Read by QxMD icon Read


Shohei Kishi, Koichi Fuse, Hitoshi Kitazawa, Takao Sato, Msaaki Okabe, Yoshifusa Aizawa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: HeartRhythm Case Reports
Rajesh Katare, James T Pearson, Jason Kar-Sheng Lew, Melanie Wei, Hirotsugu Tsuchimouchi, Cheng-Kun Du, Dong-Yun Zhan, Keiji Umetani, Mikiyasu Shirai, Daryl O Schwenke
Background: The causal factors underpinning the onset and progression of diabetic heart disease (DHD) remain to be fully elucidated. Myocardial function is critically dependent on optimal coronary blood flow. Considering vascular disease occurs early in diabetes due to endothelial dysfunction, this study aimed to determine whether impaired coronary perfusion contributes to the origins of myocardial dysfunction in DHD, or whether coronary and cardiac dysfunction are independent pathologies associated with diabetes...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Gabrielius Jakutis, Vytautas Juknevičius, Juratė Barysienė, Dalia Matačiūnienė, Birutė Petrauskienė, Žaneta Petrulionienė, Aleksandras Laucevičius
Introduction: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep-related bradyarrhythmia syndrome is characterized by pathological asystoles during the REM sleep phase. It is a rare rhythm disorder, being reported only few times in the literature. Due to non-specific symptoms, REM sleep-related bradyarrhythmia might be often underdiagnosed. Other cardiac diseases associated with pathological sinus arrests must be excluded to establish the correct diagnosis of and appropriate therapy for REM sleep-related bradyarrhythmia...
2018: Acta Medica Lituanica
Donald P Tashkin, Nicholas J Gross
Long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs), along with long-acting β2 -agonists (LABAs), are the mainstay for treatment of patients with COPD. Glycopyrrolate, or glycopyrronium bromide, like other LAMAs, inhibits parasympathetic nerve impulses by selectively blocking the binding of acetylcholine to muscarinic receptors. Glycopyrrolate is unusual in that it preferentially binds to M3 over M2 muscarinic receptors, thereby specifically targeting the primary muscarinic receptor responsible for bronchoconstriction occurring in COPD...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Jose Sergio Possomato-Vieira, Jessica Sabbatine Chimini, Maria Luiza Santos da Silva, Carlos A Dias-Junior
Dysregulation of hydrogen sulphide (H2 S) producing enzymes has been related to hypertensive pregnancy and H2 S donor, sodium hydrosulphide (NaHS) exerts antihypertensive effects, modulates angiogenic factors production and acts as an antioxidant. Moreover, reduction in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability is related to hypertensive pregnancy and H2 S may interact with NO, modulating its production. We aimed to investigate the NaHS effects in hypertension-in-pregnancy and also in feto-placental parameters. Female Wistar rats (200-250 g) were mated and desoxycorticosterone acetate injections followed by replacement of water by 0...
June 21, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Ninotchska M Delvalle, David E Fried, Gretchen Rivera-Lopez, Luke Gaudette, Brian D Gulbransen
The reflexive activities of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are regulated, in part, by precise interactions between neurons and glia in the enteric nervous system (ENS). Intra-ganglionic enteric glia are a unique type of peripheral glia that surround enteric neurons and regulate neuronal function, activity, and survival. Enteric glia express numerous neurotransmitter receptors that allow them to sense neuronal activity, but it is not clear if enteric glia monitor acetylcholine (ACh), the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the ENS...
June 21, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Shuai An, Yong-Fang Zhao, Xiao-Ying Lü, Zhi-Gong Wang
The electrical excitability of neural networks is influenced by different environmental factors. Effective and simple methods are required to objectively and quantitatively evaluate the influence of such factors, including variations in temperature and pharmaceutical dosage. The aim of this paper was to introduce 'the voltage threshold measurement method', which is a new method using microelectrode arrays that can quantitatively evaluate the influence of different factors on the electrical excitability of neural networks...
