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Ana S Oliveira, José Martinez-de-Oliveira, Gilbert G G Donders, Rita Palmeira-de-Oliveira, Ana Palmeira-de-Oliveira
As an opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida spp. has the ability to form biofilms. The most prescribed drugs for Candida infections, azoles, have shown to be less effective when biofilms are present. In addition, increasing treatment costs and the fact that most prescribed antifungal drugs have only fungistatic activity justify the search for new treatment strategies. One promising approach is third generation antidepressants, selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs), because of their proven antifungal activity against several Candida spp...
March 19, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
George I Papakostas, Rebecca Z Nielsen, Marianne Dragheim, Brigitte Tonnoir
This study aimed to evaluate if efficacy and tolerability of switching to vortioxetine is independent of previous SSRI or SNRI treatment in patients who had been inadequately treated for their current major depressive episode. Patients from a double-blind, 12-week comparator study were randomized (1:1) to vortioxetine (10-20 mg/day) or agomelatine (25-50 mg/day). The pre-defined primary efficacy endpoint was change from baseline to week 8 in MADRS total score analyzed by MMRM. An ANCOVA-LOCF was conducted as a sensitivity analysis...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Lígia Renata Rodrigues Tavares, Daniela Baptista-de-Souza, Azair Canto-de-Souza
It is well-known that the exposure of rodents to threatening environments [e.g., the open arm of the elevated-plus maze (EPM)] elicits pain inhibition. Systemic and/or intracerebral [e.g., periaqueductal gray matter, amygdala) injections of antiaversive drugs [e.g., serotonin (5-HT) ligands, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)] have been used to change EPM-open arm confinement induced antinociception (OAA). Here, we investigated (i) the role of the 5-HT1A and 5-HT2C receptors located in the amygdaloid complex on OAA as well as (ii) the effects of systemic pretreatment with fluoxetine (an SSRI) on the effects of intra-amygdala injections of 8-OH-DPAT (a 5-HT1A agonist) or MK-212 (a 5-HT2C agonist) on nociception in mice confined to the open arm or enclosed arm of the EPM...
March 13, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Alexander V Kulikov, Raul R Gainetdinov, Evgeni Ponimaskin, Allan V Kalueff, Vladimir S Naumenko, Nina K Popova
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most effective and most used antidepressant drugs. Acting by inhibiting serotonin (5-HT) transporter, SSRIs display a typical 3-4-week delay in their therapeutic effects, with nearly 40% of depressed patients remaining treatment-resistant. Recent evidence suggests complex interplay between 5-HT receptors and key proteins of 5-HT metabolism in molecular mechanisms of such delay and resistance to SSRIs. Area covered: This paper concentrates on the interplay between 5-HT receptors in the delay of therapeutic effect of SSRIs, and the interaction between tryptophan hydroxylase 2 and 5-HT transporter in the SSRI resistance...
March 15, 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
Antonios Douros, Matthew Ades, Christel Renoux
BACKGROUND: Observational studies have suggested an increased risk of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) associated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and other antidepressants primarily inhibiting serotonin reuptake. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to systematically review the available epidemiologic evidence regarding the risk of ICH associated with SSRIs and antidepressants inhibiting serotonin reuptake. METHODS: MEDLINE/PubMed and EMBASE were searched for all relevant articles in English, French, or German published before April 2017...
March 13, 2018: CNS Drugs
Jose de Leon, Edoardo Spina
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Patients with bipolar disorder are frequently treated with polypharmacy. This article should provide clinicians with an understanding of how polypharmacy can contribute to pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug-drug interactions (DDIs). RECENT FINDINGS: The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of lithium and other mood stabilizers (valproate, lamotrigine, carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, and eslicarbazepine), antipsychotics, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) were reviewed and summarized in the first four tables describing their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic mechanisms...
