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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243034/application-of-pyridostigmine-in-pediatric-gastrointestinal-motility-disorders-a-case-series
#1
Mhd Louai Manini, Michael Camilleri, Rayna Grothe, Carlo Di Lorenzo
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal (GI) motility disorders are common in children. Treatment is challenging with limited medical and surgical options. Pyridostigmine, an acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor, increases acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction promoting intestinal contractions. Little is known about the role and dosing of pyridostigmine in pediatric GI motility disorders. METHODS: We present a case series of children with GI dysmotility managed with oral pyridostigmine...
December 14, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242169/c60-fullerenes-disrupt-cellular-signalling-leading-to-trpc4-and-trpc6-channels-opening-by-the-activation-of-muscarinic-receptors-and-g-proteins-in-small-intestinal-smooth-muscles
#2
Dariia O Dryn, Mariia I Melnyk, Lina T Al Kury, Yuriy I Prylutskyy, Uwe Ritter, Alexander V Zholos
The effect of water-soluble pristine C60 fullerene nanoparticles (C60NPs) on receptor-operated cation channels formed by TRPC4/C6 proteins in ileal smooth muscle cells was investigated for the first time. Activation of these channels subsequent to acetylcholine binding to the expressed in these cells M2 and M3 muscarinic receptors represents the key event in the parasympathetic control of gastrointestinal smooth muscle motility and cholinergic excitation-contraction coupling. Experiments were performed on single collagenase-dispersed mouse ileal myocytes using patch-clamp techniques with symmetrical 125mM Cs+ solutions and [Ca2+]i 'clamped' at 100nM in order to isolate the muscarinic cation current (mICAT)...
December 11, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242119/pharmacological-modulation-of-ampa-receptor-phosphorylation-by-dopamine-and-muscarinic-receptor-agents-in-the-rat-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#3
Bing Xue, Li-Min Mao, Dao-Zhong Jin, John Q Wang
Two key transmitters in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), dopamine and acetylcholine, are believed to interact with each other to modulate local glutamatergic transmission, although molecular mechanisms underlying their crosstalk are poorly understood. Here we investigated effects of pharmacological manipulations of dopamine and muscarinic receptors on phosphorylation of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors in the adult rat mPFC in vivo. We found that an agonist selective for Gαs-coupled dopamine D1 receptors, SKF81297, increased AMPA receptor GluA1 subunit phosphorylation at a protein kinase A-sensitive site (S845), while SKF81297 had no effect on GluA1 phosphorylation at S831...
December 11, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242099/downregulation-of-circulating-mots-c-levels-in-patients-with-coronary-endothelial-dysfunction
#4
Qing Qin, Silvia Delrio, Junxiang Wan, R Jay Widmer, Pinchas Cohen, Lilach O Lerman, Amir Lerman
BACKGROUND: MOTS-c is one of the newly identified mitochondrial-derived peptides which play a role in regulating metabolic homeostasis. The current study aimed to investigate whether circulating MOTS-c levels are also associated with endothelial dysfunction(ED) in patients without significant structural coronary lesions. METHODS: Forty patients undergoing coronary angiography and endothelial function testing for clinical indications of recurrent angina with no structural coronary lesions were included in the study...
December 6, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241539/functional-and-molecular-characterization-of-mechanoinsensitive-silent-nociceptors
#5
Vincenzo Prato, Francisco J Taberner, James R F Hockley, Gerard Callejo, Alice Arcourt, Bassim Tazir, Leonie Hammer, Paulina Schad, Paul A Heppenstall, Ewan S Smith, Stefan G Lechner
Mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia (pain hypersensitivity) are cardinal signs of inflammation. Although the mechanism underlying thermal hyperalgesia is well understood, the cellular and molecular basis of mechanical hyperalgesia is poorly described. Here, we have identified a subset of peptidergic C-fiber nociceptors that are insensitive to noxious mechanical stimuli under normal conditions but become sensitized to such stimuli when exposed to the inflammatory mediator nerve growth factor (NGF). Strikingly, NGF did not affect mechanosensitivity of other nociceptors...
