keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

acetylcholine

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324142/a-phase-ii-study-of-partial-and-subtotal-thymectomy-for-thymoma-jart02
#1
Motoki Yano, Yoshitaka Fujii, Junji Yoshida, Tomoki Utsumi, Hiroyuki Shiono, Motoshi Takao, Masayuki Tanahashi, Yushi Saito
BACKGROUND: We believe the merit of preservation of a part of the thymus following surgery for thymoma. We evaluated the efficacy of partial or subtotal thymectomy for early-stage thymoma in the prospective study. METHODS: The Japanese Association for Research on the Thymus conducted a multiple institutional study of thymectomy for thymoma localized in the thymus without total thymectomy. Patients without autoimmune disease who had an anterior mediastinal tumor that had been clinically diagnosed as an early-stage thymoma were enrolled in the study...
March 21, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319594/long-term-cardiovascular-autonomic-and-clinical-changes-after-immunoglobulin-g-immunoadsorption-therapy-in-autoimmune-autonomic-ganglionopathy
#2
Franca Barbic, Franca Dipaola, Francesca Andreetta, Enrico Brunetta, Laura Dalla Vecchia, Renato Mantegazza, Raffaello Furlan, Carlo Antozzi
A 63-year-old male was diagnosed with autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy based on the finding of plasma antibodies to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) of autonomic ganglia. He complained of mouth and eye dryness, dysphagia, severe constipation, erectile dysfunction, urgency, frequent urination, habitual orthostatic syncope and presyncope. A remarkable symptomatic orthostatic hypotension without changes in heart rate was present. We here describe the 3-year time course of the changes in spectral indices of cardiovascular autonomic control LF/HF and LFSAP, dysautonomia symptoms intensity and anti-nAChR antibodies following repetitive selective immunoadsorptions...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315342/ethanol-induced-erectile-dysfunction-and-increased-expression-of-pro-inflammatory-proteins-in-the-rat-cavernosal-smooth-muscle-are-mediated-by-nadph-oxidase-derived-reactive-oxygen-species
#3
Letícia N Leite, Gabriel T do Vale, Janaina A Simplicio, Bruno S De Martinis, Fernando S Carneiro, Carlos R Tirapelli
Ethanol consumption is associated with an increased risk of erectile dysfunction (ED), but the molecular mechanisms through which ethanol causes ED remain elusive. Reactive oxygen species are described as mediators of ethanol-induced cell toxicity/damage in distinctive tissues. The enzyme NADPH oxidase is the main source of reactive oxygen species in the endothelium and vascular smooth muscle cells and ethanol is described to increase NADPH oxidase activation and reactive oxygen species generation. This study evaluated the contribution of NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species to ethanol-induced ED, endothelial dysfunction and production of pro-inflammatory and redox-sensitive proteins in the rat cavernosal smooth muscle (CSM)...
March 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315314/nicotine-promotes-cholangiocarcinoma-growth-in-xenograft-mice
#4
Allyson K Martínez, Kendal Jensen, Chad Hall, April O'Brien, Laurent Ehrlich, Tori White, Fanyin Meng, Tianhao Zhou, John Greene, Francesca Bernuzzi, Pietro Invernizzi, David E Dostal, Terry Lairmore, Gianfranco Alpini, Shannon Glaser
Nicotine, the main addictive substance in tobacco, is known to play a role in the development and/or progression of a number of malignant tumors. However, nicotine's involvement in the pathogenesis of cholangiocarcinoma is controversial. Therefore, we studied the effects of nicotine on the growth of cholangiocarcinoma cells in vitro and the progression of cholangiocarcinoma in a mouse xenograft model. The predominant subunit responsible for nicotine-mediated proliferation in normal and cancer cells, the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR), was more highly expressed in human cholangiocarcinoma cell lines compared with normal human cholangiocytes...