March 12, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
Alex T Ford, Bernice Hyett, Daniel Cassidy, Graham Malyon
Recent studies have highlighted that antidepressants such as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) entering aquatic systems through wastewater discharges might impact organisms at environmentally relevant concentrations. In this study, two snail species (Gibbula unbilicalis and Lymnea stagnalis) representing the marine and freshwater environments were exposed to a large range of fluoxetine concentrations (1 ng L-1 -1 mg L-1 ) and two distinct behaviours (foot detachment and righting time) were recorded...
March 9, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Mehmet Ali Altay, Alper Sindel, Öznur Özalp, Nelli Yıldırımyan, Dinçer Kader, Uğur Bilge, Dale A Baur
The success of osseointegration is influenced by several factors that affect bone metabolism and by certain systemic medications. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have been previously suggested to be among these medications. This study aims to investigate the association between systemic intake of SSRIs and failure of osseointegration in patients rehabilitated with dental implants. A retrospective cohort study was conducted including a total of 2055 osseointegrated dental implants in 631 patients (109 implants in 36 SSRI-users and 1946 in 595 non-users)...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Oral Implantology
Julien Volle, Tatiana Bregman, Brian Scott, Mustansir Diwan, Roger Raymond, Paul J Fletcher, José N Nobrega, Clement Hamani
Both selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) deep brain stimulation (DBS) modulate serotonergic activity. We compared the acute (1 day) and long-term (12 days) effects of vmPFC stimulation and fluoxetine on serotonin (5-HT) release and receptor expression in rats. Samples to measure serotonin levels were collected from the hippocampus using microdialysis. Serotonin transporter (SERT), 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B mRNA were measured using in situ hybridization. [3 H]8-OH-DPAT and [125 I]cyanopindolol autoradiography were used to measure 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B binding...
March 2, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Karin Melin, Gudmundur Skarphedinsson, Ingela Skärsäter, Bente Storm Mowatt Haugland, Tord Ivarsson
This study reports follow-up 2 and 3 years after the initial assessment of a sample of youth with a primary diagnosis of OCD. Participants were 109 children and adolescents, aged 5-17 years, recruited from a specialized, outpatient OCD clinic in Sweden. Patients were treated with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), augmented when indicated by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). In cases where SSRIs were insufficient, augmentation with a second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) was applied. Participants were assessed with the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS), Children's OCD Impact Scale (COIS), and Children's Depressive Inventory (CDI) at follow-ups 2 and 3 years after baseline assessment...
March 3, 2018: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Angela Lupattelli, Mollie Wood, Eivind Ystrom, Svetlana Skurtveit, Marte Handal, Hedvig Nordeng
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of prenatal exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on children's behavioral, emotional, and social development by age 5 years, and over time since age 1.5 years. METHOD: The prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study was linked to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. We included women who reported depressive/anxiety disorders before and/or during pregnancy. Children born to women who used SSRIs in early (weeks 0-16), mid- (weeks 17-28), or late (> week 29) pregnancy were compared to those who were unexposed...
March 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Jin-Jin Xu, Si-Tong Yang, Ying Sha, Yuan-Yuan Ge, Jian-Meng Wang
RATIONALE: Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) frequently suffer from psychiatric disorders, and treating these symptom whereas managing the motor symptoms associated with PD can be a therapeutic challenge. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report a case of PD patient with severe depression and anxiety that refused to be treated with dopaminagonists or SSRIs, the most common treatments for PD patients suffering from psychiatric symptoms. DIAGNOSES: Parkinson's disease with severe depression and anxiety...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Antonis Goulas, Nikolaos Raikos, Diamantis Krokos, Orthodoxia Mastrogianni, Amvrosios Orphanidis, Konstantinos Zisopoulos, Androniki Tsepa
Serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are generally considered safe drugs but fatal adverse effects do sometimes occur, often as a consequence of interactions with other serotonin active drugs. Polypharmacy is usually a problem that the elderly encounter, but it can also have dire consequences for young people, especially when an underlying heart condition is present. Thus, failure to diagnose heart disease and the use of contraindicated medications can be a lethal combination, irrespective of age...