December 12, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240768/the-association-between-the-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-%C3%AE-4-subunit-gene-chrna4-rs1044396-and-internet-gaming-disorder-in-korean-male-adults
#6
Jo-Eun Jeong, Je-Keun Rhee, Tae-Min Kim, Su-Min Kwak, Sol-Hee Bang, Hyun Cho, Young-Hoon Cheon, Jung Ah Min, Gil Sang Yoo, Kyudong Kim, Jung-Seok Choi, Sam-Wook Choi, Dai-Jin Kim
The primary aim of this study was to investigate the genetic predisposition of Internet gaming disorder (IGD), and the secondary aim was to compare the results to those of alcohol dependence (AD). Two independent case-control studies were conducted. A total of 30 male participants with IGD, diagnosed according to the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria, and 30 sex-matched controls participated in study 1. We designed targeted exome sequencing (TES) to test for 72 candidate genes that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of addiction...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240340/update-on-current-care-guideline-memory-disorders
#7
(no author information available yet)
Any complaint about memory should be examined. Diagnosis is based on international criteria. Basic evaluation consists of medical history, clinical evaluation, cognitive tests and brain imaging. When a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), AD with cerebrovascular disease or with Lewy Body disease (LBD), or Dementia associated with Parkinson's disease or LBD is made, evidence-based medical therapy (acetylcholine esterase inhibitor or memantine) is indicated as a part of comprehensive care. In frontotemporal degenerations, these drugs are ineffective...
2017: Duodecim; Lääketieteellinen Aikakauskirja
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239338/effects-of-neuregulin-1-on-autonomic-nervous-system-remodeling-post-myocardial-infarction-in-a-rat-model
#8
Xin Lai, Liang Zhong, Hai-Xia Fu, Song Dang, Xin Wang, Ning Zhang, Gao-Ke Feng, Zi-Qiang Liu, Xi Wang, Long Wang
Sympathetic nerve and vagus nerve remodeling play an important part in cardiac function post-myocardial infarction (MI). Increasing evidence indicates that neuregulin-1 (NRG-1) improves cardiac function following heart failure. Since its impact on cardiac function and neural remodeling post-MI is poorly understood, we aimed to investigate the role of NRG-1 in autonomic nervous system remodeling post-MI. Forty-five Sprague-Dawley rats were equally randomized into three groups: sham (with the left anterior descending coronary artery exposed but without ligation), MI (left anterior descending coronary artery ligation), and MI plus NRG-1 (left anterior descending coronary artery ligation followed by intraperitoneal injection of NRG-1 (10 μg/kg, once daily for 7 days))...
November 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239334/calycosin-improves-cognitive-function-in-a-transgenic-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-by-activating-the-protein-kinase-c-pathway
#9
Lei Song, Xiaoping Li, Xiao-Xue Bai, Jian Gao, Chun-Yan Wang
The major pathological changes in Alzheimer's disease are beta amyloid deposits and cognitive impairment. Calycosin is a typical phytoestrogen derived from radix astragali that binds to estrogen receptors to produce estrogen-like effects. Radix astragali Calycosin has been shown to relieve cognitive impairment induced by diabetes mellitus, suggesting calycosin may improve the cognitive function of Alzheimer's disease patients. The protein kinase C pathway is upstream of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and exerts a neuroprotective effect by regulating Alzheimer's disease-related beta amyloid degradation...
