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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208054/high-glucose-induced-hypomethylation-promotes-binding-of-sp-1-to-myo-inositol-oxygenase-implication-in-the-pathobiology-of-diabetic-tubulopathy
#1
Isha Sharma, Rajesh K Dutta, Neel K Singh, Yashpal S Kanwar
The catabolic enzyme myo-inositol oxygenase (MIOX) is expressed in proximal tubules and up-regulated in the diabetic state. Previously, we reported its transcriptional and translation regulation by high glucose (HG), osmolytes, and fatty acids. However, its epigenetic regulation is unknown. Bisulfite sequencing revealed that both human and mouse MIOX promoters, enriched with CpG sites, are hypomethylated and unmethylated under HG ambience and hyperglycemic states associated with increased MIOX expression. Eletrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed increased binding of unmethylated oligos with nucleoproteins of cells maintained under HG...
February 13, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182349/the-a445c-variant-in-apelin-receptor-and-diabetic-retinopathy-in-tunisian-patients
#2
Hayet Soualmia, Fatma Midani, Sondess Hadj-Fradj, Nedra Saadi, Mehdi Lassoued, Taieb Messoud, Monia Gharbi, Zohra Ben-Amor
BACKGROUND: Apelin and apelin receptor (APLN/APLNR) are involved in the retinal neovascularization of diabetic retinopathy (DR). METHODS: This study investigated the impact of the APLNR A445C variant on the risk of DR in a sample of the Tunisian population (100 patients with DR and 105 healthy controls) using PCR-RFLP. RESULTS: The genotype frequencies of the APLNR A445C variant were not significantly different between the patient and control groups...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181211/post-infarct-treatment-with-pyr1-apelin-13-exerts-anti-remodeling-and-anti-apoptotic-effects-in-rats-heart
#3
Yaser Azizi, Alireza Imani, Hamed Fanaei, Safoura Khamse, Mohammad Reza Parvizi, Mahdieh Faghihi
BACKGROUND: Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is the main cause of mortality in the world. After myocardial infarction (MI) cardiomyocytes apoptosis and ventricular remodeling have been occurred. Apelin is a peptide that has been shown to exert cardioprotective effects. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate anti-apoptotic and anti-remodeling effects of [Pyr¹]apelin-13 in the rat model of post-MI. METHODS: 36 Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: (1) sham (2) MI and (3) MI treated with [Pyr¹]apelin-13 (MI+Apel)...
February 9, 2017: Kardiologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170279/regulation-of-gip-and-ghrelin-in-healthy-subjects-fed-on-sun-dried-raisins-a-pilot-study-with-a-crossover-trial-design
#4
Andriana C Kaliora, Panagiotis T Kanellos, Aristea Gioxari, Vaios T Karathanos
The comparative effects of glucose and fructose on appetite and specifically on hormones regulating appetite remain controversial, and the role of different types of sugars has not been investigated broadly. To estimate the effect of raisins, a dried fruit rich in fructose, fibers, and phenolics, on hormones involved in the postprandial response. Ten healthy normal-weight subjects received in a crossover design 74 g raisins or 50 g glucose as reference food. Glucose, insulin, and appetite hormones were measured at time 0 and 60, 120, and 180 min after consumption...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167898/temporal-expression-of-apelin-apelin-receptor-in-ischemic-stroke-and-its-therapeutic-potential
#5
REVIEW
Yili Wu, Xin Wang, Xuan Zhou, Baohua Cheng, Gongying Li, Bo Bai
Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide, and ischemic stroke accounts for approximately 87% of cases. Improving post-stroke recovery is a major challenge in stroke treatment. Accumulated evidence indicates that the apelinergic system, consisting of apelin and apelin receptor (APLNR), is temporally dysregulated in ischemic stroke. Moreover, the apelinergic system plays a pivotal role in post-stroke recovery by inhibiting neuronal apoptosis and facilitating angiogenesis through various molecular pathways...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164323/effects-of-exercise-induced-apelin-levels-on-skeletal-muscle-and-their-capillarization-in-type-2-diabetic-rats
#6
Jun Seok Son, Hee-Jae Kim, Yeri Son, Hojun Lee, Song Ah Chae, Je Kyung Seong, Wook Song
INTRODUCTION: Exercise-induced apelin as a myokine is believed to play a role in the improvement of type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM) and capillarization. Here, we evaluated the association between exercise-induced apelin and muscle capillarization. METHODS: Zucker rats underwent a treadmill exercise program. Body composition, muscle strength, muscle size, muscle capillarization, and insulin resistance(Homeostatic Model Assessment[HOMA-IR]) were measured. Apelin levels of skeletal muscle and plasma were then analyzed...
