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Cancer of an unknown primary

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931250/tracing-the-origin-of-disseminated-tumor-cells-in-breast-cancer-using-single-cell-sequencing
#1
Jonas Demeulemeester, Parveen Kumar, Elen K Møller, Silje Nord, David C Wedge, April Peterson, Randi R Mathiesen, Renathe Fjelldal, Masoud Zamani Esteki, Koen Theunis, Elia Fernandez Gallardo, A Jason Grundstad, Elin Borgen, Lars O Baumbusch, Anne-Lise Børresen-Dale, Kevin P White, Vessela N Kristensen, Peter Van Loo, Thierry Voet, Bjørn Naume
BACKGROUND: Single-cell micro-metastases of solid tumors often occur in the bone marrow. These disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) may resist therapy and lay dormant or progress to cause overt bone and visceral metastases. The molecular nature of DTCs remains elusive, as well as when and from where in the tumor they originate. Here, we apply single-cell sequencing to identify and trace the origin of DTCs in breast cancer. RESULTS: We sequence the genomes of 63 single cells isolated from six non-metastatic breast cancer patients...
December 9, 2016: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927582/clonal-haemopoiesis-and-therapy-related-myeloid-malignancies-in-elderly-patients-a-proof-of-concept-case-control-study
#2
Nancy K Gillis, Markus Ball, Qing Zhang, Zhenjun Ma, YuLong Zhao, Sean J Yoder, Maria E Balasis, Tania E Mesa, David A Sallman, Jeffrey E Lancet, Rami S Komrokji, Alan F List, Howard L McLeod, Melissa Alsina, Rachid Baz, Kenneth H Shain, Dana E Rollison, Eric Padron
BACKGROUND: Clonal haemopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP) is an age-associated genetic event linked to increased risk of primary haematological malignancies and increased all-cause mortality, but the prevalence of CHIP in patients who develop therapy-related myeloid neoplasms is unknown. We did this study to investigate whether chemotherapy-treated patients with cancer who have CHIP are at increased risk of developing therapy-related myeloid neoplasms. METHODS: We did a nested, case-control, proof-of-concept study to compare the prevalence of CHIP between patients with cancer who later developed therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (cases) and patients who did not develop these neoplasms (controls)...
December 2, 2016: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921315/imputing-estrogen-receptor-er-status-in-a-population-based-cancer-registry-a-sensitivity-analysis
#3
Rebecca Andridge, Anne-Michelle Noone, Nadia Howlader
Breast cancers are clinically heterogeneous based on tumor markers. The National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program provides baseline data on these tumor markers for reporting cancer burden and trends over time in the US general population. These tumor markers, however, are often prone to missing observations. In particular, estrogen receptor (ER) status, a key biomarker in the study of breast cancer, has been collected since 1992 but historically was not well-reported, with missingness rates as high as 25% in early years...
December 5, 2016: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920554/next-generation-sequence-detects-arap3-as-a-novel-oncogene-in-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma
#4
Qing-Xuan Wang, En-Dong Chen, Ye-Feng Cai, Yi-Li Zhou, Zhou-Ci Zheng, Ying-Hao Wang, Yi-Xiang Jin, Wen-Xu Jin, Xiao-Hua Zhang, Ou-Chen Wang
PURPOSE: Thyroid cancer is the most frequent malignancies of the endocrine system, and it has became the fastest growing type of cancer worldwide. Much still remains unknown about the molecular mechanisms of thyroid cancer. Studies have found that some certain relationship between ARAP3 and human cancer. However, the role of ARAP3 in thyroid cancer has not been well explained. This study aimed to investigate the role of ARAP3 gene in papillary thyroid carcinoma. METHODS: Whole exon sequence and whole genome sequence of primary papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) samples and matched adjacent normal thyroid tissue samples were performed and then bioinformatics analysis was carried out...
2016: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909644/primary-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-pancreas-as-a-cause-of-biliary-obstruction
#5
Kyle Rowe, Jeet Mehta, Fredy Nehme, William Salyers
Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the pancreas (SCCP) is a rare neoplasm, given a lack of naturally occurring squamous cells within the pancreas, accounting for only 0.2% of all pancreatic cancers. The etiology is unknown. Symptomatology is non-specific and similar to other pancreatic neoplasms. No non-invasive testing can adequately rule in SCCP, and workup should proceed similarly to any pancreatic mass. Tissue sampling is required for diagnosis and guidance of further management, most commonly by endoscopic ultrasound with fine needle aspirate...
