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Invertebrate reproduction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916758/role-of-the-venus-kinase-receptor-in-the-female-reproductive-physiology-of-the-desert-locust-schistocerca-gregaria
#1
Cynthia Lenaerts, Jolien Palmans, Elisabeth Marchal, Rik Verdonck, Jozef Vanden Broeck
Venus kinase receptors (VKR) are a subfamily of invertebrate receptor tyrosine kinases, which have only recently been discovered. They contain an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain and an extracellular Venus FlyTrap domain. VKRs have been functionally and pharmacologically characterized in only two invertebrate species, namely the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni and the mosquito Aedes aegypti, where they play a crucial role in oogenesis. Here, we report the characterization of a VKR in the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843738/exposure-of-spermatozoa-to-dibutyl-phthalate-induces-abnormal-embryonic-development-in-a-marine-invertebrate-galeolaria-caespitosa-polychaeta-serpulidae
#2
Yonggang Lu, Minjie Lin, Robert John Aitken
In this study, we have investigated the impact of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) on early embryogenesis in a sessile marine invertebrate, Galeolaria caespitosa. DBP was found to induce sperm dysfunction as well as impaired and defective embryogenesis characterised by a particular pattern of abnormality. Thus, after the first cleavage, one blastomere in these abnormal embryos was able to carry out further mitoses, while the other arrested. Analysis of microtubules, chromosomes and actin filaments demonstrated that the mitotic spindles in the abnormal embryos were irregularly bent, shortened and unable to anchor to the cortex, resulting in the defective segregation of chromosomes...
August 19, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834561/life-cycle-studies-with-two-marine-species-and-bisphenol-a-the-mysid-shrimp-americamysis-bahia-and-sheepshead-minnow-cyprinodon-variegatus
#3
Ellen Mihaich, Charles Staples, Lisa Ortego, Gary Klečka, Jan Woelz, Steve Dimond, Steven Hentges
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high production volume compound primarily used to produce epoxy resins and polycarbonate plastic. Exposure to low concentrations of BPA occurs in freshwater and marine systems, primarily from wastewater treatment plant discharges. The dataset for chronic toxicity of BPA to freshwater organisms includes studies on fish, amphibians, invertebrates, algae and aquatic plants. To broaden the dataset, a 1.5-generation test with sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus) and a full life-cycle test with mysid shrimp (Americamysis bahia) were conducted...
August 23, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818867/exploring-potential-germline-associated-roles-of-the-trim-nhl-protein-nhl-2%C3%A2-through-rnai-screening
#4
Gregory M Davis, Wai Y Low, Joshua W T Anderson, Peter R Boag
TRIM-NHL proteins are highly conserved regulators of developmental pathways in vertebrates and invertebrates. The TRIM-NHL family member, NHL-2 in Caenorhabditis elegans functions as a miRNA cofactor to regulate developmental timing. Similar regulatory roles have been reported in other model systems, with the mammalian orthologue in mice, TRIM32, contributing to muscle and neuronal cell proliferation via miRNA activity. Given the interest associated with TRIM-NHL family proteins, we aimed to further investigate the role of NHL-2 in C...
August 17, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817215/unexpected-collective-larval-dispersal-but-little-support-for-sweepstakes-reproductive-success-in-the-highly-dispersive-brooding-mollusk-crepidula-fornicata
#5
Florentine Riquet, Thierry Comtet, Thomas Broquet, Frédérique Viard
In many marine invertebrates, long-distance dispersal is achieved during an extended pelagic larval phase. Although such dispersal should result in high gene flow over broad spatial scales, fine-scale genetic structure has often been reported, a pattern attributed to interfamilial variance in reproductive success and limited homogenization during dispersal. To examine this hypothesis, the genetic diversity of dispersing larvae must be compared with the post-dispersal stages, i.e. benthic recruits and adults...
