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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815110/development-of-a-framework-for-large-scale-three-dimensional-pathology-and-biomarker-imaging-and-spatial-analytics
#1
Yanhui Liang, Fusheng Wang, Pengyue Zhang, Joel H Saltz, Daniel J Brat, Jun Kong
With the rapid advancement in large-throughput scanning technologies, digital pathology has emerged as platform with promise for diagnostic approaches, but also for high-throughput quantitative data extraction and analysis for translational research. Digital pathology and biomarker images are rich sources of information on tissue architecture, cell diversity and morphology, and molecular pathway activation. However, the understanding of disease in three-dimension (3D) has been hampered by their traditional two-dimension (2D) representations on histologic slides...
2017: AMIA Summits on Translational Science Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811373/friction-law-and-hysteresis-in-granular-materials
#2
E DeGiuli, M Wyart
The macroscopic friction of particulate materials often weakens as the flow rate is increased, leading to potentially disastrous intermittent phenomena including earthquakes and landslides. We theoretically and numerically study this phenomenon in simple granular materials. We show that velocity weakening, corresponding to a nonmonotonic behavior in the friction law, [Formula: see text], is present even if the dynamic and static microscopic friction coefficients are identical, but disappears for softer particles...
August 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806722/spontaneous-modality-general-abstraction-of-a-ratio-scale
#3
Cory D Bonn, Jessica F Cantlon
The existence of a generalized magnitude system in the human mind and brain has been studied extensively but remains elusive because it has not been clearly defined. Here we show that one possibility is the representation of relative magnitudes via ratio calculations: ratios are a naturally dimensionless or abstract quantity that could qualify as a common currency for magnitudes measured on vastly different psychophysical scales and in different sensory modalities like size, number, duration, and loudness. In a series of demonstrations based on comparisons of item sequences, we demonstrate that subjects spontaneously use knowledge of inter-item ratios within and across sensory modalities and across magnitude domains to rate sequences as more or less similar on a sliding scale...
August 11, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805079/nonlinear-recurrent-dynamics-and-long-term-nonstationarities-in-eeg-alpha-cortical-activity-implications-for-choosing-adequate-segment-length-in-nonlinear-eeg-analyses
#4
Alexander Cerquera, Madelon A Vollebregt, Martijn Arns
Nonlinear analysis of EEG recordings allows detection of characteristics that would probably be neglected by linear methods. This study aimed to determine a suitable epoch length for nonlinear analysis of EEG data based on its recurrence rate in EEG alpha activity (electrodes Fz, Oz, and Pz) from 28 healthy and 64 major depressive disorder subjects. Two nonlinear metrics, Lempel-Ziv complexity and scaling index, were applied in sliding windows of 20 seconds shifted every 1 second and in nonoverlapping windows of 1 minute...
August 1, 2017: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804255/a-phase-plane-analysis-of-localized-frictional-waves
#5
T Putelat, J H P Dawes, A R Champneys
Sliding frictional interfaces at a range of length scales are observed to generate travelling waves; these are considered relevant, for example, to both earthquake ground surface movements and the performance of mechanical brakes and dampers. We propose an explanation of the origins of these waves through the study of an idealized mechanical model: a thin elastic plate subject to uniform shear stress held in frictional contact with a rigid flat surface. We construct a nonlinear wave equation for the deformation of the plate, and couple it to a spinodal rate-and-state friction law which leads to a mathematically well-posed problem that is capable of capturing many effects not accessible in a Coulomb friction model...
July 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792863/addition-of-insulin-to-parenteral-nutrition-for-control-of-hyperglycemia
#6
Adam McCulloch, Vishakha Bansiya, Jeremy M Woodward
Administration of parenteral nutrition (PN) may result in hyperglycemia in patients with preexisting diabetes or disease-related insulin resistance, and it can be associated with increased rates of complications. Treatment requires insulin therapy. Insulin can be administered subcutaneously, intravenously via a variable rate sliding scale, or by adding it directly to the PN. The last method is a potentially attractive technique for a number of reasons-it could deliver the insulin intravenously at a steady rate alongside carbohydrates, and in malnourished patients with little subcutaneous tissue, it may prevent the need for frequent insulin injections...
