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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433000/elastic-moduli-of-electrospun-mats-importance-of-fiber-curvature-and-specimen-dimensions
#1
Vijay Kumar, Amit Rawal
Success of tissue engineering relies on the architecture and properties of porous scaffolds. Electrospun nonwoven scaffolds in the form of mats are unique materials due to large surface area to volume ratio, high porosity, versatility in surface functionalities and excellent mechanical properties. Maneuvering the mechanical behavior of the electrospun mat is a major challenge both from theoretical and experimental perspectives. Herein, we report a two-dimensional (2D) analytical model of normalized elastic moduli of electrospun mats by formulating a relationship with the governing fiber and structural parameters...
April 12, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432998/non-ideal-effects-in-bending-response-of-soft-substrates-covered-with-biomimetic-scales
#2
Ranajay Ghosh, Hamid Ebrahimi, Ashkan Vaziri
Biomimetic scales are known to substantially alter the mechanics response of the underlying substrate engendering complex nonlinearities that can manifest even in small deformations due to scales interaction. This interaction is typically modeled using a-priori homogenization with an enforced periodicity of engagement. Such a framework is fairly useful especially when dealing with the structural length scale which is at least one order of magnitude greater than the scales themselves since individual tracking of a large number of scales become insurmountable...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432965/spatiotemporal-description-of-btex-volatile-organic-compounds-in-a-middle-eastern-megacity-tehran-study-of-exposure-prediction-for-environmental-health-research-tehran-sepehr
#3
Heresh Amini, Vahid Hosseini, Christian Schindler, Hossein Hassankhany, Masud Yunesian, Sarah B Henderson, Nino Künzli
The spatiotemporal variability of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Tehran, Iran, is not well understood. Here we present the design, methods, and results of the Tehran Study of Exposure Prediction for Environmental Health Research (Tehran SEPEHR) on ambient concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, p-xylene, m-xylene, o-xylene (BTEX), and total BTEX. To date, this is the largest study of its kind in a low- and middle-income country and one of the largest globally. We measured BTEX concentrations at five reference sites and 174 distributed sites identified by a cluster analytic method...
April 19, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432962/gc-ms-quantitative-analysis-of-black-market-pharmaceutical-products-containing-anabolic-androgenic-steroids-seized-by-the-brazilian-federal-police
#4
Diana Brito da Justa Neves, Eloisa Dutra Caldas
The use of counterfeit or substandard medicines can have an important health impact, resulting in therapeutic failure, be toxic or even cause death. Anabolic steroids are a frequent target for counterfeiters worldwide, being the second most frequent counterfeited class in Brazil. The aims of this work were to optimize and validate a GC-MS method for the quantitative determination of anabolic steroids in tablet, aqueous suspension and oil solution forms, and to analyze pharmaceutical products sent to Brazilian Federal Police (BFP) for forensic analysis...
April 5, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432959/molecular-dynamics-simulation-studies-of-novel-%C3%AE-lactamase-inhibitor
#5
Farhan Ul Haq, Asma Abro, Saad Raza, Klaus R Liedl, Syed Sikander Azam
New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase-1 (NDM-1) has drawn great attention due to its diverse antibiotic resistant activity. It can hydrolyze almost all clinically available β-lactam antibiotics. To inhibit the activity of NDM-1 a new strategy is proposed using computational methods. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to analyze the molecular interactions between selected inhibitor candidates and NDM-1 structure. The enzyme-ligand complex is subject to binding free energy calculations using MM(PB/GB)SA methods...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432933/-non-symbolic-magnitude-processing-in-children-with-mathematical-difficulties-a-meta-analysis
#6
Christin Schwenk, Delphine Sasanguie, Jörg-Tobias Kuhn, Sophia Kempe, Philipp Doebler, Heinz Holling
Symbolic and non-symbolic magnitude representations, measured by digit or dot comparison tasks, are assumed to underlie the development of arithmetic skills. The comparison distance effect (CDE) has been suggested as a hallmark of the preciseness of mental magnitude representations. It implies that two magnitudes are harder to discriminate when the numerical distance between them is small, and may therefore differ in children with mathematical difficulties (MD), i.e., low mathematical achievement or dyscalculia...
April 19, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432907/assessment-of-field-re-entry-exposure-to-pesticides-a-dislodgeable-foliar-residue-study
#7
Konstantinos M Kasiotis, Angelos N Tsakirakis, C Richard Glass, Agathi N Charistou, Pelagia Anastassiadou, Rianda Gerritsen-Ebben, Kyriaki Machera
A dislodgeable foliar residue study was conducted in greenhouse pepper and tomato on the island of Crete, Greece, following the spray application of an SC insecticide (with active substance (a.s.) tebufenozide) and an EC fungicide (a.s. bupirimate). Furthermore, for the assessment of worker exposure to pesticides - as a result of re-entering the treated crops - a worker dermal exposure study was carried out during the tasks of tying or pruning, which allowed the transfer coefficient values for the specific tasks to be determined...