March 14, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315276/the-sigma-1-receptor-a-therapeutic-target-for-the-treatment-of-als
#5
Timur A Mavlyutov, Erin M Baker, Tasher M Losenegger, Jaimie R Kim, Brian Torres, Miles L Epstein, Arnold E Ruoho
The membrane bound 223 amino acid Sigma-1 Receptor (S1R) serves as a molecular chaperone and functional regulator of many signaling proteins. Spinal cord motor neuron activation occurs, in part, via large ventral horn cholinergic synapses called C-boutons/C-terminals. Chronic excitation of motor neurons and alterations in C-terminals has been associated with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS ). The S1R has an important role in regulating motor neuron function. High levels of the S1R are localized in postsynaptic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) subsurface cisternae within 10-20 nm of the plasma membrane that contain muscarinic type 2 acetylcholine receptors (M2AChR), calcium activated potassium channels (Kv2...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315274/role-of-%C3%AF-1-receptors-in-learning-and-memory-and-alzheimer-s-disease-type-dementia
#6
Tangui Maurice, Nino Goguadze
The present chapter will review the role of σ1 receptor in learning and memory and neuroprotection , against Alzheimer's type dementia. σ1 Receptor agonists have been tested in a variety of pharmacological and pathological models of learning impairments in rodents these last past 20 years. Their anti-amnesic effects have been explained by the wide-range modulatory role of σ1 receptors on Ca(2+) mobilizations, neurotransmitter responses, and particularly glutamate and acetylcholine systems, and neurotrophic factors...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314816/characterization-of-a-human-point-mutation-of-vglut3-p-a211v-in-the-rodent-brain-suggests-a-non-uniform-distribution-of-the-transporter-in-synaptic-vesicles
#7
Lauriane Ramet, Johannes Zimmermann, Tiphaine Bersot, Odile Poirel, Stéphanie De Gois, Katlin Silm, Diana Yae Sakae, Nina Mansouri-Guilani, Marie-Josée Bourque, Louis-Eric Trudeau, Nicolas Pietrancosta, Stéphanie Daumas, Véronique Bernard, Christian Rosenmund, Salah El Mestikawy
The atypical vesicular glutamate transporter type 3 (VGLUT3) is expressed by sub-populations of neurons using acetylcholine, GABA or serotonin as neurotransmitters. In addition, VGLUT3 is expressed in the inner hair cells of the auditory system. A mutation (p.A211V) in the gene that encodes VGLUT3 is responsible for progressive deafness in two unrelated families. In this study, we investigated the consequences of the p.A211V mutation in cell cultures and in the central nervous system (CNS) of a mutant mouse...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314177/gintonin-attenuates-depressive-like-behaviors-associated-with-alcohol-withdrawal-in-mice
#8
Hyeon-Joong Kim, Sang-Deuk Park, Ra Mi Lee, Byung-Hwan Lee, Sun-Hye Choi, Sung-Hee Hwang, Hyewhon Rhim, Hyoung-Chun Kim, Seung-Yeol Nah
BACKGROUND: Panax ginseng Meyer extracts have been used to improve mood and alleviate symptoms of depression. However, little is known about the extracts' active ingredients and the molecular mechanisms underlying their reported anti-depressive effects. METHODS: Gintonin is an exogenous lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor ligand isolated from P. ginseng. BON cells, an enterochromaffin cell line, and C57BL/6 mice were used to investigate whether gintonin stimulates serotonin release...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314104/ginsenoside-re-ameliorates-brain-insulin-resistance-and-cognitive-dysfunction-in-high-fat-diet-induced-c57bl-6-mice
#9
Jong Min Kim, Chang Hyeon Park, Seon Kyeong Park, Tae Wan Seung, Jin Yong Kang, Jeong Su Ha, Du Sang Lee, Uk Lee, Dae Ok Kim, Ho Jin Heo
The ameliorating effects of ginsenoside Re (G Re) on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance in C57BL/6 mice were investigated to assess its physiological function. In the results of behavioral tests, G Re improved cognitive dysfunction on diabetic mice using Y-maze, passive avoidance and Morris water maze tests. G Re also significantly recovered hyperglycemia and fasting blood glucose level. In the results of serum analysis, G Re decreased triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TCHO), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT), and increased the ratio of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC)...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306357/asthma-causes-inflammation-of-human-pulmonary-arteries-and-decreases-vasodilatation-induced-by-prostaglandin-i2-analogs
#10
Nabil Foudi, Aouatef Badi, Mounira Amrane, Wassim Hodroj
OBJECTIVE: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with increased cardiovascular events. This study assesses the presence of inflammation and the vascular reactivity of pulmonary arteries in patients with acute asthma. METHODS: Rings of human pulmonary arteries obtained from non-asthmatic and asthmatic patients were set up in organ bath for vascular tone monitoring. Reactivity was induced by vasoconstrictor and vasodilator agents. Protein expression of inflammatory markers was detected by western blot...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303409/cardiovascular-inflammation-is-reduced-with-methotrexate-in-diabetes
#11
Adrian Quan, Yi Pan, Krishna K Singh, John Polemidiotis, Hwee Teoh, Howard Leong-Poi, Subodh Verma
Diabetes increases the risk of vascular events and mortality. While earlier type 2 diabetes trials demonstrated that intensive glucose lowering reduces microvascular complications, it is only recently that treatment with some of the newer antihyperglycemic agents has been associated with macrovascular benefits. We report herein that db/db mice concomitantly fed the Western diet and treated with the anti-inflammatory agent methotrexate display a less aggressive inflammatory (lower serum IL-1β, IL-6, SDF-1, and TNFα levels; higher circulating adiponectin, IL-12p70 and IL-10 concentrations; lower aortic VCAM-1 levels) profile than their saline-treated counterpart...
