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Invertebrate reproduction

Goutham Shankar, Shubhashree Uppangala, Satish K Adiga, Belinda Willard, Bhadravathi K C Sagar, Ruth S K Titus, Gopal K Marathe
Female sperm storage is an intriguing adaptation exhibited by a wide array of both vertebrates and invertebrates. The mechanisms underlying female sperm storage have remained elusive. Using the Indian garden lizard Calotes versicolor as a model organism, we investigated the role of low and high molecular weight factors in this phenomenon. Previously, we demonstrated three distinct phases of the reproductive cycle in this animal with live, motile spermatozoa recovered from the uterovaginal region during the reproductive phase...
November 15, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Dara N Orbach, Brandon Hedrick, Bernd Würsig, Sarah L Mesnick, Patricia Lr Brennan
Male genital diversification is likely the result of sexual selection. Female genital diversification may also result from sexual selection, although it is less well studied and understood. Female genitalia are complex among whales, dolphins, and porpoises, especially compared to other vertebrates. The evolutionary factors affecting the diversity of vaginal complexity could include ontogeny, allometry, phylogeny, sexual selection, and natural selection. We quantified shape variation in female genitalia using 2-D geometric morphometric analysis, and validated the application of this method to study soft tissues...
November 14, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Lennard Pisa, Dave Goulson, En-Cheng Yang, David Gibbons, Francisco Sánchez-Bayo, Edward Mitchell, Alexandre Aebi, Jeroen van der Sluijs, Chris J K MacQuarrie, Chiara Giorio, Elizabeth Yim Long, Melanie McField, Maarten Bijleveld van Lexmond, Jean-Marc Bonmatin
New information on the lethal and sublethal effects of neonicotinoids and fipronil on organisms is presented in this review, complementing the previous Worldwide Integrated Assessment (WIA) in 2015. The high toxicity of these systemic insecticides to invertebrates has been confirmed and expanded to include more species and compounds. Most of the recent research has focused on bees and the sublethal and ecological impacts these insecticides have on pollinators. Toxic effects on other invertebrate taxa also covered predatory and parasitoid natural enemies and aquatic arthropods...
November 9, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Antoine Gosset, Adriana Wigh, Sylvie Bony, Alain Devaux, Rémy Bayard, Claude Durrieu, Melissa Brocart, Marine Applagnat, Christine Bazin
Standardized ecotoxicity bioassays show some limits to assess properly long-term residual toxicity of complex mixture of pollutants often present at low concentration, such as stormwaters. Among invertebrate organisms used for ecotoxicity testing, the microcrustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia) is considered as one of the most sensitive, especially regarding reproduction impairment as a toxicity endpoint. Consequently, this work explores the interest to perform a multigenerational assay based on the study of the reproduction of C...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Laurent Lagadic, Ioanna Katsiadaki, Ron Biever, Patrick D Guiney, Natalie Karouna-Renier, Tamar Schwarz, James P Meador
Tributyltin (TBT) has been recognized as an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) for several decades. However, only in the last decade, was its primary endocrine mechanism of action (MeOA) elucidated-interactions with the nuclear retinoid-X receptor (RXR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), and their heterodimers. This molecular initiating event (MIE) alters a range of reproductive, developmental, and metabolic pathways at the organism level. It is noteworthy that a variety of MeOAs have been proposed over the years for the observed endocrine-type effects of TBT; however, convincing data for the MIE was provided only recently and now several researchers have confirmed and refined the information on this MeOA...
November 9, 2017: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Jessica A Miller, James T Carlton, John W Chapman, Jonathan B Geller, Gregory M Ruiz
Biofouled debris from the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami has landed in the Northeast Pacific and along the Hawaiian Islands since 2012. As of 2017, >630 biofouled debris items with >320 living species of algae, invertebrates, and fish have been examined. The invasive mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis was present on >50% of those items. Size, reproduction, and growth of this filter-feeding species were examined to better understand long-distance rafting of a coastal species. The majority of mussels (79%) had developing or mature gametes, and growth rates averaged 0...
