keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Invertebrate reproduction

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876417/does-long-term-low-impact-stress-cause-population-extinction
#1
M J B Amorim, C Pereira, A M V M Soares, J J Scott-Fordsmand
This study assessed and monitored 40 consecutive reproduction tests - multigenerational (MG) - of continuous exposure to Cd (at 2 reproduction Effect Concentrations (EC): EC10 and EC50) using the standard soil invertebrate Folsomia candida, in total 3.5 years of data were collected. Endpoints included survival, reproduction, size and metallothionein (MTc) gene expression. Further, to investigate adaptation to the toxicant, additional standard toxicity experiments were performed with the MG organisms of F6, F10, F26, F34 and F40 generations of exposure...
January 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859169/nipped-in-the-bud-mesograzer-feeding-preference-contributes-to-kelp-decline
#2
John M O'Brien, Robert E Scheibling
Small invertebrate grazers can disproportionately reduce plant fitness by discriminately consuming valuable tissues, but the context and attendant consequences of this activity at higher levels of ecological organization rarely are considered. To assess the impact of a gastropod mesograzer Lacuna vincta on fecundity and potential reproductive output of the habitat-forming kelp Saccharina latissima, we measured the intensity and distribution of grazing damage on kelp blades at five sites of varying kelp density, during the annual reproductive peak (October-November) in Nova Scotia...
July 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835069/health-effects-of-metoprolol-in-epibenthic-and-endobenthic-invertebrates-a-basis-to-validate-future-in-vitro-biotests-for-effect-based-biomonitoring
#3
Dirk Jungmann, Kristin Berg, Andreas Dieterich, Martin Frank, Tonya Gräf, Marco Scheurer, Simon Schwarz, Carmen Siewert, Matthias Oetken
The aim of this study was to determine the effect data for metoprolol as a model substance for beta-blockers in aquatic invertebrates. The results will be used as a basis for the validation of future mode of action-based in vitro test systems targeting this class of pharmaceuticals. Effects of metoprolol were investigated in two autochthonous species with high relevance in stream ecology: the amphipod Gammarus fossarum and the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus. Mortality in G. fossarum was not observed in acute toxicity testing (48 h), and a significant increase of mortality at 45 mg/L was found when amphipods were exposed chronically (40 days)...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814382/highly-connected-populations-and-temporal-stability-in-allelic-frequencies-of-a-harvested-crab-from-the-southern-pacific-coast
#4
Noemi Rojas-Hernandez, David Veliz, Marcela P Riveros, Juan P Fuentes, Luis M Pardo
For marine invertebrates with a benthic adult form and a planktonic larva phase, the connectivity among populations is mainly based on larval dispersal. While an extended larval phase will promote gene flow, other factors such as an intensive fishery and geographical barriers could lead to changes in genetic variability. In this study, the population genetic structure of the commercial crab Metacarcinus edwardsii was analyzed along 700 km of the Chilean coast. The analysis, based on eight microsatellite loci genotyped from megalopae and adult crabs, considered temporal and spatial patterns of genetic variation...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812427/post-reproductive-parthenogenetic-pea-aphids-acyrthosiphon-pisum-are-visually-identifiable-and-disproportionately-positioned-distally-to-clonal-colonies
#5
Erik T Saberski, Julia Daisy Diamond, Nathaniel Fath Henneman, Daniel A Levitis
The role of kin-selection in the evolution of post-reproductive life is controversial. While anthropological and demographic studies strongly suggest that humans and a few other species experience kin selection for significant post-reproductive survival, these results are necessarily correlational. Understanding could therefore be advanced by the development of a globally available, field and laboratory tractable experimental model of kin-selected post-reproductive survival. In only one invertebrate (Quadrartus yoshinomiyai, a gall-forming aphid endemic to Japan) have individuals too old to reproduce been shown to be both numerous in natural habitats and able to help close relatives survive or reproduce...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805042/functional-insights-into-the-testis-transcriptome-of-the-edible-sea-urchin-loxechinus-albus
#6
Juan Diego Gaitán-Espitia, Roland Sánchez, Paulina Bruning, Leyla Cárdenas
The edible sea urchin Loxechinus albus (Molina, 1782) is a keystone species in the littoral benthic systems of the Pacific coast of South America. The international demand for high-quality gonads of this echinoderm has led to an extensive exploitation and decline of its natural populations. Consequently, a more thorough understanding of L. albus gonad development and gametogenesis could provide valuable resources for aquaculture applications, management, conservation and studies about the evolution of functional and structural pathways that underlie the reproductive toolkit of marine invertebrates...
November 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804275/oxytocin-mediated-behavior-in-invertebrates-an-evolutionary-perspective
#7
REVIEW
Meghan A Lockard, Margaret S Ebert, Cornelia I Bargmann
The molecular and functional conservation of oxytocin-related neuropeptides in behavior is striking. In animals separated by at least 600 million years of evolution, from roundworms to humans, oxytocin homologs play critical roles in the modulation of reproductive behavior and other biological functions. Here, we review the roles of oxytocin in invertebrate behavior from an evolutionary perspective. We begin by tracing the evolution of oxytocin through the invertebrate animal lineages, and then describe common themes in invertebrate behaviors that are mediated by oxytocin-related peptides, including reproductive behavior, learning and memory, food arousal, and predator/prey relationships...
