keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

acetylcholine

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655692/effects-of-xin-ji-er-kang-on-heart-failure-induced-by-myocardial-infarction-role-of-inflammation-oxidative-stress-and-endothelial-dysfunction
#1
Juan Hu, Pan Cheng, Guang-Yao Huang, Guo-Wei Cai, Feng-Zhen Lian, Xiao-Yun Wang, Shan Gao
BACKGROUND: Xin-Ji-Er-Kang (XJEK) is a Chinese herbal formula, which has been reported to exert effective protection on cardiovascular diseases like hypertension and myocarditis. PURPOSE: To elucidate the protective effects of XJEK on heart failure (HF) induced by myocardial infarction (MI) through the amelioration of inflammation, oxidative stress (OS) and endothelial dysfunction(ED). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-seven male KM mice were randomized into the following six groups (n = 9-10 for each): control group, model group, MI+XJEK low dose group(XJEKL) group, MI+XJEK middle dose group(XJEKM), MI+XJEK high dose group(XJEKH), and MI+fosinopril group (positive control group)...
March 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655674/analysis-of-microrna-expression-in-the-thymus-of-myasthenia-gravis-patients-opens-new-research-avenues
#2
REVIEW
Mélanie A Cron, Solène Maillard, Fabien Delisle, Nolwenn Samson, Frédérique Truffault, Maria Foti, Elie Fadel, Julien Guihaire, Sonia Berrih-Aknin, Rozen Le Panse
In early-onset Myasthenia Gravis (MG) with anti-acetylcholine receptor antibodies, thymic abnormalities associated with ectopic germinal centers are frequent. miRNAs by acting as post-transcriptional regulators are involved in autoimmunity. To investigate the implication of miRNAs in thymic changes associated with early-onset MG, we performed a miRnome study and data were analyzed with different approaches. miRNAs of interest were further investigated by RT-PCR and transfection experiments for functional tests...
April 12, 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655652/protective-role-of-rosmarinic-acid-on-amyloid-beta-42-induced-echoic-memory-decline-implication-of-oxidative-stress-and-cholinergic-impairment
#3
Deniz Kantar Gok, Enis Hidisoglu, Guzide Ayse Ocak, Hakan Er, Alev Duygu Acun, Piraye Yargıcoglu
In the present study, we examined whether rosmarinic acid (RA) reverses amyloid β (Aβ) induced reductions in antioxidant defense, lipid peroxidation, cholinergic damage as well as the central auditory deficits. For this purpose, Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups; Sham(S), Sham + RA (SR), Aβ42 peptide (Aβ) and Aβ42 peptide + RA (AβR) groups. Rat model of Alzheimer was established by bilateral injection of Aβ42 peptide (2,2 nmol/10 μl) into the lateral ventricles. RA (50 mg/kg, daily) was administered orally by gavage for 14 days after intracerebroventricular injection...
April 12, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655456/lambert-eaton-myasthenic-syndrome
#4
REVIEW
Vita G Kesner, Shin J Oh, Mazen M Dimachkie, Richard J Barohn
Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome is a paraneoplastic or primary autoimmune neuromuscular junction disorder characterized by proximal weakness, autonomic dysfunction and ariflexia. The characteristic symptoms are thought to be caused by antibodies generated against the P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium channels present on presynaptic nerve terminals and by diminished release of acetylcholine. More than half of Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome cases are associated with small cell lung carcinoma. Diagnosis is confirmed by serologic testing and electrophysiologic studies...
May 2018: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655451/muscle-specific-tyrosine-kinase-and-myasthenia-gravis-owing-to-other-antibodies
#5
REVIEW
Michael H Rivner, Mamatha Pasnoor, Mazen M Dimachkie, Richard J Barohn, Lin Mei
Around 20% of patients with myasthenia gravis are acetylcholine receptor antibody negative; muscle-specific tyrosine kinase antibodies (MuSK) were identified as the cause of myasthenia gravis in 30% to 40% of these cases. Anti MuSK myasthenia gravis is associated with specific clinical phenotypes. One is a bulbar form with fewer ocular symptoms. Others show an isolated head drop or symptoms indistinguishable from acetylcholine receptor-positive myasthenia gravis. These patients usually respond well to immunosuppressive therapy, but not as well to cholinesterase inhibitors...