February 27, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Molly H B Amador, M Danielle McDonald
The serotonin transporter (SERT) functions in the uptake of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) from the extracellular milieu and is the molecular target of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), a common group of antidepressants. The current study comprehensively assesses the sequence, tissue distribution, transport kinetics, and physiological function of a teleost SERT. The 2,022-bp toadfish SERT sequence encodes a protein of 673 amino acids, which shows 83% similarity to zebrafish SERT and groups with SERT of other teleosts in phylogenetic analysis...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Corine Ekhart, Florence van Hunsel, Joep Scholl, Sieta de Vries, Eugene van Puijenbroek
INTRODUCTION: Several studies have investigated sex as a risk factor for the occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and found that women are more likely to experience ADRs than men. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this explorative study was to investigate whether differences exist in reported ADRs of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for men and women in the database of the Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Centre Lareb. METHODS: A ratio of reports concerning women and men, corrected for the number of users, was calculated for all the ADRs reported on SSRIs...
February 26, 2018: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
Yulia Orlova, Paul Rizzoli, Elizabeth Loder
Importance: In 2006, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an advisory warning on the risk of serotonin syndrome with concomitant use of triptans and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) or selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) antidepressants, but the true risk of serotonin syndrome in these patients remains unknown. Objective: To assess the risk of serotonin syndrome with concomitant use of triptans and SSRI or SNRI antidepressants...
February 26, 2018: JAMA Neurology
K Kragholm, M P Andersen, R N Mortensen, L F Bech, C Polcwiartek, C Rohde, C Torp-Pedersen, P Videbech, J Nielsen
OBJECTIVE: Data on special education in offspring exposed to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in utero are lacking. We examined associations of in utero SSRI exposure with special education needs and delayed elementary school start. METHODS: A population-based case-cohort study using Danish nationwide birth and prescription registry data from 2005 to 2008. Follow-up ends during 2011-2015 to capture special education needs during and delayed entry to the first elementary school year...
February 25, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Blanca Perez-Palomar, Irene Mollinedo-Gajate, Esther Berrocoso, J Javier Meana, Jorge E Ortega
Activation of serotonin 5-HT3 receptor (5HT3R) in the locus coeruleus (LC), the principal somatodendritic noradrenergic area, decreases LC firing activity and noradrenaline (NA) release in prefrontal cortex (PFC). Blockade of 5HT3R in coadministration with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) has been proposed as a potential strategy to accelerate the onset of action of SSRIs. Dual-probe microdialysis in rats was used to evaluate the involvement of 5HT3R in the in vivo effect exerted by the SSRI citalopram on NA release...
February 22, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Hyungkun Yoon, Dong Jae Oh, Ho-Suk Suh, Kyoung-Uk Lee, Se-Won Lim, Jun-Yeob Lee, Jong-Chul Yang, Jae-Hon Lee, Juwon Ha, Bun-Hee Lee, Seung-Gul Kang, Ho-Kyoung Yoon, Jihyun Moon, Seung-Min Bae, Youngdo Kwon, Hyun-Chung Kim, Kang Seob Oh
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to provide clinical consensus and evidence regarding initial treatment strategies for the pharmacological treatment of social anxiety disorder (SAD) in Korea. METHODS: We prepared a questionnaire to derive a consensus from clinicians regarding their preference for the pharmacological treatment of SAD in Korea. Data regarding medication regimens and psychotropic drugs used during initial treatment, the doses used, and the pharmacological treatment duration were obtained...
February 2018: Psychiatry Investigation
Harvey G Roweth, Ruoling Yan, Nader H Bedwani, Alisha Chauhan, Nicole Fowler, Alice H Watson, Jean-Daniel Malcor, Stewart O Sage, Gavin E Jarvis
Citalopram prevents serotonin (5-HT) uptake into platelets by blocking the serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT). Although some clinical data suggest that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may affect haemostasis and thrombosis, these poorly-characterised effects are not well understood mechanistically and useful in vitro data is limited. We sought to determine whether the inhibitory effects of citalopram on platelets are mediated via its pharmacological inhibition of 5-HT transport. We quantified the inhibitory potency of (RS)-, (R)- and (S)-citalopram on platelet function...
February 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
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