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Cancer of an unknown primary

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218473/epigenetic-silencing-of-diacylglycerol-kinase-gamma-in-colorectal-cancer
#1
Masahiro Kai, Eiichiro Yamamoto, Akiko Sato, Hiro-O Yamano, Takeshi Niinuma, Hiroshi Kitajima, Taku Harada, Hironori Aoki, Reo Maruyama, Mutsumi Toyota, Tomo Hatahira, Hiroshi Nakase, Tamotsu Sugai, Toshiharu Yamashita, Minoru Toyota, Hiromu Suzuki
Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs) are important regulators of cell signaling and have been implicated in human malignancies. Whether epigenetic alterations are involved in the dysregulation of DGKs in cancer is unknown, however. We therefore analyzed methylation of the promoter CpG islands of DGK genes in colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines. We found that DGKG, which encodes DGKγ, was hypermethylated in all CRC cell lines tested (n = 9), but was not methylated in normal colonic tissue. Correspondingly, DGKG expression was suppressed in CRC cell lines but not in normal colonic tissue, and was restored in CRC cells by treatment with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC)...
February 20, 2017: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217830/relationship-between-alcohol-metabolism-and-chemotherapy-induced-emetic-events-in-breast-cancer-patients
#2
Toshitaka Uomori, Yoshiya Horimoto, Kaoru Mogushi, Joe Matsuoka, Mitsue Saito
BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) can negatively affect quality of life and treatment compliance in breast cancer patients. Habitual alcohol consumption reportedly shows an inverse correlation with CINV, though the underlying mechanism is unknown. Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), one of the two ALDH isozymes, is reportedly the major factor among several genetic polymorphisms possibly affecting alcohol metabolism. More than 40% of Japanese have ALDH2 mutations, while almost all Westerners have the wild type...
February 20, 2017: Breast Cancer: the Journal of the Japanese Breast Cancer Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211039/cutaneous-squamous-cell-carcinoma-an-epidemiological-review
#3
REVIEW
A C Green, C M Olsen
Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a common cancer in white populations and its disease burden is often substantially underestimated. SCC occurs more often in men than women and increases dramatically with age; those affected often develop multiple primaries over time, which increases the burden. The main external cause is solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR), with immunosuppression being the other established risk factor, shown by the high SCC rates in organ transplant recipients. Sunbed use and certain genetic disorders and medical conditions are also associated with SCC, while associations with human papillomavirus infection and high bodyweight are not established...
February 16, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206871/swallowing-therapy-and-progressive-resistance-training-in-head-and-neck-cancer-patients-undergoing-radiotherapy-treatment-randomized-control-trial-protocol-and-preliminary-data
#4
Sara F Hajdú, Irene Wessel, Christoffer Johansen, Claus A Kristensen, Zahra T Kadkhoda, Christina C Plaschke, Susanne O Dalton
BACKGROUND: Head and neck cancer (HNC) patients are often challenged by treatment induced dysphagia and trismus. Traditionally, rehabilitation is initiated when loss of function has already occurred. There is increasing evidence that it is of benefit to patients to initiate an early rehabilitation process before and during treatment. HNC patients have a unique set of functional challenges such as pre- and post-treatment dysphagia, pain and weight loss. The aim of the trial is to investigate the effects of swallowing and mouth-opening exercises combined with progressive resistance training (PRT) during radiotherapy...
February 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205108/water-assisted-colonoscopy
#5
REVIEW
Sergio Cadoni, Felix W Leung
The current review will attempt to describe the important lessons learned from published randomized controlled trials (RCT) comparing water immersion (WI) or water exchange (WE) techniques with gas insufflation colonoscopy. Air insufflation (AI) to distend the colon to permit visualization and passage through the lumen was developed for diagnostic colonoscopy. When screening colonoscopy was adopted, the same AI method was used. Interval cancers, diagnosed within 3 to 5 years after an index screening colonoscopy, appeared to be linked to low adenoma detection rate (ADR)...
February 15, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193254/developing-a-new-diagnostic-algorithm-for-human-papilloma-virus-associated-oropharyngeal-carcinoma-an-investigation-of-hpv-dna-assays
#6
Natasha Cohen, Michael Gupta, Lilian Doerwald-Munoz, Dan Jang, James Edward Massey Young, Stuart Archibald, Bernard Jackson, Jenny Lee, Max Chernesky
BACKGROUND: Human papilloma virus (HPV) has been implicated in the development of a large proportion of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). Current techniques used to diagnose HPV etiology require histopathologic analysis. We aim to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of a new application non-histopathologic diagnostic tests to help assist diagnosis of HPV-related oropharyngeal tumors. METHODS: Patients with OPSCC with nodal metastasis were consecutively recruited from a multidisciplinary cancer clinic...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185797/evidence-for-selective-benefit-of-sequential-treatment-with-hypomethylating-agents-in-patients-with-myelodysplastic-syndrome
#7
Susmitha Apuri, Najla Al Ali, Eric Padron, Jeffrey E Lancet, Alan F List, Rami S Komrokji
BACKGROUND: Hypomethylating agents (HMAs) remain the mainstay of treatment of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Azacitidine is the only agent shown to improve overall survival in higher risk MDS. The sequential use of HMAs is common practice, given the limited alternatives. The response rate to azacitidine after decitabine is unknown. To investigate the potential benefit of this approach, we reviewed all cases of sequential HMA treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The Moffitt Cancer Center MDS database was reviewed, and 2 groups were identified...
