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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651369/reduced-thalamus-volume-may-reflect-nicotine-severity-in-young-male-smokers
#1
Dahua Yu, Kai Yuan, Jiadong Cheng, Yanyan Guan, Yangding Li, Yanzhi Bi, Jinquan Zhai, Lin Luo, Bo Liu, Ting Xue, Xiaoqi Lu
Introduction: Nicotine acts as an agonist at presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and to facilitate synaptic release of several neurotransmitters including dopamine and glutamate. The thalamus has the highest density of nAChRs in the brain, which may make this area be more vulnerable to the addictive effects of nicotine. However, the volume of thalamus abnormalities and the association with smoking behaviors in young smokers remains unknown. Methods: Thirty-six young male smokers and 36 age-, gender- and education-matched nonsmokers participated in current study...
June 23, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649876/myasthenia-gravis-induced-by-nivolumab-in-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#2
Yoshikazu Hasegawa, Shigeru Kawai, Takayo Ota, Hiroshi Tsukuda, Masahiro Fukuoka
A 76-year-old woman who was diagnosed with non-small-cell lung cancer presented with left eyelid ptosis and grade 4 creatine phosphokinase elevation after the 2nd cycle of nivolumab monotherapy. Nivolumab has demonstrated promising efficacy in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer in several trials. Dyspnea and muscle weakness developed rapidly with an acute exacerbation. She underwent plasmapheresis and intravenous immune globulin followed by treatment with low-dose prednisolone. She had gradual symptoms improvement...
June 26, 2017: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649232/ion-channels-of-pituitary-gonadotrophs-and-their-roles-in-signaling-and-secretion
#3
REVIEW
Stanko S Stojilkovic, Ivana Bjelobaba, Hana Zemkova
Gonadotrophs are basophilic cells of the anterior pituitary gland specialized to secrete gonadotropins in response to elevation in intracellular calcium concentration. These cells fire action potentials (APs) spontaneously, coupled with voltage-gated calcium influx of insufficient amplitude to trigger gonadotropin release. The spontaneous excitability of gonadotrophs reflects the expression of voltage-gated sodium, calcium, potassium, non-selective cation-conducting, and chloride channels at their plasma membrane (PM)...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647381/leukotriene-receptor-antagonist-attenuated-airway-inflammation-and-hyperresponsiveness-in-a-double-stranded-rna-induced-asthma-exacerbation-model
#4
Mariko Ujino, Naoya Sugimoto, Yuta Koizumi, Shoki Ro, Yasuhiro Kojima, Kamiyama-Hara Asae, Naomi Yamashita, Ken Ohta, Hiroyuki Nagase
BACKGROUND: Viral infections are the most common triggers of asthma exacerbation, but the key molecules involved in this process have not been fully identified. Although cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs) have been postulated as the key mediators, their precise roles remain largely unclear. To investigate the roles of cysLTs in virus-induced asthma exacerbation, we developed a murine model using a viral double-stranded RNA analog, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), and analyzed the effect of leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA) administration...
June 21, 2017: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647281/serotonergic-modulation-of-nicotine-induced-kinetic-tremor-in-mice
#5
Naofumi Kunisawa, Higor A Iha, Yuji Nomura, Misaki Onishi, Nami Matsubara, Saki Shimizu, Yukihiro Ohno
We previously demonstrated that nicotine elicited kinetic tremor by elevating the neural activity of the inferior olive via α7 nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptors. Since α7 nACh receptors reportedly facilitate synaptic monoamine release, we explored the role of 5-HT receptors in induction and/or modulation of nicotine tremor. Treatment of mice with nicotine induced kinetic tremor that normally appeared during movement. The 5-HT1A agonist, 8-hydroxydipropylaminotetraline (8-OH-DPAT), significantly enhanced nicotine-induced tremor and the action of 8-OH-DPAT was antagonized by WAY-100135 (5-HT1A antagonist)...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645584/effects-of-intranasal-treatment-with-slow-gyy4137-and-rapid-nahs-donors-of-hydrogen-sulfide-in-lipopolysaccharide-induced-airway-inflammation-in-mice
#6
Yesim Kaya-Yasar, Yasemin Karaman, Turgut Emrah Bozkurt, Sevgen Celik Onder, Inci Sahin-Erdemli
We have investigated the effects of slow (GYY4137) and rapid (NaHS) hydrogen sulfide (H2S) releasing donors in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced airway inflammation in mice. LPS (0.1 mg/ml) in 60 μl PBS was administered by the intranasal (i.n.) route and control group received vehicle, whereas the subgroups of mice were treated with i.n. GYY4137 or NaHS. The tracheal reactivity, inflammatory cell count in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and lung histopathology were evaluated in all groups 48 h after LPS/PBS applications...
