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Cancer of an unknown primary

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049492/association-of-hsd3b1-genotype-with-response-to-androgen-deprivation-therapy-for-biochemical-recurrence-after-radiotherapy-for-localized-prostate-cancer
#1
Jason W D Hearn, Wanling Xie, Mari Nakabayashi, Nima Almassi, Chad A Reichard, Mark Pomerantz, Philip W Kantoff, Nima Sharifi
Importance: The variant HSD3B1 (1245C) allele enhances dihydrotestosterone synthesis and predicts resistance to androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) for biochemically recurrent prostate cancer after prostatectomy and for metastatic disease. Whether this is true after radiotherapy is unknown. Objective: To determine whether the HSD3B1 (1245C) allele predicts worse clinical outcomes from ADT for biochemical recurrence after radiotherapy. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Prostate Clinical Research Information System at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute was used to identify the study cohort, which included men treated with ADT for biochemical recurrence after primary radiotherapy between 1996 and 2013...
October 12, 2017: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048654/telmisartan-inhibits-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cell-proliferation-in-vitro-by-inducing-cell-cycle-arrest
#2
Kyoko Oura, Tomoko Tadokoro, Shintaro Fujihara, Asahiro Morishita, Taiga Chiyo, Eri Samukawa, Yoshimi Yamana, Koji Fujita, Teppei Sakamoto, Takako Nomura, Hirohito Yoneyama, Hideki Kobara, Hirohito Mori, Hisakazu Iwama, Keiichi Okano, Yasuyuki Suzuki, Tsutomu Masaki
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary malignancy of the liver and the third leading cause of cancer-related death. Telmisartan, a widely used antihypertensive drug, is an angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor blocker (ARB) that might inhibit cancer cell proliferation, but the mechanisms through which telmisartan affects various cancers remain unknown. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of telmisartan on human HCC and to assess the expression of microRNAs (miRNAs). We studied the effects of telmisartan on HCC cells using the HLF, HLE, HepG2, HuH-7 and PLC/PRF/5 cell lines...
September 20, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046750/metastasis-to-the-pancreas-and-stomach-from-a-breast-cancer-primary-a-case-report
#3
Jason Kliiger, Mayer Gorbaty
A 60-year-old female with an unknown family history initially presented with signs and symptoms concerning for gastrointestinal cancer. Regular breast cancer screening and subsequent work-up around this time demonstrated the presence of T2N1 stage II triple positive ductal adenocarcinoma of the left breast. Follow-up imaging for her gastrointestinal symptoms demonstrated a 3.5 cm solitary mass in the pancreas and diffuse thickening of the stomach wall. Biopsies of the gastrointestinal lesions were identified as metastatic foci of the breast cancer primary...
October 2017: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045506/clinical-and-molecular-characterization-of-patients-with-cancers-of-unknown-primary-in-the-modern-era
#4
A M Varghese, A Arora, M Capanu, N Camacho, H H Won, A Zehir, J Gao, D Chakravarty, N Schultz, D S Klimstra, M Ladanyi, D M Hyman, D B Solit, M F Berger, L B Saltz
Background: On the basis of historical data, patients with cancers of unknown primary (CUP) are generally assumed to have a dismal prognosis with overall survival of less than one year. Treatment is typically cytotoxic chemotherapy guided by histologic features and the pattern of metastatic spread. The purpose of this study was to provide a clinical and pathologic description of patients with CUP in the modern era, to define the frequency of clinically actionable molecular alterations in this population, to determine how molecular testing can alter therapeutic decisions, and to investigate novel uses of next generation sequencing in the evaluation and treatment of patients with CUP...
September 26, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044475/the-site-of-care-matters-an-examination-of-the-relationship-between-high-medicaid-burden-hospitals-and-the-use-cost-and-complications-of-immediate-breast-reconstruction-after-mastectomy
#5
Anaeze C Offodile, L Daniel Muldoon, Faiz Gani, Joseph K Canner, Lisa K Jacobs
BACKGROUND: Diminished use and worse outcomes after immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) have been documented for Medicaid beneficiaries. However, to the authors' knowledge, the contribution of patient clustering at hospitals with a high percentage of Medicaid patients to these inequalities in IBR delivery is unknown. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of patients undergoing IBR after mastectomy using the 2007 to 2011 Nationwide Inpatient Sample database was performed...