February 6, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161441/apelin-promotes-mesenchymal-stem-cells-survival-and-vascularization-under-hypoxic-ischemic-condition-in-vitro-involving-the-upregulation-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor
#7
Jingying Hou, Tingting Zhong, Tianzhu Guo, Changqing Miao, Changqing Zhou, Huibao Long, Hao Wu, Shaoxin Zheng, Lei Wang, Tong Wang
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation has been regarded as an optimal therapeutic approach for cardiovascular disease. However, the inferior survival and low vascularization potential of these cells in the local infarct site reduce the therapeutic efficacy. In this study, we investigated the influence of apelin on MSCs survival and vascularization under hypoxic-ischemic condition in vitro and explored the relevant mechanism. METHODS: MSCs were obtained from C57BL/6 mice and cultured in vitro...
February 1, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144460/the-effect-of-aerobic-exercise-training-on-plasma-apelin-levels-and-pain-threshold-in-t1dm-rats
#8
Reza Delavar, Ali Heidarianpour
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (types 1 and 2) leads to secondary complications such as neuropathy, which reduce a patient's quality of life. Apelin and its receptor, APJ, have been shown to have antinociceptive effects and to decrease blood glucose levels. OBJECTIVES: The present experimental study was conducted in Iran and investigated the role of apelin, which is used to manage type 1 diabetes mellitus, during exercise training. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats (n = 36) were assigned by simple random allocation to six groups (n = 6): non-diabetic (ND), diabetic (D), sedentary non-diabetic (SND), sedentary diabetic (SD), exercise non-diabetic (END), and exercise diabetic (ED)...
September 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137936/elabela-toddler-is-an-endogenous-agonist-of-the-apelin-apj-receptor-in-the-adult-cardiovascular-system-and-exogenous-administration-of-the-peptide-compensates-for-the-downregulation-of-its-expression-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#9
Peiran Yang, Cai Read, Rhoda E Kuc, Guido Buonincontri, Mark Southwood, Rubben Torella, Paul D Upton, Alexi Crosby, Stephen J Sawiak, T Adrian Carpenter, Robert C Glen, Nicholas W Morrell, Janet J Maguire, Anthony P Davenport
BACKGROUND: -Elabela/Toddler (ELA) is a critical cardiac developmental peptide that acts through the G protein-coupled apelin receptor, despite lack of sequence similarity to the established ligand apelin. Our aim was to investigate the receptor pharmacology, expression pattern and in vivo function of ELA peptides in the adult cardiovascular system, to seek evidence for alteration in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in which apelin signaling is down-regulated, and to demonstrate attenuation of PAH severity with exogenous administration of ELA in a rat model...
January 30, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132903/apela-exhibits-isoform-and-headgroup-dependent-modulation-of-micelle-binding-peptide-conformation-and-dynamics
#10
Shuya K Huang, Kyungsoo Shin, Muzaddid Sarker, Jan K Rainey
Apela (also referred to as ELABELA and toddler) is a peptide hormone that activates the apelin receptor (AR or APJ) to regulate cardiovascular system development and function. Here, we report the first biophysical characterization of three apela isoforms, apela-54, -32, and -11, alongside a monomeric C1S-apela-11 mutant, using circular dichroism (CD) spectropolarimetry and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The behaviour of apela-54 is consistent with a preprotein containing a hydrophobic, N-terminal signal peptide...
