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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350399/biological-functions-of-elabela-a-novel-endogenous-ligand-of-apj-receptor
#1
REVIEW
Jin Xu, Linxi Chen, Zhisheng Jiang, Lanfang Li
The G protein-coupled receptor APJ and its cognate ligand, apelin, are widely expressed throughout human body. They are implicated in different key physiological processes such as angiogenesis, cardiovascular functions, fluid homeostasis and energy metabolism regulation. Recently, a new endogenous peptidic ligand of APJ, named Elabela, has been identified and shown to play a crucial role in embryonic development. In addition, increasing evidences show that Elabela is also intimate associated with a large number of physiological processes in adulthood...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342326/mixed-fluorotryptophan-substitutions-at-the-same-residue-expand-the-versatility-of-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-f-protein-nmr-spectroscopy
#2
Calem Kenward, Kyungsoo Shin, Jan Rainey
The strategy of applying fluorine NMR to characterize ligand binding to a membrane protein prepared with mixtures of tryptophans substituted with F at different positions on the indole ring was tested. The ¹⁹F NMR behavior of 4-, 5-, 6-, and 7-fluorotryptophan were directly compared as a function of both micellar environment and fragment size for two overlapping apelin receptor (AR/APJ) segments - one with a single transmembrane (TM) helix and two tryptophan residues, the other with three TM helices and two additional tryptophan residues...
January 17, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340118/apelin-apj-system-a-key-therapeutic-target-for-liver-disease
#3
REVIEW
Shuang-Yu Lv, Binbin Cui, Wei-Dong Chen, Yan-Dong Wang
Apelin, a new bioactive peptide, was identified as an endogenous ligand for APJ (Angiotensin II receptor-like 1). Apelin and its receptor have an abundant distribution in central nervous system and peripheral tissues, including liver. Apelin/APJ has diverse physiological and pathological effects, including regulation of cardiovascular function, angiogenesis, fluid homeostasis and so on. Apelin/APJ system may act as a novel potential therapeutic target for liver disease. In this article, we review the role of apelin/APJ system in liver fibrosis, hepatitis, hepatic cirrhosis, liver injury and metabolic liver disease...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337146/apelin-13-attenuates-er-stress-mediated-neuronal-apoptosis-by-activating-g%C3%AE-i-g%C3%AE-q-ck2-signaling-in-ischemic-stroke
#4
Fei Wu, Jian Qiu, Yang Fan, Qiuling Zhang, Baohua Cheng, Yili Wu, Bo Bai
Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury-induced neuronal apoptosis contributes to the death and disability in patients with ischemic stroke. However, underlying mechanisms remain elusive and it lacks effective treatment. Here we reported that the expression of casein kinase 2 (CK2) was significantly reduced in brains of middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MACO/R) model rats and oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) model neurons, which was associated with the activation of eIF2-ATF4-CHOP signaling pathway, leading to neuronal apoptosis...
January 11, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336478/apelin-13-treatment-enhances-the-stability-of-atherosclerotic-plaques
#5
Rodrigo Araujo Fraga-Silva, Hugo Seeman, Fabrizio Montecucco, Analina Raquel da Silva, Fabienne Burger, Fabiana Pereira Costa-Fraga, Léa Anguenot, François Mach, Robson Augusto Souza Dos Santos, Nikolaos Stergiopulos, Rafaela Fernandes da Silva
BACKGROUND: Apelin is an endogenous peptidergic system which modulates cardiovascular function. Recent studies pointed out a fundamental contribution of apelin on atherosclerosis development; however, such reports revealed contradictory data, and to date, it is difficult to accurately define a beneficial or deleterious role. To better understand apelin function on atherosclerosis, we aimed to investigate apelin-13 treatment effects on atherosclerotic plaques composition. DESIGN: Apolipoprotein E gene-deleted mice were fed on Western-type diet for 11 weeks...
