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Invertebrate reproduction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325592/intersexuality-in-aquatic-invertebrates-prevalence-and-causes
#1
REVIEW
Tiago F Grilo, Rui Rosa
This review is the first assembling information on intersexuality in aquatic invertebrates, from freshwater to estuarine and marine environments. Intersex is a condition whereby an individual of a gonochorist (separate sexes) species has oocytes or distinct stages of spermatogonia, at varying degrees of development, within the normal gonad of the opposite gender (i.e. spermatocytes in the ovary or oocytes in the testis), often involving alterations in the gonadal structure, reproductive tract or external genitalia...
March 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300613/identification-and-characterization-of-a-masculinizer-masc-gene-involved-in-sex-differentiation-in-artemia
#2
Dong-Rui Li, Hui-Li Ye, Jin-Shu Yang, Fan Yang, Mo-Ran Wang, Stephanie De Vos, Marnik Vuylsteke, Patrick Sorgeloos, Gilbert Van Stappen, Peter Bossier, Wei-Jun Yang
The sex of relatively primitive animals such as invertebrates is mostly determined by environmental factors and chromosome ploidy. Heteromorphic chromosomes may also play an important role, as in the ZW system in lepidopterans. However, the mechanisms of these various sex determination systems are still largely undefined. In the present study, a Masculinizer gene (Ar-Masc) was identified in the crustacean Artemia franciscana Kellogg 1906. Sequence analysis revealed that the 1140-bp full-length open reading frame of Ar-Masc encodes a 380-aa protein containing two CCCH-type zinc finger domains having a high degree of shared identities with the MASC protein characterized in the silkworm Bombyx mori, which has been determined to participate in the production of male-specific splice variants...
March 11, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287188/quality-of-seminal-fluids-varies-with-type-of-stimulus-at-ejaculation
#3
E Jeannerat, F Janett, H Sieme, C Wedekind, D Burger
The theory of ejaculate economics was mainly built around different sperm competition scenarios but also predicts that investments into ejaculates depend on female fecundity. Previous tests of this prediction focused on invertebrates and lower vertebrate, and on species with high female reproductive potential. It remains unclear whether the prediction also holds for polygynous mammals with low female reproductive potential (due to low litter size and long inter-birth intervals). We used horses (Equus caballus) to experimentally test whether semen characteristics are adjusted to the oestrous cycle of the mare a stallion is exposed to during few moments before ejaculation...
March 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284153/survival-reproduction-growth-and-parasite-resistance-of-aquatic-organisms-exposed-on-site-to-wastewater-treated-by-advanced-treatment-processes
#4
Lisa Schlüter-Vorberg, Gregor Knopp, Peter Cornel, Thomas Ternes, Anja Coors
Advanced wastewater treatment technologies are generally known to be an effective tool for reducing micropollutant discharge into the aquatic environment. Nevertheless, some processes such as ozonation result in stable transformation products with often unknown toxicity. In the present study, whole effluents originating from nine different steps of advanced treatment combinations were compared for their aquatic toxicity. Assessed endpoints were survival, growth and reproduction of Lumbriculus variegatus, Daphnia magna and Lemna minor chronically exposed in on-site flow-through tests based on standard guidelines...
March 2, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282967/first-record-of-gregarines-apicomplexa-in-seminal-vesicle-of-insect
#5
Glenda Dias, Romano Dallai, Antonio Carapelli, João P P Almeida, Lucio A O Campos, Leda R A Faroni, José Lino-Neto
Gregarines (Apicomplexa) are a diverse group of protozoan parasites, which infects gut and other body cavities of invertebrate hosts. In reproductive system of insects, gregarine has been reported only in the accessory glands and spermathecae of females; therefore, this is the first report of a gregarine species in seminal vesicles of insects. Different developmental stages, including sporozoytes, oocysts and trophozoites were described from morphological descriptions using light and electron transmission microscopy...
December 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282622/the-effects-of-fipronil-and-the-photodegradation-product-fipronil-desulfinyl-on-growth-and-gene-expression-in-juvenile-blue-crabs-callinectes-sapidus-at-different-salinities
#6
Andrew D Goff, Parichehr Saranjampour, Lauren M Ryan, Michelle L Hladik, Joseph A Covi, Kevin L Armbrust, Susanne M Brander
Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are now widely established to be present in the environment at concentrations capable of affecting wild organisms. Although many studies have been conducted in fish, less is known about effects in invertebrates such as decapod crustaceans. Decapods are exposed to low concentrations of EDCs that may cause infertility, decreased growth, and developmental abnormalities. The objective herein was to evaluate effects of fipronil and its photodegradation product fipronil desulfinyl...
