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Invertebrate reproduction

Árni Kristmundsson, Mark Andrew Freeman
Apicomplexans comprise a group of unicellular, often highly pathogenic, obligate parasites exploiting either one or two hosts to complete a full reproductive cycle. For decades, various scallop populations have suffered cyclical mass mortality events, several of which shown to be caused by apicomplexan infections. We report the first dual mollusc life cycle for an apicomplexan: a species highly pathogenic in various pectinid bivalve species, but apathogenic when infecting the common whelk as Merocystis kathae...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Bruno Campos, Danielle Fletcher, Benjamín Piña, Romà Tauler, Carlos Barata
BACKGROUND: Unravelling the link between genes and environment across the life cycle is a challenging goal that requires model organisms with well-characterized life-cycles, ecological interactions in nature, tractability in the laboratory, and available genomic tools. Very few well-studied invertebrate model species meet these requirements, being the waterflea Daphnia magna one of them. Here we report a full genome transcription profiling of D. magna during its life-cycle. The study was performed using a new microarray platform designed from the complete set of gene models representing the whole transcribed genome of D...
May 18, 2018: BMC Genomics
Abhishek Phatarphekar, Qi Su, Suk Ho Eun, Xin Chen, Steven E Rokita
The ability of iodotyrosine deiodinase to salvage iodide from iodotyrosine has long been recognized as critical for iodide homeostasis and proper thyroid function in vertebrates. The significance of its additional ability to dehalogenate bromo- and chlorotyrosine is less apparent and none of these functions could have been anticipated in invertebrates until recently. Drosophila , as most arthropods, contains a deiodinase homolog encoded by CG6279 , now named condet ( cdt ), with a similar catalytic specificity...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Victoria Vought, Hong-Sheng Wang
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a component of polycarbonate plastics and a near ubiquitous environmental endocrine disrupting chemical. Bisphenol S (BPS), a substitute of BPA, is also hormonally active. This study examines the effects of aqueous exposure to BPA and BPS on the freshwater annelids Lumbriculus variegatus, a keystone species in shallow water ecosystems. Both BPA and BPS, at both low dose (10-9 M) and high dose (10-6 M), retarded the initial phase of body regrowth after cutting/fragmentation, which is the main mode of reproduction of L...
May 8, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Francesco Cavraro, Giulia Gheno, Renzo Ganzerla, Matteo Zucchetta, Piero Franzoi, Stefano Malavasi
Display of bright and striking color patterns is a widespread way of communication in many animal species. Carotenoid-based coloration accounts for most of the bright yellow, orange, and red displays in invertebrates, fish, amphibians, reptiles, and birds, being widely considered a signal of individual health. This type of coloration is under the influence of several factors, such as sexual selection, predator pressure, pigment availability, and light transmission. Fish offer numerous examples of visual communication by means of color patterns...
May 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Arseniy A Lobov, Arina L Maltseva, Viktor V Starunov, Irina Y Babkina, Vadim A Ivanov, Natalia A Mikhailova, Andrey I Granovitch
Reproductive isolation is the key attribute of biological species and establishment of the reproductive barriers is an essential event for speciation. Among the mechanisms of reproductive isolation, gamete incompatibility due to the variability of gamete interaction proteins may drive fast divergence even in sympatry. However, the number of available models to study this phenomenon is limited. In case of internally fertilized invertebrates, models to study gamete incompatibility and sperm competition mechanisms are restricted to a single taxon: insects...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
Brian K McNab, Colin O'Donnell
We examine the impact of behavior on the short-term energy expenditures of the only terrestrial mammals endemic to New Zealand, two bats, the long-tailed (Chalinolobus tuberculatus, family Vespertilionidae), and the lesser short-tailed (Mystacina tuberculata, family Mystacinidae). Vespertilionidae has a world-wide distribution. Mystacinidae is restricted to New Zealand, although related to five neotropical families and one in Madagascar reflecting a shared Gondwanan origin of their Noctilionoidea superfamily...
