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Apelin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414462/pyrene-apelin-conjugation-modulates-fluorophore-and-peptide-micelle-interactions
#1
Robin E Patterson, Nathan Weatherbee-Martin, Jan K Rainey
Bioactive apelin peptide forms ranging in length from 12 to 55 amino acids bind to and activate the apelin receptor (AR or APJ), a class A G-protein coupled receptor. Apelin-12, -17, and -36 isoforms, named according to length, with an additional N-terminal cysteine residue allowed for regiospecific and efficient conjugation of pyrene-maleimide. Through steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy, the emission properties of pyrene in aqueous buffer were compared to those of the pyrene-apelin conjugates both without and with zwitterionic or anionic micelles...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407045/novel-pathogenesis-regulation-of-apoptosis-by-apelin-apj-system
#2
Jiaqi Liu, Meiqing Liu, Linxi Chen
Apelin is the endogenous peptide APJ receptor, while APJ is a member of the G protein-coupled receptors family. Recent evidence strongly suggests that Apelin/APJ system influences apoptosis in various diseases through different signal pathways. In this review, we discuss the possible mechanisms by which the Apelin/APJ system inhibits apoptosis, including the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt, ERK1/2, caspase signaling, and autophagy pathway. We also summarize the role of Apelin/APJ system in apoptosis in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, pulmonary artery hypertension, retinal neovascular disease, acute renal injury, skeletal homeostasis, and gastrointestinal diseases...
April 12, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402976/apelin-13-protects-against-ischemic-blood-brain-barrier-damage-through-the-effects-of-aquaporin-4
#3
Heling Chu, Xiaobo Yang, Chuyi Huang, Zidan Gao, Yuping Tang, Qiang Dong
BACKGROUND: Apelin-13 has been found to have protective effects on many neurological diseases, including cerebral ischemia. However, whether Apelin-13 acts on blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption following cerebral ischemia is largely unknown. Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) has a close link with BBB due to the high concentration in astrocyte foot processes and regulation of astrocytes function. Here, we aimed to test Apelin-13's effects on ischemic BBB injury and examine whether the effects were dependent on AQP4...
April 13, 2017: Cerebrovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389056/effects-of-adipokines-and-obesity-on-uterine-contractility
#4
REVIEW
Henri Azaïs, Audrey Leroy, Louise Ghesquiere, Philippe Deruelle, Sandy Hanssens
Obesity is a major public health problem. The prevalence of obesity has significantly increased in developed countries, particularly in France with an overall increase of 76% over the last 15 years. In pregnant women, obesity is associated with alterations in the quality of labor, such as delayed onset of labor, a higher rate of prolonged pregnancies, prolonged labor, and higher oxytocin requirements. There is also an increased prevalence of Cesarean sections, particularly during the active phase of labor, and perinatal complications (postpartum hemorrhage)...
January 13, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381873/from-apelin-to-exercise-emerging-therapies-for-management-of-hypertension-in-pregnancy
#5
Jeffrey S Gilbert
Studies over the last couple of decades have provided exciting new insights into mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. In addition, several novel and innovative molecules and ideas for management of the syndrome have also come forth. While our basic understanding of the initiating events of preeclampsia continues to be placental ischemia/hypoxia stimulating the release of a variety of factors from the placenta that act on the cardiovascular and renal systems, the number of candidate pathways for intervention continues to increase...
April 6, 2017: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378780/a-fluorometric-method-of-measuring-carboxypeptidase-activities-for-angiotensin-ii-and-apelin-13
#6
Pan Liu, Jan Wysocki, Peter Serfozo, Minghao Ye, Tomokazu Souma, Daniel Batlle, Jing Jin
Degradation of the biologically potent octapeptide angiotensin Ang II-(1-8) is mediated by the activities of several peptidases. The conversion of Ang II to the septapeptide Ang-(1-7) is of particular interest as the latter also confers organ protection. The conversion is catalyzed by angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and other enzymes that selectively cleave the peptide bond between the proline and the phenylalanine at the carboxyl terminus of Ang II. The contribution of various enzyme activities that collectively lead to the formation of Ang-(1-7) from Ang II, in both normal conditions and in disease states, remains only partially understood...