January 16, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329678/apelin-13-ameliorates-cognitive-impairments-in-6-hydroxydopamine-induced-substantia-nigra-lesion-in-rats
#6
Elham Haghparast, Saeed Esmaeili-Mahani, Mehdi Abbasnejad, Vahid Sheibani
Although Parkinson's disease (PD) is well known with its motor deficits, the patients often suffer from cognitive dysfunction. Apelin, as the endogenous ligand of the APJ receptor, is found in several brain regions such as substantia nigra and mesolimbic pathway. However, the role of apelin in cognition and cognitive disorders has not been fully clarified. In this study the effects of apelin-13 were investigated on cognitive disorders in rat Parkinsonism experimental model. 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) was administrated into the substantia nigra...
January 5, 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309764/adipokine-apelin-ameliorates-chronic-colitis-in-il-10-mice-by-promoting-intestinal-lymphatic-functions
#7
Yuanyuan Ge, Yi Li, Qin Chen, Weiming Zhu, Lugen Zuo, Zhen Guo, Jianfeng Gong, Lei Cao, Lili Gu, Jieshou Li
Both mesenteric adipose tissue (MAT) and lymphatic vessels (LVs) play important roles in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD), and adipokines have been implicated in the crosstalk between MAT and LVs. Apelin, a newly identified adipokine, has been demonstrated to be crucial in the development and stabilization of LVs. We aimed to identify the expression of apelin in MAT of CD patients and explore whether apelin influences the disease course in murine colitis and determine its contributions to LVs. Expression of apelin in MAT specimens from patients with CD (n=24) and without CD (control, n=12) was detected...
January 5, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296197/lack-of-association-between-the-aplnr-variant-rs9943582-with-ischemic-stroke-in-the-chinese-han-geneid-population
#8
Pengyun Wang, Chuchu Wang, Sisi Li, Binbin Wang, Liang Xiong, Xin Tu, Qing K Wang, Cheng-Qi Xu
Stroke is one of the most common causes of death worldwide. Genetic risk factors have been found to play important roles in the pathology of ischemic stroke. In a previous genome-wide association study, a functional variant (rs9943582, -154G/A) in the 5' flanking region of the apelin receptor gene (APLNR) was shown to be significantly associated with stroke in the Japanese population. However, the association required validation in other ethnicities. To validate the genetic relationship between APLNR and ischemic stroke in the Chinese Han population, we genotyped rs9943582 in a case-control population containing 1,158 ischemic stroke patients and 1,265 common controls enrolled from the GeneID database, and performed a genetic association study...
December 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278852/adipokines-in-neurovascular-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Radka Opatrilova, Martin Caprnda, Peter Kubatka, Vanda Valentova, Sona Uramova, Vladimir Nosal, Ludovit Gaspar, Lukas Zachar, Ioana Mozos, Daniel Petrovic, Jozef Dragasek, Slavomira Filipova, Dietrich Büsselberg, Anthony Zulli, Luis Rodrigo, Peter Kruzliak, Vladimir Krasnik
Adipose tissue is now described as an endocrine organ secreting a number of adipokines contributing to the development of inflammation and metabolic imbalance, but also endothelial dysfunction, vascular remodeling, atherosclerosis, and ischemic stroke. Leptin, adiponectin, and resistin are the most studied adipokines which play important roles in the regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis. Leptin and adiponectin mediate both proatherogenic and antiatherogenic responses. Leptin and adiponectin have been linked to the development of coronary heart disease and may be involved in the underlying biological mechanism of ischemic stroke...
December 23, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250138/apelin-as-a-novel-drug-for-treating-preeclampsia
#10
Chengshu Wang, Xiaoli Liu, Desheng Kong, Xijing Qin, Yanqing Li, Xu Teng, Xianghua Huang
Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disorder of new-onset hypertension and proteinuria after 20 weeks' gestation, often resulting in poor outcome. Previous studies demonstrated that apelin is an endogenous active peptide with visodilation and anti-oxidative stress capabilities. The present study investigated the effects of apelin in a rat model of preeclampsia induced by reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP). Rats with RUPP displayed hypertension and poor pregnancy outcomes, such as decreased fetal and placental weight...
