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Apelin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712823/an-overview-on-biological-functions-and-emerging-therapeutic-roles-of-apelin-in-diabetes-mellitus
#1
REVIEW
Farzaneh Ghafarian Alipour, Mohamad Reza Ashoori, Younes Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi, Nosratollah Zarghami
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a common type of diabetes and considered as multifactorial disease. Apelin is an adipokine which secreted from white adipose tissue and involved in various functions such as insulin sensitivity and food intake. Many studies showed that apelin has a crucial role in diabetes and its concentration will change in relation with insulin resistance. In this review, we will discuss the roles of apelin in energy metabolism and pathogenesis of diabetes and explain why apelin can be a good candidate adipokine to promoting insulin sensitivity...
July 4, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710384/prospective-evaluation-of-the-diagnostic-value-of-plasma-apelin-12-levels-for-differentiating-patients-with-moyamoya-and-intracranial-atherosclerotic-diseases
#2
Wei Hu, Wan Jiang, Li Ye, Yanghua Tian, Bing Shen, Kai Wang
Patients with moyamoya disease (MMD) or intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD) experience similar cerebral ischaemic events. However, MMD patients show greater angiogenesis and arteriogenesis, which play crucial roles in collateral circulation development to enhance clinical prognosis and outcome. Apelins have been associated with angiogenesis and arteriogenesis. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine whether apelin levels were higher in patients with MMD than in patients with ICAD or in healthy controls...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690216/-plasma-level-of-apelin-and-carotid-atherosclerosis-in-maintenance-hemodialysis-patients
#3
Rong Tang, Ruiling Wang, Xiang Ao, Xiaomiao Cheng
To determine the plasma level of apelin in patients of maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) and to explore the relationship between apelin level and carotid atherosclerosis (AS) in MHD patients.
 Methods: A total of 92 MHD patients and 36 sex- and age-matched healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. The plasma level of apelin was evaluated by radiation immunoassay; serum endothelial injury markers including thrombomodulin, von Willebrand factor (vWF), and CD146, and inflammatory factors including high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), IL-6 and TNF-α were determined by ELISA...
June 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685579/synthetic-modification-within-the-rprl-region-of-apelin-peptides-impact-on-cardiovascular-activity-and-stability-to-neprilysin-and-plasma-degradation
#4
Shaun M K McKinnie, Wang Wang, Conrad Fischer, Tyler McDonald, Kevin R Kalin, Xavier Iturrioz, Catherine Llorens-Cortes, Gavin Y Oudit, John C Vederas
Apelin is an important mammalian peptide hormone with a range of physiological roles, especially in the cardiovascular system. The apelinergic system is a promising target for treatment of disease, but this remains to be realized due to rapid proteolysis of apelin-derived peptides by proteases, including neprilysin (NEP). The synthetic analogues modified within the NEP degradation site ("RPRL" motif) showed improved in vitro proteolytic stability while maintaining receptor-binding affinities, with three candidate peptides retaining full cardiovascular activities for potential therapeutic application...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681996/apelin-administration-improves-insulin-sensitivity-in-overweight-men-during-an-hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic-clamp
#5
Pierre Gourdy, Laurent Cazals, Claire Thalamas, Agnès Sommet, Fabienne Calvas, Monique Galitzky, Claire Vinel, Cédric Dray, Hélène Hanaire, Isabelle Castan-Laurell, Philippe Valet
AIMS: Apelin is a recently identified adipokine known to improve glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in murine models. This study was dedicated to the proof of concept that apelin administration also enhances insulin sensitivity in humans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Healthy overweight men were enrolled in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study that successively considered the efficacy and the tolerance of two doses of (pyr1)-Apelin-13...