October 31, 2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909285/-multiple-pulmonary-sclerosing-pneumocytoma-with-abnormal-accumulation-of-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-diagnosed-by-surgical-treatment-report-of-a-case
#6
Kantaro Hara, Nobuhiro Izumi, Takuma Tsukioka, Hiroaki Komatsu, Satoshi Okada, Michihito Toda, Ryuichi Ito, Toshihiko Shibata, Noritoshi Nishiyama
A 36-year-old Chinese woman was referred to our hospital for further examination of an abnormal shadow on chest X-ray. Chest computed tomography(CT) revealed a 5 mm circular nodule in diameter in right lung S3 and a 32 mm mass in diameter in right lung S7. The S7 mass showed an abnormal accumulation of SUVmax=4.0 on positron emission tomography( PET)-CT. Transbronchial biopsy was performed, but failed to rule out possible malignancy. Differential diagnoses were multiple lung benign tumor, multiple lung metastases from unknown primary cancer, malignant lymphoma or primary lung cancer, and so on...
December 2016: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908568/squamous-cell-carcinoma-presenting-with-trigeminal-anesthesia-an-uncommon-presentation-of-head-neck-cancer-with-unknown-primary
#7
Ameer T Shah, Walid I Dagher, Miriam A O'Leary, Richard O Wein
BACKGROUND: The differential diagnosis of facial anesthesia is vast. This may be secondary to trauma, neoplasm, both intracranial and extracranial, infection, and neurologic disease. When evaluating a patient with isolated facial anesthesia, the head and neck surgeon often thinks of adenoid cystic carcinoma, which has a propensity for perineural invasion and spread. When one thinks of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma with or without unknown primary, the typical presentation involves dysphagia, odynophagia, weight loss, hoarseness, or more commonly, a neck mass...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900548/predictors-of-response-to-corticosteroids-for-dyspnea-in-advanced-cancer-patients-a-preliminary-multicenter-prospective-observational-study
#8
Masanori Mori, Akemi Naito Shirado, Tatsuya Morita, Kenichiro Okamoto, Yoshinobu Matsuda, Yoshihisa Matsumoto, Hirohide Yamada, Hiroki Sakurai, Etsuko Aruga, Keisuke Kaneishi, Hiroaki Watanabe, Takashi Yamaguchi, Takuya Odagiri, Shuji Hiramoto, Hiroyuki Kohara, Naoki Matsuo, Hideki Katayama, Tomohiro Nishi, Takashi Matsui, Satoru Iwase
PURPOSE: Although corticosteroids can relieve dyspnea in advanced cancer patients, factors predicting the response remain unknown. We aimed to explore potential factors predicting the response to corticosteroids for dyspnea in advanced cancer patients. METHODS: In this preliminary multicenter prospective observational study, we included patients who had metastatic or locally advanced cancer, were receiving specialized palliative care services, and had a dyspnea intensity of ≥3 on a 0-10 Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) (worst during the last 24 h)...
November 29, 2016: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900363/integration-of-genomics-and-histology-revises-diagnosis-and-enables-effective-therapy-of-refractory-cancer-of-unknown-primary-with-pdl1-amplification
#9
Stefan Gröschel, Martin Bommer, Barbara Hutter, Jan Budczies, David Bonekamp, Christoph Heining, Peter Horak, Martina Fröhlich, Sebastian Uhrig, Daniel Hübschmann, Christina Geörg, Daniela Richter, Nicole Pfarr, Katrin Pfütze, Stephan Wolf, Peter Schirmacher, Dirk Jäger, Christof von Kalle, Benedikt Brors, Hanno Glimm, Wilko Weichert, Albrecht Stenzinger, Stefan Fröhling
Identification of the tissue of origin in cancer of unknown primary (CUP) poses a diagnostic challenge and is critical for directing site-specific therapy. Currently, clinical decision-making in patients with CUP primarily relies on histopathology and clinical features. Comprehensive molecular profiling has the potential to contribute to diagnostic categorization and, most importantly, guide CUP therapy through identification of actionable lesions. We here report the case of an advanced-stage malignancy initially mimicking poorly differentiated soft-tissue sarcoma that did not respond to multiagent chemotherapy...
