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Invertebrate reproduction

A Rodríguez-Seijo, A Cachada, A Gavina, A C Duarte, F A Vega, M L Andrade, R Pereira
Soil pollution at firing ranges is an issue of growing importance, due to the accumulation in soils of contaminants derived from ammunition and clay targets. The concentration of Pb and PAHs was determined in five soils of an abandoned shooting range in Galicia (northwest Spain), and an ecotoxicological characterization was performed in order to obtain an assessment of risks. Therefore, the retention capacity of soils was assessed using test organisms of different trophic levels, and the role of soils as habitat for soil invertebrates was assessed by reproduction tests and bioaccumulation assays with earthworms...
October 13, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Steven G Morgan, Alan L Shanks, Atsushi G Fujimura, Ad J H M Reniers, Jamie MacMahan, Chris D Griesemer, Marley Jarvis, Jenna Brown
Larvae of intertidal species develop at sea and must return to adult habitats to replenish populations. Similarly, nutrients, detritus and plankton provide important subsidies spurring growth and reproduction of macroalgae and filter-feeding invertebrates that form the foundation of intertidal communities. Together, these factors determine the density and intensity of interactions among community members. We hypothesized that spatial variation in surfzone hydrodynamics affects the delivery of plankton subsidies...
October 12, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
C Zhao, M J Fu, L H Qiu
Reduced reproductive performance of the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) has caused economic losses and hampered the fishing industry. Detailed investigation of the molecular mechanism by which the cell cycle is regulated in this organism is needed to understand the development and maturation of ovaries and oocytes, with a view to improving reproductive capacity. Cell cycle progression is mainly determined by cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) and cyclin complexes, the cyclin E/CDK2 complex playing a key role in G1/S transition...
September 16, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
T Yuen, L Sun, P Liu, H C Blair, M New, A Zallone, M Zaidi
The long-held belief that pituitary hormones act solely on master targets was first questioned when we documented G protein-coupled receptors for thyroid-stimulating hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotrophic hormone, oxytocin, and vasopressin on bone cells. These evolutionarily conserved hormones and their receptors are known to have primitive roles, and exist in invertebrate species as far down as coelenterates. It is not surprising therefore that each such hormone has multiple hitherto unrecognized functions in mammalian integrative physiology, and hence, becomes a potential target for therapeutic intervention...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
Courtney E Hart, Michael J Lauth, Cassidy S Hunter, Brennan R Krasny, Kristin M Hardy
The xenoestrogen 4-nonylphenol (NP) is a ubiquitous aquatic pollutant and has been shown to impair reproduction, development, growth and, more recently, immune function in marine invertebrates. We investigated the effects of short-term (7 d) exposure to low (2 μg l(-1)) and high (100 μg l(-1)) levels of NP on cellular and humoral elements of the innate immune response of Crassostrea gigas to a bacterial challenge. To this end, we measured 1) total hemocyte counts (THC), 2) relative transcript abundance of ten immune-related genes (defh1, defh2, bigdef1, bigdef2, bpi, lysozyme-1, galectin, C-type lectin 2, timp, and transglutaminase) in the hemocytes, gill and mantle, and 3) hemolymph plasma lysozyme activity, following experimental Vibrio campbellii infection...
September 28, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Jeonghoon Han, Eun-Ji Won, Hye-Min Kang, Min-Chul Lee, Chang-Bum Jeong, Hui-Su Kim, Dae-Sik Hwang, Jae-Seong Lee
Recently, accidental spills of heavy oil have caused adverse effects in marine organisms. Oil pollution can induce damages on development and reproduction, linking with detrimental effects on diverse molecular levels of genes and proteins in plankton and fish. However, most information was mainly focused on marine vertebrates and consequently, limited information was available in marine invertebrates. Furthermore, there is still a lack of knowledge bridging in vivo endpoints with the functional regulation of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes in response to oil spill pollution in marine invertebrates...
September 26, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Camille A White, Symon A Dworjanyn, Peter D Nichols, Benjamin Mos, Tim Dempster
Aquaculture of higher trophic level species is increasingly dependent on the use of terrestrial oil products. The input of terrestrially derived n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) into marine environments has subsequently increased, with unknown consequences for recipient species. We exposed a sea urchin, Heliocidaris erythrogramma to three experimental diets for 78 days: a high n-3 PUFA marine imitation treatment, a high n-6 PUFA "future aquafeed" treatment and an intermediate "current aquafeed" treatment...