November 2, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787216/a-morphological-study-of-diplodiscus-subclavatus-pallas-1760-trematoda-diplodiscidae-adults-from-the-accidental-host-viviparus-contectus-millet-1813-caenogastropoda-viviparidae
#8
Anna Cichy, Elżbieta Żbikowska
A phenomenon of switching of the parasite in the food chain to an accidental host is commonly observed in nature. However, there is little available data concerning the morphological descriptions of parasites that passively get into the atypical hosts and are capable, at least to some degree, of somatic growth and development of reproductive structures. A morphological survey of Diplodiscus subclavatus (Pallas, 1760) adults isolated from a digestive tract of an accidental host, Viviparus contectus (Millet, 1813), was carried out...
December 1, 2016: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783634/whale-shark-rhincodon-typus-seasonal-occurrence-abundance-and-demographic-structure-in-the-mid-equatorial-atlantic-ocean
#9
Bruno C L Macena, Fábio H V Hazin
Whale sharks are generally associated with environmental factors that drive their movements to specific locations where food availability is high. Consequently, foraging is believed to be the main reason for the formation of whale shark aggregations. Feeding aggregations occur mainly in nearshore areas and are composed primarily of immature individuals. Conversely, aggregations of mature adults are rarely observed, and their occurrence is correlated with oceanic environments. Despite an increase in the number of whale shark studies, information on mating and parturition grounds is still lacking...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777731/plasticity-of-fertilization-rates-under-varying-temperature-in-the-broadcast-spawning-mussel-mytilus-galloprovincialis
#10
Angela R Eads, Jonathan P Evans, Winn Jason Kennington
Oceans are a huge sink for the increased heat associated with anthropogenic climate change, and it is vital to understand the heat tolerance of marine organisms at all life stages to accurately predict species' responses. In broadcast spawning marine invertebrates, reproduction is a vulnerable process in which sperm and eggs are released directly into the open water. Gametes are then exposed to fluctuating environmental conditions that may impact their fertilizing capacity. Using the broadcast spawning Mediterranean mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis, as a model species, we performed blocks of factorial mating crosses to assess the variance in fertilization rates among individuals under both ambient and elevated temperatures...
September 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776492/australian-black-field-crickets-show-changes-in-neural-gene-expression-associated-with-socially-induced-morphological-life-history-and-behavioral-plasticity
#11
Michael M Kasumovic, Zhiliang Chen, Marc R Wilkins
BACKGROUND: Ecological and evolutionary model organisms have provided extensive insight into the ecological triggers, adaptive benefits, and evolution of life-history driven developmental plasticity. Despite this, we still have a poor understanding of the underlying genetic changes that occur during shifts towards different developmental trajectories. The goal of this study is to determine whether we can identify underlying gene expression patterns that can describe the different life-history trajectories individuals follow in response to social cues of competition...
October 24, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765404/a-study-of-oxidative-stress-induced-by-two-polybrominated-diphenyl-ethers-in-the-rotifer-brachionus-plicatilis
#12
Jing Zhang, You Wang, Kai-Ming Sun, Kuan Fang, Xuexi Tang
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely dispersed persistent organic pollutants in the marine ecosystem. However, their toxic mechanisms in marine organisms, especially invertebrates, remain poorly understood. Two common congeners of PBDEs, tetrabrominated diphenyl ether-47 (BDE-47) and decabrominated diphenyl ether-209 (BDE-209), were investigated. Their toxic mechanisms, with a focus on oxidative stress, were examined in rotifer Brachionus plicatilis. Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was induced by two PBDEs...
October 17, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744202/lead-and-pahs-contamination-of-an-old-shooting-range-a-case-study-with-a-holistic-approach
#13
A Rodríguez-Seijo, A Cachada, A Gavina, A C Duarte, F A Vega, M L Andrade, R Pereira
Soil pollution at firing ranges is an issue of growing importance, due to the accumulation in soils of contaminants derived from ammunition and clay targets. The concentration of Pb and PAHs was determined in five soils of an abandoned shooting range in Galicia (northwest Spain), and an ecotoxicological characterization was performed in order to obtain an assessment of risks. Therefore, the retention capacity of soils was assessed using test organisms of different trophic levels, and the role of soils as habitat for soil invertebrates was assessed by reproduction tests and bioaccumulation assays with earthworms...
October 13, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733543/surfzone-hydrodynamics-as-a-key-determinant-of-spatial-variation-in-rocky-intertidal-communities
#14
Steven G Morgan, Alan L Shanks, Atsushi G Fujimura, Ad J H M Reniers, Jamie MacMahan, Chris D Griesemer, Marley Jarvis, Jenna Brown
Larvae of intertidal species develop at sea and must return to adult habitats to replenish populations. Similarly, nutrients, detritus and plankton provide important subsidies spurring growth and reproduction of macroalgae and filter-feeding invertebrates that form the foundation of intertidal communities. Together, these factors determine the density and intensity of interactions among community members. We hypothesized that spatial variation in surfzone hydrodynamics affects the delivery of plankton subsidies...