October 30, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Roman G Kuperman, Ronald T Checkai, Michael Simini, Carlton T Phillips, Richard M Higashi, Teresa W-M Fan, Keith Sappington
We investigated the toxicity of selenium (Se) to the soil invertebrates Folsomia candida (Collembola) and Enchytraeus crypticus (potworm). Studies were designed to generate ecotoxicological benchmarks for developing ecological soil screening levels (Eco-SSLs) for risk assessments of contaminated soils. For the present studies, we selected Sassafras sandy loam (SSL), an aerobic upland soil with soil characteristics (low levels of clay and organic matter, soil pH adjusted from 5.2 to 7.1) that support high relative bioavailability of the anionic Se species that is typically found in aerobic soil...
October 27, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Catherine A Pfister, Samuel P Betcher
Primary producers respond to climate directly and indirectly due to effects on their consumers. In the temperate coastal ocean, the highly productive brown algae known as kelp have both strong climate and grazer linkages. We analyzed the demographic response of the kelp Pleurophycus gardneri over a 25-year span to determine the interaction between ocean climate indicators and invertebrate infestation rates. Pleurophycus hosts amphipod species that burrow in the stipe, increasing mortality. Although kelp performance is generally greater with more negative values of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and colder seawater temperatures, Pleurophycus showed the opposite pattern...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Anup Abraham, Douglas E Chandler
Proteins of the CAP superfamily play numerous roles in reproduction, innate immune responses, cancer biology, and venom toxicology. Here we document the breadth of the CAP (Cysteine-RIch Secretory Protein (CRISP), Antigen 5, and Pathogenesis-Related) protein superfamily and trace the major events in its evolution using amino acid sequence homology and the positions of exon/intron borders within their genes. Seldom acknowledged in the literature, we find that many of the CAP subfamilies present in mammals, where they were originally characterized, have distinct homologues in the invertebrate phyla...
October 2017: Journal of Molecular Evolution
Judith E Mank
Sexual conflict occurs when selection acts in opposing directions on males and females. Case studies in both vertebrates and invertebrates indicate that sexual conflict maintains genetic diversity through balancing selection, which might explain why many populations show more genetic variation than expected. Recent population genomic approaches based on different measures of balancing selection have suggested that sexual conflict can arise over survival, not just reproductive fitness as previously thought. A fuller understanding of sexual conflict will provide insight into its contribution to adaptive evolution and will reveal the constraints it might impose on populations...
October 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
Han Ding, Fengchun Liu, Lulu Zhu, Fei Wu, Quan Liu, Siyu He, Wei Shao, Yinan Du, Cuiping Ren, Jijia Shen, Miao Liu
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is one of the most common parasitic diseases affecting millions of humans and animals worldwide. Understanding the signal transduction pathways and the molecular basis of reproductive regulation in schistosomes is critically important for developing new strategies for preventing and treating these infections. Syk kinases regulate the proliferation, differentiation, morphogenesis, and survival of various types of cells and have been identified in invertebrates...
October 18, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Nicholas Dunn, Victoria Priestley, Alba Herraiz, Richard Arnold, Vincent Savolainen
Although the presence/absence of aquatic invertebrates using environmental DNA (eDNA) has been established for several species, inferring population densities has remained problematic. The invasive American signal crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus (Dana), is the leading cause of decline in the UK's only native crayfish species, Austropotamobius pallipes (Lereboullet). Methods to detect species at low abundances offer the opportunity for the early detection, and potential eradication, of P. leniusculus before population densities reach threatening levels in areas occupied by A...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Tomohiro Iida, Yoko Iwata, Tatsuma Mohri, Shoji A Baba, Noritaka Hirohashi
Animal spermatozoa navigate by sensing ambient chemicals to reach the site of fertilization. Generally, such chemicals derive from the female reproductive organs or cells. Exceptionally, squid spermatozoa mutually release and perceive carbon dioxide to form clusters after ejaculation. We previously identified the pH-taxis by which each spermatozoon can execute a sharp turn, but how flagellar dynamics enable this movement remains unknown. Here, we show that initiation of the turn motion requires a swim down a steep proton gradient (a theoretical estimation of ≥0...