November 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238291/modulation-of-neocortical-development-by-early-neuronal-activity-physiology-and-pathophysiology
#10
REVIEW
Sergei Kirischuk, Anne Sinning, Oriane Blanquie, Jenq-Wei Yang, Heiko J Luhmann, Werner Kilb
Animal and human studies revealed that patterned neuronal activity is an inherent feature of developing nervous systems. This review summarizes our current knowledge about the mechanisms generating early electrical activity patterns and their impact on structural and functional development of the cerebral cortex. All neocortical areas display distinct spontaneous and sensory-driven neuronal activity patterns already at early phases of development. At embryonic stages, intermittent spontaneous activity is synchronized within small neuronal networks, becoming more complex with further development...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238017/-the-interface-between-the-immune-system-and-autonomic-nervous-system
#11
Shunya Nakane, Akihiro Mukaino, Yukio Ando
  The nervous system and the immune system are two major systems in human body. Although it was revealed these two systems correlated, the control of immune cell dynamics by the nervous system has come to draw a lot of attention at the present time. Recent advances in basic and preclinical science reveal that reflex neural circuits inhibit the production of cytokines and inflammation in several animal models. One well-characterized cytokine-inhibiting mechanism, termed the "inflammatory reflex", is dependent upon vagus nerve stimulation that inhibits cytokine production and attenuates the inflammation...
2017: Nihon Rinshō Men'eki Gakkai Kaishi, Japanese Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237730/an-allosteric-binding-site-of-the-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-revealed-in-a-humanized-acetylcholine-binding-protein
#12
Florian Delbart, Marijke Brams, Fabian Gruss, Sam Noppen, Steve Peigneur, Sandro Boland, Patrick Chaltin, Jose Brandao-Neto, Frank von Delft, Wouter G Touw, Robbie Joosten, Sandra Liekens, Jan Tytgat, Chris Ulens
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) belong to the family of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels and mediate fast excitatory transmission in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Among the different existing receptor subtypes, the homomeric & α7 nAChR has attracted considerable attention because of its possible implication in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, including cognitive decline associated with Alzheimer's disease or schizophrenia. Allosteric modulators of ligand-gated ion channels are of particular interest as therapeutic agents, as they modulate receptor activity without affecting normal fluctuations of synaptic neurotransmitter release...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236702/oral-nicotine-aggravates-endothelial-dysfunction-and-vascular-inflammation-in-diet-induced-obese-rats-role-of-macrophage-tnf%C3%AE
#13
Chang Liu, Ming-Sheng Zhou, Yao Li, Aimei Wang, Kiranmai Chadipiralla, Runxia Tian, Leopoldo Raij
Obesity and cigarette smoke are major cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and, when coexisting in the same individuals, have additive/synergistic effects upon CVD. We studied the mechanisms involved in nicotine enhancement of CVD in Sprague Dawley rats with diet-induced obesity. The rats were fed either a high fat (HFD) or normal rat chow diet with or without nicotine (100 mg/L in drinking water) for 20 weeks. HFD rats developed central obesity, increased systolic blood pressure (SBP), aortic superoxide (O2-) production, and impaired endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine (EDR)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236669/-optically-dissecting-brain-nicotinic-receptor-function-with-photo-controllable-designer-receptors
#14
Romain Durand-de Cuttoli, Sarah Mondoloni, Alexandre Mourot
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are pentameric ligand-gated ion channels widely expressed in the central nervous system and the periphery. They play an important modulatory role in learning, memory and attention, and have been implicated in various diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, schizophrenia and addiction. These receptors are activated by the endogenous neurotransmitter acetylcholine, or by nicotine, the alkaloid found in tobacco leaves. Both molecules open the ion channel and cause the movement of cations across the membrane, which directly affects neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity...
2017: Biologie Aujourd'hui
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236214/neural-network-modeling-of-ache-inhibition-by-new-carbazole-bearing-oxazolones
#15
Levent Cavas, Gamze Topcam, Cevher Gundogdu-Hizliates, Yavuz Ergun
Acetylcholine esterase (AChE) is one of the targeted enzymes in the therapy of important neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Many studies on carbazole- and oxazolone-based compounds have been conducted in the last decade due to the importance of these compounds. New carbazole-bearing oxazolones were synthesized from several carbazole aldehydes and p-nitrobenzoyl glycine as AChE inhibitors by the Erlenmeyer reaction in the present study. The inhibitory effects of three carbazole-bearing oxazolone derivatives on AChE were studied in vitro and the experimental results were modeled using artificial neural network (ANN)...
