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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452148/complete-inhibition-of-fetal-movement-in-the-day-40-pregnant-goat-model-by-the-piperidine-alkaloid-anabasine-but-not-related-alkaloids
#1
B T Green, S T Lee, J W Keele, K D Welch, D Cook, J A Pfister, W R Kem
Four chemically similar alkaloids, anabasine, anabaseine, epibatidine and dimethylphenylpiperazinium (DMPP), are potent nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists of fetal muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in human TE-671 cells. Based on results with these cells, we hypothesized that the alkaloids would completely inhibit ultrasound-monitored fetal movement in a goat model. Different, single doses of anabasine, anabaseine, epibatidine, DMPP, or saline control were administered I.V. to pregnant goats on day 40 of gestation and the number of fetal movements per 5 min sample was measured by ultrasound at times 0, 0...
February 13, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451373/regional-structural-and-functional-specialisations-in-the-urethra-of-the-female-rat-evidence-for-complex-physiological-control-systems
#2
Monica Eggermont, Stefan De Wachter, Jane Eastham, James Gillespie
The present study characterises the complex structural and functional elements of the female rat urethra that may be involved in controlling urethral closure and continence. Urethras were dissected from female Sprague-Dawley rats (n=12) euthanized by pentobarbital overdose. Tissues were fixed (4% paraformaldehyde), frozen and sectioned (8μm) for light microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Antibodies were used to detect immunoreactivity to calcitonin gene related peptide, nitric oxide synthase, vesicular acetylcholine transporter and tyrosine hydroxylase...
February 16, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449621/polygonum-aviculare-l-extract-and-quercetin-attenuate-contraction-in-airway-smooth-muscle
#3
Xi Luo, Lu Xue, Hao Xu, Qing-Yang Zhao, Qian Wang, Yu-Shan She, Dun-An Zang, Jinhua Shen, Yong-Bo Peng, Ping Zhao, Meng-Fei Yu, Weiwei Chen, Li-Qun Ma, Shu Chen, Shanshan Chen, Xiangning Fu, Sheng Hu, Xiaowei Nie, Chenyou Shen, Chunbin Zou, Gangjian Qin, Jiapei Dai, Guangju Ji, Yunchao Su, Shen Hu, Jingyu Chen, Qing-Hua Liu
Because of the serious side effects of the currently used bronchodilators, new compounds with similar functions must be developed. We screened several herbs and found that Polygonum aviculare L. contains ingredients that inhibit the precontraction of mouse and human airway smooth muscle (ASM). High K + -induced precontraction in ASM was completely inhibited by nifedipine, a selective blocker of L-type voltage-dependent Ca 2+ channels (LVDCCs). However, nifedipine only partially reduced the precontraction induced by acetylcholine chloride (ACH)...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447857/estradiol-effect-on-short-term-object-memory-under-hypocholinergic-condition
#4
Luciana M Pereira, Isabella M Guimarães, Vinícius E M Oliveira, Cristiane P Bastos, Fabíola M Ribeiro, Vânia F Prado, Marco A M Prado, Grace S Pereira
Estrogens positively affect object recognition memory (ORM). However, whether this effect rely on acetylcholine is unknown. Here we investigated if 17β-estradiol (E2) would be able to recover ORM deficits in animals with decreased expression of the Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter (VAChT KD HET ). We found that E2 improved short-term ORM (STM) in VAChT KD HET male and in OVX female mutant mice. However, E2 did not recover long-term (LTM) ORM in both sexes. Next, we tested whether hippocampal ERs activation could also rescue STM in mutant mice...
