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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338116/how-to-diagnose-and-treat-a-cancer-of-unknown-primary-site
#1
REVIEW
Ciprian Tomuleasa, Florin Zaharie, Mihai-Stefan Muresan, Laura Pop, Zsolt Fekete, Delia Dima, Ioana Frinc, Adrian Trifa, Cristian Berce, Ancuta Jurj, Ioana Berindan-Neagoe, Mihnea Zdrenghea
Almost one in every three patients with advanced tumors have distant metastasis at the time of clinical diagnosis. In most cases, the primary tumor site is identified immediately, within a few days. But for some patients, the primary lesion cannot be found after the initial clinical assessment. These cases are called cancers of unknown primary origin (CUPs), a clinical diagnosis very difficult to manage by physicians due to the absence of a standard-of-care for the initial therapeutic regimen, as well as due to the impossibility to include these cases in randomized clinical trials...
March 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337783/primary-cutaneous-anaplastic-large-cell-lymphoma-with-intralymphatic-involvement-associated-with-chronic-lymphedema
#2
Peiyuan Fan, Lin Nong, Jingru Sun, Xiaoqing Liu, Marshall E Kadin, Ting Li, Ping Tu, Yang Wang
Chronic lymphedema predisposes to develop malignant cutaneous tumors, including angiosarcoma, Kaposi's sarcoma and B cell lymphoma. T cell malignancy has rarely been associated with chronic lymph stasis. Here we report a case of primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma (pcALCL) with lymphatic spread associated with chronic lymphedema. The patient is a 56-year-old man who received orchiectomy and right inguinal lymphadenectomy for malignant seminoma 10 years ago, which led to prominent lymphedema of the right leg...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336434/vav1-expression-is-increased-in-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-and-indicates-poor-prognosis
#3
Xiaolei Zhu, Huan Jin, Ziwei Xia, Xianxian Wu, Mingjian Yang, Hongdian Zhang, Xiaobin Shang, Runfen Cheng, Zhongli Zhan, Zhentao Yu
Recently, Vav1 has been suggested to play an essential role in the progression of human cancers. However, the correlation between Vav1 expression and prognosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate Vav1 expression and its prognostic value in ESCC. The expression of Vav1 was detected by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting in ESCC tissues and matched nontumorous tissues. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was carried out to detect Vav1 expression in paraffin samples from 112 primary ESCC patients...
March 20, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329738/transarterial-chemo-embolization-for-liver-metastases-in-patients-with-neuroendocrine-tumors
#4
Hiroyuki Okuyama, Masafumi Ikeda, Hideaki Takahashi, Izumi Ohno, Yusuke Hashimoto, Shuichi Mitsunaga, Yasunari Sakamoto, Shunsuke Kondo, Chigusa Morizane, Hideki Ueno, Tatsushi Kobayashi, Yasuaki Arai, Takuji Okusaka
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of transarterial (chemo)embolization [TA(C)E] for the control of liver metastasis in patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). METHODS: In this retrospective study, we enrolled 43 patients with metastatic NETs who had been treated with TA(C)E between December 1999 and June 2013 at the National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo or the National Cancer Center Hospital East, Kashiwa. We assessed tumor response, time to treatment failure (TTF), overall survival (OS), and frequency of adverse events in these patients, and attempted to identify predictors of TTF...
March 23, 2017: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327988/efficacy-and-safety-of-nilotinib-in-patients-with-kit-mutated-metastatic-or-inoperable-melanoma-final-results-from-the-global-single-arm-phase-ii-team-trial
#5
J Guo, R D Carvajal, R Dummer, A Hauschild, A Daud, B C Bastian, S N Markovic, P Queirolo, A Arance, C Berking, V Camargo, D Herchenhorn, T M Petrella, D Schadendorf, W Sharfman, A Testori, S Novick, S Hertle, C Nourry, Q Chen, F S Hodi
Background.: The single-arm, phase II Tasigna Efficacy in Advanced Melanoma (TEAM) trial evaluated the KIT-selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor nilotinib in patients with KIT -mutated advanced melanoma without prior KIT inhibitor treatment. Patients and Methods.: Forty-two patients with KIT -mutated advanced melanoma were enrolled and treated with nilotinib 400 mg twice daily. TEAM originally included a comparator arm of dacarbazine (DTIC)-treated patients; the design was amended to a single-arm trial due to an observed low number of KIT -mutated melanomas...