January 26, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125271/is-apelin-gene-expression-and-concentration-affected-by-dietary-intakes-a-systematic-review
#11
Emad Yuzbashian, Maryam Zarkesh, Golaleh Asghari, Mehdi Hedayati, Mohammad Safarian, Parvin Mirmiran, Ali Reza Khalaj
BACKGROUND: Overproduction of apelin in obesity could be one of the last protective defenses before type 2 diabetes develops. OBJECTIVE: To summarize the existing evidence on the association between dietary intake and apelin gene expression and concentration. METHODS: We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and google scholar and hand-searched bibliographies, including peer-reviewed articles with English abstracts, without restriction in publication date, updated until 21 February 2016 that reported the association between dietary intake and apelin gene expression or concentration...
January 26, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123583/association-of-leptin-visfatin-apelin-resistin-and-adiponectin-with-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma
#12
Hai-Ping Zhang, Jian Zou, Zhuo-Qun Xu, Jun Ruan, Shu-Dong Yang, Ying Yin, Hui-Jun Mu
Although an association between obesity and the occurrence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has been identified, the mechanism by which obesity functions to increase this risk of cancer remains unclear. Leptin, visfatin, apelin, resistin and adiponectin are peptide hormones secreted by adipocytes; it is considered that these may affect RCC development by exerting effects on proliferation, cell growth and inflammation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between the aforementioned adipokine genes and clear cell RCC (CC-RCC)...
January 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111160/bisphenol-a-and-its-derivatives-tetrabromobisphenol-a-and-tetrachlorobisphenol-a-induce-apelin-expression-and-secretion-in-ovarian-cancer-cells-through-a-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-dependent-mechanism
#13
Marta Hoffmann, Elżbieta Fiedor, Anna Ptak
Epidemiological studies have reported that humans have detectable levels of not only bisphenol A (BPA), but also its halogenated derivatives tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and tetrachlorobisphenol A (TCBPA), in the serum. Our previous study showed that BPA promotes ovarian cancer progression by directly inducing cell proliferation and migration or by indirectly increasing leptin receptor expression, which creates more binding sites for leptin. In this study, we examined the expression of apelin and its receptor in non-cancer and cancer cell lines derived from the human ovary, and further explored whether the expression of apelin and its receptor is modulated by BPA and its derivatives...
January 19, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091541/apelin-receptor-homodimer-oligomers-revealed-by-single-molecule-imaging-and-novel-g-protein-dependent-signaling
#14
Xin Cai, Bo Bai, Rumin Zhang, Chunmei Wang, Jing Chen
The apelin receptor (APJ) belongs to family A of the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and is a potential pharmacotherapeutic target for heart failure, hypertension, and other cardiovascular diseases. There is evidence APJ heterodimerizes with other GPCRs; however, the existence of APJ homodimers and oligomers remains to be investigated. Here, we measured APJ monomer-homodimer-oligomer interconversion by monitoring APJ dynamically on cells and compared their proportions, spatial arrangement, and mobility using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, resonance energy transfer, and proximity biotinylation...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088732/apelin-13-protects-rat-primary-cortical-glia-neuron-co-culture-against-pentylenetetrazole-induced-toxicity
#15
Taj Pari Kalantaripour, Saeed Esmaeili-Mahani, Vahid Sheibani, Hamid Najafipour, Majid Asadi-Shekaari M
In spite of recent advances in the treatment of epilepsy, up to 35% of people living with the condition do not respond to accessible anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) and continue to experience regular, devastating and potentially life-threatening seizures. Neuronal death is a significant feature of epilepsy in humans and experimental models. It has been reported that apelin, an endogenous ligand for the angiotensin-1-like receptor (APJ), has anticonvulsive as well as protective effects in some neurodegenerative situations...