October 17, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033672/role-of-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography-in-the-evaluation-of-head-and-neck-carcinoma
#6
REVIEW
Moheieldin M Abouzied, Ahmed Fathala, Abdulaziz Alsugair, Ahmad I Al Muhaideb, Mohammed H Al Qahtani
Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) has been playing a pivotal role in tumor imaging for the past 20 years. Head and neck (HN) cancers are a good example that can illustrate such unique role of FDG imaging contributing to the patient's management. In this review article, we will describe the normal physiological distribution of FDG within HN structures focusing on its limitations and pitfalls. In addition, we will be also describing its role in the initial staging and restaging of the disease, particularly with regard to therapy response assessment...
October 2017: World Journal of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029767/pet-ct-and-pet-mri-in-head-and-neck-malignancy
#7
REVIEW
T A Szyszko, G J R Cook
Combined 2-[(18)F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) positron-emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) has an established role in the staging of difficult cases of head and neck (HN) squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), looking for an unknown primary, assessing response post-chemotherapy at 3-6 months, and differentiating relapse from treatment effects in patients suspected to have tumour recurrence. The PET NECK trial, comparing PET/CT surveillance versus neck dissection in advanced head and neck cancer showed survival was similar among patients who underwent PET/CT-guided surveillance and those who underwent planned neck dissection, but surveillance was more cost-effective...
October 10, 2017: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027534/long-non-coding-rna-meg3-promotes-the-proliferation-of-glioma-cells-through-targeting-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signal-pathway
#8
X Gong, M Huang
Glioma has been identified as one of the most aggressive primary tumors. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), with length larger than 200 bp, have drawn increasing attention to their abnormal expression and regulation function in carcinogenesis. However, the role of lncRNAs in glioma remains largely unknown. Maternally expressed gene 3 (MEG3), also known as gene-trap locus 2 (GTL2), is an imprinted gene, and is encoded by the MEG3 transcript of the DLK1/MEG3 locus on human chromosome, or Meg3 on mouse chromosome...
October 13, 2017: Cancer Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025982/appropriate-use-criteria-for-somatostatin-receptor-pet-imaging-in-neuroendocrine-tumors
#9
Thomas A Hope, Emily Bergsland, Murat Fani Bozkurt, Michael M Graham, Anthony P Heaney, Ken Herrmann, James R Howe, Matthew H Kulke, Pamela L Kunz, Josh Mailman, Lawrence May, David C Metz, Corina Millo, Sue O'Dorisio, Diane L Reidy-Lagunes, Michael C Soulen, Jonathan R Strosberg
Somatostatin receptor positron emission tomography (SSTR-PET) is an imaging modality for patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) that has demonstrated a significant improvement over conventional imaging (CI). SSTR-PET should replace In-111 pentetreotide scintigraphy (OctreoScan) in all indications in which SSTR scintigraphy is currently being used. These appropriate use criteria (AUC) are intended to aid referring medical practitioners in the appropriate use of SSTR-PET for imaging of patients with NETs, and the indications were evaluated in well-differentiated NETs...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022062/fak-tyrosine-phosphorylation-is-regulated-by-ampk-and-controls-metabolism-in-human-skeletal-muscle
#10
David G Lassiter, Carolina Nylén, Rasmus J O Sjögren, Alexander V Chibalin, Harriet Wallberg-Henriksson, Erik Näslund, Anna Krook, Juleen R Zierath
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Insulin-mediated signals and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-mediated signals are activated in response to physiological conditions that represent energy abundance and shortage, respectively. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is implicated in insulin signalling and cancer progression in various non-muscle cell types and plays a regulatory role during skeletal muscle differentiation. The role of FAK in skeletal muscle in relation to insulin stimulation or AMPK activation is unknown...