August 1, 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790392/fabrication-of-water-jet-resistant-and-thermally-stable-superhydrophobic-surfaces-by-spray-coating-of-candle-soot-dispersion
#7
Talal F Qahtan, Mohammed A Gondal, Ibrahim O Alade, Mohammed A Dastageer
A facile synthesis method for highly stable carbon nanoparticle (CNP) dispersion in acetone by incomplete combustion of paraffin candle flame is presented. The synthesized CNP dispersion is the mixture of graphitic and amorphous carbon nanoparticles of the size range of 20-50 nm and manifested the mesoporosity with an average pore size of 7 nm and a BET surface area of 366 m(2)g(-1). As an application of this material, the carbon nanoparticle dispersion was spray coated (spray-based coating) on a glass surface to fabricate superhydrophobic (water contact angle > 150° and sliding angle < 10 °) surfaces...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789536/computational-simulations-of-solvation-force-and-squeezing-out-of-dodecane-chain-molecules-in-an-atomic-force-microscope
#8
Rong-Guang Xu, Yuan Xiang, Yongsheng Leng
Understanding the squeeze out behaviors of liquid films at nanometer scale in an atomic force microscope (AFM) has been a significant interest since the 1990s. We carry out all-atom static-mode AFM simulations in a liquid-vapor molecular dynamics ensemble to investigate the solvation force oscillation and squeeze out mechanisms of a confined linear dodecane fluid between a gold AFM tip and a mica substrate. Solvation force oscillations are found to be associated with the layering transition of the liquid film and unstable jumps of the AFM tip...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777536/in-situ-multilength-scale-tracking-of-dimensional-and-viscoelastic-changes-in-composite-battery-electrodes
#9
Vadim Dargel, Nicolas Jäckel, Netanel Shpigel, Sergey Sigalov, Mikhael D Levi, Leonid Daikhin, Volker Presser, Doron Aurbach
Intercalation-induced dimensional changes in a composite battery electrode (comprising a polymeric binder) are one of the major factors limiting electrode cycling performance. Since electrode performance is expressed by the quantities averaged over its entire surface area (e.g., capacity retention, Faradaic efficiency, rate capability), significant efforts have been made to develop a methodology allowing its facile mechanical diagnostics at the same areal scale. Herein we introduce such a generic methodology for a highly sensitive in situ monitoring of intrinsic mechanical properties of composite battery electrodes...
August 4, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774085/tribocorrosion-failure-mechanism-of-tin-siox-duplex-coating-deposited-on-aisi304-stainless-steel
#10
Qiang Chen, Zhiwen Xie, Tian Chen, Feng Gong
TiN/SiOx duplex coatings were synthesized on AISI304 stainless steel by plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIIID) followed by radio frequency magnetron sputtering (RFMS). The microstructure and tribocorrosion failure behaviors of the duplex coatings were investigated by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, reciprocating-sliding tribometer, and electrochemical tests. The as-deposited duplex coating had a two-layered columnar growth structure consisting of face-centered cubic TiN and amorphous SiOx...
November 26, 2016: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772909/scaling-effects-on-materials-tribology-from-macro-to-micro-scale
#11
REVIEW
Pantcho Stoyanov, Richard R Chromik
The tribological study of materials inherently involves the interaction of surface asperities at the micro to nanoscopic length scales. This is the case for large scale engineering applications with sliding contacts, where the real area of contact is made up of small contacting asperities that make up only a fraction of the apparent area of contact. This is why researchers have sought to create idealized experiments of single asperity contacts in the field of nanotribology. At the same time, small scale engineering structures known as micro- and nano-electromechanical systems (MEMS and NEMS) have been developed, where the apparent area of contact approaches the length scale of the asperities, meaning the real area of contact for these devices may be only a few asperities...
May 18, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772596/the-stability-analysis-method-of-the-cohesive-granular-slope-on-the-basis-of-graph-theory
#12
Yanpeng Guan, Xiaoli Liu, Enzhi Wang, Sijing Wang
This paper attempted to provide a method to calculate progressive failure of the cohesivefrictional granular geomaterial and the spatial distribution of the stability of the cohesive granular slope. The methodology can be divided into two parts: the characterization method of macro-contact and the analysis of the slope stability. Based on the graph theory, the vertexes, the edges and the edge sequences are abstracted out to characterize the voids, the particle contact and the macro-contact, respectively, bridging the gap between the mesoscopic and macro scales of granular materials...
February 27, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738231/sliding-strip-microfluidic-device-enables-elisa-on-paper
#13
Mohit S Verma, Maria-Nefeli Tsaloglou, Tyler Sisley, Dionysios Christodouleas, Austin Chen, Jonathan Milette, George M Whitesides
This article describes a 3D microfluidic paper-based analytical device that can be used to conduct an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The device comprises two parts: a sliding strip (which contains the active sensing area) and a structure surrounding the sliding strip (which holds stored reagents-buffers, antibodies, and enzymatic substrate-and distributes fluid). Running an ELISA involves adding sample (e.g. blood) and water, moving the sliding strip at scheduled times, and analyzing the resulting color in the sensing area visually or using a flatbed scanner...