June 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Jie Ren, Rui Li, Jiong Ning, Xiaopeng Zhu, Dongting Zhangsun, Yong Wu, Sulan Luo
α-Conotoxin TxID was discovered from Conus textile by gene cloning, which has 4/6 inter-cysteine loop spacing and selectively inhibits α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtype. However, TxID is susceptible to modification due to it containing a methionine (Met) residue that easily forms methionine sulfoxide (MetO) in oxidative environment. In this study, we investigated how Met-11 and its derivatives affect the activity of TxID using a combination of electrophysiological recordings and molecular modelling...
June 20, 2018: Marine Drugs
Hideki Ono, Maya Okamura, Akihiro Fukushima
<bibitem lang="en">  The anti-influenza virus drug oseltamivir has been reported to have several pharmacological actions including blocking of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor channels and activation of the dopaminergic system. These pharmacological actions highly overlap those of amantadine, another anti-influenza virus drug authorized in Japan, and ester-type local anesthetics. Moreover, oseltamivir and amantadine can clinically induce similar adverse neuropsychiatric reactions. In the present study, from the database of the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA), we surveyed 2,576 drugs for which neuropsychiatric side effects similar to those of oseltamivir, amantadine and local anesthetics (abnormal behavior, confusion, consciousness disturbance, convulsion, delirium, delusion, hallucination, myoclonus, tremor) are listed as "clinically significant adverse reactions", and found 327 that had at least one of these adverse reactions...
June 20, 2018: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Theis H Ipsen, Filip S Polli, Kristi A Kohlmeier
Nicotine exposure during gestation is associated with a higher risk of adverse behavioral outcomes including a heightened liability for dependency to drugs of abuse, which can exhibit drug-specificity influenced by gender. This enhanced liability suggests that nicotine use during pregnancy alters neural development in circuits involved in motivation and reward learning. The ventral tegmental area (VTA) is critical in motivated behaviors and we hypothesized that gestational exposure to nicotine could alter the development of excitatory circuits in this nucleus...
June 20, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
Xin Li, Shi-Jie Jin, Jie Su, Xiao-Xue Li, Ming Xu
Insulin resistance in endothelial cells contributes to the development of cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) is a soluble glycoprotein which plays a vital role in the development and progression of various diseases such as cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. However, it remains unknown if ASM regulates insulin resistance in vascular endothelial cells in type 2 diabetes. ASM down-regulation with gene silencing and selective inhibitor amitriptyline was used in the rat aortic endothelial cells (RAECs) treated with palmitic acid (PA), a common saturated free fatty acid, which is thought to be the major cause of insulin resistance...
June 19, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Jacqueline S Birks, Richard J Harvey
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia in older people. One approach to symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer's disease is to enhance cholinergic neurotransmission in the brain by blocking the action of the enzyme responsible for the breakdown of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. This can be done by a group of drugs known as cholinesterase inhibitors. Donepezil is a cholinesterase inhibitor.This review is an updated version of a review first published in 1998...
June 18, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Kathrin Siebers, Bijan Fink, Anna Zakrzewicz, Alisa Agné, Katrin Richter, Sebastian Konzok, Andreas Hecker, Sven Zukunft, Mira Küllmar, Jochen Klein, J Michael McIntosh, Thomas Timm, Katherina Sewald, Winfried Padberg, Nupur Aggarwal, Walee Chamulitrat, Sentot Santoso, Wendy Xia, Sabina Janciauskiene, Veronika Grau
While interleukin (IL)-1β is a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in host defense, high levels can cause life-threatening sterile inflammation including systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Hence, the control of IL-1β secretion is of outstanding biomedical importance. In response to a first inflammatory stimulus such as lipopolysaccharide, pro-IL-1β is synthesized as a cytoplasmic inactive pro-form. Extracellular ATP originating from injured cells is a prototypical second signal for inflammasome-dependent maturation and release of IL-1β...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Syeda Mehpara Farhat, Touqeer Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Aluminum (Al) causes neurodegeneration and its toxic effects on cholinergic system in the brain is well documented. However, it is unknown whether and how Al changes oscillation patterns, driven by the cholinergic system, in the hippocampus. OBJECTIVE: We studied acute effects of Al on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs)-mediated modulation of persistent gamma oscillations in the hippocampus. METHOD: The field potential recording was done in CA3 area of acute hippocampal slices...
