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Cancer of an unknown primary

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532589/erosive-pustular-dermatosis-of-the-leg-a-prospective-multicentre-observational-study-of-36-cases
#1
P Nicol, G Perceau, C Barbe, P Bernard
BACKGROUND: Erosive pustular dermatosis of the leg (EPDL) is a poorly understood entity first described by Lanigan and Cotteril in 1987. Its clinical diagnosis is based on exclusion since the physiopathology is unknown. The primary objective of this investigation was to specify the clinical aspects and outcomes in a prospective study. The secondary objectives were to describe associated diseases, the circumstances of occurrence, and the laboratory tests used. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a prospective study that included 45 patients selected by members of the Angiology-Dermatology Group of the SFD (French Dermatology Society) at 13 centres between 01/09/2013 and 31/10/2014...
May 19, 2017: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527586/gastrointestinal-bowel-obstruction-in-acute-ischemic-stroke-incidence-risk-factors-and-outcomes-in-a-u-s-nationwide-analysis-of-3-998-667-hospitalizations
#2
Kavelin Rumalla, Ashwath S Kumar, Manoj K Mittal
OBJECTIVE: The prognosis from acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is worsened by poststroke medical complications. The incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of gastrointestinal bowel obstruction (GIBO) in AIS are not known. METHODS: We queried the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2002-2011) to identify all patients with a primary diagnosis of AIS and subsets with and without a secondary diagnosis of GIBO without hernia. Multivariable analysis was utilized to identify risk factors for GIBO in AIS patients and the association between GIBO, in-hospital complications, and outcomes...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527407/mechanisms-of-resistance-to-systemic-therapy-in-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#3
REVIEW
Giuseppe Galletti, Benjamin I Leach, Linda Lam, Scott T Tagawa
Patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCPRC) now have an unprecedented number of approved treatment options, including chemotherapies (docetaxel, cabazitaxel), androgen receptor (AR)-targeted therapies (enzalutamide, abiraterone), a radioisotope (radium-223) and a cancer vaccine (sipuleucel-T). However, the optimal treatment sequencing pathway is unknown, and this problem is exacerbated by the issues of primary and acquired resistance. This review focuses on mechanisms of resistance to AR-targeted therapies and taxane-based chemotherapy...
May 8, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525448/18f-fluorocholine-pet-ct-complementing-the-role-of-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-mri-for-providing-comprehensive-diagnostic-workup-in-prostate-cancer-patients-with-suspected-relapse-following-radical-prostatectomy
#4
Shelvin Kumar Vadi, Baljinder Singh, Rajender K Basher, Ankit Watts, Ashwani K Sood, Anupam Lal, Nandita Kakkar, S K Singh
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic performance of F-fluorocholine (FCH) PET/CT and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) of pelvis in restaging prostate cancer (PC) patients with biochemical recurrence (BCR) following radical prostatectomy (RP). METHODS: Twenty PC patients who had undergone RP and had BCR were recruited in this study. All the patients underwent whole-body FCH PET/CT and DCE-MRI of the pelvis. An overall pattern of recurrent disease was analyzed, and diagnostic accuracy for the detection of pelvic disease recurrence by the 2 modalities was evaluated by taking histopathologic analysis as the criterion standard...