February 28, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279835/organic-wastes-as-soil-amendments-effects-assessment-towards-soil-invertebrates
#7
Mathieu Renaud, Sónia Chelinho, Paula Alvarenga, Clarisse Mourinha, Patrícia Palma, José Paulo Sousa, Tiago Natal-da-Luz
Using organic wastes, as soil amendments, is an important alternative to landfilling with benefits to soil structure, water retention, soil nutrient and organic matter concentrations. However, this practice should be monitored for its environmental risk due to the frequent presence, of noxious substances to soil organisms. To evaluate the potential of eight organic wastes with different origins, as soil amendments, reproduction tests with four soil invertebrate species (Folsomia candida, Enchytraeus crypticus, Hypoaspis aculeifer, Eisenia fetida) were performed using gradients of soil-waste mixtures...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273538/differential-effects-of-bisphenol-a-toxicity-on-oyster-crassostrea-angulata-gonads-as-revealed-by-label-free-quantitative-proteomics
#8
Lianzhong Luo, Qinghong Zhang, Xue Kong, Heqing Huang, Caihuan Ke
Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used in industry, and is released in large amounts into the environment. BPA is a teratogen and an estrogen receptor agonist and negatively affects reproduction, particularly in aquatic animals, which is of concern for the aquaculture industry. Although there is a large body of literature on the mechanisms that underlie BPA disruption and the effects of different toxicities on invertebrate reproduction, many of the mechanisms involved in invertebrate responses to BPA remain unknown...
February 28, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266010/some-observations-on-the-biology-of-two-rarely-seen-deep-sea-chimaerids-chimaera-carophila-and-hydrolagus-homonycteris
#9
B Finucci, D W Stevens, E G Jones, M R Dunn
Chimaera carophila (n = 45) and Hydrolagus homonycteris (n = 11), two deep-sea chimaerids rarely caught in the waters off New Zealand, were collected from research trawl catches and commercial fishery catches around New Zealand at depths between 400 and 1300 m, between 2014 and 2016. Additional preserved specimens of both species (n = 58) from museum collections were analysed for size, sex and maturity. External assessment of male claspers and a combination of internal assessments of female gonad mass and oviducal gland width, were used to determine maturity...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261472/ecological-speciation-by-temporal-isolation-in-a-population-of-the-stonefly-leuctra-hippopus-plecoptera-leuctridae
#10
Louis Boumans, Silje Hogner, John Brittain, Arild Johnsen
Stream dwelling invertebrates are ideal candidates for the study of ecological speciation as they are often adapted to particular environmental conditions within a stream and inhabit only certain reaches of a drainage basin, separated by unsuitable habitat. We studied an atypical population of the stonefly Leuctra hippopus at a site in central Norway, the Isterfoss rapids, in relation to three nearby and two remote conspecific populations. Adults of this population emerge about a month earlier than those of nearby populations, live on large boulders emerging from the rapids, and are short-lived...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259146/conservation-of-estrogen-receptor-function-in-invertebrate-reproduction
#11
Brande L Jones, Chris Walker, Bahareh Azizi, Laren Tolbert, Loren Dean Williams, Terry W Snell
BACKGROUND: Rotifers are microscopic aquatic invertebrates that reproduce both sexually and asexually. Though rotifers are phylogenetically distant from humans, and have specialized reproductive physiology, this work identifies a surprising conservation in the control of reproduction between humans and rotifers through the estrogen receptor. Until recently, steroid signaling has been observed in only a few invertebrate taxa and its role in regulating invertebrate reproduction has not been clearly demonstrated...
March 4, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249563/genome-wide-transcriptomics-of-aging-in-the-rotifer-brachionus-manjavacas-an-emerging-model-system
#12
Kristin E Gribble, David B Mark Welch
BACKGROUND: Understanding gene expression changes over lifespan in diverse animal species will lead to insights to conserved processes in the biology of aging and allow development of interventions to improve health. Rotifers are small aquatic invertebrates that have been used in aging studies for nearly 100 years and are now re-emerging as a modern model system. To provide a baseline to evaluate genetic responses to interventions that change health throughout lifespan and a framework for new hypotheses about the molecular genetic mechanisms of aging, we examined the transcriptome of an asexual female lineage of the rotifer Brachionus manjavacas at five life stages: eggs, neonates, and early-, late-, and post-reproductive adults...
March 1, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241146/prophage-wo-genes-recapitulate-and-enhance-wolbachia-induced-cytoplasmic-incompatibility
#13
Daniel P LePage, Jason A Metcalf, Sarah R Bordenstein, Jungmin On, Jessamyn I Perlmutter, J Dylan Shropshire, Emily M Layton, Lisa J Funkhouser-Jones, John F Beckmann, Seth R Bordenstein
The genus Wolbachia is an archetype of maternally inherited intracellular bacteria that infect the germline of numerous invertebrate species worldwide. They can selfishly alter arthropod sex ratios and reproductive strategies to increase the proportion of the infected matriline in the population. The most common reproductive manipulation is cytoplasmic incompatibility, which results in embryonic lethality in crosses between infected males and uninfected females. Females infected with the same Wolbachia strain rescue this lethality...
