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Apelin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138271/addressing-the-perfect-storm-biomarkers-in-obesity-and-pathophysiology-of-cardiometabolic-risk
#1
REVIEW
Krasimira Aleksandrova, Dariush Mozaffarian, Tobias Pischon
BACKGROUND: The worldwide rise of obesity has provoked intensified research to better understand its pathophysiology as a means for disease prevention. Several biomarkers that may reflect various pathophysiological pathways that link obesity and cardiometabolic diseases have been identified over the past decades. CONTENT: We summarize research evidence regarding the role of established and novel obesity-related biomarkers, focusing on recent epidemiological evidence for detrimental associations with cardiometabolic diseases including obesity-related cancer...
November 14, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133807/apelin-conformational-and-binding-equilibria-upon-micelle-interaction-primarily-depend-on-membrane-mimetic-headgroup
#2
Kyungsoo Shin, Muzaddid Sarker, Shuya K Huang, Jan K Rainey
Apelin is one of two peptide hormones that activate the apelin receptor (AR or APJ) to regulate the cardiovascular system, central nervous system, and adipoinsular axis. Here, we apply circular dichroism (CD) spectropolarimetry and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to characterize the potential membrane binding by the two longest bioactive apelin isoforms, apelin-55 and -36, using membrane-mimetic dodecylphosphocholine (DPC), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and 1-palmitoyl-2-hydroxy-sn-glycero-3-[phospho-rac-(1-glycerol)] (LPPG) micelles...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122953/dietary-weight-loss-induced-changes-in-rbp4-ffa-and-ace-predict-weight-regain-in-people-with-overweight-and-obesity
#3
Roel G Vink, Nadia J Roumans, Edwin C Mariman, Marleen A van Baak
Adipokines and other biomarkers were previously identified with roles in energy expenditure, appetite, satiety, and adiposity. Therefore, we investigated whether dietary weight loss-induced changes in adipokines and other biomarkers known to play a role in weight regulation or energy expenditure could predict weight regain in people with overweight and obesity. In this randomized controlled trial 26 males and 30 females (BMI: 28-35 kg/m(2)) followed either a low-calorie diet (LCD; 1250 kcal/day) for 12 weeks or a very-low-calorie diet (VLCD; 500 kcal/day) for 5 weeks followed by a weight stable period of 4 weeks (dietary intervention (DI) period) and a 9-month follow-up period...
November 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118394/an-apelin-receptor-antagonist-prevents-pathological-retinal-angiogenesis-with-ischemic-retinopathy-in-mice
#4
Yuki Ishimaru, Fumiya Shibagaki, Akiko Yamamuro, Yasuhiro Yoshioka, Sadaaki Maeda
Pathological retinal angiogenesis is caused by the progression of ischemic retinal diseases and can result in retinal detachment and irreversible blindness. This neovascularization is initiated from the retinal veins and their associated capillaries and involves the overgrowth of vascular endothelial cells. Since expression of the apelin receptor (APJ) is restricted to the veins and proliferative endothelial cells during physiological retinal angiogenesis, in the present study, we investigated the effect of APJ inhibition on pathological retinal angiogenesis in a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR)...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117554/downregulation-of-the-apelinergic-axis-accelerates-aging-whereas-its-systemic-restoration-improves-the-mammalian-healthspan
#5
Rahul Rai, Asish K Ghosh, Mesut Eren, Alexander R Mackie, Daniel C Levine, So-Youn Kim, Jonathan Cedernaes, Veronica Ramirez, Daniele Procissi, Layton H Smith, Teresa K Woodruff, Joseph Bass, Douglas E Vaughan
Aging drives the occurrence of numerous diseases, including cardiovascular disease (CVD). Recent studies indicate that blood from young mice reduces age-associated pathologies. However, the "anti-aging" factors in juvenile circulation remain poorly identified. Here, we characterize the role of the apelinergic axis in mammalian aging and identify apelin as an anti-aging factor. The expression of apelin (apln) and its receptor (aplnr) exhibits an age-dependent decline in multiple organs. Reduced apln signaling perturbs organismal homeostasis; mice harboring genetic deficiency of aplnr or apln exhibit enhanced cardiovascular, renal, and reproductive aging...