August 17, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815055/green-lacewings-neuroptera-chrysopidae-are-commonly-associated-with-a-diversity-of-rickettsial-endosymbionts
#6
Michael Gerth, Ronny Wolf, Christoph Bleidorn, Julia Richter, Rebekka Sontowski, Jasmin Unrein, Martin Schlegel, Axel Gruppe
BACKGROUND: Bacterial symbionts transmitted from mothers to offspring are found in the majority of arthropods. Numerous studies have illustrated their wide impact on host biology, such as reproduction, behavior, and physiology One of the most common inherited symbionts is Rickettsia spp. (Alphaproteobacteria, Rickettsiales), which are found in about one-quarter of terrestrial arthropods, as well as in other invertebrates. In insect populations, Rickettsia spp. have been reported to cause reproductive modifications and fecundity-enhancing effects...
2017: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814818/multigenerational-effects-of-copper-nanomaterials-cuonms-are-different-of-those-of-cucl2-exposure-in-the-soil-invertebrate-enchytraeus-crypticus
#7
Rita C Bicho, Fátima C F Santos, Janeck J Scott-Fordsmand, Mónica J B Amorim
Nanomaterials (NMs) are recommended to be tested in longer term exposures. Multigenerational (MG) studies are scarce and particularly important because effects can be transferred to the next generation. The current risk assessment framework does not include MG effects and this is a caveat for persistent materials. Here, the effects of copper NMs (CuONMs) and copper salt (CuCl2) were assessed in a MG exposure (4 generations in spiked soil + 2 generations in clean soil, F1 to F7 generations in total), with the standard soil model Enchytraeus crypticus, using relevant reproduction test effect concentrations (EC10, EC50), monitoring survival and reproduction...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808559/reproductive-cycles-in-tropical-intertidal-gastropods-are-timed-around-tidal-amplitude-cycles
#8
Rachel Collin, Kecia Kerr, Gina Contolini, Isis Ochoa
Reproduction in iteroparous marine organisms is often timed with abiotic cycles and may follow lunar, tidal amplitude, or daily cycles. Among intertidal marine invertebrates, decapods are well known to time larval release to coincide with large amplitude nighttime tides, which minimizes the risk of predation. Such bimonthly cycles have been reported for few other intertidal invertebrates. We documented the reproduction of 6 gastropod species from Panama to determine whether they demonstrate reproductive cycles, whether these cycles follow a 2-week cycle, and whether cycles are timed so that larval release occurs during large amplitude tides...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768576/the-xenobiotic-sensor-pxr-in-a-marine-flatfish-species-solea-senegalensis-gene-expression-patterns-and-its-regulation-under-different-physiological-conditions
#9
Carlos Marques, Vânia P Roberto, Luís Granadeiro, Marlene Trindade, Paulo J Gavaia, Vincent Laizé, M Leonor Cancela, Ignacio Fernández
The pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a nuclear receptor belonging to the NR1I sub-family and a known master regulator of xenobiotic metabolism. New roles have been recently proposed in mammals through its activation by vitamin K (VK) such as regulation of glucose metabolism, bone homeostasis, reproduction, neuronal development and cognitive capacities. In marine fish species little is known about PXR and its potential roles. Here, expression patterns of pxr transcripts and conservation of protein domains were determined in the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis), a marine flatfish model species in aquatic ecotoxicology...
July 23, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754990/assessments-of-iodoindoles-and-abamectin-as-inducers-of-methuosis-in-pinewood-nematode-bursaphelenchus-xylophilus
#10
Satish Kumar Rajasekharan, Jin-Hyung Lee, Vinothkannan Ravichandran, Jintae Lee
Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is a quarantined migratory endoparasite known to cause severe economic losses in pine forest ecosystems. The study presents the nematicidal effects of halogenated indoles on B. xylophilus and their action mechanisms. 5-Iodoindole and abamectin (positive control) at low concentration (10 µg/mL) presented similar and high nematicidal activities against B. xylophilus. 5-Iodoindole diminished fecundity, reproductive activities, embryonic and juvenile lethality and locomotor behaviors...
