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Cancer of an unknown primary

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730323/the-pathogenesis-diagnosis-and-management-of-metastatic-tumors-to-the-ovary-a-comprehensive-review
#1
REVIEW
Ondřej Kubeček, Jan Laco, Jiří Špaček, Jiří Petera, Jindřich Kopecký, Alena Kubečková, Stanislav Filip
Secondary tumors of the ovary account for 10-25% of all ovarian malignancies. The most common tumors that give rise to ovarian metastases include breast, colorectal, endometrial, stomach, and appendix cancer. The correct diagnosis of secondary ovarian tumors may be challenging as they are not infrequently misdiagnosed as primary ovarian cancer, particularly in the case of mucinous adenocarcinomas. The distinction from the latter is essential, as it requires different treatment. Immunohistochemistry plays an important role in distinguishing primary ovarian tumors from extra-ovarian metastases and, furthermore, may suggest the primary tumor site...
July 20, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725937/aspirin-use-and-head-and-neck-cancer-survival-an-observational-study-of-11-623-person-years-follow-up
#2
Shin-Ae Kim, Jong-Lyel Roh, Sung-Bae Kim, Seung-Ho Choi, Soon Yuhl Nam, Sang Yoon Kim
BACKGROUND: Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been associated with reduced risks for certain human cancers. However, the effects of aspirin and NSAIDs on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) remain controversial, and the prognostic effects of these drugs in patients with HNSCC are largely unknown. This study examined the clinical impact of aspirin and NSAIDs on disease recurrence and survival in patients with HNSCC. METHODS: This study analysed a cohort of 1392 consecutive patients who received definitive treatment for previously untreated HNSCC at our tertiary referral center...
July 19, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724664/biochemical-molecular-and-clinical-characterization-of-succinate-dehydrogenase-subunit-a-variants-of-unknown-significance
#3
Amber E Bannon, Jason D Kent, Isaac Forquer, Ajia Town, Lillian R Klug, Kelly E McCann, Carol Beadling, Olivier Harismendy, Jason K Sicklick, Christopher L Corless, Ujwal Shinde, Michael C Heinrich
Patients who inherit a pathogenic loss-of-function genetic variant involving one of the four succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) subunit genes have up to an 86% chance of developing one or more cancers by the age of 50. If tumors are identified and removed early in these high-risk patients, they have a higher potential for cure.  Unfortunately, many alterations identified in these genes are variants of unknown significance (VUS), confounding the identification of high-risk patients. If we could identify misclassified SDH VUS as benign or pathogenic SDH mutations, we could better select patients for cancer screening procedures and remove tumors at earlier stages...
July 19, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724614/nuclear-mtor-acts-as-a-transcriptional-integrator-of-the-androgen-signaling-pathway-in-prostate-cancer
#4
Étienne Audet-Walsh, Catherine R Dufour, Tracey Yee, Fatima Z Zouanat, Ming Yan, Georges Kalloghlian, Mathieu Vernier, Maxime Caron, Guillaume Bourque, Eleonora Scarlata, Lucie Hamel, Fadi Brimo, Armen G Aprikian, Jacques Lapointe, Simone Chevalier, Vincent Giguère
Androgen receptor (AR) signaling reprograms cellular metabolism to support prostate cancer (PCa) growth and survival. Another key regulator of cellular metabolism is mTOR, a kinase found in diverse protein complexes and cellular localizations, including the nucleus. However, whether nuclear mTOR plays a role in PCa progression and participates in direct transcriptional cross-talk with the AR is unknown. Here, via the intersection of gene expression, genomic, and metabolic studies, we reveal the existence of a nuclear mTOR-AR transcriptional axis integral to the metabolic rewiring of PCa cells...
July 19, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720841/novel-immunohistochemistry-based-signatures-to-predict-metastatic-site-of-triple-negative-breast-cancers
#5
Sergey Klimov, Padmashree Cg Rida, Mohammed A Aleskandarany, Andrew R Green, Ian O Ellis, Emiel Am Janssen, Emad A Rakha, Ritu Aneja
BACKGROUND: Although distant metastasis (DM) in breast cancer (BC) is the most lethal form of recurrence and the most common underlying cause of cancer related deaths, the outcome following the development of DM is related to the site of metastasis. Triple negative BC (TNBC) is an aggressive form of BC characterised by early recurrences and high mortality. Athough multiple variables can be used to predict the risk of metastasis, few markers can predict the specific site of metastasis...