October 11, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988933/cancer-stemness-in-bone-marrow-micrometastases-of-human-breast-cancer
#11
Marissa C Kuo, Anai N Kothari, Paul C Kuo, Zhiyong Mi
BACKGROUND: Cancer cells metastasize to the bone marrow to create the premetastatic niche. Cancer stemness (expression of stem cell characteristics) is regulated by the tumor microenvironment and associated with self-renewal and poor clinical outcomes. Osteopontin induces mesenchymal stem cells in the tumor microenvironment to adopt a cancer-associated fibroblast phenotype to potentiate cancer growth and metastasis. The mechanisms by which cancer cells and tumor microenvironment regulate stemness in the bone marrow premetastatic niche is unknown...
October 5, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981638/long-term-risk-of-cancer-following-ileal-pouch-anal-anastomosis-for-ulcerative-colitis
#12
Anders Mark-Christensen, Rune Erichsen, Søren Brandsborg, Jacob Rosenberg, Niels Qvist, Ole Thorlacius-Ussing, Jens Hillingsø, Jørn Helmut Pachler, Erica Gould Christiansen, Søren Laurberg
Background: The overall risk of cancer following ileal pouch-anal anastomosis [IPAA] is unknown, and pouch cancer surveillance is controversial. We evaluated long-term risk of cancer in a national cohort of patients with ulcerative colitis and IPAA, with emphasis on pouch cancer. Methods: Data on incident cancers were extracted from the national Danish Cancer Registry. Incidence rates for all site-specific cancers were compared between patients with IPAA and a gender- and age-matched comparison cohort from the background population to obtain incidence rate ratios [IRRs]...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981601/inhibitory-effect-of-pyrvinium-pamoate-on-uveal-melanoma-cells-involves-blocking-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway
#13
Lei Zheng, Yizhi Liu, Jingxuan Pan
Uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults. And there is an absence of targeted agents for patients with uveal melanoma. Pyrvinium pamoate is an old anthelminthic medicine approved by FDA for the treatment of enterobiasis in 1955, which recently re-attracts attention as an anti-cancer drug due to its inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin pathway in some types of cancer. But the role of pyrvinium pamoate in uveal melanoma and the potential underlying mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we tested the anti-tumor effects of pyrvinium pamoate on four uveal melanoma cell lines (92...
October 1, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980780/-changes-in-the-new-tnm-classification-in-head-and-neck-oncology
#14
Silvia Lambiel, Pavel Dulguerov
The Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) published in 2017 a revised 8th edition of the TNM classification bringing numerous changes in the classification of head and neck tumors. Three new entities were introduced, namely HPV-positive oropharyngeal carcinoma, neck metastasis from an unknown primary, and skin carcinoma of the head and neck. Going beyond the traditional size of the lesions, several new predictive factors have been included, such as the depth of invasion of oral carcinoma and the extracapsular spread of neck metastasis...
October 4, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975219/association-of-immune-related-adverse-events-with-nivolumab-efficacy-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#15
Koji Haratani, Hidetoshi Hayashi, Yasutaka Chiba, Keita Kudo, Kimio Yonesaka, Ryoji Kato, Hiroyasu Kaneda, Yoshikazu Hasegawa, Kaoru Tanaka, Masayuki Takeda, Kazuhiko Nakagawa
Importance: Immune-related adverse events (irAEs) have been associated with the efficacy of PD-1 (programmed cell death protein 1) inhibitors in patients with melanoma, but whether such an association exists for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has remained unknown. Objective: To evaluate the relation of irAEs to nivolumab efficacy in NSCLC. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this study based on landmark and multivariable analyses, a total of 134 patients with advanced or recurrent NSCLC who were treated with nivolumab in the second-line setting or later between December 2015 and August 2016 were identified from a review of medical records from multiple institutions, including a university hospital and community hospitals...
September 21, 2017: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974397/comprehensive-genomic-sequencing-of-urothelial-tumors-identifies-rare-smarcb1-ini-1-deficient-carcinomas-of-the-urinary%C3%A2-system
#16
Sumati Gupta, Daniel Albertson, David Gaston, Marta E Heilbrun, Neeraj Agarwal, Ken Boucher, Timothy J Parnell, Ting Liu, Alicia Morgans, Russell Madison, Kyle Gowen, Vincent A Miller, Jeffrey S Ross, Siraj M Ali, Sherri Z Millis
PURPOSE: Tumor genomic profiling helps direct therapy for advanced urothelial carcinoma (UC). In the course of clinical care, we encountered a patient with a complete loss of SMARCB1 (switch/sucrose nonfermentable-related matrix-associated actin-dependent regulator of chromatin subfamily B member 1), which encodes INI-1 (integrase interactor 1), as the sole detected driver of their urinary tract tumor. Our objective was the identification and genomic characterization of urinary tract neoplasia with complete SMARCB1 loss...