November 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882349/the-airway-epithelium-undergoes-metabolic-reprogramming-in-individuals-at-high-risk-for-lung-cancer
#10
S M Jamshedur Rahman, Xiangming Ji, Lisa J Zimmerman, Ming Li, Bradford K Harris, Megan D Hoeksema, Irina A Trenary, Yong Zou, Jun Qian, Robbert J C Slebos, Jennifer Beane, Avrum Spira, Yu Shyr, Rosana Eisenberg, Daniel C Liebler, Jamey D Young, Pierre P Massion
The molecular determinants of lung cancer risk remain largely unknown. Airway epithelial cells are prone to assault by risk factors and are considered to be the primary cell type involved in the field of cancerization. To investigate risk-associated changes in the bronchial epithelium proteome that may offer new insights into the molecular pathogenesis of lung cancer, proteins were identified in the airway epithelial cells of bronchial brushing specimens from risk-stratified individuals by shotgun proteomics...
November 17, 2016: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881235/elucidating-the-role-of-the-foxo3a-transcription-factor-in-the-igf-1-induced-migration-and-invasion-of-uveal-melanoma-cancer-cells
#11
Fengxia Yan, Rifang Liao, Mohd Farhan, Tinghuai Wang, Jiashu Chen, Zhong Wang, Peter J Little, Wenhua Zheng
Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary intraocular malignant tumor of adults. It has high mortality rate due to liver metastasis. However, the epidemiology and pathogenesis of liver metastasis in UM are not elucidated and there is no effective therapy available for preventing the development of this disease. IGF-1 is a growth factor involved in cell proliferation, malignant transformation and inhibition of apoptosis. In previous report, IGF-1 receptor was found to be highly expressed in UM and this was related to tumor prognosis...
November 20, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880766/sox2-and-pi3k-cooperate-to-induce-and-stabilize-a-squamous-committed-stem-cell-injury-state-during-lung-squamous-cell-carcinoma-pathogenesis
#12
Bo Ram Kim, Emily Van de Laar, Michael Cabanero, Shintaro Tarumi, Stefan Hasenoeder, Dennis Wang, Carl Virtanen, Takaya Suzuki, Bizhan Bandarchi, Shingo Sakashita, Nhu An Pham, Sharon Lee, Shaf Keshavjee, Thomas K Waddell, Ming-Sound Tsao, Nadeem Moghal
Although cancers are considered stem cell diseases, mechanisms involving stem cell alterations are poorly understood. Squamous cell carcinoma (SQCC) is the second most common lung cancer, and its pathogenesis appears to hinge on changes in the stem cell behavior of basal cells in the bronchial airways. Basal cells are normally quiescent and differentiate into mucociliary epithelia. Smoking triggers a hyperproliferative response resulting in progressive premalignant epithelial changes ranging from squamous metaplasia to dysplasia...
November 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875524/microrna-137-promotes-apoptosis-in-ovarian-cancer-cells-via-the-regulation-of-xiap
#13
Xiaodi Li, Wei Chen, Wenshu Zeng, Chunling Wan, Shiwei Duan, Songshan Jiang
BACKGROUND: microRNAs (miRNAs) have regulatory roles in various cellular processes, including apoptosis. Recently, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) has been reported to be dysregulated in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). However, the mechanism underlying this dysregulation is largely unknown. METHODS: Using bioinformatics and a literature analysis, a panel of miRNAs dysregulated in EOC was chosen for further experimental confirmation from hundreds of miRNAs that were predicted to interact with the XIAP 3'UTR...
November 22, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865462/molecular-changes-associated-with-tumor-initiation-and-progression-of-soft-tissue-sarcomas-targeting-the-genome-and-epigenome
#14
P W Halcrow, M Dancer, M Panteah, C Walden, J E Ohm
Soft tissue sarcomas are rare, but generally aggressive tumors which disproportionately affect children and young adults. They represent less than 10% of all cancers, but are one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers in pediatric patients. These cancers have a high rate of morbidity and mortality, and their overall incidence has been increasing at an estimated rate of 26% over the last 2 decades. The cause of this increased incidence is unknown but various environmental factors have been implicated. Establishing standard therapeutic strategies is challenging for soft tissue sarcomas as more than 50 different histological subtypes exist, each with their own molecular alterations and clinical characteristics, and this combination of tumor heterogeneity and a limited number of clinical cases make detailed omics level molecular studies particularly challenging...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860242/transoral-robotic-surgery-base-of-tongue-mucosectomy-for-head-and-neck-cancer-of-unknown-primary
#15
Suren Krishnan, James Connell, Enyinnaya Ofo
BACKGROUND: Head and neck cancer of unknown primary (HNCUP) is a source of diagnostic uncertainty. Patients presenting with cytologically positive neck lumps without a clinically identifiable primary, require extensive investigation including imaging, tonsillectomy, panendoscopy and tissue biopsy. Treatment typically involves neck dissection, wide field radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) has emerged as an expanding surgical technique for resecting tumours of the oropharynx...