May 19, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523302/the-use-of-ebus-tbna-and-rose-in-the-diagnosis-of-lung-cancer
#5
Mărioara Şimon, Bogdan Pop, Iuliana Lăcrămioara Toma, Aletta Kinga Vallasek, Ioan Şimon
Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is a minimally invasive method for diagnosing and staging of lung cancer. EBUS-TBNA obtained small specimens. Rapid on-site examination (ROSE) is a rapid, real-time examination method. The aim of our study is to evaluate the impact of ROSE on adequate specimen sampling, rapid results and high diagnostic rate. We present the experience of the Department of Bronchology, "Leon Daniello" Clinic of Pulmonology, Cluj-Napoca, Romania, with EBUS-TBNA as a tool for diagnostic of adenopathies of unknown etiology...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521362/association-of-common-genetic-variants-with-contralateral-breast-cancer-risk-in-the-wecare-study
#6
Mark E Robson, Anne S Reiner, Jennifer D Brooks, Patrick J Concannon, Esther M John, Lene Mellemkjaer, Leslie Bernstein, Kathleen E Malone, Julia A Knight, Charles F Lynch, Meghan Woods, Xiaolin Liang, Robert W Haile, David J Duggan, Roy E Shore, Susan A Smith, Duncan C Thomas, Daniel O Stram, Jonine L Bernstein
Background: Women with unilateral breast cancer (UBC) are at risk of developing a subsequent contralateral breast cancer (CBC). Common variants are associated with breast cancer risk. Whether these influence CBC risk is unknown. Methods: Participants were breast cancer cases from the population-based Women's Environmental Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology (WECARE) Study. Sixty-seven established breast cancer risk loci were genotyped directly or by imputation in 1459 case subjects with CBC and 2126 UBC control subjects...
October 1, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518151/disulfiram-copper-selectively-eradicates-aml-leukemia-stem-cells-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-by-simultaneous-induction-of-ros-jnk-and-inhibition-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-nrf2
#7
Bing Xu, Shiyun Wang, Rongwei Li, Kai Chen, Lingli He, Manman Deng, Vinodh Kannappan, Jie Zha, Huijuan Dong, Weiguang Wang
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous malignancy. Despite the advances in past decades, the clinical outcomes of AML patients remain poor. Leukemia stem cells (LSCs) is the major cause of the recurrence of AML even after aggressive treatment making, promoting development of LSC-targeted agents is an urgent clinical need. Although the antitumor activity of disulfiram (DS), an approved anti-alcoholism drug, has been demonstrated in multiple types of tumors including hematological malignancies such as AML, it remains unknown whether this agent would also be able to target cancer stem cells like LSCs...
May 18, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507832/disseminated-nocardia-farcinica-pneumonia-with-left-adrenal-gland-abscess
#8
Christopher Jackson, Brennan McCullar, Kiran Joglekar, Ankur Seth, Hiren Pokharna
Adrenal masses pose a diagnostic challenge. The differential diagnosis includes functional adrenal tumors, incidentally found adrenal masses, metastases from an unknown primary cancer, and abscesses. Infrequently, adrenal gland abscesses have been reported in disseminated nocardiosis affecting immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. We report a case of disseminated Nocardia farcinica pneumonia with an adrenal gland abscess in an immunocompetent patient with no identified risk factors for nocardiosis...
April 12, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503860/epigenetic-silencing-of-adamts18-promotes-cell-migration-and-invasion-of-breast-cancer-through-akt-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling
#9
Hongying Xu, Qian Xiao, Yu Fan, Tingxiu Xiang, Chen Li, Chunhong Li, Shuman Li, Tianli Hui, Lu Zhang, Hongzhong Li, Lili Li, Guosheng Ren
ADAMTS18 dysregulation plays an important role in many disease processes including cancer. We previously found ADAMTS18 as frequently methylated tumor suppressor gene (TSG) for multiple carcinomas, however, its biological functions and underlying molecular mechanisms in breast carcinogenesis remain unknown. Here, we found that ADAMTS18 was silenced or downregulated in breast cancer cell lines. ADAMTS18 was reduced in primary breast tumor tissues as compared with their adjacent noncancer tissues. ADAMTS18 promoter methylation was detected in 70...
May 15, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492914/antibiotic-prescribing-for-nonbacterial-acute-upper-respiratory-infections-in-elderly-persons
#10
Michael Silverman, Marcus Povitz, Jessica M Sontrop, Lihua Li, Lucie Richard, Sonny Cejic, Salimah Z Shariff
Background: Reducing inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for acute upper respiratory tract infections (AURIs) requires a better understanding of the factors associated with this practice. Objective: To determine the prevalence of antibiotic prescribing for nonbacterial AURIs and whether prescribing rates varied by physician characteristics. Design: Retrospective analysis of linked administrative health care data. Setting: Primary care physician practices in Ontario, Canada (January-December 2012)...