January 10, 2017: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma & Leukemia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178280/knockdown-of-hspa9-induces-tp53-dependent-apoptosis-in-human-hematopoietic-progenitor-cells
#8
Tuoen Liu, Kilannin Krysiak, Cara Lunn Shirai, Sanghyun Kim, Jin Shao, Matthew Ndonwi, Matthew J Walter
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are the most common adult myeloid blood cancers in the US. Patients have increased apoptosis in their bone marrow cells leading to low peripheral blood counts. The full complement of gene mutations that contribute to increased apoptosis in MDS remains unknown. Up to 25% of MDS patients harbor and acquired interstitial deletion on the long arm of chromosome 5 [del(5q)], creating haploinsufficiency for a large set of genes including HSPA9. Knockdown of HSPA9 in primary human CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells significantly inhibits growth and increases apoptosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177904/genome-scale-analysis-identifies-gjb2-and-ero1lb-as-prognosis-markers-in-patients-with-pancreatic-cancer
#9
Tao Zhu, Yuan-Feng Gao, Yi-Xin Chen, Zhi-Bin Wang, Ji-Ye Yin, Xiao-Yuan Mao, Xi Li, Wei Zhang, Hong-Hao Zhou, Zhao-Qian Liu
Pancreatic cancer is a complex and heterogeneous disease with the etiology largely unknown. The deadly nature of pancreatic cancer, with an extremely low 5-year survival rate, renders urgent a better understanding of the molecular events underlying it. The aim of this study is to investigate the gene expression module of pancreatic adenocarcinoma and to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with prognostic potentials. Transcriptome microarray data of five GEO datasets (GSE15471, GSE16515, GSE18670, GSE32676, GSE71989), including 117 primary tumor samples and 73 normal pancreatic tissue samples, were utilized to identify DEGs...
February 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168879/head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-metabolism-draws-on-glutaminolysis-and-stemness-is-specifically-regulated-by-glutaminolysis-via-aldehyde-dehydrogenase
#10
Pachiyappan Kamarajan, Thekkelnaycke M Rajendiran, Jason Kinchen, Mercedes Bermúdez, Theodora Danciu, Yvonne Lorraine Kapila
Cancer cells use alternate energetic pathways, however cancer stem cell (CSC) metabolic energetic pathways are unknown. The purpose of this study was to define the metabolic characteristics of head and neck cancer at different points of its pathogenesis with a focus on its CSC compartment. UPLC-MS/MS-profiling and GC-MS-validation studies of human head and neck cancer tissue, saliva, and plasma, were used in conjunction with in vitro and in vivo models to carry out this investigation. We identified metabolite biomarker panels that distinguish head and neck cancer from healthy controls, and confirmed involvement of glutamate and glutaminolysis...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156660/attitudes-of-radiation-oncologists-toward-palliative-and-supportive-care-in-the-united-states-report-on-national-membership-survey-by-the-american-society-for-radiation-oncology-astro
#11
James B Yu, Malcolm Mattes, Adrienne Thrasher, Hui-Kuo George Shu, Jennifer F De Los Santos, Harald Paganetti, Bridget F Koontz, Christopher Abraham, Tracy A Balboni
: 105 Background: Radiation oncologists are frequently involved in providing palliative and supportive care (PSC) for patients with advanced cancers through delivery of palliative radiation. Whether they are confident in their ability to assess and initiate treatments for pain, non-pain, and psychosocial distress is unknown. The American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) surveyed its practicing members in the United States on self-assessment of their primary PSC skills, and access to continuing medical education on PSC...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156628/management-of-the-primary-site-in-stage-iv-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-seer-analysis
#12
Savita V Dandapani
: 52 Background: One of every three non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients is diagnosed with terminal stage IV disease. As systemic treatments have evolved, other tumor sites such as kidney have demonstrated benefits of aggressive management of the primary location and oligo-metastases. The purpose of this study is to use the SEER database to evaluate survival outcomes associated with surgery (S) and radiation treatment (RT) of the primary site in stage IV NSCLC. METHODS: Eligible patient cases had lung coded as the primary location...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156536/caregiver-time-burden-in-newly-diagnosed-glioblastoma-a-prospective-analysis
#13
Christine Pittman, Nimish Mohile
: 242 Background: Caregiver (CG) burden is particularly high in glioblastoma (GBM) because neurologic deficits lead to cognitive dysfunction and physical dependence. The amount of time that CGs devote to GBM pts is not well described. The extent to which time burden impacts CG quality of life and perceived burden is unknown. METHODS: We performed an IRB-approved prospective analysis of 38 CGs of pts with newly diagnosed GBM enrolled over 8 mo. at a single academic institution...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156514/multidisciplinary-tumor-board-for-improvement-of-oncology-collaboration-in-advanced-cancer-patients
#14
Amish Doshi, Cardinale B Smith, Bethann Scarborough, Stelian Serban, Jeffrey Ciccone, Kavita Vyas Dharmarajan