April 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432843/vitamin-b1-in-critically-ill-patients-needs-and-challenges
#8
REVIEW
Jake T B Collie, Ronda F Greaves, Oliver A H Jones, Que Lam, Glenn M Eastwood, Rinaldo Bellomo
BACKGROUND: Thiamine has a crucial role in energy production, and consequently thiamine deficiency (TD) has been associated with cardiac failure, neurological disorders, oxidative stress (lactic acidosis and sepsis) and refeeding syndrome (RFS). This review aims to explore analytical methodologies of thiamine compound quantification and highlight similarities, variances and limitations of current techniques and how they may be relevant to patients. CONTENT: An electronic search of Medline, PubMed and Embase databases for original articles published in peer-reviewed journals was conducted...
April 22, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432823/-gerimedjc-the-twitter-complement-to-the-traditional-format-geriatric-medicine-journal-club
#9
Amanda I Gardhouse, Laura Budd, Seu Y C Yang, Camilla L Wong
Twitter is a public microblogging platform that overcomes physical limitations and allows unrestricted participation beyond academic silos, enabling interactive discussions. Twitter-based journal clubs have demonstrated growth, sustainability, and worldwide communication, using a hashtag (#) to follow participation. This article describes the first year of #GeriMedJC, a monthly 1-hour live, 23-hour asynchronous Twitter-based complement to the traditional-format geriatric medicine journal club. The Twitter moderator tweets from the handle @GeriMedJC; encourages use of #GeriMedJC; and invites content experts, study authors, and followers to participate in critical appraisal of medical literature...
April 22, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432798/therapeutic-drug-monitoring-of-mitotane-analytical-assay-and-patient-follow-up
#10
Yoann Cazaubon, Helene Guillemin, Damien Vautier, Olivier Oget, Hervé Millart, Claire Gozalo, Zoubir Djerada, Catherine Feliu
BACKGROUND: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is an aggressive malignancy of the adrenal gland. Mitotane (o,p'-DDD) is the most effective chemotherapy for ACC. According to literature, mitotane plasma trough concentrations within 14-20 mg.L(1) are correlated with a higher response rate with acceptable toxicity. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of mitotane is therefore recommended. The aim of this study was to propose a robust, and simple method for mitotane quantification in plasma. The validation procedures were based on international guidelines...
April 22, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432777/preparative-isoelectric-focusing-in-a-cellulose-based-separation-medium
#11
Jiří Šalplachta, Marie Horká, Karel Šlais
An improved preparative method based on isoelectric focusing of analytes in a cellulose-based separation medium is described in this study. Cellulose is suspended in an aqueous solution of simple buffers, ethylene glycol, glycerol, nonionic surfactant, and colored pI markers. Water partially evaporates during focusing run and the separation takes place in an in-situ generated layer of cellulose, which has a gel-like appearance at the end of analysis. Final positions of analytes are indicated by the positions of zones of focused pI markers...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432695/recent-strategies-towards-microfluidic-based-surface-enhanced-raman-spectroscopy
#12
REVIEW
Anna Tycova, Jan Prikryl, Frantisek Foret
Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is an extremely powerful analytical tool, which not only yields information about the molecular structure of the analyte in the form of characteristic vibrational spectrum but also gives sensitivities approaching those in fluorescence spectroscopy. The SERS measurement on the microfluidic platform provides possibility to manufacture the device with design perfectly fulfilling the needs of the application with minimal sample consumption. This review aims at describing basic strategies for SERS measurement in microfluidic devices published in the last decade and covers current trends in microfluidics with SERS detection in the field of bioanalysis and approaches towards on-line coupling of liquid-based separation techniques with SERS detection...
April 22, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432662/targeting-ldl-cholesterol-beyond-absolute-goals-toward-personalized-risk
#13
REVIEW
Morton Leibowitz, Chandra Cohen-Stavi, Sanjay Basu, Ran D Balicer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this study was to review and assess the evidence for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) treatment goals as presented in current guidelines for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Different sets of guidelines and clinical studies for secondary prevention have centered on lower absolute LDL-C targets [<70 mg/dL (<1.8 mmol/L)], greater percent reductions of LDL-C (≥50%), or more intense treatment to achieve greater reductions in cardiovascular risk...
