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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629370/pharmacogenetic-testing-through-the-direct-to-consumer-genetic-testing-company-23andme
#1
Mengfei Lu, Cathryn M Lewis, Matthew Traylor
BACKGROUND: Rapid advances in scientific research have led to an increase in public awareness of genetic testing and pharmacogenetics. Direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing companies, such as 23andMe, allow consumers to access their genetic information directly through an online service without the involvement of healthcare professionals. Here, we evaluate the clinical relevance of pharmacogenetic tests reported by 23andMe in their UK tests. METHODS: The research papers listed under each 23andMe report were evaluated, extracting information on effect size, sample size and ethnicity...
June 19, 2017: BMC Medical Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608123/genetics-of-depression-progress-at-last
#2
REVIEW
Niamh Mullins, Cathryn M Lewis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We will describe the success of recent genome-wide association studies that identify genetic variants associated with depression and outline the strategies used to reduce heterogeneity and increase sample size. RECENT FINDINGS: The CONVERGE consortium identified two genetic associations by focusing on a sample of Chinese women with recurrent severe depression. Three other loci have been found in Europeans by combining cohorts with clinical diagnosis and measures of depressive symptoms to increase sample size...
August 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584286/genome-wide-meta-analysis-of-cognitive-empathy-heritability-and-correlates-with-sex-neuropsychiatric-conditions-and-cognition
#3
V Warrier, K L Grasby, F Uzefovsky, R Toro, P Smith, B Chakrabarti, J Khadake, E Mawbey-Adamson, N Litterman, J-J Hottenga, G Lubke, D I Boomsma, N G Martin, P K Hatemi, S E Medland, D A Hinds, T Bourgeron, S Baron-Cohen
We conducted a genome-wide meta-analysis of cognitive empathy using the 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes' Test (Eyes Test) in 88,056 research volunteers of European Ancestry (44,574 females and 43,482 males) from 23andMe Inc., and an additional 1497 research volunteers of European Ancestry (891 females and 606 males) from the Brisbane Longitudinal Twin Study. We confirmed a female advantage on the Eyes Test (Cohen's d=0.21, P<2.2 × 10(-16)), and identified a locus in 3p26.1 that is associated with scores on the Eyes Test in females (rs7641347, Pmeta=1...
June 6, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554190/23andme-paves-the-way-for-direct-to-consumer-genetic-health-risk-tests-of-limited-clinical-utility
#4
Julia Wynn, Wendy K Chung
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 18, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533504/identification-of-genetic-loci-shared-between-schizophrenia-and-the-big-five-personality-traits
#5
Olav B Smeland, Yunpeng Wang, Min-Tzu Lo, Wen Li, Oleksandr Frei, Aree Witoelar, Martin Tesli, David A Hinds, Joyce Y Tung, Srdjan Djurovic, Chi-Hua Chen, Anders M Dale, Ole A Andreassen
Schizophrenia is associated with differences in personality traits, and recent studies suggest that personality traits and schizophrenia share a genetic basis. Here we aimed to identify specific genetic loci shared between schizophrenia and the Big Five personality traits using a Bayesian statistical framework. Using summary statistics from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on personality traits in the 23andMe cohort (n = 59,225) and schizophrenia in the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium cohort (n = 82,315), we evaluated overlap in common genetic variants...
May 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512697/utilization-of-genetic-counseling-after-direct-to-consumer-genetic-testing-findings-from-the-impact-of-personal-genomics-pgen-study
#6
Diane R Koeller, Wendy R Uhlmann, Deanna Alexis Carere, Robert C Green, J Scott Roberts
Direct-to-consumer personal genomic testing (DTC-PGT) results lead some individuals to seek genetic counseling (GC), but little is known about these consumers and why they seek GC services. We analyzed survey data pre- and post-PGT from 1026 23andMe and Pathway Genomics customers. Participants were mostly white (91%), female (60%), and of high socioeconomic status (80% college educated, 43% household income of ≥$100,000). After receiving PGT results, 43 participants (4%) made or planned to schedule an appointment with a genetic counselor; 390 (38%) would have used in-person GC had it been available...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Genetic Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464943/diet-and-exercise-changes-following-direct-to-consumer-personal-genomic-testing
#7
Daiva Elena Nielsen, Deanna Alexis Carere, Catharine Wang, J Scott Roberts, Robert C Green
BACKGROUND: The impacts of direct-to-consumer personal genomic testing (PGT) on health behaviors such as diet and exercise are poorly understood. Our investigation aimed to evaluate diet and exercise changes following PGT and to determine if changes were associated with genetic test results obtained from PGT. METHODS: Customers of 23andMe and Pathway Genomics completed a web-based survey prior to receiving PGT results (baseline) and 6 months post-results. Fruit and vegetable intake (servings/day), and light, vigorous and strength exercise frequency (days/week) were assessed...