November 17, 2016: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852700/genomic-evolution-after-chemoradiotherapy-in-anal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#16
Kent W Mouw, James M Cleary, Brendan Reardon, Jonathan Pike, Lior Z Braunstein, Jaegil Kim, Ali Amin-Mansour, Diana Miao, Alexis Damish, Joanna Chin, Patrick A Ott, Charles S Fuchs, Neil E Martin, Gad Getz, Scott Carter, Harvey Mamon, Jason L Hornick, Eliezer Van Allen, Alan D D'Andrea
PURPOSE: Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (ASCC) accounts for 2-4% of gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies in the US and is increasing in incidence; however, genomic features of ASCC are incompletely characterized. Primary treatment of ASCC involves concurrent chemotherapy and radiation (CRT), but the mutational landscape of resistance to CRT is unknown. Here, we aim to compare mutational features of ASCC in the pre- and post-CRT setting. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We perform whole exome sequencing of primary (n=31) and recurrent (n=31) ASCCs and correlate findings with clinical data...
November 16, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852284/prognostic-value-and-predictive-threshold-of-tumor-volume-for-patients-with-locally-advanced-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-receiving-intensity-modulated-radiotherapy
#17
Yu-Xiang He, Ying Wang, Peng-Fei Cao, Lin Shen, Ya-Jie Zhao, Zi-Jian Zhang, Deng-Ming Chen, Tu-Bao Yang, Xin-Qiong Huang, Zhou Qin, You-Yi Dai, Liang-Fang Shen
BACKGROUND: Gross target volume of primary tumor (GTV-P) is very important for the prognosis prediction of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), but it is unknown whether the same is true for locally advanced NPC patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). This study aimed to clarify the prognostic value of tumor volume for patient with locally advanced NPC receiving IMRT and to find a suitable cut-off value of GTV-P for prognosis prediction. METHODS: Clinical data of 358 patients with locally advanced NPC who received IMRT were reviewed...
November 16, 2016: Chinese Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822007/trends-in-incidence-survival-and-management-of-uveal-melanoma-a-population-based-study-of-7-516-patients-from-the-surveillance-epidemiology-and-end-results-database-1973-2012
#18
Krishnaraj Mahendraraj, Christine Sm Lau, Injoon Lee, Ronald S Chamberlain
INTRODUCTION: Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary intraocular malignancy, despite comprising <5% of all melanomas. To date, relatively few case series of UM have been published. Moreover, the factors influencing survival remain largely unknown. This study sought to analyze the impact of demographics, histology, clinical presentation, and treatments on the clinical outcomes of UM in a large modern nationwide patient cohort. METHODS: Demographics and clinical data were abstracted on 277,120 histologically confirmed melanoma patients from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database between 1973 and 2012...
2016: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821801/trim71-suppresses-tumorigenesis-via-modulation-of-lin28b-let-7-hmga2-signaling
#19
Jinlong Yin, Tae-Hoon Kim, Nayun Park, Daye Shin, Hae In Choi, Sungchan Cho, Jong Bae Park, Jong Heon Kim
TRIM71 (tripartite motif-containing 71) belongs to the TRIM-NHL protein family, which plays a conserved role in regulating early development and differentiation. However, the molecular functions of TRIM71 have remained largely unknown. Here, we explored the role of TRIM71 together with modulation of Lin28B-let-7-HMGA2 (high-mobility group AT-hook 2) signaling in tumorigenesis. TRIM71 overexpression opposed Lin28B-induced transformation in primary cells and inhibited tumor formation in a mouse model. Specific knockdown of TRIM71 expression increased cancer cell proliferation and invasion...
November 3, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816020/human-papillomavirus-detection-in-fine-needle-aspiration-cytology-of-lymph-node-metastasis-of-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-cancer
#20
Robert P Takes, Johannes H A M Kaanders, Carla M L van Herpen, Matthias A W Merkx, Pieter J Slootweg, Willem J G Melchers
BACKGROUND: Currently, testing on HPV in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is performed on histological material. However, in a certain percentage of the cases who present with lymph node metastases no primary tumor can be identified and only fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is available for analysis. OBJECTIVES: Purpose of this study was to assess HPV status on FNAC and to validate it using histological material of the same patients. STUDY DESIGN: Patients with cervical metastasis from OPSCC or cancer of an unknown primary tumor (CUP), diagnosed between 2007 and 2012 were included...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
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