June 19, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Toshiaki Ishizuka, Ayako Ozawa, Mieko Katsuura, Sayaka Nomura, Yasushi Satoh
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAchRs), which are expressed in various embryonic cells, may regulate neuronal differentiation. In the present study, we examined the effects of mAchR stimulation on the differentiation of mouse induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells into neural progenitor cells (NPCs). Mouse iPS cells were cultured on ultra-low attachment dishes to induce embryoid body (EB) formation. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA, 3 µM) and/ or pilocarpine (10 or 100 µM), a mAchR agonist, were added to EB cultures for 4 days, following which the EBs were cultured on gelatin-coated plates for 7 days...
June 19, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Kerem Teralı
Many so-called neuroactive insecticides target invertebrate neurotransmitter systems, including the cholinergic system. With their relatively low toxicity to vertebrates, neonicotinoids represent a new class of neuroactive insecticides that bind to nicotinic receptors for acetylcholine in the insect central nervous system and result in paralysis and eventual death due to receptor overstimulation. On the understanding that, today, cholinesterase inhibitors are used to obtain the symptomatic relief of Alzheimer disease (AD), the aforementioned direct cholinomimetic action of neonicotinoids could, perhaps, confer anti-AD drug-like attributes to these compounds...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Chiara D'Angelo, Marcella Reale, Erica Costantini, Marta Di Nicola, Italo Porfilio, Clara de Andrés, Lidia Fernández-Paredes, Silvia Sánchez-Ramón, Livia Pasquali
Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, progressive autoimmune disease of the central nervous system in which inflammation plays a key role in the induction, development, and progression. Most of the MS patients present with relapsing-remitting (RR) form, characterized by flare-ups followed by periods of recovery. Many inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines have been proposed as backers in MS pathogenesis, and the balance between these differing cytokines can regulate MS severity...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Kyle T Amber, Manuel Valdebran, Sergei A Grando
Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a potentially life-threatening mucocutaneous autoimmune blistering disease. Patients develop non-healing erosions and blisters due to cell-cell detachment of keratinocytes (acantholysis), with subsequent suprabasal intraepidermal splitting. Identified almost 30 years ago, desmoglein-3 (Dsg3), a Ca2+ -dependent cell adhesion molecule belonging to the cadherin family, has been considered the "primary" autoantigen in PV. Proteomic studies have identified numerous autoantibodies in patients with PV that have known roles in the physiology and cell adhesion of keratinocytes...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Caoimhin S Griffin, Keith D Thornbury, Mark A Hollywood, Gerard P Sergeant
Acetylcholine contracts the bladder by binding to muscarinic M3 receptors on the detrusor, leading to Ca2+ influx via voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. The cellular mechanisms linking these events are poorly understood, but studies have suggested that activation of TRPC4 channels could be involved. The purpose of this study was to investigate if spontaneous and cholinergic-mediated contractions of the detrusor were impaired in TRPC4 deficient (TRPC4-/- ) mice. Isometric tension recordings were made from strips of wild-type (WT) and TRPC4-/- detrusor...
June 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
David L Hunt, Daniele Linaro, Bailu Si, Sandro Romani, Nelson Spruston
To support cognitive function, the CA3 region of the hippocampus performs computations involving attractor dynamics. Understanding how cellular and ensemble activities of CA3 neurons enable computation is critical for elucidating the neural correlates of cognition. Here we show that CA3 comprises not only classically described pyramid cells with thorny excrescences, but also includes previously unidentified 'athorny' pyramid cells that lack mossy-fiber input. Moreover, the two neuron types have distinct morphological and physiological phenotypes and are differentially modulated by acetylcholine...
June 18, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"