July 18, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720069/long-non-coding-rna-spry4-it1-promotes-proliferation-and-invasion-by-acting-as-a-cerna-of-mir-101-3p-in-colorectal-cancer-cells
#6
Jianguang Jin, Zhijie Chu, Pengfei Ma, Yuanpu Meng, Yanhui Yang
Long non-coding RNAs are associated with a spectrum of biological processes such as gene regulation on transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Increasing evidence indicates that SPRY4-IT1 plays an important role in carcinogenesis, and the mechanisms whereby SPRY4-IT1 induces colorectal carcinoma progression remain largely unknown. The aim of this study is to evaluate the expression and function of SPRY4-IT1 in colorectal carcinoma. In this study, we analyzed SPRY4-IT1 expression levels in a series of colorectal carcinoma patients by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction...
July 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713551/case-report-intramammary-lymph-node-metastasis-of-an-unknown-primary-probably-occult-breast-undifferentiated-carcinoma
#7
Zacharoula Sidiropoulou, Félix Adélia, Isabela Gil, Tobias Teles, Claudia Santos, Lucilia Monteiro
Little is known about the clinical importance of intramammary lymph node metastasis of breast cancer, even though it is not rare. In the present paper, the authors present an unusual, rare case of an intramammary lymph node metastasis of an unknown primary, probably occult breast cancer, and its management. The patient was submitted to various staging exams and surgical procedures and a definitive diagnosis was not established. From a multidisciplinary context, it was assumed that the patient had a breast triple negative primary with axillary involvement...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710053/stimulation-of-the-ovaries-in-women-with-breast-cancer-undergoing-fertility-preservation-alternative-versus-standard-stimulation-protocols-the-study-protocol-of-the-stim-trial
#8
T Dahhan, E M E Balkenende, C C M Beerendonk, K Fleischer, D Stoop, A M E Bos, C B Lambalk, R Schats, R J T van Golde, J Schipper, L A Louwe, A E P Cantineau, J M J Smeenk, J P de Bruin, N Reddy, Y Kopeika, F van der Veen, M van Wely, S C Linn, M Goddijn
BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy for breast cancer may have a negative impact on reproductive function due to gonadotoxicity. Fertility preservation via banking of oocytes or embryos after ovarian stimulation with FSH can increase the likelihood of a future live birth. It has been hypothesized that elevated serum estrogen levels during ovarian stimulation may induce breast tumour growth. This has led to the use of alternative stimulation protocols with addition of tamoxifen or letrozole. The effectiveness of these stimulation protocols in terms of oocyte yield is unknown...
July 11, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709407/trop2-enhances-invasion-of-thyroid-cancer-by-inducing-mmp2-through-erk-and-jnk-pathways
#9
Hongyu Guan, Zejun Guo, Weiwei Liang, Hai Li, Guohong Wei, Lijuan Xu, Haipeng Xiao, Yanbing Li
BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence has showed that Tumor-associated calcium signal transducer 2 (Trop2) is upregulated in various kinds of human cancers and plays important roles in tumorigenesis. However, the expression status and functional significance of Trop2 in thyroid cancer are largely unknown. METHODS: We first determined the expression of Trop2 by using RNAseqV2 data sets for thyroid cancer deposited on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) website. The expression of Trop2 was then confirmed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry assays...
July 14, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689989/the-long-variant-of-human-ileal-bile-acid-binding-protein-associated-with-colorectal-cancer-exhibits-sub-cellular-localization-and-lipid-binding-behaviour-distinct-from-those-of-the-common-isoform
#10
Mariapina D'Onofrio, Serena Zanzoni, Francesca Munari, Hugo L Monaco, Michael Assfalg, Stefano Capaldi
BACKGROUND: Ileal bile acid-binding protein, IBABP, participates in the intracellular trafficking of bile salts and influences their signaling activities. The recently discovered variant, IBABP-L, bearing an N-terminal 49-amino acid extension, was found to be associated with colorectal cancer and to protect cancer cells from the cytotoxic effects of deoxycholate. However, the precise function and the molecular properties of this variant are currently unknown. METHODS: Bioinformatics tools and confocal microscopy were used to investigate the sub-cellular localization of IBABP-L; protein dynamics, ligand binding and interaction with membrane models were studied by 2D NMR and fluorescence spectroscopy...