May 2, 2017: BMC Medical Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364486/genetic-basis-of-chronotype-in-humans-insights-from-three-landmark-gwas
#8
David A Kalmbach, Logan D Schneider, Joseph Cheung, Sarah J Bertrand, Thiruchelvam Kariharan, Allan I Pack, Philip R Gehrman
Study Objectives: Chronotype, or diurnal preference, refers to behavioral manifestations of the endogenous circadian system that governs preferred timing of sleep and wake. As variations in circadian timing and system perturbations are linked to disease development, the fundamental biology of chronotype has received attention for its role in the regulation and dysregulation of sleep and related illnesses. Family studies indicate that chronotype is a heritable trait, thus directing attention toward its genetic basis...
February 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212542/two-stage-genome-wide-association-study-identifies-a-novel-susceptibility-locus-associated-with-melanoma
#9
Katherine J Ransohoff, Wenting Wu, Hyunje G Cho, Harvind C Chahal, Yuan Lin, Hong-Ji Dai, Christopher I Amos, Jeffrey E Lee, Jean Y Tang, David A Hinds, Jiali Han, Qingyi Wei, Kavita Y Sarin
Genome-wide association studies have identified 21 susceptibility loci associated with melanoma. These loci implicate genes affecting pigmentation, nevus count, telomere maintenance, and DNA repair in melanoma risk. Here, we report the results of a two-stage genome-wide association study of melanoma. The stage 1 discovery phase consisted of 4,842 self-reported melanoma cases and 286,565 controls of European ancestry from the 23andMe research cohort and the stage 2 replication phase consisted of 1,804 melanoma cases and 1,026 controls from the University of Texas M...
March 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030700/23andme-big-data-and-the-genetics-of-depression
#10
Jennifer Abbasi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 3, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27937091/personal-genomic-testing-for-cancer-risk-results-from-the-impact-of-personal-genomics-study
#11
Stacy W Gray, Sarah E Gollust, Deanna Alexis Carere, Clara A Chen, Angel Cronin, Sarah S Kalia, Huma Q Rana, Mack T Ruffin, Catharine Wang, J Scott Roberts, Robert C Green
Purpose Significant concerns exist regarding the potential for unwarranted behavior changes and the overuse of health care resources in response to direct-to-consumer personal genomic testing (PGT). However, little is known about customers' behaviors after PGT. Methods Longitudinal surveys were given to new customers of 23andMe (Mountain View, CA) and Pathway Genomics (San Diego, CA). Survey data were linked to individual-level PGT results through a secure data transfer process. Results Of the 1,042 customers who completed baseline and 6-month surveys (response rate, 71...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855737/genetic-basis-of-chronotype-in-humans-insights-from-three-landmark-gwas
#12
David A Kalmbach, Logan D Schneider, Joseph Cheung, Sarah J Bertrand, Thiruchelvam Kariharan, Allan I Pack, Philip R Gehrman
Chronotype, or diurnal preference, refers to behavioral manifestations of the endogenous circadian system that governs preferred timing of sleep and wake. As variations in circadian timing and system perturbations are linked to disease development, the fundamental biology of chronotype has received attention for its role in the regulation and dysregulation of sleep and related medical and psychiatric illnesses. Twin and family studies have shown that chronotype is a heritable trait, thus directing attention toward its genetic basis...
October 28, 2016: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785563/a-preliminary-assessment-of-the-forenseq%C3%A2-fgx-system-next-generation-sequencing-of-an-str-and-snp-multiplex
#13
Ashley L Silvia, Nathan Shugarts, Jenifer Smith
The ForenSeq™ FGx System (Illumina, San Diego, CA) was initially evaluated in concordance with SWGDAM guidelines for internal validation to determine the quality of the system's components: the ForenSeq™ DNA Signature Prep Kit reagents, the MiSeq FGx™ instrument, and the ForenSeq™ Universal Analysis Software, for the analysis of targeted, forensically informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and short tandem repeats (STRs). This multiplex consisted of STRs (autosomal, X, and Y) and SNPs (identity, ancestry, and phenotypic) that were run using one preparation process...
January 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622933/analysis-of-23andme-antidepressant-efficacy-survey-data-implication-of-circadian-rhythm-and-neuroplasticity-in-bupropion-response
#14
Q S Li, C Tian, G R Seabrook, W C Drevets, V A Narayan
Genetic predisposition may contribute to the differences in drug-specific, class-specific or antidepressant-wide treatment resistance. Clinical studies with the genetic data are often limited in sample sizes. Drug response obtained from self-reports may offer an alternative approach to conduct a study with much larger sample size. Using the phenotype data collected from 23andMe 'Antidepressant Efficacy and Side Effects' survey and genotype data from 23andMe's research participants, we conducted genome-wide association study (GWAS) on subjects of European ancestry using four groups of phenotypes (a) non-treatment-resistant depression (n=7795) vs treatment-resistant depression (TRD, n=1311), (b) selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) responders (n=6348) vs non-responders (n=3340), (c) citalopram/escitalopram responders (n=2963) vs non-responders (n=2005), and (d) norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI, bupropion) responders (n=2675) vs non-responders (n=1861)...