February 12, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445240/high-fat-diet-induced-metabolically-obese-and-normal-weight-rabbit-model-shows-early-vascular-dysfunction-mechanisms-involved
#5
Gabriela Alarcon, Julieta Roco, Mirta Medina, Analia Medina, Maria Peral, Susana Jerez
BACKGROUND: Obesity contributes significantly to the development and evolution of cardiovascular disease (CVD) which is believed to be mediated by oxidative stress, inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. However, the vascular health of metabolically obese and normal weight (MONW) individuals is not completely comprehended. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of our study was to evaluate vascular function on the basis of a high fat diet (HFD)-MONW rabbit model. SUBJECTS: Twenty four male rabbits were randomly assigned to receive either a regular diet (CD, n = 12) or a high-fat diet (18% extra fat on the regular diet, HFD, n = 12) for 6 weeks...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441784/yellow-emissive-carbon-dots-based-optical-sensing-platform-cell-imaging-and-analytical-applications-for-biocatalytic-reactions
#6
Hongxia Li, Xu Yan, Shanpeng Qiao, Geyu Lu, Xingguang Su
Carbon dots (CDs) attract increasing interest in bioimaging and sensing recently. Herein, we present a simple synthetic strategy to prepare yellow-emission CDs (λem = 535 nm) by one-pot hydrothermal treatment of p-phenylenediamine and aspartic acid. The as-prepared CDs possess outstanding optical features, excellent biocompatibility and low cytotoxicity, especially for fluorescence cellular imaging. Interestingly, by combining the quenching and recognition ability of AgNPs with the optical capacity of CDs, a label-free strategy for specifically monitoring H2O2-generated biocatalytic processes was proposed, such as glucose oxidase-induced conversion of glucose, cholesterol oxidase-catalyzed oxidization of cholesterol, bi-enzyme of acetylcholinesterase and choline oxidase-mediated reaction of acetylcholine...
February 14, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441654/effect-of-rivastigmine-on-plasma-butyrylcholine-esterase-activity-and-plasma-ghrelin-levels-in-patients-with-dementia-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Atsushi Kuroda, Manabu Setoguchi, Yasushi Uchino, Kazuya Nagata, Daisuke Hokonohara
AIM: Alzheimer's disease causes loss of appetite, resulting in bodyweight reduction. This, in turn, causes progression of cognitive dysfunction and physical complications that hasten death. Earlier care for loss of appetite is essential in Alzheimer's disease management. Rivastigmine is a therapeutic agent for Alzheimer's disease that has dual inhibition effects on acetylcholine esterase and butyrylcholine esterase. Butyrylcholine esterase is known to degrade the gastric hormone, ghrelin, which regulates appetite; therefore, we considered that rivastigmine might have an effect on appetite...
February 14, 2018: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441578/cell-type-specific-tracing-of-the-subcortical-input-to-primary-visual-cortex-from-the-basal-forebrain
#8
Georgina A Lean, Yong-Jun Liu, David C Lyon
The basal forebrain provides cholinergic inputs to primary visual cortex (V1) that play a key modulatory role on visual function. While basal forebrain afferents terminate in the infragranular layers of V1, acetylcholine is delivered to more superficial layers through volume transmission. Nevertheless, direct synaptic contact in deep layers 5 and 6 may provide a more immediate effect on V1 modulation. Using helper viruses with cell type specific promoters to target retrograde infection of pseudotyped and genetically modified rabies virus evidence was found for direct synaptic input onto V1 inhibitory neurons...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440997/layer-and-cell-type-specific-modulation-of-excitatory-neuronal-activity-in-the-neocortex
#9
REVIEW
Gabriele Radnikow, Dirk Feldmeyer
From an anatomical point of view the neocortex is subdivided into up to six layers depending on the cortical area. This subdivision has been described already by Meynert and Brodmann in the late 19/early 20. century and is mainly based on cytoarchitectonic features such as the size and location of the pyramidal cell bodies. Hence, cortical lamination is originally an anatomical concept based on the distribution of excitatory neuron. However, it has become apparent in recent years that apart from the layer-specific differences in morphological features, many functional properties of neurons are also dependent on cortical layer or cell type...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440996/is-there-a-canonical-cortical-circuit-for-the-cholinergic-system-anatomical-differences-across-common-model-systems