July 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754274/review-structure-function-and-evolution-of-gnih
#11
REVIEW
Kazuyoshi Tsutsui, Tomohiro Osugi, You Lee Son, Takayoshi Ubuka
Neuropeptides that possess the Arg-Phe-NH2 motif at their C-termini (i.e., RFamide peptides) have been characterized in the nervous system of both invertebrates and vertebrates. In vertebrates, RFamide peptides make a family and consist of the groups of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), neuropeptide FF (NPFF), prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP), kisspeptin (kiss1 and kiss2), and pyroglutamylated RFamide peptide/26RFamide peptide (QRFP/26RFa). It now appears that these vertebrate RFamide peptides exert important neuroendocrine, behavioral, sensory, and autonomic functions...
July 25, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750222/assessing-the-relevance-of-a-multiplexed-methodology-for-proteomic-biomarker-measurement-in-the-invertebrate-species-gammarus-fossarum-a-physiological-and-ecotoxicological-study
#12
D Gouveia, A Chaumot, A Charnot, H Queau, J Armengaud, C Almunia, A Salvador, O Geffard
Recently, a protein sequence database was built specifically for the sentinel non-model species Gammarus fossarum using a proteogenomics approach. A quantitative multiplexed targeted proteomics assay (using Selected Reaction Monitoring mass spectrometry) was then developed for a fast and simultaneous quantification of dozens of biomarker peptides specific of this freshwater sentinel crustacean species. In order to assess the relevance of this breakthrough methodology in ecotoxicology, the response patterns of a panel of 26 peptides reporting for 20 proteins from the Gammarus fossarum proteome with putative key functional roles (homeostasis, osmoregulation, nutrition, reproduction, molting,…) were recorded through male and female reproductive cycles and after exposure to environmental concentrations of cadmium and lead in laboratory-controlled conditions...
September 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735237/effects-of-chronic-exposure-to-cefadroxil-and-cefradine-on-daphnia-magna-and-oryzias-latipes
#13
Bokyung Kim, Kyunghee Ji, Younglim Kho, Pan-Gyi Kim, Kyunghwa Park, Kyungtae Kim, Youngsuk Kim, Ki-Tae Kim, Kyungho Choi
Cefadroxil and cefradine have frequently been detected in surface waters, however toxicological studies in aquatic organisms have mostly been limited to acute lethal effects. In the present study, endocrine disruption caused by cefadroxil and cefradine, and its underlying mechanism were investigated by chronic exposure of Daphnia magna (21 d) and Oryzias latipes (120 d). In medaka fish, the effects on growth, mortality, and reproduction, as well as on the levels of hormones and genes related to the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis, were investigated after 120 d exposure...
October 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729386/dormancy-in-embryos-insight-from-hydrated-encysted-embryos-of-an-aquatic-invertebrate
#14
Tamar Ziv, Vered Chalifa-Caspi, Nadav Denekamp, Inbar Plaschkes, Sylwiya Sylwia Kierszniowska, Idit Blais, Arie Admon, Esther Lubzens
Numerous aquatic invertebrates remain dormant for decades in a hydrated state as encysted embryos. In search for functional pathways associated with this form of dormancy, we used label-free quantitative proteomics to compare the proteomes of hydrated encysted dormant embryos (resting eggs; RE) with non-dormant embryos (amictic eggs; AM) of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis</p> <p>A total of 2,631 proteins were identified in rotifer eggs. About 62% proteins showed higher abundance in AM relative to RE (Fold Change>3; p=0...