April 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374567/a-time-resolved-fret-cell-based-binding-assay-for-the-apelin-receptor
#7
Christel Valencia, Céline Dujet, Jean-François Margathe, Xavier Iturrioz, Thomas Roux, Eric Trinquet, Pascal Villa, Marcel Hibert, Elodie Dupuis, Catherine Llorens-Cortes, Dominique Bonnet
Analogues of apelin-13 carrying diverse spacers and an ad hoc DY647-derived fluorophore were designed and synthesized by chemoselective acylation of α-hydrazinopeptides. The resulting probes retain very high affinity and efficacy for both the wild-type and SNAP-tagged apelin receptor (ApelinR). They give a time-resolved FRET (TR-FRET) signal with rare-earth lanthanides used as donor fluorophores grafted onto the SNAP-tagged receptor. This specific signal allowed the validation of a binding assay with a high signal-to-noise ratio...
April 4, 2017: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371822/elabela-apj-axis-protects-from-pressure-overload-heart-failure-and-angiotensin-ii-induced-cardiac-damage
#8
Teruki Sato, Chitose Sato, Ayumi Kadowaki, Hiroyuki Watanabe, Lena Ho, Junji Ishida, Tomokazu Yamaguchi, Akinori Kimura, Akiyoshi Fukamizu, Josef M Penninger, Bruno Reversade, Hiroshi Ito, Yumiko Imai, Keiji Kuba
Aims: : Elabela/Toddler/Apela (ELA) has been identified as a novel endogenous peptide ligand for APJ/Apelin receptor/Aplnr. ELA plays a crucial role in early cardiac development of zebrafish as well as in maintenance of self-renewal of human embryonic stem cells. Apelin was the first identified APJ ligand, and exerts positive inotropic heart effects and regulates the renin-angiotensin system. The aim of this study was to investigate the biological effects of ELA in the cardiovascular system...
March 23, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319406/effect-of-apelin-13-on-erythrocyte-deformability-during-ischaemia-reperfusion-injury-of-heart-in-diabetic-rats
#9
H Kartal, F M Comu, A Kucuk, Y Polat, A D Dursun, M Arslan
OBJECTIVES: Erythrocyte deformability and plasma viscosity are of crucial importance for the perfusion of tissues and organs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of apelin-13 on erythrocyte deformability during IR heart injury in diabetic rats. METHODS: Eighteen Wistar Albino rats were included in the study after streptozotocin (55 mg/kg) treatment for four weeks of observation for diabetes existence. The animals were randomly assigned to one of five experimental groups...
2017: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314120/a-systematic-approach-to-identify-biased-agonists-of-the-apelin-receptor-through-high-throughput-screening
#10
Danielle McAnally, Khandaker Siddiquee, Haleli Sharir, Feng Qi, Sharangdhar Phatak, Jian-Liang Li, Eric Berg, Jordan Fishman, Layton Smith
Biased agonists are defined by their ability to selectively activate distinct signaling pathways of a receptor, and they hold enormous promise for the development of novel drugs that specifically elicit only the desired therapeutic response and avoid potential adverse effects. Unfortunately, most high-throughput screening (HTS) assays are designed to detect signaling of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) downstream of either G protein or β-arrestin-mediated signaling but not both. A comprehensive drug discovery program seeking biased agonists must employ assays that report on the activity of each compound at multiple discrete pathways, particularly for HTS campaigns...