June 20, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645175/perturbation-to-cholesterol-at-the-neuromuscular-junction-confers-botulinum-neurotoxin-a-sensitivity-to-neonatal-mice
#7
Baskaran Thyagarajan, Joseph G Potian, Joseph J McArdle, Padmamalini Baskaran
Botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) cleaves SNAP25 at the motor nerve terminals (MNT) and inhibits stimulus evoked acetylcholine release (SEAR). This causes skeletal muscle paralysis. However, younger neonatal mice (<P7; less than 7 days old) are resistant to the neuroparalytic effects of BoNT/A. That is, in vivo injection of BoNT/A at the innervations of Extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle in the hindlimbs inhibited the toe spread reflex within 24 hours following BoNT/A injection in adult mouse and in older (> P7) neonatal mice younger than 7 days-age remained unaffected by BoNT/A injection...
June 22, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644870/effects-of-nicotine-on-corneal-wound-healing-following-acute-alkali-burn
#8
Jong Won Kim, Chae Woong Lim, Bumseok Kim
Epidemiological studies have indicated that smoking is a pivotal risk factor for the progression of several chronic diseases. Nicotine, the addictive component of cigarettes, has powerful pathophysiological properties in the body. Although the effects of cigarette smoking on corneal re-epithelialization have been studied, the effects of nicotine on corneal wound healing-related neovascularization and fibrosis have not been fully demonstrated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chronic administration of nicotine on corneal wound healing following acute insult induced by an alkali burn...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643520/main-plant-extracts-active-properties-effective-on-scopolamine-induced-memory-loss
#9
Ioana-Miruna Balmus, Alin Ciobica
Alzheimer's disease leads to progressive cognitive function loss, which may impair both intellectual capacities and psychosocial aspects. Although the current knowledge points to a multifactorial character of Alzheimer's disease, the most issued pathological hypothesis remains the cholinergic theory. The main animal model used in cholinergic theory research is the scopolamine-induced memory loss model. Although, in some cases, a temporary symptomatic relief can be obtained through targeting the cholinergic or glutamatergic neurotransmitter systems, no current treatment is able to stop or slow cognitive impairment...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642492/segregation-of-glutamatergic-and-cholinergic-transmission-at-the-mixed-motoneuron-renshaw-cell-synapse
#10
Boris Lamotte d'Incamps, Gardave S Bhumbra, Joshua D Foster, Marco Beato, Philippe Ascher
In neonatal mice motoneurons excite Renshaw cells by releasing both acetylcholine (ACh) and glutamate. These two neurotransmitters activate two types of nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) (the homomeric α7 receptors and the heteromeric α*ß* receptors) as well as the two types of glutamate receptors (GluRs) (AMPARs and NMDARs). Using paired recordings, we confirm that a single motoneuron can release both transmitters on a single post-synaptic Renshaw cell. We then show that co-transmission is preserved in adult animals...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642370/in-vitro-cytochrome-p450-46a1-cyp46a1-activation-by-neuroactive-compounds
#11
Natalia Mast, Kyle W Anderson, Kevin M Johnson, Thanh T N Phan, F Peter Guengerich, Irina A Pikuleva