May 2018: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655450/nature-and-action-of-antibodies-in-myasthenia-gravis
#6
REVIEW
Robert L Ruff, Robert P Lisak
This article discusses antibodies associated with immune-mediated myasthenia gravis and the pathologic action of these antibodies at the neuromuscular junctions of skeletal muscle. To explain how these antibodies act, we consider the physiology of neuromuscular transmission with emphasis on 4 features: the structure of the neuromuscular junction; the roles of postsynaptic acetylcholine receptors and voltage-gated Na+ channels and in converting the chemical signal from the nerve terminal into a propagated action potential on the muscle fiber that triggers muscle contraction; the safety factor for neuromuscular transmission; and how the safety factor is reduced in different forms of autoimmune myasthenia gravis...
May 2018: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655448/generalized-myasthenia-gravis-classification-clinical-presentation-natural-history-and-epidemiology
#7
REVIEW
Michael K Hehir, Nicholas J Silvestri
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a rare disease, but the most common disorder of the neuromuscular junction. It is the prototypic autoimmune disease most commonly caused by antibodies to the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) leading to characteristic fatigable weakness of the ocular, bulbar, respiratory, axial, and limb muscles. The majority of patients with MG first present with ocular symptoms. Most patients with MG will experience at least 1 exacerbation of symptoms throughout the course of their illness. This article will cover the epidemiology, clinical presentation, classification, and natural history of MG...
May 2018: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655446/practical-anatomy-of-the-neuromuscular-junction-in-health-and-disease
#8
REVIEW
Hiroshi Nishimune, Kazuhiro Shigemoto
Neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) form between nerve terminals of spinal cord motor neurons and skeletal muscles, and perisynaptic Schwann cells and kranocytes cap NMJs. One muscle fiber has one NMJ, which is innervated by one motor nerve terminal. NMJs are excitatory synapses that use P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium channels to release the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Acetylcholine receptors accumulate at the postsynaptic specialization called the end plate on the muscle fiber membrane, the sarcolemma. Proteins essential for the organization of end plates include agrin secreted from nerve terminals, Lrp4 and MuSK receptors for agrin, and Dok-7 and rapsyn cytosolic proteins in the muscle...
May 2018: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652494/ligand-phospholipid-conjugation-a-versatile-strategy-for-developing-long-acting-ligands-that-bind-to-membrane-proteins-by-restricting-the-subcellular-localization-of-the-ligand
#9
Shuhei Kawamura, Yoshihiko Ito, Takatsugu Hirokawa, Eriko Hikiyama, Shizuo Yamada, Satoshi Shuto
We hypothesized that if drug localization can be restricted to a particular subcellular domain where their target proteins reside, the drugs could bind to their target proteins without being metabolized and/or excreted, which would significantly extend the half-life of the corresponding drug-target complex. Thus, we designed ligand-phospholipid conjugates, in which the ligand is conjugated with a phospholipid through a polyethylene glycol linker, to restrict the subcellular localization of the ligand in the vicinity of the lipid bilayer...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652477/targeted-nanoparticles-for-selective-marking-of-neuromuscular-junctions-and-ex-vivo-monitoring-of-endogenous-acetylcholine-hydrolysis
#10
Alsu R Mukhametshina, Svetlana V Fedorenko, Alexey M Petrov, Guzel F Zakyrjanova, Konstantin A Petrov, Leniz F Nurullin, Irek R Nizameev, Asiya R Mustafina, Oleg G Sinyashin
The present work for the first time introduces nanosensors for luminescent monitoring of acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-catalyzed hydrolysis of endogenous acetylcholine (AСh) released in neuromuscular junctions of isolated muscles. The sensing function results from the quenching of Tb(III)-centered luminescence due to proton-induced degradation of luminescent Tb(III) complexes doped into silica nanoparticles (SNs, 23 nm), when acetic acid is produced from the enzymatic hydrolysis of ACh. The targeting of the silica nanoparticles by α-bungarotoxin was used for selective staining of the synaptic space in the isolated muscles by the nanosensors...