July 19, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729643/superhydrophobic-drag-reduction-spherical-bearing-fabricated-by-laser-ablation-and-pei-regulated-zno-nanowire-growth
#14
Rui Weng, Haifeng Zhang, Yanjing Tuo, Yang Wang, Xiaowei Liu
The resistance of the bearing is a significant factor affecting the performance of the ball-disk rotor gyroscope. The micro and nano combined surface with low surface energy material modifications can be hydrophobic. This can reduce the drag when the bearing is lubricated by deionized water. Laser ablation method is utilized to form micron-scaled structures on the surface of the stainless steel rotor ball. And the nanostructures are formed by PEI (Polyetherimide) regulated ZnO nanowires growth. After low surface energy material modification, the water contact angle of processed surface was 163° and the sliding angle was less than 4°...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726941/superlubricity-of-a-graphene-mos2-heterostructure-a-combined-experimental-and-dft-study
#15
Linfeng Wang, Xiang Zhou, Tianbao Ma, Dameng Liu, Lei Gao, Xin Li, Jun Zhang, Yuanzhong Hu, Hui Wang, Yadong Dai, Jianbin Luo
Graphene and other two-dimensional materials have been proved to be able to offer low friction. Here we assembled van der Waals heterostructures with graphene and molybdenum disulphide monolayers. The Raman spectrum together with a modified linear chain model indicate a two-orders-of-magnitude decrease in the interlayer lateral force constant, as compared with their homogeneous bilayers, indicating a possible routine to achieve superlubricity. The decrease in the interlayer lateral force constant is consistent with the ultrasmall potential energy corrugation during sliding, which is derived from density functional theory calculations...
August 3, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722147/surface-isoelectric-focusing-sief-with-carrier-ampholyte-ph-gradient
#16
Zhichao Wang, Cornelius Ivory, Adrienne R Minerick
Isoelectric focusing (IEF) is a powerful tool for amphoteric protein separations because of high sensitivity, bio-compatibility, and reduced complexity compared to chromatography or mechanical separation techniques. IEF miniaturization is attractive because it enables rapid analysis, easier adaptation to point of care applications, and smaller sample demands. However, existing small-scale IEF tools have not yet been able to analyze single protein spots from array libraries, which are ubiquitous in many pharmaceutical discovery and screening protocols...
July 19, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707879/interparticle-interactions-in-colloidal-systems-toward-a-comprehensive-mesoscale-model
#17
Saeed Masoumi, Hamid Valipour, Mohammad Javad Abdolhosseini Qomi
Intermolecular interactions control the collective behavior of colloidal clusters. The overwhelming majority of literature focuses on cohesive attributes of intermolecular forces as they govern the jamming process. However, the overlooked sliding component plays a critical role in the slow relaxation dynamics of colloidal aggregates and the emergence of discontinuous shear thickening in dense suspensions. Here, we use crystalline calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H) as a model system to explore synergistic cohesive and sliding interactions...
August 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702991/self-similar-hierarchical-wrinkles-as-a-potential-multifunctional-smart-window-with-simultaneously-tunable-transparency-structural-color-and-droplet-transport
#18
Gaojian Lin, Prashant Chandrasekaran, Cunjing Lv, Qiuting Zhang, Yichao Tang, Lin Han, Jie Yin
Smart window has immense potential for energy savings in architectural and vehicular applications, while most studies focus on the tunability of a single property of optical transmittance. Here we explore harnessing dynamically tunable hierarchical wrinkles for design of a potential multifunctional smart window with combined structural color and water droplet transport control. The self-similar hierarchical wrinkles with both nanoscale and microscale features are generated on a prestrained poly(dimethylsiloxane) elastomer through sequential strain release and multistep oxygen plasma treatment...
August 9, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660256/a-comparison-of-inpatient-cost-per-day-in-general-surgery-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-treated-with-basal-bolus-versus-sliding-scale-insulin-regimens
#19
Victoria L Phillips, Anwar L Byrd, Saira Adeel, Limin Peng, Dawn D Smiley, Guillermo E Umpierrez
BACKGROUND: The identification of cost-effective glycaemic management strategies is critical to hospitals. Treatment with a basal-bolus insulin (BBI) regimen has been shown to result in better glycaemic control and fewer complications than sliding scale regular insulin (SSI) in general surgery patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but the effect on costs is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a post hoc analysis of the RABBIT Surgery trial to examine whether total inpatient costs per day for general surgery patients with T2DM treated with BBI (n = 103) differed from those for patients with T2DM treated with SSI (n = 99) regimens...
2017: PharmacoEconomics open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659865/review-of-evidence-for-adult-diabetic-ketoacidosis-management-protocols
#20
REVIEW
Tara T T Tran, Anthony Pease, Anna J Wood, Jeffrey D Zajac, Johan Mårtensson, Rinaldo Bellomo, Elif I I Ekinci
BACKGROUND: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is an endocrine emergency with associated risk of morbidity and mortality. Despite this, DKA management lacks strong evidence due to the absence of large randomised controlled trials (RCTs). OBJECTIVE: To review existing studies investigating inpatient DKA management in adults, focusing on intravenous (IV) fluids; insulin administration; potassium, bicarbonate, and phosphate replacement; and DKA management protocols and impact of DKA resolution rates on outcomes...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
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