September 19, 2016: Marine Environmental Research
Débora Alvares Leite Figueiredo, Paola Cristina Branco, Douglas Amaral Dos Santos, Andrews Krupinski Emerenciano, Renata Stecca Iunes, João Carlos Shimada Borges, José Roberto Machado Cunha da Silva
The rising concentration of atmospheric CO2 by anthropogenic activities is changing the chemistry of the oceans, resulting in a decreased pH. Several studies have shown that the decrease in pH can affect calcification rates and reproduction of marine invertebrates, but little attention has been drawn to their immune response. Thus this study evaluated in two adult tropical sea urchin species, Lytechinus variegatus and Echinometra lucunter, the effects of ocean acidification over a period of 24h and 5days, on parameters of the immune response, the extracellular acid base balance, and the ability to recover these parameters...
September 17, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Si-Qi Yan, Rui Xing, Yan-Feng Zhou, Kai-Le Li, Yuan-Yuan Su, Jian-Feng Qiu, Yun-Hu Zhang, Ke-Qin Zhang, Yao He, Xiao-Ping Lu, Shi-Qing Xu
Sexual glands are key sites affected by nanotoxicity, but there is no sensitive assay for measuring reproductive toxicity in animals. The aim of this study was to investigate the toxic effects of cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe-QDs) on gonads in a model organism, Bombyx mori. After dorsal vein injection of 0.32 nmol of CdTe-QDs per individual, the QDs passed through the outer membranes of gonads via the generation of ROS in the membranes of spermatocysts and ovarioles, as well as internal germ cells, thereby inducing early germ cell death or malformations via complex mechanisms related to apoptosis and autophagy through mitochondrial and lysosomal pathways...
September 27, 2016: Scientific Reports
Xiaoshuai Huang, Sun-Hye Bae, Tsvetan R Bachvaroff, Eric J Schott, Haihui Ye, J Sook Chung
Insulin-like peptides (ILPs) have regulatory roles in reproduction, development and metabolism in invertebrates. The mode of ILP actions has not been well studied in invertebrates in regard to the role of binding partners, i.e., ILP binding protein (ILPBP). In this study, the full-length cDNA of Callinectes sapidus ILPBP (Cas-ILPBP, 960 bp) has been isolated using RACE cloning, having short 5' and 3' UTRs of 30 and 162 bp, respectively. The predicted precursor of Cas-ILPBP (255 aa) contains, in order a signal peptide (23 aa), an insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding (IB) domain (79 aa), a kazal-type serine protease inhibitor (KI) domain (36 aa) and an immunoglobulin (Ig) domain (101 aa)...
September 21, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
M Daniela Biaggio, Iara Sandomirsky, Yael Lubin, Ally R Harari, Maydianne C B Andrade
Copulatory cannibalism of male 'widow' spiders (genus Latrodectus) is a model example of the extreme effects of sexual selection, particularly in L. hasselti and L. geometricus where males typically facilitate cannibalism by females and mate only once. We show that these males can increase their reproductive success by copulating with final-instar, immature females after piercing the female's exoskeleton to access her newly developed sperm storage organs. Females retain sperm through their final moult and have similar fecundity to adult-mated females...
September 2016: Biology Letters
Xu Wang, María Aránzazu Martínez, Qinghua Wu, Irma Ares, María Rosa Martínez-Larrañaga, Arturo Anadón, Zonghui Yuan
Fipronil (FIP) is widely used across the world as a broad-spectrum phenylpyrazole insecticide and veterinary drug. FIP was the insecticide to act by targeting the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor and has favorable selective toxicity towards insects rather than mammals. However, because of accidental exposure, incorrect use of FIP or widespread FIP use leading to the contamination of water and soil, there is increasing evidence that FIP could cause a variety of toxic effects on animals and humans, such as neurotoxic, hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic, reproductive, and cytotoxic effects on vertebrate and invertebrates...
September 19, 2016: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Marion Morel, Mathieu Vanderstraete, Katia Cailliau, Steffen Hahnel, Christoph G Grevelding, Colette Dissous
Venus kinase receptors (VKRs) are invertebrate receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) formed by an extracellular Venus Fly Trap (VFT) ligand binding domain associated via a transmembrane domain with an intracellular tyrosine kinase (TK) domain. Schistosoma mansoni VKRs, SmVKR1 and SmVKR2, are both implicated in reproductive activities of the parasite. In this work, we show that the SH2 domain-containing protein SmShb is a partner of the phosphorylated form of SmVKR1. Expression of these proteins in Xenopus oocytes allowed us to demonstrate that the SH2 domain of SmShb interacts with the phosphotyrosine residue (pY979) located in the juxtamembrane region of SmVKR1...