October 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
Sam Hana, Angela B Lange
Octopamine and tyramine, both biogenic amines, are bioactive chemicals important in diverse physiological processes in invertebrates. In insects, octopamine and tyramine operate analogously to epinephrine and norepinephrine in the vertebrates. Octopamine and tyramine bind to G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) leading to changes in second messenger levels and thereby modifying the function in target tissues and insect behavior. In this paper, we report the cDNA sequences of two GPCRs, RhoprOctβ2-R, and RhoprTyr1-R, have been cloned and functionally characterized from Rhodnius prolixus...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Mónica Aquilino, Paloma Sánchez-Argüello, José-Luis Martínez-Guitarte
Vinclozolin (Vz) is a pollutant found in aquatic environments whose antiandrogenic effects in reproduction are well known in mammals. Although its reproductive effects have been less studied in invertebrates, other effects, including genotoxicity, have been described. Therefore, in this work, we studied the genotoxic effects of Vz in the freshwater benthic invertebrate Chironomus riparius. DNA damage was evaluated with the comet assay (tail area, olive moment, tail moment and % DNA in tail), and the transcriptional levels of different genes involved in DNA repair (ATM, NLK and XRCC1) and apoptosis (DECAY) were measured by RT-PCR...
October 5, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Céline Boulangé-Lecomte, Benoit Xuereb, Gauthier Trémolet, Aurélie Duflot, Nathalie Giusti, Stéphanie Olivier, Elena Legrand, Joëlle Forget-Leray
In recent years, the interest in the use of vitellogenin (VTG) as a biomarker of endocrine disruption in fish has led to VTG being considered as a potential tool in invertebrates. Among aquatic invertebrate models in ecotoxicology, the copepods are considered as reference species in marine, estuarine and freshwater ecosystems. In this context, we identified a VTG cDNA in Eurytemora affinis. The Ea-VTG2 cDNA is 5416bp in length with an open reading frame (ORF) of 5310bp that encodes a putative protein of 1769 amino acids residues...
September 30, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Kristina Schmiedchen, Anne-Kathrin Petri, Sarah Driessen, William H Bailey
BACKGROUND: The construction of high-voltage direct current (HVDC) lines for the long-distance transport of energy is becoming increasingly popular. This has raised public concern about potential environmental impacts of the static electric fields (EF) produced under and near HVDC power lines. As the second part of a comprehensive literature analysis, the aim of this systematic review was to assess the effects of static EF exposure on biological functions in invertebrates and plants and to provide the basis for an environmental impact assessment of such exposures...
September 27, 2017: Environmental Research
Steven M Grodsky, Christopher E Moorman, Sarah R Fritts, Joshua W Campbell, Clyde E Sorenson, Matthew A Bertone, Steven B Castleberry, T Bently Wigley
Increased market viability of harvest residues as forest bioenergy feedstock may escalate removal of coarse woody debris in managed forests. Meanwhile, many forest invertebrates use coarse woody debris for cover, food, and reproduction. Few studies have explicitly addressed effects of operational-scale woody biomass harvesting on invertebrates following clearcutting. Therefore, we measured invertebrate community response to large-scale harvest residue removal and micro-site manipulations of harvest residue availability in recently clearcut, intensively managed loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) forests in North Carolina (NC; n = 4) and Georgia (GA; n = 4), USA...
September 26, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Hua Zhang, Yu Shi, Maoxian He
Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) play critical roles in regulating metabolism, growth, and reproduction in invertebrates. IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) serve as major regulators of IGF activity and regulate endocrine system. In the present study, the full-length cDNA of an igfbp was identified from the pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata, using expressed sequence tag (EST) sequence. The 1124bp Pfigfbp cDNA contains a 465bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a putative protein of 154 amino acids, a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 238bp, and a 3'-UTR of 394bp (not including polyA+)...
December 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Tsubasa Sakai, Akira Shiraishi, Tsuyoshi Kawada, Shin Matsubara, Masato Aoyama, Honoo Satake
Gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRHs) play pivotal roles in reproductive functions via the hypothalamus, pituitary, and gonad axis, namely, HPG axis in vertebrates. GnRHs and their receptors (GnRHRs) are likely to be conserved in invertebrate deuterostomes and lophotrochozoans. All vertebrate and urochordate GnRHs are composed of 10 amino acids, whereas protostome, echinoderm, and amphioxus GnRH-like peptides are 11- or 12-residue peptide containing two amino acids after an N-terminal pyro-Glu. In urochordates, Halocynthia roretzi GnRH gene encodes two GnRH peptide sequences, whereas two GnRH genes encode three different GnRH peptides in Ciona intestinalis...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
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