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sliding scale

Silvia Bonfanti, Alessandro Taloni, Carlotta Negri, Alessandro Sellerio, Nicola Manini, Stefano Zapperi
Macroscopic frictional sliding emerges from atomic-scale interactions and processes at the contact interface, but bridging the gap between micro and macro scales still remains an unsolved challenge. Direct imaging of the contact surface and simultaneous measurement of stress fields during macroscopic frictional slip revealed the formation of crack precursors, questioning the traditional picture of frictional contacts described in terms of a single degree of freedom. Here we study the onset of frictional slip at atomic scale by simulating the motion of an aluminum block pushed by a slider on a copper substrate...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
T Danielle Samulski, Laura A Taylor, Teresa La, Chelsea R Mehr, Cindy M McGrath, Roseann I Wu
BACKGROUND: Adaptive eLearning allows students to experience a self-paced, individualized curriculum based on prior knowledge and learning ability. METHODS: The authors investigated the effectiveness of adaptive online modules in teaching cervical cytopathology. eLearning modules were created that covered basic concepts in cervical cytopathology, including artifacts and infections, squamous lesions (SL), and glandular lesions (GL). The modules used student responses to individualize the educational curriculum and provide real-time feedback...
October 20, 2017: Cancer
Raaj Kishore Biswas, Enamul Kabir, Rachel King
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a much researched topic in medical health, which requires additional studies to understand various effects of demographic and geographic factors that can assist in developing the most effective treatments. Thousands of people of different ages are suffering from lifelong disabilities, either mild or severe, from TBI and the number is increasing. This study aims to increase our understanding of the effect of sex and age by applying five different statistical methods to evaluate the effect of these covariates on two independent TBI data sets representing patients from different geographical cohorts...
2017: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
Xinyu Shu, Deli Kong, Yan Lu, Haibo Long, Shiduo Sun, Xuechao Sha, Hao Zhou, Yanhui Chen, Shengcheng Mao, Yinong Liu
This paper reports a study of time-resolved deformation process at the atomic scale of a nanocrystalline Pt thin film captured in situ under a transmission electron microscope. The main mechanism of plastic deformation was found to evolve from full dislocation activity-enabled plasticity in large grains (with grain size d > 10 nm), to partial dislocation plasticity in smaller grains (with grain size 10 nm < d < 6 nm), and grain boundary-mediated plasticity in the matrix with grain sizes d < 6 nm...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
Esther Diana Rossi, Swati Mehrotra, Ayse Irem Kilic, Iclal Erdem Toslak, Jennifer Lim-Dunham, Maurizio Martini, Guido Fadda, Celestino Pio Lombardi, Luigi Maria Larocca, Güliz A Barkan
BACKGROUND: The most common malignant thyroid neoplasm in children is papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). In 2015, the Endocrine Pathology Society introduced the terminology "noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features" (NIFTP) to replace the noninvasive follicular variant of PTC. The objective of the current study was to evaluate previously diagnosed PTC in the pediatric population, reappraise it for NIFTP, and discuss the impact of NIFTP on the risk of malignancy (ROM) for each The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology category in the pediatric population...
October 12, 2017: Cancer
Ana Carmen Dos Santos Ribeiro Simoes Juliano, Alessandra Lamas Granero Lucchetti, Jéssica Teixeira Santos da Silva, Letícia Gomes Santos, Jéssica Borges Taranto Nunes, Guilherme Cortes Fernandes, Giancarlo Lucchetti
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prevalence and number of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) in hospitalized older adults, comparing prescription patterns of medical specialties. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Tertiary general hospital. PARTICIPANTS: All older adults hospitalized from January through May 2015 (N = 1,900). MEASUREMENTS: Information on medications prescribed during the first and last days of hospitalization was collected and evaluated regarding PIMs using Beers and Screening Tool of Older People's Prescriptions (STOPP) criteria...