July 6, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663440/elabela-deficiency-promotes-preeclampsia-and-cardiovascular-malformations-in-mice
#6
Lena Ho, Marie Van Dijk, Sam Tan Jian Chye, Daniel M Messerschmidt, Serene C Chng, Sheena Ong, Ling Ka Yi, Souad Boussata, Grace Hui-Yi Goh, Gijs B Afink, Chin Yan Lim, N Ray Dunn, Davor Solter, Barbara B Knowles, Bruno Reversade
Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a gestational hypertensive syndrome affecting between 5 and 8% of all pregnancies. While PE is the leading cause of fetal and maternal morbidity/mortality, its molecular etiology is still unclear. Here, we show that ELABELA (ELA), an endogenous ligand of the apelin receptor (APLNR, or APJ), is a circulating hormone secreted by the placenta. Elabela but not Apelin knockout pregnant mice exhibit PE-like symptoms, including proteinuria and elevated blood pressure due to defective placental angiogenesis...
June 29, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653788/mir-497-accelerates-oxidized-low-density-lipoprotein-induced-lipid-accumulation-in-macrophages-by-repressing-the-expression-of-apelin
#7
Junfeng Cui, Zhong Ren, Wenshuang Zou, Yanling Jiang
microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. A previous study has reported that miR-497 is elevated in advanced atherosclerotic lesions in an apoE-deficient (apoE-/-) mouse model. The purpose of this study is to test whether miR-497 can modulate macrophage foam cell formation, an initiating event in atherosclerosis. We found that miR-497 was upregulated in THP-1 macrophages after treatment with oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL). Enforced expression of miR-497 promoted lipid accumulation and decreased cholesterol efflux in oxLDL-exposed THP-1 macrophages...
June 27, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653126/impact-of-metabolic-hormones-secreted-in-human-breast-milk-on-nutritional-programming-in-childhood-obesity
#8
REVIEW
Pilar Amellali Badillo-Suárez, Maricela Rodríguez-Cruz, Xóchitl Nieves-Morales
Obesity is the most common metabolic disease whose prevalence is increasing worldwide. This condition is considered a serious public health problem due to associated comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Perinatal morbidity related to obesity does not end with birth; this continues affecting the mother/infant binomial and could negatively impact on metabolism during early infant nutrition. Nutrition in early stages of growth may be essential in the development of obesity in adulthood, supporting the concept of "nutritional programming"...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648959/a-study-of-gwas-supported-variants-of-rs9943582-in-a-chinese-han-population-with-ischemic-stroke-no-associations-with-disease-onset-and-clinical-outcomes
#9
Hao Zhang, Lingli Sun, Huaiming Wang, Huan Cai, Guozhong Niu, Yongjie Bai, Yun Zhang, Dong Yang, Mengmeng Gu, Pengfei Xu, Xinying Fan, Xinfeng Liu, Gelin Xu
BACKGROUND: The variant rs9943582 of APLNR (apelin receptor) was identified by a large-scale study to be associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke in a Japanese population. We conducted this study to investigate the association between the variant and age of onset and clinical outcomes of ischemic stroke in a Chinese population. METHODS: Improved multiple ligase detection reaction was used to genotype the variant. We compared the mean age at ischemic stroke onset with one-way ANOVA...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636414/non-dipping-status-and-selected-adipokines-concentration-in-children-with-primary-arterial-hypertension
#10
Agnieszka Jędzura, Piotr Adamczyk, Omar Bjanid, Elżbieta Świętochowska, Dagmara Roszkowska-Bjanid, Anna Baraniecka, Beata Banaszak, Krzysztof Plesiński, Aurelia Morawiec-Knysak, Katarzyna Ziora, Maria Szczepańska
High blood pressure (BP) in children and adolescents is associated with increased risk of persistent hypertension (HT) in adulthood and, consequently, cardiovascular disease and target organ damage. AIM: The values of selected anthropometric parameters and laboratory test results including leptin and apelin concentration were evaluated with regard to averaged values of office BP measurements and 24-hour ABPM. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 55 children: 23-with primary HT and coexisting overweight or obese (HT-OB), 16-with primary HT and normal weight (HT-NW), and 16 healthy children (C)...