December 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249393/therapeutic-benefit-and-gene-network-regulation-by-combined-gene-transfer-of-apelin-fgf2-and-serca2a-into-ischemic-heart
#11
Edith Renaud-Gabardos, Florence Tatin, Fransky Hantelys, Benoît Lebas, Denis Calise, Oksana Kunduzova, Bernard Masri, Françoise Pujol, Pierre Sicard, Philippe Valet, Jérôme Roncalli, Xavier Chaufour, Barbara Garmy-Susini, Angelo Parini, Anne-Catherine Prats
Despite considerable advances in cardiovascular disease treatment, heart failure remains a public health challenge. In this context, gene therapy appears as an attractive approach, but clinical trials using single therapeutic molecules result in moderate benefit. With the objective of improving ischemic heart failure therapy, we designed a combined treatment, aimed to simultaneously stimulate angiogenesis, prevent cardiac remodeling, and restore contractile function. We have previously validated IRES-based vectors as powerful tools to co-express genes of interest...
November 16, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245958/apelin-protects-against-myocardial-ischemic-injury-by-inhibiting-dynamin-related-protein-1
#12
Wei Xu, Hongwei Yu, Ruixue Ma, Lina Ma, Qiushuang Liu, Huitong Shan, Chengyu Wu, Rong Zhang, Yuhong Zhou, Hongli Shan
It is known that dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1)-mediated mitochondrial fission plays an important role in ischemic injury of myocardial infarction (MI). Apelin, an endogenous ligand for Apelin receptor, acts as a key modulator of cardiovascular diseases. Here, we examined the effects of Apelin on MI injury and underlying mechanisms. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were treated with Apelin for 4 weeks and then subjected coronary artery ligation (LAD) to induce MI and the protective effects of Apelin on MI injury were evaluated at 6 h post LAD...
November 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229313/emerging-role-of-adipocytokines-in-type-2-diabetes-as-mediators-of-insulin-resistance-and-cardiovascular-disease
#13
REVIEW
Ravindran Jaganathan, Rajeswari Ravindran, Sugapriya Dhanasekaran
Adipose tissue is an enormously active endocrine organ, secreting various hormones, such as adiponectin, leptin, resistin and visfatin, together with classical cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). All these adipocytokines plays significant roles in the regulation of energy metabolism, glucose and lipid metabolism, reproduction, cardiovascular function and immunity. Adipocytokines are significantly regulated by nutritional status and can directly influence other organ systems, including brain, liver and skeletal muscle...
December 8, 2017: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215755/apelin-apj-system-a-critical-regulator-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell
#14
REVIEW
Xuling Luo, Jiaqi Liu, Hong Zhou, Linxi Chen
APJ, an orphan G protein-coupled receptor, is first identified through homology cloning in 1993. Apelin is endogenous ligand of APJ extracted from bovine stomach tissue in 1998. Apelin/APJ system is widely expressed in many kinds of cells such as endothelial cells, cardiomyocytes, especially vascular smooth muscle cell. Vascular smooth muscle cell, an integral part of the vascular wall, takes part in many normal physiological processes. Our experiment firstly finds that apelin/APJ system enhances VSMC proliferation by ERK1/2-cyclin D1 signal pathway...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214526/high-intensity-interval-training-lowers-blood-pressure-and-improves-apelin-and-nox-plasma-levels-in-older-treated-hypertensive-individuals
#15
Mohammad Reza Izadi, Alireza Ghardashi Afousi, Maryam Asvadi Fard, Mohammad Ali Babaee Bigi
Hypertension is the major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and is one of the primary causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Apelin levels and NO bioavailability are impaired in older hypertensive patients. Exercise is an effective intervention for treating hypertension. Our purpose was to evaluate the effect of high-intensity interval training on blood pressure, apelin, and NOx plasma levels in older treated hypertensive individuals. Thirty treated hypertensive subjects (61.70 ± 5.78 years, 17 males, 13 females) were randomly divided into 6 weeks of high-intensity interval training (n = 15) and control (n = 15)...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210636/new-insights-into-adipokines-as-potential-biomarkers-for-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#16
Marta Olivera-Santa Catalina, Pedro C Redondo, Carlos Cantonero-Chamorro, Maria P Granados, Jose Sanchez-Collado, Letizia Albarran, Jose Lopez
A large number of studies have been focused on investigating serum biomarkers associated with risk or diagnosis of type-2 diabetes mellitus. In the last decade, promising studies have shown that circulating levels of adipokines could be used as a relevant biomarker for diabetes mellitus progression as well as therapeutic future targets. Here we discuss the possible use of recent described adipokines, including apelin, omentin-1, resistin, FGF-21, neuregulin-4 and visfatin, as early biomarkers for diabetes. In addition, we also include recent findings of other well know adipokines such as leptin and adiponectin...