October 4, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Tooba Shoaib, Joerg Heintz, Josue Lopez-Berganza, Raymundo Muro-Barrios, Simon A Egner, Rosa M Espinosa-Marzal
The lubrication behavior of the hydrated biopolymers that constitute tissues in organisms differs from that outlined by the classical Stribeck curve and studying hydrogel lubrication is a key pathway to understand the complexity of biolubrication. We have investigated the frictional characteristics of polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogels of various acrylamide concentrations, exhibiting Young's moduli (E) that range from 1 to 40 kPa, as a function of applied normal load and sliding velocities by colloid probe lateral force microscopy...
September 29, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Takuya Kuwahara, Gianpietro Moras, Michael Moseler
Large-scale quantum molecular dynamics of water-lubricated diamond (111) surfaces in sliding contact reveals multiple friction regimes. While water starvation causes amorphization of the tribological interface, small H_{2}O traces are sufficient to preserve crystallinity. This can result in high friction due to cold welding via ether groups or in ultralow friction due to aromatic surface passivation triggered by tribo-induced Pandey reconstruction. At higher water coverage, Grotthuss-type diffusion and H_{2}O dissociation yield dense H/OH surface passivation leading to another ultralow friction regime...
September 1, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Ali M Masmali, Yahya A Maeni, Gamal A El-Hiti, Paul J Murphy, Turki Almubrad
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the ocular tear film in controlled and uncontrolled diabetes mellitus (DM) subjects and the relationship between dry eye and diabetes. METHODS: One hundred twenty-four diabetes adults (65 male and 59 female, with 62 controlled and 62 uncontrolled DM) were assessed by McMonnies dry eye questionnaire, tear break-up time (TBUT), phenol red thread (PRT) test. In addition, tear samples were collected from the lower tear meniscus of right eyes and dried onto glass slides under controlled room temperature (25°C) and humidity (40%)...
September 21, 2017: Eye & Contact Lens
Siyamalan Manivannan, Wenqi Li, Jianguo Zhang, Emanuele Trucco, Stephen McKenna
We present a novel method to segment instances of glandular structures from colon histopathology images. We use a structure learning approach which represents local spatial configurations of class labels, capturing structural information normally ignored by sliding-window methods. This allows us to reveal different spatial structures of pixel labels (e.g., locations between adjacent glands, or far from glands), and to identify correctly neighbouring glandular structures as separate instances. Exemplars of label structures are obtained via clustering and used to train support vector machine classifiers...
September 8, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Yan Zhou, Chao-Jie Wang, Chun-Chao Zhu, Jiang-Rong Chen, Ming Cheng, Yu-Liang Deng, Yan Guo
Single-cell analysis of heterogeneity has become the cutting-edge technology for profound understandings of relationships between cell populations. At present, common methods used in single cellular genomic research are mainly microfluidic technologies (Fluidigm) or based on microwells, both requiring a uniform size of cells at the entrance. However, the size of cells in specific tissues can vary from type to type. To address this issue, we need to establish a method to identify genomic features of individual cells of different sizes...
August 20, 2017: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
Kátia B Amaral, Thiago P Silva, Felipe F Dias, Kássia K Malta, Florence M Rosa, Sócrates F Costa-Neto, Rosana Gentile, Rossana C N Melo
The pathology of schistosomiasis mansoni, a neglected tropical disease of great clinical and socioeconomic importance, results from the parasite eggs that become trapped in host tissues, particularly in the liver and intestines. Continuous antigenic stimulation from these eggs leads to recruitment of inflammatory cells to the sites of infection with formation of periovular granulomas. These complex structures have variable size and composition and are the most striking histopathological feature of schistosomiasis mansoni...