July 6, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681213/hepatoid-adenocarcinoma-of-unknown-primary-masquerading-as-a-pancreatic-tumor
#11
Epameinondas Dogeas, Lan Peng, Michael A Choti
Hepatoid adenocarcinoma is a rare type of extrahepatic cancer characterized by hepatocellular carcinoma-like histology. We present a case of a large solitary mass in the peripancreatic region found to be an isolated lymph node metastasis from an unknown primary hepatoid adenocarcinoma masquerading as an acinar carcinoma of the pancreas.
July 5, 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680840/clinical-outcomes-in-patients-with-cancer-of-unknown-primary-site-treated-by-gastrointestinal-oncologists
#12
Sakiko Yamane, Chikatoshi Katada, Satoshi Tanabe, Mizutomo Azuma, Kenji Ishido, Takafumi Yano, Takuya Wada, Akinori Watanabe, Natsuko Kawanishi, Yasuaki Furue, Yuki Kondo, Shouko Komori, Hiromichi Ishiyama, Kazushige Hayakawa, Wasaburo Koizumi
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical outcomes in patients with cancer of an unknown primary site (CUP), who were treated by gastrointestinal oncologists. METHODS: We retrospectively studied 29 patients with CUP who were presented at the Department of Gastroenterology, Kitasato University Hospital from October 2005 to October 2013, and were treated by the gastrointestinal oncologists. The patients were divided into two groups, namely chemotherapy group and symptomatic therapy group, and the clinical characteristics and survival times were compared...
March 2017: Journal of Translational Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680718/prognostic-factor-analysis-of-overall-survival-in-gastric-cancer-from-two-phase-iii-studies-of-second-line-ramucirumab-regard-and-rainbow-using-pooled-patient-data
#13
Charles S Fuchs, Kei Muro, Jiri Tomasek, Eric Van Cutsem, Jae Yong Cho, Sang-Cheul Oh, Howard Safran, György Bodoky, Ian Chau, Yasuhiro Shimada, Salah-Eddin Al-Batran, Rodolfo Passalacqua, Atsushi Ohtsu, Michael Emig, David Ferry, Kumari Chandrawansa, Yanzhi Hsu, Andreas Sashegyi, Astra M Liepa, Hansjochen Wilke
PURPOSE: To identify baseline prognostic factors for survival in patients with disease progression, during or after chemotherapy for the treatment of advanced gastric or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We pooled data from patients randomized between 2009 and 2012 in 2 phase III, global double-blind studies of ramucirumab for the treatment of advanced gastric or GEJ adenocarcinoma following disease progression on first-line platinum- and/or fluoropyrimidine-containing therapy (REGARD and RAINBOW)...
June 2017: Journal of Gastric Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677162/the-clinical-impact-of-tumour-infiltrating-lymphocytes-in-colorectal-cancer-differs-by-anatomical-subsite-a-cohort-study
#14
Jonna Berntsson, Maria C Svensson, Karin Leandersson, Björn Nodin, Patrick Micke, Anna H Larsson, Jakob Eberhard, Karin Jirström
Accumulating evidence demonstrates an association between dense infiltration of lymphocytes and prognosis in colorectal cancer (CRC), but whether this prognostic impact differs by tumour location remains unknown. This study investigated the prognostic impact of cytotoxic and regulatory T cells in CRC, with particular reference to the anatomical subsite of the primary tumour. The density of CD3(+) , CD8(+) , and FoxP3(+) tumour-infiltrating T cells was calculated in tissue microarrays with tumours from 557 incident CRC cases from a prospective population-based cohort...