April 13, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651876/novel-hits-for-acetylcholinesterase-inhibition-derived-by-docking-based-screening-on-zinc-database
#11
Irini Doytchinova, Mariyana Atanasova, Iva Valkova, Georgi Stavrakov, Irena Philipova, Zvetanka Zhivkova, Dimitrina Zheleva-Dimitrova, Spiro Konstantinov, Ivan Dimitrov
The inhibition of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) increases the levels of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and symptomatically improves the affected cognitive function. In the present study, we searched for novel AChE inhibitors by docking-based virtual screening of the standard lead-like set of ZINC database containing more than 6 million small molecules using GOLD software. The top 10 best-scored hits were tested in vitro for AChE affinity, neurotoxicity, GIT and BBB permeability. The main pharmacokinetic parameters like volume of distribution, free fraction in plasma, total clearance, and half-life were predicted by previously derived models...
December 2018: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643252/-in-vitro-pharmacological-characterization-and-in-vivo-validation-of-lsn3172176-a-novel-m1-selective-muscarinic-receptor-agonist-tracer-molecule-for-positron-emission-tomography-pet
#12
Adrian J Mogg, Thomas Eessalu, Megan Johnson, Rebecca Wright, Helen E Sanger, Hongling Xiou, Michael Crabtree, Alex Smith, Ellen Colvin, Douglas Schober, Donald Gehlert, Cynthia Jesudason, Paul Goldsmith, Michael P Johnson, Christian C Felder, Vanessa N Barth, Lisa M Broad
In the search for improved symptomatic treatment options for neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases, muscarinic acetylcholine M1 receptors (M1 mAChRs) have received significant attention. Drug development efforts have identified a number of novel ligands, some of which have advanced to the clinic. However, a significant issue for progressing these therapeutics is the lack of robust, translatable and validated biomarkers. One valuable approach to assessing target engagement is to utilize PET tracers...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642911/gnrh-dysregulation-in-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome-pcos-is-a-manifestation-of-an-altered-neurotransmitter-profile
#13
Nirja Chaudhari, Mitali Dawalbhakta, Laxmipriya Nampoothiri
BACKGROUND: GnRH is the master molecule of reproduction that is influenced by several intrinsic and extrinsic factors such as neurotransmitters and neuropeptides. Any alteration in these regulatory loops may result in reproductive-endocrine dysfunction such as the polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Although low dopaminergic tone has been associated with PCOS, the role of neurotransmitters in PCOS remains unknown. The present study was therefore aimed at understanding the status of GnRH regulatory neurotransmitters to decipher the neuroendocrine pathology in PCOS...
April 11, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642561/%C3%AE-nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide-%C3%AE-nad-inhibits-atp-dependent-il-1%C3%AE-release-from-human-monocytic-cells
#14
Sebastian Daniel Hiller, Sarah Heldmann, Katrin Richter, Innokentij Jurastow, Mira Küllmar, Andreas Hecker, Sigrid Wilker, Gabriele Fuchs-Moll, Ivan Manzini, Günther Schmalzing, Wolfgang Kummer, Winfried Padberg, J Michael McIntosh, Jelena Damm, Anna Zakrzewicz, Veronika Grau
While interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine essential for host defense, high systemic levels cause life-threatening inflammatory syndromes. ATP, a stimulus of IL-1β maturation, is released from damaged cells along with β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (β-NAD). Here, we tested the hypothesis that β-NAD controls ATP-signaling and, hence, IL-1β release. Lipopolysaccharide-primed monocytic U937 cells and primary human mononuclear leukocytes were stimulated with 2'(3')- O -(4-benzoyl-benzoyl)ATP trieethylammonium salt (BzATP), a P2X7 receptor agonist, in the presence or absence of β-NAD...
April 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628975/protective-effects-of-cultured-and-fermented-ginseng-extracts-against-scopolamine-induced-memory-loss-in-a-mouse-model
#15
Song-Hee Han, Sung-June Kim, Young Won Yun, Sang Yoon Nam, Hu-Jang Lee, Beom-Jun Lee
This study was performed to investigate the effect of a concentrate of fermented wild ginseng root culture (HLJG0701) on memory improvement in the scopolamine (SPL)-induced memory-deficient mouse model. Eight-week-old male ICR mice were used to evaluate the protective effect of HLJG0701 against the SPL-induced memory loss animal model. The Morris water maze test, which measures hippocampus-dependent learning ability, and the Y-maze test, a short-term memory assessment test, were performed and related markers were analyzed...