March 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302571/alpha-9-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-mediate-hypothermic-responses-elicited-by-provocative-motion-in-mice
#12
Longlong Tu, Lauren Poppi, John Rudd, Ethan T Cresswell, Doug W Smith, Alan Brichta, Eugene Nalivaiko
Hypothermic responses accompany motion sickness in humans and can be elicited by provocative motion in rats. We aimed to determine the potential role in these responses of the efferent cholinergic vestibular innervation. To this end, we used knockout (KO) mice lacking α9 cholinoreceptor subunit predominantly expressed in the vestibular hair cells and CBA strain as a wild-type (WT) control. In WT mice, circular horizontal motion (1Hz, 4cm radius, 20min) caused rapid and dramatic falls in core body temperature and surface head temperature associated with a transient rise in the tail temperature; these responses were substantially attenuated in KO mice; changes were (WT vs...
March 14, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302458/the-effects-of-dexmedetomidine-pretreatment-on-the-pro-and-anti-inflammation-systems-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#13
Hui Rong, Zhibin Zhao, Jiying Feng, Yishan Lei, Hao Wu, Rao Sun, Zuoxia Zhang, Bailing Hou, Wei Zhang, YuE Sun, Xiaoping Gu, Zhengliang Ma, Yue Liu
Excessive inflammatory responses play important roles in the aggravation of secondary damage to an injured spinal cord. Dexmedetomidine (DEX), a selective α2-adrenoceptor agonist, has recently been implied to be neuroprotective in clinical anesthesia, but the underlying mechanism is elusive. As signaling through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and nicotinic receptors (nAChRs, notably α7nAChR) play important roles in the pro- and anti-inflammation systems in the central nervous system, respectively, this study investigated whether and how they were modulated by DEX pretreatment in a rat model of spinal cord compression...
March 14, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302035/translational-multimodality-neuroimaging
#14
Sushil K Sharma
Recently high-resolution, noninvasive, multimodality in-vivo molecular imaging with PET, SPECT, CT and MRI, employing fusion algorithms has revolutionized personalized medicine. However, specific radiopharmaceuticals (RPs) for the accurate diagnosis and effective treatment of progressive neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, drug addiction, and other cognitive impairments still remain in developmental phase. Currently, multimodality fusion neuroimaging is utilized for the determination of: pharmacokinetics and pre-clinical development of radiopharmaceuticals (RPs); in-vivo monitoring of stem cell transplantation therapy; nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) investigations; and regional cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism in cognitively-impaired subjects employing noninvasive microPET and nano-SPECT imaging...