September 13, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613923/implications-of-personal-genomic-testing-for-health-behaviors-the-case-of-smoking
#15
Emily Olfson, Sarah Hartz, Deanna Alexis Carere, Robert C Green, J Scott Roberts, Laura J Bierut
INTRODUCTION: Direct-to-consumer personal genomic testing has the potential to influence health behaviors, including smoking. Critics of this testing highlight limited evidence to support positive behavioral benefits and caution that genomic results may provide false reassurance, leading to unhealthy behaviors. This study investigates interest in genetic risks of smoking-related diseases and changes in smoking behaviors among genomic testing consumers. METHODS: From 2012 to 2013, a longitudinal series of web surveys was conducted...
December 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27551265/transitioning-pharmacogenomics-into-the-clinical-setting-training-future-pharmacists
#16
Amber Frick, Cristina S Benton, Kelly L Scolaro, Jacqueline E McLaughlin, Courtney L Bradley, Oscar T Suzuki, Nan Wang, Tim Wiltshire
Pharmacogenomics, once hailed as a futuristic approach to pharmacotherapy, has transitioned to clinical implementation. Although logistic and economic limitations to clinical pharmacogenomics are being superseded by external measures such as preemptive genotyping, implementation by clinicians has met resistance, partly due to a lack of education. Pharmacists, with extensive training in pharmacology and pharmacotherapy and accessibility to patients, are ideally suited to champion clinical pharmacogenomics. This study aimed to analyze the outcomes of an innovative pharmacogenomic teaching approach...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547215/in-search-of-the-j%C3%A3-dische-typus-a-proposed-benchmark-to-test-the-genetic-basis-of-jewishness-challenges-notions-of-jewish-biomarkers
#17
Eran Elhaik
The debate as to whether Jewishness is a biological trait inherent from an "authentic" "Jewish type" (jüdische Typus) ancestor or a system of beliefs has been raging for over two centuries. While the accumulated biological and anthropological evidence support the latter argument, recent genetic findings, bolstered by the direct-to-consumer genetic industry, purport to identify Jews or quantify one's Jewishness from genomic data. To test the merit of claims that Jews and non-Jews are genetically distinguishable, we propose a benchmark where genomic data of Jews and non-Jews are hybridized over two generations and the observed and predicted Jewishness of the terminal offspring according to either the Orthodox religious law (Halacha) or the Israeli Law of Return are compared...
2016: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27494321/genome-wide-association-analyses-in-128-266-individuals-identifies-new-morningness-and-sleep-duration-loci
#18
Samuel E Jones, Jessica Tyrrell, Andrew R Wood, Robin N Beaumont, Katherine S Ruth, Marcus A Tuke, Hanieh Yaghootkar, Youna Hu, Maris Teder-Laving, Caroline Hayward, Till Roenneberg, James F Wilson, Fabiola Del Greco, Andrew A Hicks, Chol Shin, Chang-Ho Yun, Seung Ku Lee, Andres Metspalu, Enda M Byrne, Philip R Gehrman, Henning Tiemeier, Karla V Allebrandt, Rachel M Freathy, Anna Murray, David A Hinds, Timothy M Frayling, Michael N Weedon
Disrupted circadian rhythms and reduced sleep duration are associated with several human diseases, particularly obesity and type 2 diabetes, but until recently, little was known about the genetic factors influencing these heritable traits. We performed genome-wide association studies of self-reported chronotype (morning/evening person) and self-reported sleep duration in 128,266 white British individuals from the UK Biobank study. Sixteen variants were associated with chronotype (P<5x10-8), including variants near the known circadian rhythm genes RGS16 (1...
August 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27479909/identification-of-15-genetic-loci-associated-with-risk-of-major-depression-in-individuals-of-european-descent
#19
Craig L Hyde, Michael W Nagle, Chao Tian, Xing Chen, Sara A Paciga, Jens R Wendland, Joyce Y Tung, David A Hinds, Roy H Perlis, Ashley R Winslow
Despite strong evidence supporting the heritability of major depressive disorder (MDD), previous genome-wide studies were unable to identify risk loci among individuals of European descent. We used self-report data from 75,607 individuals reporting clinical diagnosis of depression and 231,747 individuals reporting no history of depression through 23andMe and carried out meta-analysis of these results with published MDD genome-wide association study results. We identified five independent variants from four regions associated with self-report of clinical diagnosis or treatment for depression...
September 2016: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27449572/-the-google-of-healthcare-enabling-the-privatization-of-genetic-bio-databanking
#20
Kayte Spector-Bagdady
PURPOSE: 23andMe is back on the market as the first direct-to-consumer genetic testing company that "includes reports that meet Food and Drug Administration (FDA) standards…." But, whereas its front-end product is selling individual genetic tests online, its back-end business model is amassing one of the largest privately owned genetic databases in the world. What is the effect, however, of the private control of bio/databases on genetic epidemiology and public health research? METHODS: The recent federal government notices of proposed rulemaking for: (1) revisions to regulations governing human subjects research and (2) whether certain direct-to-consumer genetic tests should require premarket FDA review, were reviewed and related to the 23andMe product, business model, and consumer agreements...
July 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
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