: 175 Background: The Palliative and Supportive Oncology Tumor Board was developed in 2015 to provide an interdisciplinary forum for discussion and management of patients with complex or refractory symptoms from advanced cancer. The board meets monthly and consists of medical, surgical, and radiation oncologists, interventional radiologists, pain management, palliative care specialists, residents, and fellows. Here, we assess the impact of the tumor board on the care of these patients...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156484/molecular-tumor-profiling-ordering-trends-in-cancer-patients
#15
Winnie S Wang, Warren Yau, Chelsea Hagmann, Carolyn Revta, Janet M Armstrong, Eric Roeland
: 165 Background: Molecular tumor profiling may provide information as to whether to initiate or not initiate a targeted therapy. As to the timing of when the tumor profiling is ordered relative to date of diagnosis, date of death, and palliative care (PC) consultations are unknown. The primary objective of this study was to examine molecular tumor profiling ordering trends in the course of cancer illness. METHODS: A preliminary, retrospective chart review was conducted in a cohort of patients with a confirmed diagnosis of cancer at an academic, NCI-designated comprehensive cancer center...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154782/ki-67-as-a-prognostic-marker-according-to-breast-cancer-molecular-subtype
#16
Nahed A Soliman, Shaimaa M Yussif
OBJECTIVE: Ki-67 plays an important function in cell division, but its exact role is still unknown. Moreover, few works regarding its overall function were published. The present study evaluated the clinical significance of Ki-67 index as a prognostic marker and predictor of recurrence in different molecular subtypes of breast cancer. The relationship of Ki-67 index with different clinicopathological factors was also analyzed. METHODS: Ki-67 index was measured in 107 cases of primary breast cancer from 2010-2012...
December 2016: Cancer Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152516/tnfaip8-interacts-with-lats1-and-promotes-aggressiveness-through-regulation-of-hippo-pathway-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#17
Qianze Dong, Lin Fu, Yue Zhao, Chengyao Xie, Qingchang Li, Enhua Wang
Although TNFAIP8 overexpression has been implicated in several human cancers, its clinical significance and biological function in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unknown. Our study demonstrated that TNFAIP8 overexpression in primary HCC samples correlated with TNM stage, recurrence, poor prognosis and served as an independent favorable prognostic factor. We further showed that TNFAIP8 upregulated cell proliferation, migration, invasion and xenograft tumor growth of HCC cells. In addition, TNFAIP8 overexpression inhibited YAP phosphorylation, increased its nuclear localization and stabilization, leading to upregulation of cyclin proteins, CTGF and cell proliferation...
February 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151796/clinical-and-prognostic-features-of-patients-with-esophageal-cancer-and-multiple-primary-cancers-a-retrospective-single-institution-study
#18
Yoshifumi Baba, Naoya Yoshida, Koichi Kinoshita, Masaaki Iwatsuki, Yo-Ichi Yamashita, Akira Chikamoto, Masayuki Watanabe, Hideo Baba
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical and prognostic characteristics of patients with esophageal cancer and multiple primary cancers. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Patients with esophageal cancer frequently have multiple primary cancers, the presence of which may complicate physicians' decision-making because the clinical and prognostic features of such patients remain unknown. METHODS: This retrospective single-institution study included 538 consecutive patients who had undergone resection of esophageal cancer...
February 1, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147231/syncope-outcomes-and-conditions-associated-with-hospitalization
#19
Parijat Saurav Joy, Gagan Kumar, Brian Olshansky
PURPOSE: Syncope is a perplexing problem for which hospital admission and readmission are contemplated but outcomes remain uncertain. Our purpose was to determine the incidence of admissions and readmissions for syncope and compare associated conditions, in-hospital outcomes and resource utilization. METHODS: The 2005-2011 California Statewide Inpatient Database was utilized. Patients of age ≥18 admitted under ICD-9-CM code 780.2 ("syncope or collapse") were selected...
January 29, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144684/combined-p16-and-p53-expression-in-cervical-cancer-of-unknown-primary-and-other-prognostic-parameters-a-single-center-analysis
#20
Müjdat Yildirim, Jens Müller von der Grün, Ria Winkelmann, Emmanouil Fokas, Franz Rödel, Hanns Ackermann, Claus Rödel, Panagiotis Balermpas
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cervical cancer of unknown primary (CUP) represents an uncommon and heterogeneous subentity of head and neck cancer. However, both optimal diagnostics and therapy remain unclear. An improved understanding of the underlying pathology is essential to enable future tailored therapies and optimized outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 53 patients with head and neck CUP and 48 available cervical lymph node specimens. All patients have received radiotherapy between 2007 and 2015...
January 31, 2017: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
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