March 1, 2017: SLAS Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299332/relationship-between-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-apelin-and-new-onset-atrial-fibrillation-after-off-pump-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting
#11
Shu Xu, Jian Zhang, Yin-Li Xu, Hai-Bo Wu, Xiao-Dong Xue, Hui-Shan Wang
It has been shown that inflammation and oxidative stress are important factors in postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF). Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and apelin have a close relationship with inflammation and oxidative stress. The effect of ACE and apelin on POAF after off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCABG) remains a question. The concentrations of serum ACE, angiotensin II (Ang II), apelin, bradykinin (BK), malondialdehyde (MDA), and C reactive protein (CRP) were measured in the perioperative period of OPCABG...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293165/-pyr-1-apelin-13-1-12-is-a-biologically-active-ace2-metabolite-of-the-endogenous-cardiovascular-peptide-pyr-1-apelin-13
#12
Peiran Yang, Rhoda E Kuc, Aimée L Brame, Alex Dyson, Mervyn Singer, Robert C Glen, Joseph Cheriyan, Ian B Wilkinson, Anthony P Davenport, Janet J Maguire
Aims: Apelin is a predicted substrate for ACE2, a novel therapeutic target. Our aim was to demonstrate the endogenous presence of the putative ACE2 product [Pyr(1)]apelin-13(1-12) in human cardiovascular tissues and to confirm it retains significant biological activity for the apelin receptor in vitro and in vivo. The minimum active apelin fragment was also investigated. Methods and Results: [Pyr(1)]apelin-13 incubated with recombinant human ACE2 resulted in de novo generation of [Pyr(1)]apelin-13(1-12) identified by mass spectrometry...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289180/beneficial-effects-of-apelin-on-vascular-function-in-patients-with-central-obesity
#13
Francesca Schinzari, Augusto Veneziani, Nadia Mores, Angela Barini, Nicola Di Daniele, Carmine Cardillo, Manfredi Tesauro
Patients with central obesity have impaired insulin-stimulated vasodilation and increased ET-1 (endothelin 1) vasoconstriction, which may contribute to insulin resistance and vascular damage. Apelin enhances insulin sensitivity and glucose disposal but also acts as a nitric oxide (NO)-dependent vasodilator and a counter-regulator of AT1 (angiotensin [Ang] II type 1) receptor-induced vasoconstriction. We, therefore, examined the effects of exogenous (Pyr(1))apelin on NO-mediated vasodilation and Ang II- or ET-1-dependent vasoconstrictor tone in obese patients...
March 13, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275232/the-differential-effects-of-low-and-high-doses-of-apelin-through-opioid-receptors-on-the-blood-pressure-of-rats-with-renovascular-hypertension
#14
Mahboobeh Yeganeh-Hajahmadi, Hamid Najafipour, Farzaneh Rostamzadeh
The apelin/APJ system has an important role in the regulation of vascular tone and blood pressure. Opioid receptors (OPRs) are also important cardiovascular regulators and exert many of their effects by modulating the function of other G-protein-coupled receptors. The aim of this study was to analyze the interaction of apelin and the opioid system with respect to vascular responses to apelin in rats with renovascular hypertension (two-kidney, one clip (2K1C)). Homodynamic studies were carried out in 2K1C rats...
March 9, 2017: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260850/the-role-of-serum-apelin-in-retinopathy-of-prematurity
#15
Yasser F Ali, Salah El-Morshedy, Abdulbasit Abdulhalim Imam, Nasser Ismai A Abdelrahman, Riad M Elsayed, Usama M Alkholy, Nermin Abdalmonem, Mohammed M Shehab
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of serum apelin as a diagnostic tool in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-eight preterm infants (60% male) with gestational age ranging from 30 to 36 weeks admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit, KJO Hospital, Saudi Arabia with proven diagnosis of ROP were included in the study. In addition, 27 preterm infants without ROP served as controls. All newborn infants in the study were subjected to adequate history taking, full clinical examination, and fundus examination by indirect ophthalmoscope (at 4-6 weeks) as well as determination of serum apelin at birth and at 4-6 weeks of age...