November 7, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115618/apelin%C3%A2-13-promotes-cell-proliferation-in-the-h9c2-cardiomyoblast-cell-line-by-triggering-extracellular-signal%C3%A2-regulated-kinase-1-2-and-protein-kinase-b-phosphorylation
#6
Luhua Yin, Pu Zhang, Chao Li, Jiafeng Si, Yongmei Wang, Xuemei Zhang, Deqing Zhang, Huanyi Zhang, Cong Lin
Apelin‑13 (APL‑13), a peptide hormone that serves as a ligand for G‑protein coupled receptors, has been demonstrated to be highly expressed in left ventricular hypertrophy rat models. It has been implicated in cardio‑protection under pathological states. The present study aimed to assess the physiological proliferation effect of APL‑13 in cultured H9c2 cardiomyoblast cells, and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Cell proliferation was determined by MTT assay. The extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway was identified, and protein expression levels were detected using western blot analysis...
October 27, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101069/association-between-fto-gene-polymorphisms-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-serum-levels-of-apelin-and-androgen-hormones-among-iranian-obese-women
#7
Farzaneh Ghafarian Alipour, Shayan Ziaee, Mohamad Reza Ashoori, Mir Saeid Zakeri, Mohammad Ali Boroumand, Naser Aghamohammadzadeh, Maryam Abbasi-Majdi, Fatemeh Shool, Navid Sarakhs Asbaghi, Abolghasem Mohammadi, Nosratollah Zarghami
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Recent studies show that FTO single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). On the other hand, many animal models and clinical studies have demonstrated that apelin, an adipocytokine, is related to the obesity and T2DM. Additionally, obese women are at risk of Hyperandrogenemia. So, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between FTO variants (rs763967273, rs759031579, rs141115189, rs9926289, rs76804286 and rs9939609) with T2DM, serum apelin and androgenic hormones in Iranian obese women...
October 31, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091306/effects-of-apelin-on-retinal-microglial-cells-in-a-rat-model-of-oxygen-induced-retinopathy-of-prematurity
#8
Wei Zhang, Ding-Guo Zhang, Xing Liang, Wei-Liang Zhang, Jing-Xue Ma
This study explores the effects of apelin on retinal microglial cells in rat models of oxygen-induced retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Totally, 274 rats were selected for establishing oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) models, and 92 healthy rats for control group. OIR rats were assigned into OIR, 10(-5) g/L apelin, 10(-4) g/L apelin and 10(-3) g/L apelin groups. Immunohistochemistry was employed to determine morphology of microglial cells and cell number. CDllb, ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (IBA-1), TNF-α and iNOS mRNA and protein expressions were identified using RT-qPCR and western blotting, respectively...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079670/the-levels-of-adipokines-and-hormonal-changes-during-the-menstrual-cycle-in-normal-weight-women
#9
Katarzyna Wyskida, Grzegorz Franik, Tomasz Wikarek, Aleksander Owczarek, Alham Delroba, Jerzy Chudek, Jerzy Sikora, Magdalena Olszanecka-Glinianowicz
CONTEXT: The aim of this study was to assess plasma leptin, adiponectin, resistin, visfatin/NAMPT, omentin-1, vaspin, apelin, TNF-α, IL-6 and RBP4 levels in relation to hormonal changes during the menstrual cycle in young, healthy, normal-weight women. METHODS: The study involved 52 young, healthy, normal-weight women. Anthropometric parameters, body composition and levels of plasma leptin, adiponectin, resistin, visfatin/NAMPT, omentin-1, vaspin, apelin, TNF-α, IL-6 and RBP4 in addition to serum FSH, LH, estradiol, progesterone, 17-OH progesterone, androgens, SHBG and insulin concentrations were measured during a morning in fasting state three times: between days 2-4, days 12-14 and days 24-26 of the menstrual cycle...
October 27, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079036/apela-promotes-tumour-growth-and-cell-migration-in-ovarian-cancer-in-a-p53-dependent-manner
#10
Yuyin Yi, Shu-Huei Tsai, Jung-Chien Cheng, Evan Y Wang, Michael S Anglesio, Dawn R Cochrane, Megan Fuller, Ewan A Gibb, Wei Wei, David G Huntsman, Aly Karsan, Pamela A Hoodless
OBJECTIVE: APELA is a small, secreted peptide that can function as a ligand for the G-protein coupled receptor, Apelin Receptor (APLNR, APJ). APELA plays an essential role in endoderm differentiation and cardiac development during embryogenesis. We investigated whether APELA exerts any functions in cancer progression. METHODS: The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) RNA sequencing datasets, microarray from an OCCC mouse model, and RNA isolated from fresh frozen and FFPE patient tissue were used to assess APELA expression...