July 5, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675165/precision-medicine-based-on-epigenomics-the-paradigm-of-carcinoma-of-unknown-primary
#15
REVIEW
Sebastián Moran, Anna Martinez-Cardús, Stergios Boussios, Manel Esteller
Epigenetic alterations are a common hallmark of human cancer. Single epigenetic markers are starting to be incorporated into clinical practice; however, the translational use of these biomarkers has not been validated at the 'omics' level. The identification of the tissue of origin in patients with cancer of unknown primary (CUP) is an example of how epigenomics can be incorporated in clinical settings, addressing an unmet need in the diagnostic and clinical management of these patients. Despite the great diagnostic advances made in the past decade, the use of traditional diagnostic procedures only enables the tissue of origin to be determined in ∼30% of patients with CUP...
July 4, 2017: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670333/synchronous-bilateral-tonsil-carcinoma-case-presentation-and-review-of-the-literature
#16
REVIEW
M-N Theodoraki, J A Veit, T K Hoffmann, J Greve
BACKGROUND: The incidence of synchronous bilateral tonsil carcinoma seems to be underreported. For adequate oncologic treatment, it is mandatory to remove all primaries to prevent recurrence or metachronic disease. The purpose of this manuscript is to provide a comprehensive review on this topic and to emphasize the need of bilateral tonsillectomy in cases of cancer of unknown primary (CUP) as well as in the case of a unilateral tonsillar carcinoma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed for "bilateral tonsillar neoplasm", "synchronous cancer of the oropharynx" and "cancer of unknown primary in head and neck"...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662868/the-incidence-of-symptomatic-brain-metastases-from-extra-pulmonary-small-cell-carcinoma-is-there-a-role-for-prophylactic-cranial-irradiation-in-a-clinically-relevant-population-cohort
#17
Alex De Caluwé, Gale Bowering, Alan Nichol, Fred Hsu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To examine the incidence and outcomes of patients with brain metastases from extra-pulmonary small cell carcinoma (EPSCC) and assess the indication for prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A Provincial cancer registry was used to conduct a retrospective, population-based study of patients diagnosed with EPSCC between January 1997 and December 2011. The primary end point was the incidence of brain metastases. The secondary endpoint was overall survival...
July 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661062/randomised-feasibility-study-of-a-more-liberal-haemoglobin-trigger-for-red-blood-cell-transfusion-compared-to-standard-practice-in-anaemic-cancer-patients-treated-with-chemotherapy
#18
D Yakymenko, K B Frandsen, I J Christensen, A Norgaard, P I Johansson, G Daugaard, M Mau-Sorensen
OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this feasibility study was to identify quality of life (QoL) scores and symptom scales as tools for measuring patient-reported outcomes (PRO) associated with haemoglobin level in chemotherapy-treated cancer patients. Secondary objectives included comparing QoL and symptoms between randomisation arms. BACKGROUND: Anaemia in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy is associated with decreased QoL. One treatment option is red blood cell transfusion (RBCT)...
June 29, 2017: Transfusion Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659184/rerg-suppresses-cell-proliferation-migration-and-angiogenesis-through-erk-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#19
Weilin Zhao, Ning Ma, Shumin Wang, Yingxi Mo, Zhe Zhang, Guangwu Huang, Kaoru Midorikawa, Yusuke Hiraku, Shinji Oikawa, Mariko Murata, Kazuhiko Takeuchi
BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a malignancy of the head and neck that is prevalent in Southeast Asia and southern China. Recent studies in epigenetics suggest that DNA methylation plays a pivotal role in the onset and progression of cancer. Combining the methyl-DNA binding domain capture technique and cDNA microarray analysis, we identified a unique hypermethylated gene, RERG (Ras-like estrogen-regulated growth inhibitor), that was down-regulated in NPC tissues. RERG is a tumor suppressor gene that was first reported in breast cancer...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654653/validity-of-using-multiple-imputation-for-unknown-stage-at-diagnosis-in-population-based-cancer-registry-data
#20
Qingwei Luo, Sam Egger, Xue Qin Yu, David P Smith, Dianne L O'Connell
BACKGROUND: The multiple imputation approach to missing data has been validated by a number of simulation studies by artificially inducing missingness on fully observed stage data under a pre-specified missing data mechanism. However, the validity of multiple imputation has not yet been assessed using real data. The objective of this study was to assess the validity of using multiple imputation for "unknown" prostate cancer stage recorded in the New South Wales Cancer Registry (NSWCR) in real-world conditions...
2017: PloS One
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