Cytochrome P450 46A1 (CYP46A1, cholesterol 24-hydroxylase) is the enzyme responsible for the majority of cholesterol elimination from the brain. Previously, we found that the anti-HIV drug efavirenz (EFV) can pharmacologically activate CYP46A1 in mice. Herein, we investigated whether CYP46A1 could also be activated by endogenous compounds, including major neurotransmitters. In vitro experiments with purified recombinant CYP46A1 indicated that CYP46A1 is activated by L-glutamate (L-Glu), L-aspartate, γ-aminobutyric acid, and acetylcholine, with L-Glu eliciting the highest increase (3-fold) in CYP46A1-mediated cholesterol 24-hydroxylation...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642069/chronic-choline-supplementation-improves-cognitive-and-motor-performance-via-modulating-oxidative-and-neurochemical-status-in-rats
#12
Saiqa Tabassum, Saida Haider, Saara Ahmad, Syeda Madiha, Tahira Parveen
Choline, an essential nutrient, accounts for multiple functions in the body and brain. While its beneficial effects on healthy adults are not clear, choline supplementation is important during pregnancy for brain development, in elderly patients for support of cognitive performance and in patients with neurological disorders to reduce memory deficits. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate whether choline administration in healthy adult rats beneficially impacts cognitive and locomotor performance, and associated oxidative and neurochemical outcomes...
June 19, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641580/marked-regional-endothelial-dysfunction-in-mottled-skin-area-in-patients-with-severe-infections
#13
Simon Bourcier, Jérémie Joffre, Vincent Dubée, Gabriel Preda, Jean-Luc Baudel, Naïke Bigé, Guillaume Leblanc, Bernard I Levy, Bertrand Guidet, Eric Maury, Hafid Ait-Oufella
BACKGROUND: Mottling around the knee, reflecting a reduced skin blood flow, is predictive of mortality in patients with septic shock. However, the causative pathophysiology of mottling remains unknown. We hypothesized that the cutaneous hypoperfusion observed in the mottled area is related to regional endothelial dysfunction. METHODS: This was a prospective, observational study in a medical ICU in a tertiary teaching hospital. Consecutive adult patients with sepsis admitted to ICU were included...
June 23, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641333/validation-of-brain-angiotensin-system-blockade-as-a-novel-drug-target-in-pharmacological-treatment-of-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#14
Dominik Wincewicz, Jan J Braszko
Retreat in psychiatric drug development results in innovative medication decline that might be at least partially overcome by adjunct therapy. New evidence from clinical studies has shown a possible role for brain Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) in both affective and psychotic disorders. Simultaneously, rapidly accumulating data from basic studies indicate effectiveness of central RAS blockade in much broader range of neuropsychiatric disease. Recent findings implicate brain RAS, especially Angiotensin II (Ang II), in neural pathophysiology of mental disorders through neuroendocrine modulation and effects on neurotransmitter release, mostly noradrenaline, acetylcholine and dopamine...
June 22, 2017: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641305/incidence-of-autoimmune-myasthenia-gravis-in-a-health-maintenance-organization-in-buenos-aires-argentina
#15
Mariela Bettini, Marcelo Chaves, Edgardo Cristiano, Vanina Pagotto, Lucia Perez, Diego Giunta, Marcelo Rugiero
BACKGROUND: Different epidemiological studies, especially in Europe, have estimated the incidence density of myasthenia gravis (MG) to range between 1.7 and 21.3/1,000,000/person-year; however, data from regions such as Latin America are scarce. This study is aimed at estimating the incidence and prevalence of acquired MG in Buenos Aires, Argentina. METHODS: The study population comprised of affiliates of the Italian Hospital Medical Care Program, a prepaid health maintenance organization located in Buenos Aires...