2016: PloS One
Kerstin Hund-Rinke, Anders Baun, Denisa Cupi, Teresa F Fernandes, Richard Handy, John H Kinross, José M Navas, Willie Peijnenburg, Karsten Schlich, Benjamin J Shaw, Janeck J Scott-Fordsmand
Regulatory ecotoxicity testing of chemicals is of societal importance and a large effort is undertaken at the OECD to ensure that OECD test guidelines (TGs) for nanomaterials (NMs) are available. Significant progress to support the adaptation of selected TGs to NMs was achieved in the context of the project MARINA ( ) funded within the 7th European Framework Program. Eight OECD TGs were adapted based on the testing of at least one ion-releasing NM (Ag) and two inert NMs (TiO2). With the materials applied, two main variants of NMs (ion releasing vs...
September 20, 2016: Nanotoxicology
Haroun Chenchouni
Assessing diet composition of White Storks (Ciconia ciconia) breeding under North African conditions provides key information to understanding its trophic niche for conservation purpose. Since, climate controls productivities of foraging habitats and thus food availability for predators, this study examines how Storks' diet parameters varied following a climate gradient along with rural-to-urban landscapes in north-eastern Algeria. Feeding strategies to cope with severe conditions were discussed in light of climate aridity and urbanization and how these influence reproduction, population dynamics and distribution...
August 31, 2016: International Journal of Biometeorology
John C Korsman, Aafke M Schipper, A Jan Hendriks
Species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) are commonly used in regulatory procedures and ecological risk assessments. Yet, most toxicity threshold and risk assessment studies are based on invertebrates and fish. In the present study, no observed effect concentrations (NOECs) specific to birds and mammals were used to derive SSDs and corresponding hazardous concentrations for 5% of the species (HC5 values). This was done for 41 individual substances as well as for subsets of substances aggregated based on their toxic Mode of Action (MoA)...
October 4, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Teresa Balbi, Silvia Franzellitti, Rita Fabbri, Michele Montagna, Elena Fabbri, Laura Canesi
Bisphenol A (BPA), a monomer used in plastic manufacturing, is weakly estrogenic and a potential endocrine disruptor in mammals. Although it degrades quickly, it is pseudo-persistent in the environment because of continual inputs, with reported concentrations in aquatic environments between 0.0005 and 12 μg/L. BPA represents a potential concern for aquatic ecosystems, as shown by its reproductive and developmental effects in aquatic vertebrates. In invertebrates, endocrine-related effects of BPA were observed in different species and experimental conditions, with often conflicting results, indicating that the sensitivity to this compound can vary considerably among related taxa...
November 2016: Environmental Pollution
M Nystrand, E J Cassidy, D K Dowling
BACKGROUND: Phenotypic plasticity operates across generations, when the parental environment affects phenotypic expression in the offspring. Recent studies in invertebrates have reported transgenerational plasticity in phenotypic responses of offspring when the mothers had been previously exposed to either live or heat-killed pathogens. Understanding whether this plasticity is adaptive requires a factorial design in which both mothers and their offspring are subjected to either the pathogen challenge or a control, in experimentally matched and mismatched combinations...
2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
M Nazaret González-Alcaraz, Cornelis A M van Gestel
This study aimed to assess how the current global warming perspective, with increasing air temperature (20°C vs. 25°C) and decreasing soil moisture content (50% vs. 30% of the soil water holding capacity, WHC), affected the toxicity of a metal(loid)-polluted agricultural soil to Enchytraeus crypticus. Enchytraeids were exposed for 21d to a dilution series of the agricultural soil with Lufa 2.2 control soil under four climate situations: 20°C+50% WHC (standard conditions), 20°C+30% WHC, 25°C+50% WHC, and 25°C+30% WHC...
August 23, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
David M Hudson, Dugan Reagan, Joseph F Crivello
To investigate community shelter effects of two invasive decapod species, Hemigrapsus sanguineus and Carcinus maenas, in the Long Island Sound (LIS), we deployed artificial shelters in the intertidal and immediate subtidal zones. These consisted of five groups during the summer: a control, a resident H. sanguineus male or female group, and a resident C. maenas male or female group. We quantified utilization of the shelters at 24 h by counting crabs and fish present. We found significant avoidance of H. sanguineus in the field by benthic hermit crabs (Pagurus spp...
2016: PeerJ
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