March 2018: Laboratory Animal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628462/-long-term-dietary-nitrite-and-nitrate-deficiency-causes-metabolic-syndrome-endothelial-dysfunction-and-cardiovascular-death-in-mice
#16
Mika Kina-Tanada, Mayuko Sakanashi, Akira Arasaki, Masato Tsutsui
Nitric oxide (NO) is synthesized not only from L-arginine by NO synthases (NOSs), but also from its inert metabolites, nitrite and nitrate. Green leafy vegetables are abundant in nitrate, however whether or not a deficiency in dietary nitrite/nitrate spontaneously causes disease remains to be clarified. In this study, we tested our hypothesis that long-term dietary nitrite/nitrate deficiency induces metabolic syndrome (MetS) in mice. To this end, we prepared a low nitrite/nitrate diet (LND) consisting of an amino acid-based low nitrite/nitrate chow in which the contents of L-arginine, fat, carbohydrates, protein, and energy were identical with a regular chow, and potable ultrapure water...
2018: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628323/synthesis-and-radiofluorination-of-novel-fluoren-9-one-based-derivatives-for-the-imaging-of-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-with-pet
#17
Rodrigo Teodoro, Matthias Scheunemann, Barbara Wenzel, Dan Peters, Winnie Deuther-Conrad, Peter Brust
By structure-activity relationship studies on the tilorone scaffold, the 'one armed' substituted dibenzothiophenes and the fluoren-9-ones were identified as the most potential α7 nAChR ligands. While the suitability of dibenzothiophene derivatives as PET tracers is recognized, the potential of fluoren-9-ones is insufficiently investigated. We herein report on a series of fluoren-9-one based derivatives targeting α7 nAChR with compounds 8a and 8c possessing the highest affinity and selectivity. Accordingly, with [18 F]8a and [18 F]8c we designed and initially evaluated the first fluoren-9-one derived α7 nAChR selective PET ligands...
March 29, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627571/arginase-overexpression-and-nadph-oxidase-stimulation-underlie-impaired-vasodilation-induced-by-advanced-glycation-end-products
#18
Hany M El-Bassossy, Thikryat Neamatallah, Khadijah S Balamash, Amani T Abushareb, Malcolm L Watson
BACKGROUND: Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) play a major role in the development of many vascular complications that are mediated by endothelial dysfunction. The present work aimed to investigate the mechanism by which AGEs impair vasodilation. METHODS: The effect of AGEs on vasodilation induced by acetylcholine or D NONOate was examined by incubating isolated rat aortae with different AGEs concentrations. ACh-induced nitric oxide generation was assessed using the fluorescent probe diaminofluorecein (DAF-FM)...
April 5, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626481/nicotine-induces-aberrant-hypermethylation-of-tumor-suppressor-genes-in-pancreatic-epithelial-ductal-cells
#19
Tong Jin, Jianyu Hao, Daiming Fan
Tobacco smoking is an independent risk factor for the initiation of pancreatic cancer (PC). Hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes has been demonstrated to be associated with smoking. This study aimed to find the relationship between nicotine exposure and hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes in normal pancreatic epithelial cells. Human pancreatic epithelial cells ware cultured exposing to nicotine and the methylation status of tumor suppressor genes were detected. Proenkephalin (PENK) was chosen as the target gene and methylation level of PENK promoter region was measured...
April 4, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626299/short-chain-consensus-alpha-neurotoxin-a-synthetic-60-mer-peptide-with-generic-traits-and-enhanced-immunogenic-properties
#20
Guillermo de la Rosa, Ligia L Corrales-García, Ximena Rodriguez-Ruiz, Estuardo López-Vera, Gerardo Corzo
The three-fingered toxin family and more precisely short-chain α-neurotoxins (also known as Type I α-neurotoxins) are crucial in defining the elapid envenomation process, but paradoxically, they are barely neutralized by current elapid snake antivenoms. This work has been focused on the primary structural identity among Type I neurotoxins in order to create a consensus short-chain α-neurotoxin with conserved characteristics. A multiple sequence alignment considering the twelve most toxic short-chain α-neurotoxins reported from the venoms of the elapid genera Acanthophis, Oxyuranus, Walterinnesia, Naja, Dendroaspis and Micrurus led us to propose a short-chain consensus α-neurotoxin, here named ScNtx...
April 6, 2018: Amino Acids
keyword
keyword
30592
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"