May 9, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486947/diagnostic-and-treatment-modalities-for-patients-with-cervical-lymph-node-metastases-of-unknown-primary-site-current-status-and-challenges
#11
REVIEW
Jens Müller von der Grün, Aykut Tahtali, Shahram Ghanaati, Claus Rödel, Panagiotis Balermpas
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the literature and elucidate open questions for future clinical trials concerning diagnostics and treatment modalities for cervical cancer of unknown primary (CUP). METHODS: A literature search for head and neck CUP was performed with focus on diagnostics and therapies as well as molecular markers. RESULTS: High level evidence on CUP is limited. However, it seems that a consensus exists regarding the optimal diagnostic procedures...
May 10, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485086/uptake-of-cancer-screening-tests-among-recipients-of-solid-organ-transplantation
#12
S A Acuna, R Sutradhar, X Camacho, C Daly, M E Del Giudice, S J Kim, N N Baxter
Population-based cancer screening recommendations are also suggested for solid organ transplant recipients (SOTR); however, recommendation adherence is unknown. In a population-based cohort of SOTR in Ontario between 1997 and 2010, we determined the uptake of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening tests and identified factors associated with up-to-date screening using recurrent event analysis. We identified 4436 SOTR eligible for colorectal, 2252 for cervical, and 1551 for breast cancer screening...
May 9, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469836/cancer-of-unknown-primary-cup-presenting-as-a-spigelian-hernia-a-case-report
#13
Andrea Carollo, Travis Rosenkranz, D James Smith
Cancer of unknown primary (CUP) is a well-known entity that can present in a multitude of clinical presentations. Based on the extent and organ of involvement, the presentation will be varied. For instance, patients presenting with axillary lymphadenopathy would lead toward a primary breast cancer, whereas patients presenting with abdominal distention due to ascites would tend toward a gastrointestinal origin. We present a case of a 73-year-old female who presented with an abdominal wall mass; on laparoscopy, she was found to have a spigelian hernia due to an omental metastatic lesion from a CUP...
April 2017: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467729/long-term-follow-up-of-the-intergroup-exemestane-study
#14
James P Morden, Isabel Alvarez, Gianfilippo Bertelli, Alan S Coates, Robert Coleman, Lesley Fallowfield, Jacek Jassem, Stephen Jones, Lucy Kilburn, Per E Lønning, Olaf Ortmann, Claire Snowdon, Cornelis van de Velde, Jørn Andersen, Lucia Del Mastro, David Dodwell, Stig Holmberg, Hanna Nicholas, Robert Paridaens, Judith M Bliss, R Charles Coombes
Purpose The Intergroup Exemestane Study, an investigator-led study of 4,724 postmenopausal patients with early breast cancer (clinical trial information: ISRCTN11883920), has previously demonstrated that a switch from adjuvant endocrine therapy after 2 to 3 years of tamoxifen to exemestane was associated with clinically relevant improvements in efficacy. Here, we report the final efficacy analyses of this cohort. Patients and Methods Patients who remained disease free after 2 to 3 years of adjuvant tamoxifen were randomly assigned to continue tamoxifen or switch to exemestane to complete a total of 5 years of adjuvant endocrine therapy...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459463/mycn-induces-neuroblastoma-in-primary-neural-crest-cells
#15
R R Olsen, J H Otero, J García-López, K Wallace, D Finkelstein, J E Rehg, Z Yin, Y-D Wang, K W Freeman
Neuroblastoma (NBL) is an embryonal cancer of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), which causes 15% of pediatric cancer deaths. High-risk NBL is characterized by N-Myc amplification and segmental chromosomal gains and losses. Owing to limited disease models, the etiology of NBL is largely unknown, including both the cell of origin and the majority of oncogenic drivers. We have established a novel system for studying NBL based on the transformation of neural crest cells (NCCs), the progenitor cells of the SNS, isolated from mouse embryonic day 9...
