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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225356/improving-mechanical-properties-of-carbon-nanotube-fibers-through-simultaneous-solid-state-cycloaddition-and-crosslinking
#1
Nam-Goo Kang, Xinyi Lu, Nitilaksha Hiremath, Kunlun Hong, Maria Evora, Victoria Ranson, Amit Naskar, Gajanan Bhat, Jimmy Mays
Individual carbon nanotubes (CNTs) exhibit exceptional mechanical properties. However, difficulties remain to fully realize these properties in CNT macro-assemblies, because of the sliding past one another resulting from the weak inter-tube forces. Herein, a simple solid-state reaction is presented that enhances the mechanical properties of carbon nanotube fibers (CNTFs) through simultaneous covalent functionalization and crosslinking. This is the first chemical crosslinking proposed without involvement of catalyst or byproducts...
February 22, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224160/particle-wall-tribology-of-slippery-hydrogel-particle-suspensions
#2
Heather M Shewan, Jason R Stokes, Michel Cloitre
Slip is an important phenomenon that occurs during the flow of yield stress fluids like soft materials and pastes. Densely packed suspensions of hydrogel microparticles are used to show that slip is governed by the tribological interactions occurring between the samples and shearing surfaces. Both attractive/repulsive interactions between the dispersed particles and surface, as well as the viscoelasticity of the suspension, are found to play key roles in slip occurring within rheometric flows. We specifically discover that for two completely different sets of microgels, the sliding stress at which slip occurs scales with both the modulus of the particles and the bulk suspension modulus...
February 22, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222256/dynamic-melting-of-freezing-droplets-on-ultra-slippery-superhydrophobic-surfaces
#3
Fuqiang Chu, Xiaomin Wu, Lingli Wang
Condensed droplet freezing and freezing droplet melting phenomena on the prepared ultra-slippery superhydrophobic surface were observed and discussed in this study. Although the freezing delay performance of the surface is common, the melting of the freezing droplets on the surface is quite interesting. Three self-propelled movements of the melting droplets (ice water mixture) were found including the droplet rotating, the droplet jumping and the droplet sliding. The melting droplet rotating, which means that the melting droplet rotates spontaneously on the superhydrophobic surface like a spinning-top, is first reported in this study, and may have some potential applications in various engineering fields...
February 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222159/the-role-of-spatial-mobility-in-malaria-transmission-in-the-brazilian-amazon-the-case-of-porto-velho-municipality-rond%C3%A3-nia-brazil-2010-2012
#4
Jussara Rafael Angelo, Tony Hiroshi Katsuragawa, Paulo Chagastelles Sabroza, Lino Augusto Sander de Carvalho, Luiz Hildebrando Pereira da Silva, Carlos Afonso Nobre
BACKGROUND: This study aims to describe the role of mobility in malaria transmission by discussing recent changes in population movements in the Brazilian Amazon and developing a flow map of disease transmission in this region. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study presents a descriptive analysis using an ecological approach on regional and local scales. The study location was the municipality of Porto Velho, which is the capital of Rondônia state, Brazil...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220467/emergent-dynamical-properties-of-the-bcm-learning-rule
#5
Lawrence C Udeigwe, Paul W Munro, G Bard Ermentrout
The Bienenstock-Cooper-Munro (BCM) learning rule provides a simple setup for synaptic modification that combines a Hebbian product rule with a homeostatic mechanism that keeps the weights bounded. The homeostatic part of the learning rule depends on the time average of the post-synaptic activity and provides a sliding threshold that distinguishes between increasing or decreasing weights. There are, thus, two essential time scales in the BCM rule: a homeostatic time scale, and a synaptic modification time scale...
December 2017: Journal of Mathematical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218298/horizontal-sliding-of-kilometre-scale-hot-spring-area-during-the-2016-kumamoto-earthquake
#6
Takeshi Tsuji, Jun'ichiro Ishibashi, Kazuya Ishitsuka, Ryuichi Kamata
We report horizontal sliding of the kilometre-scale geologic block under the Aso hot springs (Uchinomaki area) caused by vibrations from the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake (Mw 7.0). Direct borehole observations demonstrate the sliding along the horizontal geological formation at ~50 m depth, which is where the shallowest hydrothermal reservoir developed. Owing to >1 m northwest movement of the geologic block, as shown by differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR), extensional open fissures were generated at the southeastern edge of the horizontal sliding block, and compressional deformation and spontaneous fluid emission from wells were observed at the northwestern edge of the block...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192650/facile-adhesion-tuning-of-superhydrophobic-surfaces-between-lotus-and-petal-effect-and-their-influence-on-icing-and-de-icing-properties
#7
Md Julker Nine, Tran Thanh Tung, Faisal Khalid Alotaibi, Diana N H Tran, Dusan Losic
Adhesion behaviour of superhydrophobic (SH) surfaces is an active research field related to various engineering applications in controlled microdroplet transportation, self-cleaning, de-icing, biochemical separation, tissue engineering, and water harvesting. Herein, we report a facile approach to control droplet adhesion, bouncing and rolling on properties of SH surfaces by tuning their air-gap and roughness-height by altering the concentrations of poly-dimethyl-siloxane (PDMS). The optimal use of PDMS (4 wt% to 16 wt%) in a dual-scale (nano and micro-particles) composite enables to control specific surface area (SSA), pore-volume, and roughness of matrices that results in a well-controlled adhesion between water droplets and SH surfaces...