2017: PloS One
Shende Rashmi Chandrabhan, Velayudhanpillai Jayan, Somendra Singh Parihar, Sundara Ramaprabhu
The present paper describes a facile synthesis method for nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-rGO) and the application of N-rGO as an effective additive for improving the tribological properties of base oil. N-rGO has been characterized by different characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. N-rGO-based nanolubricants are prepared and their tribological properties are studied using a four-ball tester...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Sixie Huang, Irene J Beyerlein, Caizhi Zhou
In this work, we employ atomic-scale simulations to uncover the interface-driven deformation mechanisms in biphase nanolayered composites. Two internal boundaries persist in these materials, the interlayer crystalline boundaries and intralayer biphase interfaces, and both have nanoscale dimensions. These internal surfaces are known to control the activation and motion of dislocations, and despite the fact that most of these materials bear both types of interfaces. From our calculations, we find that the first defect event, signifying yield, is controlled by the intralayer spacing (grain size, d), and not the intralayer biphase spacing (layer thickness, h)...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Gang Wu, Jing Zhao, Stefan Franzen, Ah-Lim Tsai
Dehaloperoxidase-hemoglobin (DHP), a multifunctional globin protein, not only functions as an oxygen carrier as typical globins such as myoglobin and hemoglobin, but also as a peroxidase, a mono- and dioxygenase, peroxygenase, and an oxidase. Kinetics of DHP binding to NO, CO, and O2 were characterized for wild-type DHP A and B and the H55D and H55V DHP A mutants using stopped-flow methods. All three gaseous ligands bind to DHP significantly more weakly than sperm whale myoglobin (SWMb). Both CO and NO bind to DHP in a one-step process to form a stable six-coordinate complex...
October 5, 2017: Biochemical Journal
Tetsuya Yamamoto, Yuichi Masubuchi, Masao Doi
Many biopolymer gels generate negative normal stress, with which the polymer networks shrink in the normal of applied shear. Here we theoretically predict the sliding velocity of such a gel on a solid surface when a constant shear stress is applied to the gel. Our theory predicts that the negative normal stress drives the flow of the solvent in the gel and this produces a solvent layer between the gel and the surface. The sliding velocity of the gel is proportional to the thickness of the solvent layer and is a cubic function of the applied shear stress...
September 27, 2017: Soft Matter
James Douglas Bremner, Sanskriti Mishra, Carolina Campanella, Majid Shah, Nicole Kasher, Sarah Evans, Negar Fani, Amit Jasvant Shah, Collin Reiff, Lori L Davis, Viola Vaccarino, James Carmody
OBJECTIVE: Brain imaging studies in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have implicated a circuitry of brain regions including the medial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, parietal cortex, and insula. Pharmacological treatment studies have shown a reversal of medial prefrontal deficits in response to traumatic reminders. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is a promising non-pharmacologic approach to the treatment of anxiety and pain disorders. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of MBSR on PTSD symptoms and brain response to traumatic reminders measured with positron-emission tomography (PET) in Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) combat veterans with PTSD...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Amber D Donnelly, Maheswari S Mukherjee, Jana Koth, Lisa Bartenhagen
BACKGROUND: Interprofessional education (IPE) is becoming increasingly prevalent in health science education, with the goal of preparing students to work collaboratively in teams within the healthcare environment. Students in our cytotechnology and radiation therapy (RT) programs used virtual technologies to demonstrate their professions using case studies. The purpose of this activity was to see if our students' knowledge of each other's professions and educational technologies increased and if the students had a better understanding of how they would work together in a healthcare team...
2017: Journal of Allied Health
Go Yoshida, Tomohiko Hasegawa, Yu Yamato, Sho Kobayashi, Shin Oe, Tomohiro Banno, Yuuki Mihara, Hideyuki Arima, Hiroki Ushirozako, Tatsuya Yasuda, Daisuke Togawa, Yukihiro Matsuyama
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective database study OBJECTIVE.: To develop and validate a sliding scale for predicting perioperative complications associated with ASD surgery. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: ASD surgery can have high perioperative complication rates, which is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. METHODS: Data on consecutive ASD patients undergoing posterior corrective surgery over a six-year interval were collected from a prospective database...
September 6, 2017: Spine
Yuchong Shao, Tevis D B Jacobs, Yijie Jiang, Kevin T Turner, Robert W Carpick, Michael L Falk
Single-asperity wear experiments and simulations have identified different regimes of wear including Eyring- and Archard-like behaviors. A multibond dynamics model has been developed based on the friction model of Filippov et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 135503 (2004)]. This new model captures both qualitatively distinct regimes of single-asperity wear under a unified theoretical framework. In this model, the interfacial bond formation, wearless rupture, and transfer of atoms are governed by three competing thermally activated processes...
October 11, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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