October 24, 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073106/cardiovascular-homeostasis-dependence-on-micu2-a-regulatory-subunit-of-the-mitochondrial-calcium-uniporter
#11
Alexander G Bick, Hiroko Wakimoto, Kimberli J Kamer, Yasemin Sancak, Olga Goldberger, Anna Axelsson, Daniel M DeLaughter, Joshua M Gorham, Vamsi K Mootha, J G Seidman, Christine E Seidman
Comparative analyses of transcriptional profiles from humans and mice with cardiovascular pathologies revealed consistently elevated expression of MICU2, a regulatory subunit of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter complex. To determine if MICU2 expression was cardioprotective, we produced and characterized Micu2(-/-) mice. Mutant mice had left atrial enlargement and Micu2(-/-) cardiomyocytes had delayed sarcomere relaxation and cytosolic calcium reuptake kinetics, indicating diastolic dysfunction. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) of Micu2(-/-) ventricular tissues revealed markedly reduced transcripts encoding the apelin receptor (Micu2(-/-) vs...
October 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071991/-effect-of-electroacupuncture-on-expression-of-apelin-apj-system-of-cerebral-vascular-endothelial-cell-in-rats-with-cerebral-infarction
#12
Li-Hong Yang, Yuan-Hao Du, Jing Li
OBJECTIVE: To observe the regulation of APJ and its ligand Apelin on the angiogenesis pathway after cerebral infarction and the intervention effect of acupuncture. METHODS: Wistar rats were randomly divided into model group(n=90), electroacupuncture(EA) group(n=90), sham operation group(n=90) and control group(n=10). The first three groups were further divided into 1,3,6,9,12,24 h and 3,7, 12 d subgroups(n=10 in each subgroup). The cerebral infarction model was established by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)...
February 25, 2017: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070519/the-mechanism-of-all-trans-retinoic-acid-in-the-regulation-of-apelin-expression-in-vascular-endothelial-cells
#13
Hongyun Shi, Lanhui Yuan, Huibing Yang, Aimin Zang
The apelin gene can promote vascular endothelial cell (VEC) proliferation, migration and angiogenesis. However, the molecular mechanism for regulation of the apelin gene is still unknown. Real-time PCR and Western blotting analysis were employed to detect the effect of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) in up-regulating apelin expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Furthermore, the in vivo study also indicated that ATRA could increase apelin expression in balloon-injured arteries of rats, which is consistent with the results from the cultured HUVECs...
October 25, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053791/pharmacological-targeting-of-apelin-impairs-glioblastoma-growth
#14
Elizabeth Harford-Wright, Gwennan Andre-Gregoire, Kathryn A Jacobs, Lucas Treps, Sophie Le Gonidec, Heloise M Leclair, Sara Gonzalez-Diest, Quentin Roux, François Guillonneau, Delphine Loussouarn, Lisa Oliver, François M Vallette, Fabienne Foufelle, Philippe Valet, Anthony P Davenport, Robert C Glen, Nicolas Bidere, Julie Gavard
Glioblastoma are highly aggressive brain tumours that are associated with an extremely poor prognosis. Within these tumours exists a subpopulation of highly plastic self-renewing cancer cells that retain the ability to expand ex vivo as tumourspheres, induce tumour growth in mice, and have been implicated in radio- and chemo-resistance. Although their identity and fate are regulated by external cues emanating from endothelial cells, the nature of such signals remains unknown. Here, we used a mass spectrometry proteomic approach to characterize the factors released by brain endothelial cells...
November 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047327/integrative-testis-transcriptome-analysis-reveals-differentially-expressed-mirnas-and-their-mrna-targets-during-early-puberty-in-atlantic-salmon
#15
K O Skaftnesmo, R B Edvardsen, T Furmanek, D Crespo, E Andersson, L Kleppe, G L Taranger, J Bogerd, R W Schulz, A Wargelius
BACKGROUND: Our understanding of the molecular mechanisms implementing pubertal maturation of the testis in vertebrates is incomplete. This topic is relevant in Atlantic salmon aquaculture, since precocious male puberty negatively impacts animal welfare and growth. We hypothesize that certain miRNAs modulate mRNAs relevant for the initiation of puberty. To explore which miRNAs regulate mRNAs during initiation of puberty in salmon, we performed an integrated transcriptome analysis (miRNA and mRNA-seq) of salmon testis at three stages of development: an immature, long-term quiescent stage, a prepubertal stage just before, and a pubertal stage just after the onset of single cell proliferation activity in the testis...