March 15, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301610/the-effects-of-substance-p-and-acetylcholine-on-human-tenocyte-proliferation-converge-mechanistically-via-tgf-%C3%AE-1
#15
Gloria Fong, Ludvig J Backman, Håkan Alfredson, Alex Scott, Patrik Danielson
Previous in vitro studies on human tendon cells (tenocytes) have demonstrated that the exogenous administration of substance P (SP) and acetylcholine (ACh) independently result in tenocyte proliferation, which is a prominent feature of tendinosis. Interestingly, the possible link between SP and ACh has not yet been explored in human tenocytes. Recent studies in other cell types demonstrate that both SP and ACh independently upregulate TGF-β1 expression via their respective receptors, the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK-1R) and muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChRs)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300775/protective-effects-of-fucoidan-on-a%C3%AE-25-35-and-d-gal-induced-neurotoxicity-in-pc12-cells-and-d-gal-induced-cognitive-dysfunction-in-mice
#16
Hengyun Wei, Zixiang Gao, Luping Zheng, Cuili Zhang, Zundong Liu, Yazong Yang, Hongming Teng, Lin Hou, Yuling Yin, Xiangyang Zou
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease which contributes to memory loss and cognitive decline in the elderly. Fucoidan, extracted from brown algae, is a complex sulfated polysaccharide and potential bioactive compound. In this study, we investigated whether fucoidan protects PC12 cells from apoptosis induced by a combination of beta-amyloid 25-35 (Aβ25-35) and d-galactose (d-Gal), and improves learning and memory impairment in AD model mice. The results indicated that fucoidan could inhibit the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to cytosol and activation of caspases, and increase the expression of apoptosis inhibitor proteins (IAPs), including livin and X-linked IAP (XIAP) in PC12 cells damaged by Aβ25-35 and d-Gal-induction...
March 16, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300747/pathophysiology-of-dilatation-of-pupils-due-to-scorpion-and-snake-envenomation-and-its-therapeutic-value-clinical-observations
#17
Himmatrao S Bawaskar, Parag H Bawaskar, Pramodini H Bawaskar
Dilated nonreacting pupils are routinely taken as a sign of irreversible brain damage. Alpha-receptor stimulation (scorpion sting) and presynaptic acetylcholine receptor blocker (krait bite) may result in dilation of pupils without involvement of the brain. This study was aimed to clinically evaluate the response of pupils in scorpion sting and krait bite. Victims of scorpion sting and krait bite were chosen from Raigad district. Scorpion sting and krait bite cases were admitted to hospital and were clinically evaluated in detail regarding neurological manifestations...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299422/homeostatic-regulation-through-gaba-and-acetylcholine-muscarinic-receptors-of-motor-trigeminal-neurons-following-sleep-deprivation
#18
Hanieh Toossi, Esther Del Cid-Pellitero, Barbara E Jones
Muscle tone is regulated across sleep-wake states, being maximal in waking, reduced in slow wave sleep (SWS) and absent in paradoxical or REM sleep (PS or REMS). Such changes in tone have been recorded in the masseter muscles and shown to correspond to changes in activity and polarization of the trigeminal motor 5 (Mo5) neurons. The muscle hypotonia and atonia during sleep depend in part on GABA acting upon both GABAA and GABAB receptors (Rs) and acetylcholine (ACh) acting upon muscarinic 2 (AChM2) Rs. Here, we examined whether Mo5 neurons undergo homeostatic regulation through changes in these inhibitory receptors following prolonged activity with enforced waking...
March 15, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298655/dual-nep-ece-inhibition-improves-endothelial-function-in-mesenteric-resistance-arteries-of-32-week-old-shr
#19
Pieter Lemkens, Leon Ja Spijkers, Merlijn J Meens, Jelly Nelissen, Ben Janssen, Stephan Lm Peters, Paul Mh Schiffers, Jo Gr De Mey
Endothelin 1 (ET-1), a potent vasoconstrictor, pro-mitogenic and pro-inflammatory peptide, may promote development of endothelial dysfunction and arterial remodeling. ET-1 can be formed through cleavage of big-ET-1 by endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE) or neutral endopeptidase (NEP). We investigated whether chronic treatment with the novel dual NEP/ECE inhibitor SOL1 improves functional and structural properties of resistance-sized arteries of 32-week-old male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). SHR received a chronic 4-week treatment with SOL1, losartan or hydralazine...
March 16, 2017: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298622/time-course-changes-of-nldl-induced-erectile-dysfunction
#20
N Durmus, A Toylu, S Evcim, B C Soner, O Demir, E Kahraman, T Demir, B Irer, S Gidener, N Atabey, A Esen
Hyperlipidemia is an important risk factor for atherosclerosis and is frequently seen in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED). This study was designed to evaluate whether the acute effect of native low-density lipoprotein (nLDL) on intracavernosal pressure (ICP) is reversible and related to plasma asymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA), endogenous inhibition of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) levels and eNOS expression in cavernous tissues. Hyperlipidemia was induced by a single dose of intravenous 4 mg kg(-1) nLDL...
March 16, 2017: International Journal of Impotence Research
keyword
keyword
30592
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"