June 23, 2017: Neuroepidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640644/nebivolol-alleviates-aortic-remodeling-through-enos-upregulation-and-inhibition-of-oxidative-stress-in-l-name-induced-hypertensive-rats
#16
Yan Wang, Fei Zhang, Yu Liu, Sha Yin, Xuefen Pang, Zhidong Li, Zehui Wei
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect and mechanism of nebivolol on aortic remodeling in N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME)-induced hypertension. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with equal volumes of drinking water or l-NAME (60 mg/kg/day), alone or in combination with nebivolol (8 mg/kg/day) or atenolol (80 mg/kg/day) by gavage for 8 weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), aortic morphometry, plasma nitric oxide (NO) levels, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, and relaxation of aorta to acetylcholine were determined...
June 22, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639130/vitamin-c-improves-gastroparesis-in-diabetic-rats-effects-on-gastric-contractile-responses-and-oxidative-stress
#17
Luisa Mota Da Silva, Rita de Cássia Melo Vilhena de Andrade Fonseca da Silva, Daniele Maria-Ferreira, Olair Carlos Beltrame, José Eduardo da Silva-Santos, Maria Fernanda de Paula Werner
BACKGROUND: Diabetic gastroparesis is a common complication of diabetes mellitus, which mainly affects women. Previous studies have demonstrated that oxidative stress is involved in its onset and development. AIMS: This study evaluated the role of vitamin C on diabetes-associated gastric dysmotility. METHODS: Female rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes were treated with vehicle (water, 1 mL/kg, p.o.), vitamin C (300 mg/kg/day, p.o.), or insulin (6 IU/day, s...
June 21, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637453/electroacupuncture-at-li11-promotes-jejunal-motility-via-the-parasympathetic-pathway
#18
Xuanming Hu, Mengqian Yuan, Yin Yin, Yidan Wang, Yuqin Li, Na Zhang, Xueyi Sun, Zhi Yu, Bin Xu
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal motility disorder has been demonstrated to be regulated by acupuncture treatment. The mechanisms underlying the effects of acupuncture stimulation of abdominal and lower limb acupoints on gastrointestinal motility have been thoroughly studied; however, the physiology underlying the effects of acupuncture on the forelimbs to mediate gastrointestinal motility requires further exploration. The aim of this study was to determine whether electroacupuncture (EA) at LI11 promotes jejunal motility, whether the parasympathetic pathway participates in this effect, and if so, which somatic afferent nerve fibres are involved...
June 21, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635124/regular-aerobic-exercise-reduces-endothelin-1-mediated-vasoconstrictor-tone-in-overweight-and-obese-adults
#19
Caitlin A Dow, Brian L Stauffer, Danielle L Brunjes, Jared J Greiner, Christopher A DeSouza
Endothelin (ET)-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone is elevated in overweight and obese adults, contributing to vasomotor dysfunction and increased cardiovascular disease risk. While the effects of habitual aerobic exercise on endothelium-dependent vasodilation in overweight/obese adults has been studied, little is known regarding ET-1 vasoconstriction. Accordingly, the aims of the present study were to determine: (1) if regular aerobic exercise training reduces ET-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone in overweight and obese adults; and, if so (2) whether the reduction in ET-1 vasoconstriction contributes to exercise-induced improvement in endothelium-dependent vasodilation in this population...
June 20, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632409/l-satropane-prevents-retinal-neuron-damage-by-attenuating-cell-apoptosis-and-a%C3%AE-production-via-activation-of-m1-muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptor
#20
Ping Yu, Wei Zhou, Lu Liu, Ya-Bin Tang, Yun Song, Juan-Juan Lu, Li-Na Hou, Hong-Zhuan Chen, Yong-Yao Cui
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) agonists have been used to treat glaucoma due to their intraocular pressure-lowering effects. Recently, it has been reported that retinal mAChRs activation can also stimulate neuroprotective pathways. PURPOSE: In our study, we evaluated the potential neuroprotective effect of L-satropane, a novel mAChR agonist, on retinal neuronal injury induced by cobalt chloride (CoCl2) and ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). METHODS: CoCl2-induced hypoxia injury in cultured cell models and I/R-induced retinal neuronal damage in rats in vivo were used to evaluate the abilities of L-satropane...
June 20, 2017: Current Eye Research
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