October 12, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706738/molecular-cloning-and-functional-characterization-of-cyclin-e-and-cdk2-from-penaeus-monodon
#15
C Zhao, M J Fu, L H Qiu
Reduced reproductive performance of the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) has caused economic losses and hampered the fishing industry. Detailed investigation of the molecular mechanism by which the cell cycle is regulated in this organism is needed to understand the development and maturation of ovaries and oocytes, with a view to improving reproductive capacity. Cell cycle progression is mainly determined by cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) and cyclin complexes, the cyclin E/CDK2 complex playing a key role in G1/S transition...
September 16, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697202/beyond-reproduction-pituitary-hormone-actions-on-bone
#16
T Yuen, L Sun, P Liu, H C Blair, M New, A Zallone, M Zaidi
The long-held belief that pituitary hormones act solely on master targets was first questioned when we documented G protein-coupled receptors for thyroid-stimulating hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotrophic hormone, oxytocin, and vasopressin on bone cells. These evolutionarily conserved hormones and their receptors are known to have primitive roles, and exist in invertebrate species as far down as coelenterates. It is not surprising therefore that each such hormone has multiple hitherto unrecognized functions in mammalian integrative physiology, and hence, becomes a potential target for therapeutic intervention...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693202/effect-of-4-nonylphenol-on-the-immune-response-of-the-pacific-oyster-crassostrea-gigas-following-bacterial-infection-with-vibrio-campbellii
#17
Courtney E Hart, Michael J Lauth, Cassidy S Hunter, Brennan R Krasny, Kristin M Hardy
The xenoestrogen 4-nonylphenol (NP) is a ubiquitous aquatic pollutant and has been shown to impair reproduction, development, growth and, more recently, immune function in marine invertebrates. We investigated the effects of short-term (7 d) exposure to low (2 μg l(-1)) and high (100 μg l(-1)) levels of NP on cellular and humoral elements of the innate immune response of Crassostrea gigas to a bacterial challenge. To this end, we measured 1) total hemocyte counts (THC), 2) relative transcript abundance of ten immune-related genes (defh1, defh2, bigdef1, bigdef2, bpi, lysozyme-1, galectin, C-type lectin 2, timp, and transglutaminase) in the hemocytes, gill and mantle, and 3) hemolymph plasma lysozyme activity, following experimental Vibrio campbellii infection...
September 28, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686823/marine-copepod-cytochrome-p450-genes-and-their-applications-for-molecular-ecotoxicological-studies-in-response-to-oil-pollution
#18
Jeonghoon Han, Eun-Ji Won, Hye-Min Kang, Min-Chul Lee, Chang-Bum Jeong, Hui-Su Kim, Dae-Sik Hwang, Jae-Seong Lee
Recently, accidental spills of heavy oil have caused adverse effects in marine organisms. Oil pollution can induce damages on development and reproduction, linking with detrimental effects on diverse molecular levels of genes and proteins in plankton and fish. However, most information was mainly focused on marine vertebrates and consequently, limited information was available in marine invertebrates. Furthermore, there is still a lack of knowledge bridging in vivo endpoints with the functional regulation of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes in response to oil spill pollution in marine invertebrates...
September 26, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686389/future-aquafeeds-may-compromise-reproductive-fitness-in-a-marine-invertebrate
#19
Camille A White, Symon A Dworjanyn, Peter D Nichols, Benjamin Mos, Tim Dempster
Aquaculture of higher trophic level species is increasingly dependent on the use of terrestrial oil products. The input of terrestrially derived n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) into marine environments has subsequently increased, with unknown consequences for recipient species. We exposed a sea urchin, Heliocidaris erythrogramma to three experimental diets for 78 days: a high n-3 PUFA marine imitation treatment, a high n-6 PUFA "future aquafeed" treatment and an intermediate "current aquafeed" treatment...
December 2016: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684601/ocean-acidification-affects-parameters-of-immune-response-and-extracellular-ph-in-tropical-sea-urchins-lytechinus-variegatus-and-echinometra-luccunter
#20
Débora Alvares Leite Figueiredo, Paola Cristina Branco, Douglas Amaral Dos Santos, Andrews Krupinski Emerenciano, Renata Stecca Iunes, João Carlos Shimada Borges, José Roberto Machado Cunha da Silva
The rising concentration of atmospheric CO2 by anthropogenic activities is changing the chemistry of the oceans, resulting in a decreased pH. Several studies have shown that the decrease in pH can affect calcification rates and reproduction of marine invertebrates, but little attention has been drawn to their immune response. Thus this study evaluated in two adult tropical sea urchin species, Lytechinus variegatus and Echinometra lucunter, the effects of ocean acidification over a period of 24h and 5days, on parameters of the immune response, the extracellular acid base balance, and the ability to recover these parameters...
September 17, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
keyword
keyword
30546
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"