June 21, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635510/the-effects-on-obesity-related-peptides-of-laparoscopic-gastric-band-applications-in-morbidly-obese-patients
#11
Pinar Cigdem Arica, Seval Aydin, Ulgen Zengin, Ahmet Kocael, Anil Orhan, Kagan Zengin, Remise Gelisgen, Mustafa Taskin, Hafize Uzun
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between weight loss and resistin, apelin, chemerin, and visfatin after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). METHODS: The study group consisted of 19 patients who were operated on for morbid obesity (BMI: 48.7 ± 6.6 kg/m(2)), and 22 healthy, normal-weight (BMI: 22.9 ± 2.5 kg/m(2)) subjects formed the control group. We obtained blood samples from the study subjects at three different times: before undergoing surgery and at one month and 6 months after surgery...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627589/effect-of-the-spinal-apelin%C3%A2-apj-system-on-the-pathogenesis-of-chronic-constriction-injury%C3%A2-induced-neuropathic-pain-in-rats
#12
Qingming Xiong, Wanyou He, Hanbing Wang, Jun Zhou, Yajun Zhang, Jian He, Chengxiang Yang, Bin Zhang
Apelin is hypothesized to serve a dual function in pain processing. Spinal administration of apelin induces hyperalgesia, while opioid receptors are implicated in the antinociceptive effects of apelin in acute nociceptive models. However, whether the apelin‑apelin receptor (APJ) system is involved in neuropathic pain remains to be elucidated. The present study aimed to evaluate the impact and mechanism of the spinal apelin‑APJ system in neuropathic pain. Chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve produced sustained spinal apelin and APJ upregulation, which was associated with mechanical allodynia and heat hyperalgesia development in the hind‑paw plantar surface...
August 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620355/role-of-the-vasopressin-apelin-balance-and-potential-use-of-metabolically-stable-apelin-analogs-in-water-metabolism-disorders
#13
REVIEW
Adrien Flahault, Pierre Couvineau, Rodrigo Alvear-Perez, Xavier Iturrioz, Catherine Llorens-Cortes
Apelin, a (neuro)vasoactive peptide, plays a prominent role in controlling body fluid homeostasis and cardiovascular functions. In animal models, experimental data demonstrate that intracerebroventricular injection of apelin into lactating rats inhibits the phasic electrical activity of arginine vasopressin (AVP) neurons, reduces plasma AVP levels, and increases aqueous diuresis. In the kidney, apelin increases diuresis by increasing the renal microcirculation and by counteracting the antidiuretic effect of AVP at the tubular level...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616057/serum-omentin-1-vaspin-and-apelin-levels-and-central-obesity-in-patients-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#14
Farzaneh Montazerifar, Ali Reza Bakhshipour, Mansour Karajibani, Zahra Torki, Ali Reza Dashipour
BACKGROUND: Omentin-1, vaspin, and apelin are novel adipokines which closely associate with obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the circulating levels of omentin-1, vaspin, and apelin in NAFLD patients and to clarify their relationship with biochemical parameters, abdominal obesity, and high sensitive C-reactive protein. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a case-control study, serum levels of omentin-1, vaspin, and apelin were measured in 41 NAFLD patients and 41 healthy volunteers...
2017: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614788/apelin-modulates-pathological-remodeling-of-lymphatic-endothelium-after-myocardial-infarction
#15
Florence Tatin, Edith Renaud-Gabardos, Anne-Claire Godet, Fransky Hantelys, Francoise Pujol, Florent Morfoisse, Denis Calise, Fanny Viars, Philippe Valet, Bernard Masri, Anne-Catherine Prats, Barbara Garmy-Susini
Lymphatic endothelium serves as a barrier to control fluid balance and immune cell trafficking to maintain tissue homeostasis. Long-term alteration of lymphatic vasculature promotes edema and fibrosis, which is an aggravating factor in the onset of cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infarction. Apelin is a bioactive peptide that plays a central role in angiogenesis and cardiac contractility. Despite an established role of apelin in lymphangiogenesis, little is known about its function in the cardiac lymphatic endothelium...