#10
REVIEW
Jennifer J Coppola, Anita A Disney
Acetylcholine (ACh) is believed to act as a neuromodulator in cortical circuits that support cognition, specifically in processes including learning, memory consolidation, vigilance, arousal and attention. The cholinergic modulation of cortical processes is studied in many model systems including rodents, cats and primates. Further, these studies are performed in cortical areas ranging from the primary visual cortex to the prefrontal cortex and using diverse methodologies. The results of these studies have been combined into singular models of function-a practice based on an implicit assumption that the various model systems are equivalent and interchangeable...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439512/the-influence-of-inflammation-and-nerve-damage-on-the-neurochemical-characterization-of-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-like-immunoreactive-cgrp-li-neurons-in-the-enteric-nervous-system-of-the-porcine-descending-colon
#11
Krystyna Makowska, Slawomir Gonkowski
The enteric nervous system (ENS), localized in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract, regulates the functions of the intestine using a wide range of neuronally-active substances. One of them is the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), whose participation in pathological states in the large intestine remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of inflammation and nerve damage using a double immunofluorescence technique to neurochemically characterize CGRP-positive enteric nervous structures in the porcine descending colon...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438716/cholinergic-tone-in-ventral-tegmental-area-functional-organization-and-behavioral-implications
#12
REVIEW
Changzheng Zhang, Xiaodong Liu, Peiling Zhou, Junjie Zhang, Wuming He, Ti-Fei Yuan
The ventral tegmental area (VTA), a pivotal brain region of the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system, is substantially innervated and modulated by cholinergic projections from the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus. In this review, we focus mainly on the current findings on VTA cholinergic compositions and functions, including VTA cholinergic innervations and synaptic connectivity, acetylcholine receptor expression and functional characteristics, cholinergic modulation of neuronal activity and dopamine efflux, cholinergic modulation of VTA-mediated behaviors such as reward and addiction, stress and depression, locomotion, etc...
February 10, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438564/erratum-for-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-agonist-ameliorates-nicotine-plus-high-fat-diet-induced-hepatic-steatosis-in-male-mice-by-inhibiting-oxidative-stress-and-stimulating-ampk-signaling
#13
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437952/septal-cholinergic-neurons-gate-hippocampal-output-to-entorhinal-cortex-via-oriens-lacunosum-moleculare-interneurons
#14
Juhee Haam, Jingheng Zhou, Guohong Cui, Jerrel L Yakel
Neuromodulation of neural networks, whereby a selected circuit is regulated by a particular modulator, plays a critical role in learning and memory. Among neuromodulators, acetylcholine (ACh) plays a critical role in hippocampus-dependent memory and has been shown to modulate neuronal circuits in the hippocampus. However, it has remained unknown how ACh modulates hippocampal output. Here, using in vitro and in vivo approaches, we show that ACh, by activating oriens lacunosum moleculare (OLM) interneurons and therefore augmenting the negative-feedback regulation to the CA1 pyramidal neurons, suppresses the circuit from the hippocampal area CA1 to the deep-layer entorhinal cortex (EC)...
February 7, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436790/cromakalim-a-potassium-channel-opener-ameliorates-the-organophosphate-and-carbamate-induced-seizure-in-mice
#15
Sattar Ostadhadi, Abouzar Moradi, Samira Zolfaghari, Vahid Nikoui, Ahmad Reza Dehpour
Organophosphates (OPs) and carbamates are acetylcholine esterase inhibitors (AChEIs), which can cause seizure and lethality. Anticonvulsant properties of potassium channel openers including cromakalim have been determined in previous studies. In the present experiment, the possible effect of cromakalim on the convulsion and death induced by OPs and carbamates was studied in mice. Dichlorvos (an OP, 50 mg/kg) and physostigmine (a carbamate, 2 mg/kg) were used to induce seizure in animals. Cromakalim at doses of 0...