October 18, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046057/bile-duct-ligature-in-young-rats-a-revisited-animal-model-for-biliary-atresia
#16
Matias Garrido, Camila Escobar, Constanza Zamora, Carolina Rejas, Juan Varas, Mario Párraga, Sebastian San Martin, Sandra Montedónico
Biliary atresia leads to cirrhosis in the vast majority of patients and constitutes the first cause of paediatric liver transplantation. Animal models allow us to understand the molecular basis and natural history of diseases. The aim of this study is to describe a surgically created animal model of biliary atresia with emphasis in long-term liver function. Forty-two 3-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: bile duct ligature (BDL) and control. The animals were sacrificed on the 2nd, 4th, and 6th postoperative weeks...
September 13, 2017: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038355/isolated-heart-model-demonstrates-evidence-of-contractile-and-diastolic-dysfunction-in-right-ventricles-from-rats-with-sugen-hypoxia-induced-pulmonary-hypertension
#17
Evandro M Neto-Neves, Andrea L Frump, Alexandra Vayl, Jeffrey A Kline, Tim Lahm
Although extensively used for the study of left ventricular function, limited experience exists with the isolated heart model in the evaluation of right ventricular (RV) function. In particular, no published experience exists with this tool in sugen/hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (SuHx-PH), a frequently used model of severe and progressive PH We sought to characterize markers of RV contractile and diastolic function in SuHx-PH and to establish their relationship with markers of maladaptive RV remodeling...
October 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025730/apelin-13-inhibits-gastric-motility-through-vagal-cholinergic-pathway-in-rats
#18
Mehmet Bülbül, Osman Sinen, Melahat Gök, R Alberto Travagli
The expression of apelin and its receptors (APJ) in central autonomic networks suggests that apelin may regulate gastrointestinal motor functions. In rodents, central administration of apelin-13 has been shown to inhibit gastric emptying, however, the mechanisms involved remain to be determined. Using male adult Sprague-Dawley rats, the aims of the present study were i) to determine the expression of APJ receptor in DVC, ii) to assess the effects central application of apelin-13 into the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) on gastric tone and motility and iii) to investigate the neuronal pathways responsible for apelin-induced alterations...
October 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987634/heterodimerization-of-apelin-and-opioid-receptors-and-cardiac-inotropic-and-lusitropic-effects-of-apelin-in-2k1c-hypertension-role-of-perk1-2-and-pkc
#19
Farzaneh Rostamzadeh, Hamid Najafipour, Mahboobeh Yeganeh-Hajahmadi, Saeed Esmaeili-Mahani, Siyavash Joukar, Maryam Iranpour
AIMS: Kappa Opioid receptors (KORs) change the impact of apelin on the phosphorylated ERK1/2 (pERK1/2). However, the role of interaction between KOR and apelin receptors (APJ) on the cardiac contractility effects of apelin and in regulation of pERK1/2 and PKC in the heart of renovascular hypertensive (2K1C) rats is unknown. MAIN METHODS: Hemodynamic factors, the heterodimerization of KOR and APJ, the expression of KOR mRNA and protein and pERK1/2 in the left ventricle of 2K1C rats were measured following APJ, KOR, PKC and Gi path inhibition by F13A, nor-BNI, chelerythrine and PTX respectively...
October 4, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987595/acylated-apelin-13-amide-analogues-exhibit-enzyme-resistance-and-prolonged-insulin-releasing-glucose-lowering-and-anorexic-properties
#20
Finbarr P M O'Harte, Vadivel Parthsarathy, Christopher Hogg, Peter R Flatt
The adipokine, apelin has many biological functions but its activity is curtailed by rapid plasma degradation. Fatty acid derived apelin analogues represent a new and exciting avenue for the treatment of obesity-diabetes. This study explores four novel fatty acid modified apelin-13 analogues, namely, (Lys(8)GluPAL)apelin-13 amide, pGlu(Lys(8)GluPAL)apelin-13 amide, Lys(8)GluPAL(Tyr(13))apelin-13 and Lys(8)GluPAL(Val(13))apelin-13. Fatty acid modification extended the half-life of native apelin-13 to >24 h in vitro...
October 4, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
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