses in response to overall activity-level changes...
February 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225356/improving-mechanical-properties-of-carbon-nanotube-fibers-through-simultaneous-solid-state-cycloaddition-and-crosslinking
#15
Xinyi Lu, Nitilaksha Hiremath, Kunlun Hong, Maria C Evora, Victoria H Ranson, Amit K Naskar, Gajanan S Bhat, Nam-Goo Kang, Jimmy W Mays
Individual carbon nanotubes (CNTs) exhibit exceptional mechanical properties. However, difficulties remain in fully realizing these properties in CNT macro-assemblies, because the weak inter-tube forces result in the CNTs sliding past one another. Herein, a simple solid-state reaction is presented that enhances the mechanical properties of carbon nanotube fibers (CNTFs) through simultaneous covalent functionalization and crosslinking. This is the first chemical crosslinking proposed without the involvement of a catalyst or byproducts...
April 7, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224160/particle-wall-tribology-of-slippery-hydrogel-particle-suspensions
#16
Heather M Shewan, Jason R Stokes, Michel Cloitre
Slip is an important phenomenon that occurs during the flow of yield stress fluids like soft materials and pastes. Densely packed suspensions of hydrogel microparticles are used to show that slip is governed by the tribological interactions occurring between the samples and shearing surfaces. Both attractive/repulsive interactions between the dispersed particles and surface, as well as the viscoelasticity of the suspension, are found to play key roles in slip occurring within rheometric flows. We specifically discover that for two completely different sets of microgels, the sliding stress at which slip occurs scales with both the modulus of the particles and the bulk suspension modulus...
February 22, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222256/dynamic-melting-of-freezing-droplets-on-ultraslippery-superhydrophobic-surfaces
#17
Fuqiang Chu, Xiaomin Wu, Lingli Wang
Condensed droplet freezing and freezing droplet melting phenomena on the prepared ultraslippery superhydrophobic surface were observed and discussed in this study. Although the freezing delay performance of the surface is common, the melting of the freezing droplets on the surface is quite interesting. Three self-propelled movements of the melting droplets (ice- water mixture) were found including the droplet rotating, the droplet jumping, and the droplet sliding. The melting droplet rotating, which means that the melting droplet rotates spontaneously on the superhydrophobic surface like a spinning top, is first reported in this study and may have some potential applications in various engineering fields...
February 27, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222159/the-role-of-spatial-mobility-in-malaria-transmission-in-the-brazilian-amazon-the-case-of-porto-velho-municipality-rond%C3%A3-nia-brazil-2010-2012
#18
Jussara Rafael Angelo, Tony Hiroshi Katsuragawa, Paulo Chagastelles Sabroza, Lino Augusto Sander de Carvalho, Luiz Hildebrando Pereira da Silva, Carlos Afonso Nobre
BACKGROUND: This study aims to describe the role of mobility in malaria transmission by discussing recent changes in population movements in the Brazilian Amazon and developing a flow map of disease transmission in this region. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study presents a descriptive analysis using an ecological approach on regional and local scales. The study location was the municipality of Porto Velho, which is the capital of Rondônia state, Brazil...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220467/emergent-dynamical-properties-of-the-bcm-learning-rule
#19
Lawrence C Udeigwe, Paul W Munro, G Bard Ermentrout
The Bienenstock-Cooper-Munro (BCM) learning rule provides a simple setup for synaptic modification that combines a Hebbian product rule with a homeostatic mechanism that keeps the weights bounded. The homeostatic part of the learning rule depends on the time average of the post-synaptic activity and provides a sliding threshold that distinguishes between increasing or decreasing weights. There are, thus, two essential time scales in the BCM rule: a homeostatic time scale, and a synaptic modification time scale...
December 2017: Journal of Mathematical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218298/horizontal-sliding-of-kilometre-scale-hot-spring-area-during-the-2016-kumamoto-earthquake
#20
Takeshi Tsuji, Jun'ichiro Ishibashi, Kazuya Ishitsuka, Ryuichi Kamata
We report horizontal sliding of the kilometre-scale geologic block under the Aso hot springs (Uchinomaki area) caused by vibrations from the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake (Mw 7.0). Direct borehole observations demonstrate the sliding along the horizontal geological formation at ~50 m depth, which is where the shallowest hydrothermal reservoir developed. Owing to >1 m northwest movement of the geologic block, as shown by differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR), extensional open fissures were generated at the southeastern edge of the horizontal sliding block, and compressional deformation and spontaneous fluid emission from wells were observed at the northwestern edge of the block...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
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