May 7, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Lucy Katherine McLay, Venkatesh Nagarajan-Radha, Mark Philip Green, Therésa Melanie Jones
Humans are lighting the night-time environment with ever increasing extent and intensity, resulting in a variety of negative ecological effects in individuals and populations. Effects of light at night on reproductive fitness traits are demonstrated across taxa however, the mechanisms underlying these effects are largely untested. One possible mechanism is that light at night may result in perturbed reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress levels. Here, we reared Drosophila melanogaster under either dim (10 lx) light or no light (0 lx) at night for three generations and then compared mating and lifetime oviposition patterns...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
M M Santos, R Ruivo, A Capitão, E Fonseca, L F C Castro
Biological control of key processes, such as development and reproduction, is largely ascribed to a superfamily of ligand-dependent and independent transcription factors named Nuclear Receptors (NRs). Given their ability to accommodate ligands, NRs are prime targets of man-made compounds that mimic or antagonise the action of endogenous ligands. Accordingly, NRs occupy a prominent role in OECD and EPA guidelines for testing and assessment of Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Although NR assays are already a key instrument in the OECD Conceptual Framework for Testing and Assessment of EDCs, the focus is mostly on vertebrate NRs...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Amy Gainer, Mark Cousins, Natacha Hogan, Steven D Siciliano
Although petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) released to the environment typically occur as mixtures, PHC remediation guidelines often reflect individual substance toxicity. It is well documented that groups of aliphatic PHCs act via the same mechanism of action, nonpolar narcosis and, theoretically, concentration addition mixture toxicity principles apply. To assess this theory, ten standardized acute and chronic soil invertebrate toxicity tests on a range of organisms (Eisenia fetida, Lumbricus terrestris, Enchytraeus crypticus, Folsomia candida, Oppia nitens and Hypoaspis aculeifer) were conducted with a refined PHC binary mixture...
May 5, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Pavla Sehonova, Zdenka Svobodova, Petra Dolezelova, Petra Vosmerova, Caterina Faggio
After application, antidepressants, like other pharmaceuticals, are excreted from human body in their native form or as metabolites and enter the aquatic environment via different pathways. As concentrations of antidepressant residues in water continue to increase, their effects on non-target animals are being discussed. The aim of this study is to summarize current knowledge about the effects of wateborne antidepressants on non-target animals living in surface waters - invertebrates, fish and amphibians. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors such as fluoxetine, sertraline, and citalopram have been found to effect behavior, reproduction, and development in both invertebrates and vertebrates...
August 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Mary E Grantham, Jennifer A Brisson
Phenotypic plasticity results in a diversity of phenotypes from a single genotype in response to environmental cues. To understand the molecular basis of phenotypic plasticity, studies have focused on differential gene expression levels between environmentally-determined phenotypes. The extent of alternative splicing differences among environmentally-determined phenotypes has largely been understudied. Here we study alternative splicing differences among plastically-produced morphs of the pea aphid using RNA-sequence data...
May 2, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Anna L K Nilsson, Jan Henning L'Abée-Lund, L Asbjørn Vøllestad, Kurt Jerstad, Bjørn Mejdell Larsen, Ole Wiggo Røstad, Svein Jakob Saltveit, Thomas Skaugen, Nils C Stenseth, Bjørn Walseng
Interactions between birds and fish are often overlooked in aquatic ecosystems. We studied the influence of Atlantic salmon and brown trout on the breeding population size and reproductive output of the white-throated dipper in a Norwegian river. Acidic precipitation led to the extinction of salmon, but salmon recolonized after liming was initiated in 1991. We compared the dipper population size and reproductive output before (1978-1992) and after (1993-2014) salmon recolonization. Despite a rapid and substantial increase in juvenile salmon, the breeding dipper population size and reproductive output were not influenced by juvenile salmon, trout, or total salmonid density...