December 5, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208172/investigation-of-role-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-annexin-a5-and-apelin-by-immunohistochemistry-method-in-placenta-of-preeclampsia-patients
#17
Nese Colcimen, Gülay Bulut, Ozlem Ergul Erkec, Murat Cetin Ragbetli
Preeclampsia is a disease characterized by hypertension and proteinuria occurred after 20 weeks of gestation. Preeclampsia is a major cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality.  The pathophysiological mechanism of preeclampsia is not known exactly yet. Preeclampsia endothelial cell dysfunction, associated with inadequate trophoblastic invasion is characterized by abnormal placentation. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) according to is an angiogenic cytokine, Annexin A5 is among endogenous peptides are both expressed from placental trophoblasts and Apelin is a multifunctional peptide and expressed by placental trophoblasts and endothelial cells...
November 30, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205940/relation-of-serum-adma-apelin-13-and-lox-1-levels-with-inflammatory-and-echocardiographic-parameters-in-hemodialysis-patients
#18
Ibrahim Dogan, Tolga Dogan, Mucahit Yetim, Huseyin Kayadibi, Mehmet B Yilmaz, Baris Eser, Macit Kalcik, Yusuf Karavelioglu
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading causes of mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. Nitric oxide has a critical role in both endothelial dysfunction and the atherosclerosis process. We aimed to investigate the relationships between serum asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA), LOX-1, and Apelin-13 levels, which are known to act over nitric oxide with endothelial dysfunction and cardiac morphology as well as with each other in hemodialysis patients. The study comprised a total of 120 patients (53 females and 67 males) receiving hemodialysis three times a week for at least 6 months and an age-gender matched control group (55 females and 58 males)...
December 4, 2017: Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198825/coupling-between-myogenesis-and-angiogenesis-during-skeletal-muscle-regeneration-is-stimulated-by-restorative-macrophages
#19
Claire Latroche, Michèle Weiss-Gayet, Laurent Muller, Cyril Gitiaux, Pascal Leblanc, Sophie Liot, Sabrina Ben-Larbi, Rana Abou-Khalil, Nicolas Verger, Paul Bardot, Mélanie Magnan, Fabrice Chrétien, Rémi Mounier, Stéphane Germain, Bénédicte Chazaud
In skeletal muscle, new functions for vessels have recently emerged beyond oxygen and nutrient supply, through the interactions that vascular cells establish with muscle stem cells. Here, we demonstrate in human and mouse that endothelial cells (ECs) and myogenic progenitor cells (MPCs) interacted together to couple myogenesis and angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo during skeletal muscle regeneration. Kinetics of gene expression of ECs and MPCs sorted at different time points of regeneration identified three effectors secreted by both ECs and MPCs...
December 12, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197590/identification-and-expression-patterns-of-adipokine-genes-during-adipocyte-differentiation-in-the-tibetan-goat-capra-hircus
#20
Xueying Li, Yan Wang, Jiazhong Guo, Tao Zhong, Li Li, Hongping Zhang, Linjie Wang
Adipokines are secreted by adipose tissue and play an important role in the regulation of lipid metabolism. However, the information regarding adipokines in goats is limited. PPARγ is a key gene in adipocyte differentiation and activates adipokine genes. Rosiglitazone is a PPARγ agonist and can promote the expression of PPARγ to increase the expression of lipogenesis-related genes. Therefore, investigation of the relationship between rosiglitazone and adipokines will help us to better understand the function of PPARγ in lipid metabolism in Tibetan goats...
November 29, 2017: Gene
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