January 12, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087150/apelin-protects-against-nmda-induced-retinal-neuronal-death-via-an-apj-receptor-by-activating-akt-and-erk1-2-and-suppressing-tnf-%C3%AE-expression-in-mice
#16
Yuki Ishimaru, Akihide Sumino, Daiki Kajioka, Fumiya Shibagaki, Akiko Yamamuro, Yasuhiro Yoshioka, Sadaaki Maeda
Glutamate excitotoxicity mediated by N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors is an important cause of retinal ganglion cell death in glaucoma. To elucidate whether apelin protects against retinal neuronal cell death, we examined protective effects of exogenous and endogenous apelin on neuronal cell death induced by intravitreal injection of NMDA in the retinas of mice. An intravitreal injection of NMDA induced neuronal cell death in both the retinal ganglion cell layer and inner nuclear layer, and reduced the amplitudes of scotopic threshold response (STR) in electroretinography studies...
December 24, 2016: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065733/amelioration-of-apelin-13-in-chronic-normobaric-hypoxia-induced-anxiety-like-behavior-is-associated-with-an-inhibition-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-in-the-hippocampus
#17
Junming Fan, Lu Ding, Dongmei Xia, Danyang Chen, Pu Jiang, Wenhua Ge, Ru Zhao, Jinbin Guo, Xiaofang Fan, Feng Xue, Yongyu Wang, Sunzhong Mao, Lianggang Hu, Yongsheng Gong
Apelin, a small bioactive peptide, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of mood disorders through the endogenous ligand APJ. Although the anxiolytic effect of apelin is well established, the mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, we hypothesized that apelin played an anxiolytic role in chronic normobaric hypoxia (CNH)-induced anxiety like behavior in mice, which might be associated with an inhibition of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation in the hippocampus. To this end, mice were exposed in a normobaric hypoxic chamber with a fraction of inspired oxygen (FIO2, ∼10%, 23h/d) with or without apelin-13 application (20 nmolkg(-1)d(-1), i...
January 5, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051763/maternal-undernutrition-programs-the-apelinergic-system-of-adipose-tissue-in-adult-male-rat-offspring
#18
S Lecoutre, L Marousez, A Drougard, C Knauf, C Guinez, D Eberlé, C Laborie, D Vieau, J Lesage, C Breton
Based on the Developmental Origin of Health and Disease concept, maternal undernutrition has been shown to sensitize adult offspring to metabolic pathologies such as obesity. Using a model of maternal 70% food restriction in pregnant female rats throughout gestation (called FR30), we previously reported that obesity-prone adult male rat offspring displayed hyperleptinemia with modifications in leptin and leptin receptor messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in white adipose tissue (WAT). Apelin is a member of the adipokine family that regulates various aspects of energy metabolism and WAT functionality...
February 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039702/serum-apelin-levels-and-body-composition-changes-in-breast-cancer-patients-treated-with-an-aromatase-inhibitor
#19
Tarik Salman, Leyla Demir, Umut Varol, Murat Akyol, Utku Oflazoglu, Yasar Yildiz, Halil Taskaynatan, Hakan Cengiz, Guven Guvendi, Yuksel Kucukzeybek, Ahmet Alacacioglu, Oktay Tarhan
PURPOSE: The adipose tissue plays a role in carcinogenesis with the adipokines it generates. Apelin is an anti-obesigenic adipokine, and assumes roles in both vascularization and tumor cell proliferation. The present study aimed to investigate changes in apelin levels, in postmenopausal breast cancer (BC) patients receiving aromatase inhibitors (AIs). METHODS: Forty early-stage postmenopausal BC patients treated with AIs with no history of chemotherapy administration were included in the study...
November 2016: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025030/apelin-apj-system-a-novel-promising-therapy-target-for-pathological-angiogenesis
#20
REVIEW
Lele Wu, Linxi Chen, Lanfang Li
Apelin is the endogenous ligand of the G protein-coupled receptor APJ. Both Apelin and APJ receptor are widely distributed in various tissues such as heart, brain, limbs, retina and liver. Recent research indicates that the Apelin/APJ system plays an important role in pathological angiogenesis which is a progress of new blood branches developing from preexisting vessels via sprouting. In this paper, we review the important role of the Apelin/APJ system in pathological angiogenesis. The Apelin/APJ system promotes angiogenesis in myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, critical limb ischemia, tumor, retinal angiogenesis diseases, cirrhosis, obesity, diabetes and other related diseases...
December 23, 2016: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
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