June 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432624/delivering-environmental-benefit-from-the-use-of-environmental-quality-standards-why-we-need-to-focus-on-implementation
#14
Graham Merrington, Adam Peters, Paul Whitehouse, Robin Clarke, Dan Merckel
The UK has adopted a broader approach to the introduction of Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) for the aquatic environment than many other jurisdictions around the world, with a greater focus on the implementation of scientifically derived standards. This follows the publication of a report by the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution in 1998 which drew attention to the need to recognise that whilst an EQS is often just viewed as a numerical value, it also has other important characteristics that need to be recognised if it is to be a practical and effective regulatory tool...
April 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432511/environmental-management-zoning-for-coal-mining-in-mainland-china-based-on-ecological-and-resources-conditions
#15
Haiqing Geng, Fan Chen, Zhiyuan Wang, Jie Liu, Weihua Xu
The purpose of this research is to establish an environmental management zoning for coal mining industry which is served as a basis for making environmental management policies. Based on the specific impacts of coal mining and regional characteristics of environment and resources, the ecological impact, water resources impact, and arable land impact are chose as the zoning indexes to construct the index system. The ecological sensitivity is graded into three levels of low, medium, and high according to analytical hierarchy processes and gray fixed weight clustering analysis, and the water resources sensitivity is divided into five levels of lower, low, medium, high, and higher according to the weighted sum of sub-indexes, while only the arable land sensitive zone was extracted on the basis of the ratio of arable land to the county or city...
May 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432423/note-on-the-coefficient-of-variations-of-neuronal-spike-trains
#16
Johannes Lengler, Angelika Steger
It is known that many neurons in the brain show spike trains with a coefficient of variation (CV) of the interspike times of approximately 1, thus resembling the properties of Poisson spike trains. Computational studies have been able to reproduce this phenomenon. However, the underlying models were too complex to be examined analytically. In this paper, we offer a simple model that shows the same effect but is accessible to an analytic treatment. The model is a random walk model with a reflecting barrier; we give explicit formulas for the CV in the regime of excess inhibition...
April 21, 2017: Biological Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431781/clenbuterol-hydrochloride
#17
Abdulrahman A Al-Majed, Nasr Y Khalil, Ibraheem Khbrani, Hatem A Abdel-Aziz
Clenbuterol (Broncodil and trade) is a direct-acting sympathomimetic agent with mainly beta-adrenergic activity and a selective action on β2 receptors (a β2 agonist). It has properties similar to those of salbutamol. It is used as a bronchodilator in the management of reversible airways obstruction, as in asthma and in certain patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The uses, applications, and the synthetic pathways of this drug are outlined. Physical characteristics including: ionization constant, solubility, X-ray powder diffraction pattern, thermal methods of analysis, UV spectrum, IR spectrum, mass spectrum are all produced...
2017: Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients, and related Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431780/tolterodine-tartrate
#18
Gennady Ananchenko, Jasmina Novakovic
Tolterodine tartrate belongs to the family of muscarinic receptor antagonists and is indicated for the treatment of overactive urinary bladder syndrome. This chapter provides an overview of physical, analytical, and ADME profiles; highlights methods of chemical synthesis; and discusses stability of tolterodine as a free base and/or its l-tartrate salt in solution and in the solid state. The information presented in this chapter is based on the peer-reviewed literature, compendial reports (USP, EP), and authors' data...
2017: Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients, and related Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431687/a-rapid-impregnation-method-for-loading-desired-amounts-of-extractant-on-prepacked-reversed-phase-columns-for-high-performance-liquid-chromatographic-separation-of-metal-ions
#19
Muhammad Ramzan, Dejene Kifle, Grethe Wibetoe
A time-efficient impregnation method for loading extractant onto reversed-phase columns was developed, using di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP) as a model extractant. The optimal loading conditions for the impregnation process of a standard analytical scale column was achieved by dissolving an appropriate amount of HDEHP (per void volume) in n-pentane, flushing the column with two void volumes (5mL) of impregnation solution and heating the column for a short time to remove the solvent. The process takes about one hour, a significant time reduction compared to commonly used impregnation methods (17-23h)...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431643/advances-in-circulating-tumor-dna-analysis
#20
Samantha Perakis, Martina Auer, Jelena Belic, Ellen Heitzer
The analysis of cell-free circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is a very promising tool and might revolutionize cancer care with respect to early detection, identification of minimal residual disease, assessment of treatment response, and monitoring tumor evolution. ctDNA analysis, often referred to as "liquid biopsy" offers what tissue biopsies cannot-a continuous monitoring of tumor-specific changes during the entire course of the disease. Owing to technological improvements, efforts for the establishment of preanalytical and analytical benchmark, and the inclusion of ctDNA analyses in clinical trial, an actual clinical implementation has come within easy reach...
2017: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
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