July 20, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725405/effects-of-food-abundance-and-early-clutch-predation-on-reproductive-timing-in-a-high-arctic-shorebird-exposed-to-advancements-in-arthropod-abundance
#15
Jeroen Reneerkens, Niels Martin Schmidt, Olivier Gilg, Jannik Hansen, Lars Holst Hansen, Jérôme Moreau, Theunis Piersma
Climate change may influence the phenology of organisms unequally across trophic levels and thus lead to phenological mismatches between predators and prey. In cases where prey availability peaks before reproducing predators reach maximal prey demand, any negative fitness consequences would selectively favor resynchronization by earlier starts of the reproductive activities of the predators. At a study site in northeast Greenland, over a period of 17 years, the median emergence of the invertebrate prey of Sanderling Calidris alba advanced with 1...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715094/drosophila-mutants-lacking-octopamine-exhibit-impairment-in-aversive-olfactory-associative-learning
#16
Konstantin G Iliadi, Natalia Iliadi, Gabrielle L Boulianne
Octopamine is a biogenic amine in invertebrates that is considered a functional homolog of vertebrate norepinephrine, acting as a neurotransmitter, neuromodulator and neurohormone. Octopamine regulates many physiological processes such as metabolism, reproduction and different types of behaviour including learning and memory. Previous studies in insects led to the notion that acquisition of an olfactory memory depends on the octopaminergic system during appetitive (reward-based) learning, but not in the case of aversive (punishment-based) learning...
July 17, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708270/transcriptional-and-cellular-effects-of-benzotriazole-uv-stabilizers-uv-234-and-uv-328-in-the-freshwater-invertebrates-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-and-daphnia-magna
#17
Maeva Giraudo, Guillaume Cottin, Marta Esperanza, Pierre Gagnon, Amila O De Silva, Magali Houde
Benzotriazole ultra violet stabilizers (BZT-UVs) are compounds used in many applications and products to prevent photochemical degradation. Despite their widespread presence in aquatic ecosystems and persistence in the environment, there are very limited data on their effects and toxicity, and their modes of action remain largely unknown. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the chronic effects of 2 BZT-UVs, 2-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-4,6-bis(1-methyl-1-phenylethyl)phenol (UV-234) and 2-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-4,6-di-tert-pentylphenol (UV-328), on the freshwater green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna...
July 14, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697460/effect-of-progesterone-and-its-synthetic-analogs-on-reproduction-and-embryonic-development-of-a-freshwater-invertebrate-model
#18
Zita Zrinyi, Gabor Maasz, Linwen Zhang, Akos Vertes, Sandor Lovas, Tibor Kiss, Karoly Elekes, Zsolt Pirger
The presence of a mixture of progestogens at ng/L concentration levels in surface waters is a worldwide problem. Only a few studies explore the effect of progestogen treatment in a mixture as opposed to individual chemicals to shed light on how non-target species respond to these contaminants. In the present study, we used an invertebrate model species, Lymnaea stagnalis, exposed to a mixture of four progestogens (progesterone, levonorgestrel, drospirenone, and gestodene) in 10ng/L concentration for 3 weeks...
September 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697398/pufas-and-puas-production-in-three-benthic-diatoms-from-the-northern-adriatic-sea
#19
Laura Pezzolesi, Salvatore Pichierri, Chiara Samorì, Cecilia Totti, Rossella Pistocchi
The production of polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs) has been reported by many planktonic diatoms, where they have been implicated in deleterious effects on copepod reproduction and growth of closeby microbes or suggested as infochemicals in shaping plankton interactions. This study investigates the production of PUAs by diatoms commonly occurring in the microphytobenthic communities in temperate regions: Tabularia affinis, Proschkinia complanatoides and Navicula sp. Results highlight the production of PUAs by the three benthic diatoms during stationary and decline phases, with intracellular concentrations from 1...
October 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695252/oil-spills-and-marine-mammals-in-british-columbia-canada-development-and-application-of-a-risk-based-conceptual-framework
#20
Adrianne L Jarvela Rosenberger, Misty MacDuffee, Andrew G J Rosenberger, Peter S Ross
Marine mammals are inherently vulnerable to oil spills. We developed a conceptual framework to evaluate the impacts of potential oil exposure on marine mammals and applied it to 21 species inhabiting coastal British Columbia (BC), Canada. Oil spill vulnerability was determined by examining both the likelihood of species-specific (individual) oil exposure and the consequent likelihood of population-level effects. Oil exposure pathways, ecology, and physiological characteristics were first used to assign species-specific vulnerability rankings...
July 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
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