February 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191383/minimally-invasive-direct-lateral-interbody-fusion-mis-dlif-proof-of-concept-and-perioperative-results
#8
Hamid Abbasi, Ali Abbasi
BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive direct lateral interbody fusion (MIS-DLIF) is a novel approach for fusions of the lumbar spine. In this proof of concept study, we describe the surgical technique and report our experience and the perioperative outcomes of the first nine patients who underwent this procedure. STUDY DESIGN/SETTING: In this study we establish the safety and efficacy of this approach. MIS-DLIF was performed on 15 spinal levels in nine patients who failed to respond to conservative therapy for the treatment of a re-herniated disk, spondylolisthesis, or other severe disk disease of the lumbar spine...
January 14, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186876/automated-classification-of-breast-cancer-stroma-maturity-from-histological-images
#9
Sara Reis, Patrycja Gazinska, John Hipwell, Thomy Mertzanidou, Kalnisha Naidoo, Norman Williams, Sarah Pinder, David J Hawkes
OBJECTIVE: The tumour microenvironment plays a crucial role in regulating tumour progression by a number of different mechanisms, in particular the remodelling of collagen fibres in tumour-associated stroma, which has been reported to be related to patient survival. The underlying motivation of this work is that remodelling of collagen fibres gives rise to observable patterns in Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stained slides from clinical cases of invasive breast carcinoma that the pathologist can label as mature or immature stroma...
February 7, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167232/integrative-network-analysis-reveals-time-dependent-molecular-events-underlying-left-ventricular-remodeling-in-post-myocardial-infarction-patients
#10
Florence Pinet, Marie Cuvelliez, Thomas Kelder, Philippe Amouyel, Marijana Radonjic, Christophe Bauters
To elucidate the time-resolved molecular events underlying the LV remodeling (LVR) process, we developed a large-scale network model that integrates the 24 molecular variables (plasma proteins and non-coding RNAs) collected in the REVE-2 study at four time points (baseline, 1month, 3months and 1year) after MI. The REVE-2 network model was built by extending the set of REVE-2 variables with their mechanistic context based on known molecular interactions (1310 nodes and 8639 edges). Changes in the molecular variables between the group of patients with high LVR (>20%) and low LVR (<20%) were used to identify active network modules within the clusters associated with progression of LVR, enabling assessment of time-resolved molecular changes...
February 3, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166880/repositioning-a-passive-patient-in-bed-choosing-an-ergonomically-advantageous-assistive-device
#11
Chava Weiner, Leonid Kalichman, Joseph Ribak, Deborah Alperovitch-Najenson
Repositioning of passive patients in bed creates health risks to the nursing personnel. Therefore, appropriate assistive devices should be used. Our aim was to find the optimal assistive device for reducing musculoskeletal load while moving a passive patient in bed. Torso kinematic inputs evaluated by the Lumbar Motion Monitor (LMM) and perceived load (Borg scale) were measured in female nurses performing 27 patient transfers [represented by a mannequin weighing 55 (12 nurses), 65 (24 nurses) and 75 kg (12 nurses) in bed] using a regular sheet, a sliding sheet and a carrier...
April 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165209/responsiveness-to-difference-ada-accommodations-in-the-course-of-an-arrest
#12
Robyn Levin
When the Supreme Court heard argument in City & County of San Francisco v. Sheehan in the spring of 2015, it intended to resolve a circuit split. In granting certiorari, the Court planned to clarify whether individuals with disabilities can sue police officers under the ADA if an officer fails to accommodate a disability in the course of an arrest. However, because the petitioners failed to brief the Court on that question, the portion of the case involving the ADA was dismissed as improvidently granted. Justices Scalia and Kagan were so enraged by the failure to brief on the "certworthy" question that they issued a partial dissent, refusing to issue opinions on any of the attendant issues...
January 2017: Stanford Law Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164206/influence-of-fluid-viscosity-and-wetting-on-multiscale-viscoelastic-lubrication-in-soft-tribological-contacts
#13
Nichola Selway, Vincent Chan, Jason R Stokes
Friction (and lubrication) between soft contacts is prevalent in many natural and engineered systems and plays a crucial role in determining their functionality. The contribution of viscoelastic hysteresis losses to friction in these systems has been well-established and defined for dry contacts; however, the influence of fluid viscosity and wetting on these components of friction has largely been overlooked. We provide systematic experimental evidence of the influence of lubricant viscosity and wetting on lubrication across multiple regimes within a viscoelastic contact...