March 6, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327121/bap1-and-pbrm1-in-metastatic-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma-tumor-heterogeneity-and-concordance-with-paired-primary-tumor
#6
Jeanette E Eckel-Passow, Daniel J Serie, John C Cheville, Thai H Ho, Payal Kapur, James Brugarolas, R Houston Thompson, Bradley C Leibovich, Eugene D Kwon, Richard W Joseph, Alexander S Parker
BACKGROUND: BAP1 and PBRM1 are frequently mutated in primary clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) tumors; however, the frequency and clinical relevance of these mutations in metastatic ccRCC tumors is unknown. Additionally, while intra-tumor heterogeneity has been shown to be common in primary ccRCC, little is known regarding heterogeneity in metastatic ccRCC tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed BAP1 and PBRM1 loss of protein expression in patient-matched primary and metastatic tumors from 97 patients...
March 21, 2017: BMC Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324044/inverse-regulation-of-dht-synthesis-enzymes-5%C3%AE-reductase-types-1-and-2-by-the-androgen-receptor-in-prostate-cancer
#7
Étienne Audet-Walsh, Tracey Yee, Ingrid S Tam, Vincent Giguère
5α-reductase types 1 and 2, encoded by SRD5A1 and SRD5A2, are the two enzymes that can catalyze the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone, the most potent androgen receptor (AR) agonist in prostate cells. 5α-reductase type 2 is the predominant isoform expressed in the normal prostate. However, its expression decreases during prostate cancer (PCa) progression, while SRD5A1 increases and the mechanism underlying this transcriptional regulatory switch is still unknown. Interrogation of SRD5A mRNA expression in three publicly available datasets confirmed that SRD5A1 is increased in primary and metastatic PCa compared to non-tumoral prostate tissues, while SRD5A2 is decreased...
January 23, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316853/primary-hepatic-neuroendocrine-tumor-with-unusual-thyroid-follicular-like-morphologic-characteristics
#8
Mohd Elmugtaba Ibrahim, Kerolos Abadeer, Qihui Jim Zhai, Aziza Nassar
We describe a primary hepatic neuroendocrine tumor of a 57-year-old Thai woman who presented in 2004 with a suspicious mass in the left hepatic lobe. She underwent left hepatectomy for the 10.5-cm mass, called intermediate grade neuroendocrine carcinoma of unknown origin, likely metastatic. The tumor recurred in 2007, then called recurrent primary hepatic neuroendocrine tumor (PHNET), and the patient underwent liver transplant. Because of similarity between the neuroendocrine tumor and a thyroid tumor-specifically, follicular-like characteristics-immunohistochemical stains for thyroglobulin, TTF1, and calcitonin were performed...
2017: Case Reports in Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314959/cancer-of-unknown-primary-cup-of-the-head-and-neck-retrospective-analysis-of-81-patients
#9
Basel Al Kadah, Giorgos Papaspyrou, Maximilian Linxweiler, Bernhard Schick, Christian Rübe, Benjamin Simeon Büchler, Marcus Niewald
The treatment of patients with cervical lymph node metastases without detectable primary tumor remains an important challenge, until today, no standard therapy is available. The present study investigated the multimodal treatment of patients with head and neck CUP syndrome (HNCUP) and their follow-up retrospectively. 81 patients with cervical lymph node metastases without a primary tumor were treated at the Departments of Otorhinolaryngology as well as Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology at the University of Saarland in Homburg, Germany in the period between 1991 and 2013...