June 15, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554248/apelin-13-attenuates-cisplatin-induced-cardiotoxicity-through-inhibition-of-ros-mediated-dna-damage-and-regulation-of-mapks-and-akt-pathways
#16
Pu Zhang, Lu-Hua Yi, Guang-Yuan Meng, Huan-Yi Zhang, Hai-Hui Sun, Lian-Qun Cui
Platinum-based chemotherapy represents one of the most effective ways in combating human cancers. However, the cardiotoxicity subsequent severely limited its clinical application. Increased evidences indicate that oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the pathological process of platinum-induced cardiotoxicity. It is reported that apelin-13 a bioactive peptide has the scavenging capacity of free radical, and it has the potential to regulate the cardiovascular system. Hence, the potential of apelin-13 to antagonize cisplatin-induced cardiotoxicity was evaluated in H9c2 rat myocardial cells in vitro and in C57 mice in vivo...
May 2017: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546009/bioactivity-of-the-putative-apelin-proprotein-expands-the-repertoire-of-apelin-receptor-ligands
#17
Kyungsoo Shin, Nigel A Chapman, Muzaddid Sarker, Calem Kenward, Shuya K Huang, Nathan Weatherbee-Martin, Aditya Pandey, Denis J Dupré, Jan K Rainey
BACKGROUND: Apelin is a peptide ligand for a class A G-protein coupled receptor called the apelin receptor (AR or APJ) that regulates angiogenesis, the adipoinsular axis, and cardiovascular functions. Apelin has been shown to be bioactive as 13, 17, and 36 amino acid isoforms, C-terminal fragments of the putatively inactive 55-residue proprotein (proapelin or apelin-55). Although intracellular proprotein processing has been proposed, isolation of apelin-55 from colostrum and milk demonstrates potential for secretion prior to processing and the possibility of proapelin-AR interaction...
August 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537760/caveolin-1-autophagy-pathway-mediated-cardiomyocyte-hypertrophy-induced-by-apelin-13
#18
Di Wu, Feng Xie, Ling Xiao, Fen Feng, Shifang Huang, Lu He, Meiqing Liu, Qun Zhou, Lanfang Li, Linxi Chen
Apelin, an endogenous ligand for apelin receptor (APJ), is reported to be involved in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. In this study, we explored the mechanism of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by apelin-13/APJ system. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) rat model was established by constricting the abdominal aorta. Western blots were used for protein expression in LVH rats and cultured H9c2 cardiomyocytes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to monitor morphological features of cells. In addition, the diameter and volume of H9c2 cells were detected by Scepter™ Handheld Automated Cell Counter...
May 24, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534648/lowered-circulating-apelin-is-significantly-associated-with-an-increased-risk-for-hypertension-a-meta-analysis
#19
Hong Xie, Gaoqing Luo, Yong Zheng, Dan Hu, Feng Peng, Liangdi Xie
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Apelin is a bioactive peptide manifesting a potent vasodilatory property. In this meta-analysis, we aimed to investigate for the first time whether circulating apelin differed significantly between hypertensive patients and normotensive controls. METHODS: Both PubMed and Embase were searched for eligible articles. Eligibility evaluation and data collection were done independently by two investigators. Weighted mean difference (WMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated under random-effects model by STATA...
2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532828/expression-of-apelin-and-apelin-receptor-apj-in-porcine-ovarian-follicles-and-in%C3%A2-vitro-effect-of-apelin-on-steroidogenesis-and-proliferation-through-apj-activation-and-different-signaling-pathways
#20
A Rak, E Drwal, Ch Rame, K Knapczyk-Stwora, M Słomczyńska, J Dupont, E L Gregoraszczuk
Apelin was thought to be an adipocyte-specific hormone, but recent studies indicate a link between apelin and female reproductive function. Using real-time PCR, immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry and ELISA, we demonstrated expression of apelin and its receptor (APJ) in ovarian follicles of different sizes from mature pigs. Apelin concentration in the follicular fluid, and expression of both apelin and APJ, increased with follicular growth; greatest values were found in large follicles. Immunohistochemistry revealed the positive staining for apelin and APJ in membranes of granulosa, than theca cells...
July 1, 2017: Theriogenology
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