February 6, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163680/segma-an-automatic-segmentation-approach-for-human-brain-mri-using-sliding-window-and-random-forests
#14
Ahmed Serag, Alastair G Wilkinson, Emma J Telford, Rozalia Pataky, Sarah A Sparrow, Devasuda Anblagan, Gillian Macnaught, Scott I Semple, James P Boardman
Quantitative volumes from brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) acquired across the life course may be useful for investigating long term effects of risk and resilience factors for brain development and healthy aging, and for understanding early life determinants of adult brain structure. Therefore, there is an increasing need for automated segmentation tools that can be applied to images acquired at different life stages. We developed an automatic segmentation method for human brain MRI, where a sliding window approach and a multi-class random forest classifier were applied to high-dimensional feature vectors for accurate segmentation...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156156/hyperglycemia-and-hypoglycemia-in-patients-with-diabetes-in-skilled-nursing-facilities
#15
Rushad Patell, Denis Nigmatoulline, James Bena, Do Gyun Kim, Barbara Messinger-Rapport, M Cecilia Lansang
BACKGROUND: Endocrinologists are faced with a growing elderly patient population with diabetes (DM), some of whom are in skilled nursing facilities (SNF). Efforts at managing their DM is hampered by concerns for hypoglycemia. This study aimed to determine the frequency of hypo- and hyperglycemia in SNFs, and associated factors. METHODS: We reviewed medical records of 200 consecutive residents admitted to 2 SNFs in the Cleveland area in 2014 with documented DM, aged ≥ 65 years...
February 3, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155842/tuning-the-morphology-of-silver-nanostructures-photochemically-coated-on-glass-substrates-an-effective-approach-to-large-scale-functional-surfaces
#16
Mohamed Zaier, Loic Vidal, Samar Hajjar-Garreau, Jean-Luc Bubendorff, Lavinia Balan
This paper reports on a simple and environmentally friendly photochemical process capable of generating nano-layers (8-22 nm) of silver nanostructures directly onto glass surfaces. This approach opens the way to large-scale functionalized surfaces with plasmonic properties through a single light-induced processing. Thus, Ag nanostructures top-coated were obtained through photo-reduction, at room temperature, of a photosensitive formulation containing a metal precursor, free from extra toxic stabilizers or reducing agents...
March 10, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150228/personalizing-mechanical-ventilation-according-to-physiologic-parameters-to-stabilize-alveoli-and-minimize-ventilator-induced-lung-injury-vili
#17
REVIEW
Gary F Nieman, Joshua Satalin, Penny Andrews, Hani Aiash, Nader M Habashi, Louis A Gatto
It has been shown that mechanical ventilation in patients with, or at high-risk for, the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) can be a double-edged sword. If the mechanical breath is improperly set, it can amplify the lung injury associated with ARDS, causing a secondary ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Conversely, the mechanical breath can be adjusted to minimize VILI, which can reduce ARDS mortality. The current standard of care ventilation strategy to minimize VILI attempts to reduce alveolar over-distension and recruitment-derecruitment (R/D) by lowering tidal volume (Vt) to 6 cc/kg combined with adjusting positive-end expiratory pressure (PEEP) based on a sliding scale directed by changes in oxygenation...
December 2017: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123114/split-scores-a-tool-to-quantify-phylogenetic-signal-in-genome-scale-data
#18
Elizabeth S Allman, Laura S Kubatko, John A Rhodes
Detecting variation in the evolutionary process along chromosomes is increasingly important as whole-genome data become more widely available. For example, factors such as incomplete lineage sorting, horizontal gene transfer, and chromosomal inversion are expected to result in changes in the underlying gene trees along a chromosome, while changes in selective pressure and mutational rates for different genomic regions may lead to shifts in the underlying mutational process. We propose the split score as a general method for quantifying support for a particular phylogenetic relationship within a genomic data set...
November 14, 2016: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121624/destructive-effect-of-hifu-on-rabbit-embedded-endometrial-carcinoma-tissues-and-their-vascularities
#19
Liming Guan, Gang Xu
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate damage effect of High-intensity focused ultrasound on early stage endometrial cancer tissues and their vascularities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rabbit endometrial cancer models were established via tumor blocks implantation for a prospective control study. Ultrasonic ablation efficacy was evaluated by pathologic and imaging changes. The target lesions of experimental rabbits before and after ultrasonic ablation were observed after autopsy. The slides were used for hematoxylin-eosin staining, elastic fiber staining and endothelial cell staining; the slides were observed by optical microscopy...
January 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118045/impact-of-a-paper-based-dynamic-insulin-infusion-protocol-on-glycemic-variability-time-in-target-and-hypoglycemic-risk-a-stepped-wedge-trial-in-medical-intensive-care-unit-patients
#20
Antoine Clergeau, Jean-Jacques Parienti, Yves Reznik, Deborah Clergeau, Amelie Seguin, Xavier Valette, Damien du Cheyron, Michael Joubert
BACKGROUND: Stress-induced hyperglycemia is a common feature of intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Besides mean blood glucose (BG) level, glucose variability and hypoglycemia have been highlighted as independent predictors of ICU and hospital mortality. Recent ICU recommendations suggest using insulin infusion protocols that can minimize glucose variability and hypoglycemic risk. Our aim was to assess the efficacy, safety, and acceptance by nurses of a paper-based simple dynamic insulin protocol compared with those by nurses of a paper-based static protocol...
February 2017: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
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