May 1, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459430/chemotherapy-drugs-induce-pyroptosis-through-caspase-3-cleavage-of-a-gasdermin
#16
Yupeng Wang, Wenqing Gao, Xuyan Shi, Jingjin Ding, Wang Liu, Huabin He, Kun Wang, Feng Shao
Pyroptosis, activated by the canonical caspase-1 inflammasomes or caspase-4/5/11 by cytosolic LPS, is critical for immunity(1,2,3). The caspases cleave Gasdermin D (GSDMD) in the middle linker to release autoinhibition on its Gasdermin-N domain that executes pyroptosis via the pore-forming activity(4,5,6,7,8,9). GSDMD belongs to a Gasdermin family sharing the pore-forming domain(4,6,10). The function and mechanism of activation for other Gasdermins are unknown. Here we show that GSDME, originally identified as DFNA5 (Deafness, Autosomal Dominant 5)(11), could switch TNFα or chemotherapy drugs-induced and caspase-3-mediated apoptosis to pyroptosis...
May 1, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456659/n-myc-downstream-regulated-gene-1-ndrg1-promotes-the-stem-like-properties-of-lung-cancer-cells-through-stabilized-c-myc
#17
Yongfang Wang, You Zhou, Feng Tao, Shoujie Chai, Xia Xu, Ying Yang, Yiming Yang, Haiyan Xu, Kai Wang
Tumor-initiating cells (TICs) play an important role in tumorigenesis and development for many various tissue origin cancers including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the mechanism to maintain TICs in NSCLC is still largely unknown. Here, we evaluated differences of mRNA expression between parental and oncosphere cells that enriched TICs. We found that N-myc downstream regulated gene 1(NDRG1) was upregulated in oncosphere cells derived from human NSCLC cell lines and primary NSCLC cells. NDRG1 promoted stem-like properties of LTICs in NSCLC including iPSC (induced pluripotent stem cell) factors (OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and C-MYC), the spheres-forming ability and the tumorigenicity of NSCLC...
April 27, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454438/chk2-is-involved-in-the-p53-independent-radiosensitizing-effects-of-valproic-acid
#18
Dong Wan Choo, Sung Ho Goh, Young Woo Cho, Hye Jung Baek, Eun Jung Park, Noboru Motoyama, Tae Hyun Kim, Joo Young Kim, Sang Soo Kim
Radiotherapy is an effective treatment for the majority of types of localized solid cancer. However, the risk of side effects to the surrounding normal tissues limits radiotherapeutic approaches. Whilst the mechanism of action of valproic acid, an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, remains unknown, the inhibitor is a potential antineoplastic radiosensitizer. The present study demonstrated the in vitro radiosensitizing effects of valproic acid on the human breast cancer MCF7 cell line, and revealed that valproic acid increased the level of DNA breakage, apoptosis and senescence...
April 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454224/direct-targeting-of-mapk8ip1-by-mir-10a-5p-is-a-major-mechanism-for-gastric-cancer-metastasis
#19
Yaoyong Lu, Ganbao Wei, Liangbo Liu, Yichao Mo, Qingsheng Chen, Lufei Xu, Rongwei Liao, Dehao Zeng, Kunqiang Zhang
MicroRNA (miRNA) are endogenous non-coding RNAs that suppress gene expression at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional or translational level by targeting the 3'-UTRs of specific mRNAs. miR-10a has been frequently reported to be aberrantly overexpressed in human tumors. In gastric cancer (GC), miR-10a has an important role in the metastasis from primary GC to lymph nodes. However, the role and relevant pathways of miR-10a in GC metastasis remain largely unknown. The present study was performed using 41 GC and 20 normal gastric mucosa tissues...
March 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451717/-pet-ct-in-head-and-neck-cancer
#20
T Send, B Kreppel, F C Gaertner, R A Bundschuh, H Strunk, F Bootz, M Essler
The importance of (18)F-fluorodesoxyglucose positron-emission tomography (FDG-PET) for the diagnosis of malignant disease is increasing. On one hand, this is due to the high sensitivity of this method, on the other, because the entire body can be examined. FDG-PET can be particularly advantageous for the diagnosis of head and neck tumors, where tumor staging is an important prognostic parameter and essentially determines the therapeutic regimen. This article presents the different possibilities for combined evaluation with PET and computed tomography (CT) for the diagnosis of patients with head and neck cancer...
April 27, 2017: HNO
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