December 13, 2017: Interdisciplinary Sciences, Computational Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234406/amelioration-of-scopolamine-induced-learning-and-memory-impairment-by-%C3%AE-pinene-in-c57bl-6-mice
#16
Gil-Yong Lee, Chan Lee, Gyu Hwan Park, Jung-Hee Jang
Increasing evidence suggests that neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) are mediated via disruption of cholinergic neurons and enhanced oxidative stress. Therefore, attention has been focused on searching for antioxidant phytochemicals for the prevention and/or treatment of AD through their ability to fortify cholinergic function and antioxidant defense capacity. In this study, we have investigated the neuroprotective effect of α-pinene (APN) against learning and memory impairment induced by scopolamine (SCO, 1 mg/kg, i...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233593/anterior-mediastinal-tissue-volume-is-correlated-with-antiacetylcholine-receptor-antibody-level-in-myasthenia-gravis
#17
Akihiro Takahagi, Mitsugu Omasa, Toyofumi F Chen-Yoshikawa, Masatsugu Hamaji, Akihiko Yoshizawa, Takashi Sozu, Makoto Sonobe, Hiroshi Date
OBJECTIVES: Extended thymectomy is a treatment option for myasthenia gravis (MG), but the surgical indications are controversial. Pathologic features of the thymus can be used to predict surgical outcomes, but there is no reliable method for evaluating these characteristics preoperatively. The purpose of this study was to determine whether anterior mediastinal tissue volume, as measured via 3-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT) volumetry, correlates with serum anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody (AChRAb) levels in patients undergoing thymectomy for myasthenia gravis...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233033/influence-of-age-on-arsenic-induced-behavioral-and-cholinergic-perturbations-amelioration-with-zinc-and-%C3%AE-tocopherol
#18
M R Kumar, G R Reddy
This study was planned to determine arsenic (As) (10 mg/kg body weight given through oral gavage) induced behavioral and cholinergic perturbations in three different age groups of rats; young (postnatal day 21), adult (3 months), and aged (18 months) at 7 days post-acute exposure ( n = 6 for each of the four groups of all three age points). Further, we also evaluated the ameliorative effect of essential metal zinc (Zn; 0.02% through drinking water) and an antioxidant, α-tocopherol (vitamin E; 125 mg/kg body weight through oral gavage) against As-induced neurotoxicity...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230265/-juvenile-myasthenia-gravis-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-case-study-of-two-consanguine-sisters-born-from-consanguinity-in-togo
#19
Nidain Maneh, Kossivi Apetse, Bénédicte Marèbe Diatewa, Sidik Abou-Bakr Domingo, Aidé Isabelle Agba, Koffi Didier Ayena, Koffi Agnon Balogou, Komi Patrice Balo
Myasthenia gravis is a rare acquired autoimmune pathology causing neuromuscular transmission impairment. Juvenile onset of myasthenia gravis is often characterized by ocular involvement. We report two cases of ocular juvenile myasthenia gravis (JMG) in two siblings. They were two young girls, XA and XB, aged 11 and 9 years, of Malian origin, residing in Togo, born from first-degree of consanguinity presenting to Ophthalmology due to progressive decrease in visual acuity. XA showed visual acuity 8/10 on both eyes while XB showed improvement in visual acuity from 3/10 to 7/10 using a pinhole occluder, suggesting ametropia...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228394/the-psychiatric-risk-gene-transcription-factor-4-tcf4-regulates-neurodevelopmental-pathways-associated-with-schizophrenia-autism-and-intellectual-disability
#20
Marc P Forrest, Matthew J Hill, David H Kavanagh, Katherine E Tansey, Adrian J Waite, Derek J Blake
Background: Common genetic variants in and around the gene encoding transcription factor 4 (TCF4) are associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia. Conversely, rare damaging TCF4 mutations cause Pitt-Hopkins syndrome and have also been found in individuals with intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Methods: Chromatin immunoprecipitation and next generation sequencing were used to identify the genomic targets of TCF4. These data were integrated with expression, epigenetic and disease gene sets using a range of computational tools...
December 8, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
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