January 2018: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436006/endogenous-purines-modulate-k-evoked-ach-secretion-at-the-mouse-neuromuscular-junction
#16
Juan F Guarracino, Alejandro R Cinalli, Mariela I Veggetti, Adriana S Losavio
At the mouse neuromuscular junction, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is co-released with the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh), and once in the synaptic cleft, it is hydrolyzed to adenosine. Both ATP/adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine modulate ACh secretion by activating presynaptic P2Y13 and A1 , A2A , and A3 receptors, respectively. To elucidate the action of endogenous purines on K+ -dependent ACh release, we studied the effect of purinergic receptor antagonists on miniature end-plate potential (MEPP) frequency in phrenic diaphragm preparations...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435915/eculizumab-a-review-in-generalized-myasthenia-gravis
#17
Sohita Dhillon
The humanized monoclonal antibody eculizumab (Soliris ® ) is a complement inhibitor indicated for use in anti-acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibody-positive adults with generalized myasthenia gravis (gMG) in the USA, refractory gMG in the EU, or gMG with symptoms that are difficult to control with high-dose IVIg therapy or PLEX in Japan. It is the first complement inhibitor to be approved for use in these patients. In the well-designed, 26-week REGAIN study in patients with anti-AChR-positive refractory gMG, although a statistically significant benefit of eculizumab over placebo in the prespecified primary endpoint analysis (change from baseline in MG-activities of daily living (ADL) score assessed by worst-rank ANCOVA) was not formally demonstrated, preplanned and post hoc sensitivity analyses of this outcome, as well as other secondary outcomes supported the efficacy of eculizumab...
February 12, 2018: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435640/feasibility-and-safety-of-outpatient-cardiac-catheterization-with-intracoronary-acetylcholine-provocation-test
#18
Yuichi Saito, Hideki Kitahara, Toshihiro Shoji, Satoshi Tokimasa, Takashi Nakayama, Kazumasa Sugimoto, Yoshihide Fujimoto, Yoshio Kobayashi
Intracoronary acetylcholine (ACh) provocation test is useful to diagnose vasospastic angina. Although outpatient coronary angiography has been widely performed in current clinical settings, the feasibility and safety of ACh provocation test in outpatient services are unclear. A total of 323 patients, who electively underwent ACh provocation test in hospitalization and outpatient services, were included. Coronary angiography was performed after insertion of a temporary pacing electrode in the right ventricle...
February 12, 2018: Heart and Vessels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434182/corilagin-attenuates-allergy-and-anaphylactic-reaction-by-inhibiting-degranulation-of-mast-cells
#19
Jie Zhou, Ci'an Zhang, Yuanyuan Sun, Li Wang, Jian Zhang, Fulun Li, Weian Mao
BACKGROUND This study evaluated the anti-allergic activity of corilagin and also postulates the possible mechanism of its action. MATERIAL AND METHODS Corilagin was given orally at dose of 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg/day. All the animals (guinea pigs, rats, and mice) were sensitized for allergy such as eosinophilia and leukocytosis induced by milk; degranulation of mast cell by compound 48/80; and passive and active anaphylaxis. Moreover, the antagonistic effect was determined by estimating the effect of corilagin on contraction of guinea pig tracheal chain and ileum induced by Ach and histamine, respectively...
February 13, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434093/peripubertal-exposure-to-the-neonicotinoid-pesticide-dinotefuran-affects-dopaminergic-neurons-and-causes-hyperactivity-in-male-mice
#20
Naoki Yoneda, Tadashi Takada, Tetsushi Hirano, Shogo Yanai, Anzu Yamamoto, Youhei Mantani, Toshifumi Yokoyama, Hiroshi Kitagawa, Yoshiaki Tabuchi, Nobuhiko Hoshi
Although neonicotinoid pesticides are expected to have harmful influence on mammals, there is little animal experimental data to support the effect and mechanisms. Since acetylcholine causes the release of dopamine, neonicotinoids may confer a risk of developmental disorders via a disturbance in the monoamine systems. Male mice were peripubertally administered dinotefuran (DIN) referring to no observed effect level (NOEL) and performed behavioral and immunohistological analyses. In an open field test, the total locomotor activity was increased in a dose-dependent manner...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
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