2017: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255983/vasopressin-v1a-receptors-mediate-the-hypertensive-effects-of-pyr-1-apelin-13-in-the-rat-rostral-ventrolateral-medulla
#16
Philip R Griffiths, Stephen J Lolait, Louise E Harris, Julian Fr Paton, Anne-Marie O'Carroll
Apelin is a ubiquitous peptide that can elevate arterial blood pressure (ABP) yet understanding of the mechanisms involved remain incomplete. Bilateral microinjection of [Pyr(1) ]apelin-13 into the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), a major source of sympathoexcitatory neurones, increases ABP and sympathetic nerve activity. We sought to investigate the potential involvement of neurotransmitter systems through which the apelin pressor response may occur within the RVLM. Adult male Wistar rats were anaesthetised and ABP was monitored via a femoral arterial catheter...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250234/apelin-apln-regulates-progesterone-secretion-and-oocyte-maturation-in-bovine-ovarian-cells
#17
Jennifer Roche, Christelle Ramé, Maxime Reverchon, Namya Mellouk, Agnieska Rak, Pascal Froment, Joëlle Dupont
APLN and its G-protein coupled receptor APLNR are expressed in the bovine ovary. However, their role in granulosa cells and oocytes is unknown. Here, we studied their expression in bovine ovarian cells and investigated their regulation in cultured luteinizing granulosa cells in response to IGF1 and FSH. We determined the effect and the molecular mechanism of APLN (isoforms 17 and 13) on bovine granulosa cell progesterone secretion and on oocyte maturation. By RT-qPCR and immunoblot, we showed that the expression of both APLN and APLNR in granulosa and oocytes significantly increased with ovarian follicles size whereas it was similar in theca interstitial cells...
March 1, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248533/the-effect-of-apelin-on-the-functions-of-peritoneal-macrophages
#18
V N Izgüt-Uysal, B Gemici, I Birsen, N Acar, I Üstünel
Apelin, the endogenous ligand of the G protein-coupled receptor (APJ), plays an important role in the physiological response to homeostatic perturbations. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of apelin on the functions of peritoneal macrophages. A double staining immunofluorescence technique was used to determine the expression of APJ in peritoneal macrophages. Rat peritoneal macrophages were randomly divided into three groups: control, apelin and apelin+F13A. A significant decrease in phagocytic and chemotactic activity of peritoneal macrophages resulted when the macrophages were incubated with [Pry(1)]-Apelin-13 (10 ng/ml)...
February 28, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242772/protamine-is-an-antagonist-of-apelin-receptor-and-its-activity-is-reversed-by-heparin
#19
Sophie Le Gonidec, Carline Chaves-Almagro, Yushi Bai, Hye Jin Kang, Allyson Smith, Estelle Wanecq, Xi-Ping Huang, Hervé Prats, Bernard Knibiehler, Bryan L Roth, Larry S Barak, Marc G Caron, Philippe Valet, Yves Audigier, Bernard Masri
Apelin signaling plays an important role during embryo development and regulates angiogenesis, cardiovascular activity, and energy metabolism in adulthood. Overexpression and hyperactivity of this signaling pathway is observed in various pathologic states, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer, which highlights the importance to inhibit apelin receptor; therefore, we developed a cell-based screening assay that uses fluorescence microscopy to identify apelin receptor antagonists. This approach led us to identify the U...
February 27, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228651/adipokines-and-cardiovascular-disease-a-comprehensive-review
#20
Ales Smekal, Jan Vaclavik
Adipokines are peptides that signal the functional status of adipose tissue to the brain and other target organs. In adipose tissue dysfunction, adipokine secretion is altered, and this can contribute to a spectrum of obesity-associated conditions including cardiovascular disease. Some adipokines have anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective effects (omentin, apelin, adiponectin). Others are pro-inflammatory with negative impact on cardiovascular function (leptin, visfatin, resistin, adipocyte fatty-acid-binding protein)...
February 16, 2017: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
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