September 7, 2017: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972178/nk3-homeobox-1-nkx3-1-upregulates-forkhead-box-o1-expression-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-thereby-suppresses-tumor-proliferation-and-invasion
#17
Jingyi Jiang, Zheng Liu, Chao Ge, Cong Chen, Fangyu Zhao, Hong Li, Taoyang Chen, Ming Yao, Jinjun Li
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the leading cause of cancer related mortality in China, and the molecular mechanism of uncontrolled HCC progression remains to be explored. NK3 homeobox 1 (NKX3.1), an androgen regulated prostate-specific transcription factor, suppresses tumors in prostate cancer, but its role in HCC is unknown, especially in hepatocellular carcinoma. In the present study, the differently expression analysis in HCC tissues and matched adjacent noncancerous liver tissues revealed that NKX3.1 is frequently downregulated in human primary HCC tissues compared with matched adjacent noncancerous liver tissues...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969042/mir-133b-suppresses-metastasis-by-targeting-hoxa9-in-human-colorectal-cancer
#18
Xiao Wang, Juyuan Bu, Xingwei Liu, Wenfeng Wang, Weihua Mai, Baojun Lv, Jinlin Zou, Xiangqiong Mo, Xiaoling Li, Jingyu Wang, Bin Niu, Yunping Fan, Bingzong Hou
Functions and mechanisms of microRNA (miRNA) involved in colorectal cancer (CRC) metastasis are largely unknown. Here, a miRNA microarray analysis was performed in CRC primary tissues and metastatic hepatic tissues to disclose crucial miRNA involved in CRC metastasis. MiR-133b was decreased and negatively correlated with metastasis in CRC. Overexpression of miR-133b significantly suppressed metastasis of CRC in vitro and in vivo. HOXA9 was identified as a direct and functional target of miR-133b. In addition, HOXA9 was negatively correlated with miR-133b and promoted CRC malignant progress...
September 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967380/staging-the-tumor-and-staging-the-host-a-two-centre-two-country-comparison-of-systemic-inflammatory-responses-of-patients-undergoing-resection-of-primary-operable-colorectal-cancer
#19
James H Park, Mitsuru Ishizuka, Stephen T McSorley, Keiichi Kubota, Campbell S D Roxburgh, Hitoshi Nagata, Kazutoshi Takagi, Yoshimi Iwasaki, Taku Aoki, Paul G Horgan, Donald C McMillan
BACKGROUND: How systemic inflammation-based prognostic scores such as the modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS) and neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio (NLR) differ across populations of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unknown. The present study examined the mGPS and NLR in patients from United Kingdom (UK) and Japan. METHODS: Patients undergoing resection of TNM I-III CRC in two centres in the UK and Japan were included. Differences in clinicopathological characteristics and mGPS (0-CRP≤10 mg/L, 1-CRP>10 mg/L, 2-CRP>10 mg/L, albumin<35 g/L) and NLR (≤5/>5) were examined...
September 20, 2017: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958732/long-term-outcome-after-resection-of-liver-metastases-from-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#20
Kiyohiko Omichi, Takashi Mizuno, Masayuki Okuno, Ching-Wei D Tzeng, Claudius Conrad, Yun Shin Chun, Thomas A Aloia, Jean-Nicolas Vauthey
BACKGROUND: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) liver metastases still remains a difficult challenge and the effectiveness of resection for SCC liver metastases is unclear. The aim of this study was to analyze long-term outcomes of surgically treated patients with SCC liver metastases. METHODS: The clinicopathological characteristics, overall survival (OS), and recurrence free survival (RFS) of all patients with SCC liver metastases resected between 1998 and 2015, were analyzed...
September 13, 2017: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
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