March 9, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237403/marine-gametes-in-a-changing-ocean-impacts-of-climate-change-stressors-on-fecundity-and-the-egg
#14
Shawna A Foo, Maria Byrne
In marine invertebrates, the environmental history of the mother can influence fecundity and egg size. Acclimation of females in climate change stressors, increased temperature and low pH, results in a decrease in egg number and size in many taxa, with the exception of cephalopods, where eggs increase in size. With respect to spawned eggs, near future levels of ocean acidification can interfere with the egg's block to polyspermy and intracellular pH. Reduction of the extracellular egg jelly coat seen in low pH conditions has implications for impaired egg function and fertilization...
February 17, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229028/small-scale-spatial-variation-in-population-and-individual-level-reproductive-parameters-of-the-blue-legged-hermit-crab-clibanarius-tricolor
#15
J Antonio Baeza, Donald C Behringer
Management of the few regulated ornamental fisheries relies on inadequate information about the life history of the target species. Herein, we investigated the reproductive biology of the most heavily traded marine invertebrate in the western Atlantic; the blue-legged hermit crab Clibanarius tricolor. We report on density, individual-level, and population-level reproductive parameters in 14 populations spanning the Florida Keys. In C. tricolor, abundance, population-level, and individual-level reproductive parameters exhibited substantial small-scale spatial variation in the Florida Keys...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218427/two-vitellogenins-in-the-loliginid-squid-uroteuthis-edulis-identification-and-specific-expression-in-ovarian-follicles
#16
Hajime Kitano, Naoki Nagano, Keishi Sakaguchi, Michiya Matsuyama
Vitellogenenesis is a physiological process common in oviparous animals. The molecular profile, modifications, and utilization of vitellogenin (VTG), a precursor of yolk protein, have been characterized in various taxa to understand oogenesis within different modes of reproduction. Hormonal regulation of VTGs has been investigated in invertebrates, such as insects and crustaceans; conversely, little is known for cephalopods. In this study, we isolated two VTG genes (ue-VTG1 and ue-VTG2) from the loliginid swordtip squid, Uroteuthis edulis, via a comprehensive survey of a transcriptome database and subsequent cDNA cloning...
February 20, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208067/low-ph-conditions-impair-module-capacity-to-regenerate-in-a-calcified-colonial-invertebrate-the-bryozoan-cryptosula-pallasiana
#17
Chiara Lombardi, Paul D Taylor, Silvia Cocito, Camilla Bertolini, Piero Calosi
Many aquatic animals grow into colonies of repeated, genetically identical, modules (zooids). Zooid interconnections enable colonies to behave as integrated functional units, while plastic responses to environmental changes may affect individual zooids. Plasticity includes the variable partitioning of resources to sexual reproduction, colony growth and maintenance. Maintenance often involves regeneration, which is also a routine part of the life history in some organisms, such as bryozoans. Here we investigate changes in regenerative capacity in the encrusting bryozoan Cryptosula pallasiana when cultured at different seawater pCO2 levels...
April 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188827/molecular-cloning-and-characterization-of-an-estrogen-receptor-gene-in-the-marine-polychaete-perinereis-aibuhitensis
#18
Linlan Lv, Xuexing Dong, Fu Lv, Weihong Zhao, Yebin Yu, Wenping Yang
Estrogen receptors (ERs) are the primary mediators of estrogen signaling, and play crucial roles in the reproduction and development of vertebrates. The full-length cDNA of Perinereis aibuhitensis estrogen receptor (paER) was cloned and characterized for the first time. The positions of the cysteine residues and the residues around them, which constitute two zinc finger motifs and a P-box, are conserved in both vertebrates and invertebrates. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that paER is an orthologue of ER in the polychaete Platynereis dumerilii...
February 7, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188662/population-genetics-of-reef-coral-endosymbionts-symbiodinium-dinophyceae
#19
D J Thornhill, E J Howells, D C Wham, T D Steury, S R Santos
Symbiodinium is a diverse genus of unicellular dinoflagellate symbionts associating with various marine protists and invertebrates. Although the broad-scale diversity and phylogenetics of the Symbiodinium complex is well established, there have been surprisingly few data on fine-scale population structure and biogeography of these dinoflagellates. Yet population level processes contribute strongly to the biology of Symbiodinium, including how anthropogenic-driven global climate change impacts these symbionts and their host associations...
February 11, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181697/chronic-toxicity-of-azoxystrobin-to-freshwater-amphipods-midges-cladocerans-and-mussels-in-water-only-exposures
#20
James L Kunz, Chris G Ingersoll, Kelly L Smalling, Adria A Elskus, Kathryn M Kuivila
Understanding the effects of fungicides on nontarget organisms at realistic concentrations and exposure durations is vital for determining potential impacts on aquatic ecosystems. Environmental concentrations of the fungicide azoxystrobin have been reported up to 4.6 μg/L in the United States and 30 μg/L in Europe. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the chronic toxicity of azoxystrobin in water-only exposures with an amphipod (Hyalella azteca; 42-d exposure), a midge (Chironomus dilutus; 50-d exposure), a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia; 7-d exposure), and a unionid mussel (Lampsilis siliquoidea; 28-d exposure) at environmentally relevant concentrations...
February 9, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
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