March 17, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314930/non-reproducible-sequence-artifacts-in-ffpe-tissue-an-experience-report
#10
Richard Ofner, Cathrin Ritter, Selma Ugurel, Lorenzo Cerroni, Mathias Stiller, Thomas Bogenrieder, Flavio Solca, David Schrama, Jürgen C Becker
BACKGROUND: Recent advances in sequencing technologies supported the development of molecularly targeted therapy in cancer patients. Thus, genomic analyses are becoming a routine part in clinical practice and accurate detection of actionable mutations is essential to assist diagnosis and therapy choice. However, this is often challenging due to major problems associated with DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue which is usually the primary source for genetic testing. OBJECTIVES: Here we want to share our experience regarding major problems associated with FFPE DNA used for PCR-based sequencing as illustrated by the mutational analysis of ERBB4 in melanoma...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306214/the-prognostic-value-of-early-radiographic-response-in-children-and-adolescents-with-embryonal-rhabdomyosarcoma-stage-iv-metastases-confined-to-the-lungs-a-report-from-the-cooperative-weichteilsarkom-studiengruppe-cws
#11
Monika Sparber-Sauer, Thekla von Kalle, Guido Seitz, Tobias Dantonello, Monika Scheer, Marc Münter, Joerg Fuchs, Ruth Ladenstein, Stefan S Bielack, Thomas Klingebiel, Ewa Koscielniak
BACKGROUND: Patients with metastatic rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) have a poor prognosis apart from children with embryonal RMS whose metastases are confined to the lungs (PRME). The prognostic significance of response in patients with metastatic disease is still unknown and optimal treatment remains to be defined. METHODS: Patient-, tumor- and treatment-related factors of patients with PRME treated on multiple prospective trials of the Cooperative Weichteilsarkom Studiengruppe (CWS) (1981-2013) were analyzed with a focus on response to induction chemotherapy...
March 17, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304120/comparative-effectiveness-of-chemotherapy-versus-resection-of-the-primary-tumor-as-the-initial-treatment-in-older-patients-with-stage-iv-colorectal-cancer
#12
Hemalkumar B Mehta, Gabriela M Vargas, Deepak Adhikari, Francesca Dimou, Taylor S Riall
AIM: The objective was to determine trends in the use of chemotherapy as the initial treatment and evaluate the comparative effectiveness of initial chemotherapy versus resection of the primary tumour on survival (intention-to-treat analysis) in stage IV colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS: This cohort study used Surveillance Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare (2000-2011) data, including patients ≥66 years presenting with stage IV CRC. Cox proportional hazards models and instrumental variable analysis were used to determine the association of chemotherapy versus resection of the primary tumour as the initial treatment with 2-year survival...
March 17, 2017: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302247/symptomatic-fetal-type-cardiac-rhabdomyoma
#13
Seyma Kayali, Vehbi Dogan, Ilker Ertugrul, Senem Ouml Zg Uuml R, Utku Arman Ouml R Uuml N, Selmin Karademir, Nil Uuml Fer Arda, Murat Ko Ccedil
Rhabdomyomas are the most common primary cardiac tumors, especially seen during early periods of childhood. Fetaltype rhabdomyoma is a benign tumor described almost always in extracardiac locations. Although the natural history of the cardiac rhabdomyoma is to regress, the behaviour of the fetal-type rhabdomyomas when present in the heart is unknown with respect to its infrequency. Herein, we report a hemodynamically unstable female neonate with a single large intra-cardiac mass unresponsive to medical treatment, who underwent surgery...
March 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300908/melanoma-as-a-surprising-solution-to-the-puzzle-of-intestinal-obstruction
#14
Maksymilian Gajda, Grażyna Kamińska-Winciorek, Iwona Grzesiak, Jerzy Wydmański
We present a case of a 71-year-old man with an advanced melanoma of the right colon. The final diagnosis was determined based on histopathological examination of the material collected during urgent laparotomy performed due to ileus. Although we considered the tumor to be a disseminated primary melanoma of the colon, the possibility of unknown primary origin could not be excluded. Palliative chemotherapy and radiotherapy reduced symptoms associated with the disease and prolonged patient's survival.