April 2018: Ecology and Evolution
C Coelho, C Foret, C Bazin, L Leduc, M Hammada, M Inácio, J P Bedell
Soils and sediments are susceptible to anthropogenic contamination with Metallic Trace Elements (MTEs) and it can present some risks to ecosystems and human health. The levels of Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn were assessed in soils (C, G, K, L) from Estarreja (Portugal) and sediments from a stormwater basin in Lyon (DJG), a harbour (LDB) and a Rhône river site (TRS) (France). An ecotoxicological study was performed with Eisenia fetida (E. fetida) to infer about potential transfer risks to the soil invertebrates...
April 23, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Sabine Navis, Aline Waterkeyn, Luc De Meester, Luc Brendonck
Recent studies have demonstrated that insect growth regulating insecticides are able to affect reproductive endpoints in zooplankton species at very low levels. For the cyclic parthenogenetic water flea Daphnia, most of this research has focused on the asexual part of the life cycle and induction of male offspring. Even though Daphnia and many other aquatic invertebrates rely on sexual reproduction and subsequent production of dormant eggs to recover from environmentally harsh conditions, much less is known about the effects of toxicants on the sexual reproductive phase...
April 26, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Benjamin Bridgeman, Mary Morgan-Richards, David Wheeler, Steven A Trewick
Wolbachia is one of the most widespread intracellular bacteria on earth, estimated to infect between 40 and 66% of arthropod species in most ecosystems that have been surveyed. Their significance rests not only in their vast distribution, but also in their ability to modify the reproductive biology of their hosts, which can ultimately affect genetic diversity and speciation of infected populations. Wolbachia has yet to be formally identified in the fauna of New Zealand which has high levels of endemic biodiversity and this represents a gap in our understanding of the global biology of Wolbachia...
2018: PloS One
Christina D King, Daljeet Singh, Kyle Holden, Annie B Govan, Scott A Keith, Arjumand Ghazi, Renã A S Robinson
The molecular mechanisms that distinguish immunosenescence from general age-related decline are poorly understood. We addressed this by exposing Day 1 and Day 5 adults of Caenorhabditis elegans to Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA01, an opportunistic pathogen. Day 5 adult C. elegans exhibited greater vulnerability to infection as compared to Day 1 C. elegans. Using TMT6 -plex isobaric labeling and reductive dimethylation, we identified 55 proteins whose levels were altered following infection of Day 1 and Day 5 adults...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Dick R Nässel
It has been known for more than 40 years that individual neurons can produce more than one neurotransmitter and that neuropeptides often are colocalized with small molecule neurotransmitters (SMNs). Over the years much progress has been made in understanding the functional consequences of cotransmission in the nervous system of mammals. There are also some excellent invertebrate models that have revealed roles of coexpressed neuropeptides and SMNs in increasing complexity, flexibility, and dynamics in neuronal signaling...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Emmanuel Kamba Mebourou, Balázs Bernáth, Dominique Schenker, Patrick M Guerin
Organisms respond to environmental stimuli in ways that optimize survival and reproduction. Tsetse fly life-history is characterized by high investment in progeny by the pregnant female and low birth rate. This places constraints on tsetse populations across the sub-Saharan biotopes they colonize where extreme climatic conditions militate against survival. Controlling metabolic rate is crucial in biotopes where daily swings in temperature can exceed 20 o C. Tsetse acquire their nutrient requirements from the blood meal...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Symon A Dworjanyn, Maria Byrne
Understanding how growth trajectories of calcifying invertebrates are affected by changing climate requires acclimation experiments that follow development across life-history transitions. In a long-term acclimation study, the effects of increased acidification and temperature on survival and growth of the tropical sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla from the early juvenile (5 mm test diameter-TD) through the developmental transition to the mature adult (60 mm TD) were investigated. Juveniles were reared in a combination of three temperature and three pH/ p CO2 treatments, including treatments commensurate with global change projections...
April 11, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
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