September 2016: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298901/unveiling-another-missing-piece-in-ebv-driven-lymphomagenesis-ebv-encoded-micrornas-expression-in-eber-negative-burkitt-lymphoma-cases
#15
Lucia Mundo, Maria R Ambrosio, Matteo Picciolini, Giuseppe Lo Bello, Sara Gazaneo, Leonardo Del Porro, Stefano Lazzi, Mohsen Navari, Noel Onyango, Massimo Granai, Cristiana Bellan, Giulia De Falco, Davide Gibellini, Pier P Piccaluga, Lorenzo Leoncini
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a gammaherpesvirus linked to a number of lymphoid and epithelial malignancies, including Burkitt lymphoma (BL) in which its frequency ranges from 30% in sporadic cases to 100% in the endemic ones. The possible contribution of EBV to BL pathogenesis is largely unknown. It has been suggested that EBV may be associated with all of the cases, including those diagnosed as EBV negative by a mechanism of hit-and-run. Early during oncogenesis, viral genes are essential for initiating disease...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293439/proteomic-analysis-of-hdac3-selective-inhibitor-in-the-regulation-of-inflammatory-response-of-primary-microglia
#16
Mingxu Xia, Qiuchen Zhao, He Zhang, Yanting Chen, Zengqiang Yuan, Yun Xu, Meijuan Zhang
HDAC3 has been shown to regulate inflammation. However, the role of HDAC3 in primary microglia is largely unknown. RGFP966 is a newly discovered selective HDAC3 inhibitor. In this study, we used protein mass spectrometry to analyze protein alterations in LPS-treated primary microglia with the application of RGFP966. Generally, about 2000 proteins were studied. 168 of 444 (37.8%) LPS-induced proteins were significantly reduced with the treatment of RGFP966, which mainly concentrated on Toll-like receptor signaling pathway...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289088/association-between-neuroendocrine-tumors-biomarkers-and-primary-tumor-site-and-disease-type-based-on-total-68-ga-dotatate-avid-tumor-volume-measurements
#17
Amit Tirosh, Georgios Z Papadakis, Corina Millo, Samira M Sadowski, Peter Herscovitch, Karel Pacak, Stephen J Marx, Lily Yang, Pavel Nockel, Jasmine Shell, Patience Green, Xavier M Keutgen, Dhaval Patel, Naris Nilubol, Electron Kebebew
OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between neuroendocrine tumor (NET) biomarker levels and the extent of disease as assessed by (68)Ga DOTATATE PET/CT imaging. DESIGN: A retrospective analysis of a prospective database of patients with NETs. METHODS: Fasting plasma chromogranin A (CgA), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), gastrin, glucagon, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP), and 24-h urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels were measured...
May 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287817/liver-metastasis-from-neuroendocrine-carcinoma-after-the-use-of-the-new-direct-action-antivirals-against-hepatitis-c-virus-in-a-patient-with-past-history-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#18
María Caldas Álvarez, Lourdes Del Campo, Alwalid Freih-Fraih, Luisa García-Buey
The use of the new direct-action antivirals against hepatitis C virus provides very high viral eradication rates. However, various recently published articles recommend caution with their use after the appearance of some cases of de novo tumors (originated in hepatic and extra-hepatic locations) and a possible shorter time period of recurrence of hepatocellular carcinomas previously treated with surgery or loco-regional therapies. The sudden drop of the number of natural killer cells secondary to the use of these new medicines has been suggested as one of the possible mechanisms responsible for this process...
March 13, 2017: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285334/incidence-of-cns-tumors-in-appalachian-children
#19
Bin Huang, Alice Luo, Eric B Durbin, Ellen Lycan, Thomas Tucker, Quan Chen, Craig Horbinski, John L Villano
Determine whether the risk of astrocytomas in Appalachian children is higher than the national average. We compared the incidence of pediatric brain tumors in Appalachia versus non-Appalachia regions, covering years 2000-2011. The North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACCR) collects population-based data from 55 cancer registries throughout U.S. and Canada. All invasive primary (i.e. non-metastatic tumors), with age at diagnosis 0-19 years old, were included. Nearly 27,000 and 2200 central nervous system (CNS) tumors from non-Appalachia and Appalachia, respectively comprise the cohorts...
March 11, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283736/phase-1b-study-of-pembrolizumab-mk-3475-anti-pd-1-monoclonal-antibody-in-japanese-patients-with-advanced-melanoma-keynote-041
#20
Naoya Yamazaki, Tatsuya Takenouchi, Manabu Fujimoto, Hironobu Ihn, Hiroshi Uchi, Takashi Inozume, Yoshio Kiyohara, Hisashi Uhara, Kazuhiko Nakagawa, Hiroshi Furukawa, Hidefumi Wada, Kazuo Noguchi, Takashi Shimamoto, Kenji Yokota
PURPOSE: This phase I b study evaluated the safety and anti-tumor activity of pembrolizumab in Japanese patients with advanced melanoma. METHODS: Pembrolizumab (2 mg/kg) was given every 3 weeks (Q3W) for up to 2 years or until confirmed progression or unacceptable toxicity. The tumor response was assessed as per the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1 (RECIST v1.1) by both investigator review and central review. RESULTS: Forty-two patients with advanced melanoma received pembrolizumab...
March 11, 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
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