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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535592/stream-salinization-and-fungal-mediated-leaf-decomposition-a-microcosm-study
#1
Cristina Canhoto, Sara Simões, Ana Lúcia Gonçalves, Lúcia Guilhermino, Felix Bärlocher
Salinization is of major global concern due to its effect on stream biota, and ecosystem functions and services. In small streams, litter decomposition is a key ecosystem-level process driven by decomposers, mainly fungi (aquatic hyphomycetes), which link litter and invertebrates. Here we assessed the effects of an environmentally relevant range of salt additions (0, 2, 4, 8, 16gL(-1) NaCl) on (1) fungal growth and species-specific reproductive output and (2) fungal mediated-decomposition of Quercus robur leaves...
May 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499591/chronic-exposure-to-dim-artificial-light-at-night-decreases-fecundity-and-adult-survival-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#2
L K McLay, M P Green, T M Jones
The presence of artificial light at night is expanding in geographical range and increasing in intensity to such an extent that species living in urban environments may never experience natural darkness. The negative ecological consequences of artificial night lighting have been identified in several key life history traits across multiple taxa (albeit with a strong vertebrate focus); comparable data for invertebrates is lacking. In this study, we explored the effect of chronic exposure to different night-time lighting intensities on growth, reproduction and survival in Drosophila melanogaster...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481886/egg-production-patterns-of-two-invertebrate-species-in-rocky-subtidal-areas-under-different-fishing-regimes-along-the-coast-of-central-chile
#3
Marta Blanco, Andres Ospina-Álvarez, Catherine González, Miriam Fernández
Fishing is a major source of human impact, reducing density and size of a wide range of exploited species in comparison to areas exhibiting strong regulations (no-take and partially protected areas, including Territorial Use Rights for Fisheries, TURFs). Since size and density might have important consequences on reproduction, and therefore natural re-seeding, we monitored adult size, density and potential fecundity of the keyhole limpet (Fissurella latimarginata) and the red sea urchin (Loxechinus albus) in areas under two fishing regimes (TURFs and Open Access Areas, OAAs)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467951/toxicity-of-the-bionematicide-1-4-naphthoquinone-on-non-target-soil-organisms
#4
S Chelinho, C M N Maleita, R Francisco, M E M Braga, M J M da Cunha, I Abrantes, H C de Sousa, P V Morais, J P Sousa
The main goal of the present study was to evaluate the ecotoxicological effects of 1,4-naphthoquinone (1,4-NTQ), a natural-origin compound presenting nematicidal activity, that can be obtained from walnut husk, in plants and soil invertebrates, including non-target soil nematode communities. This research was part of an ongoing project that aims to develop environmentally-friendly nematicides obtained from agricultural residues. The battery of ISO tests included emergence and growth of corn (Zea mays) and rape (Brassica napus); avoidance with the earthworm Eisenia andrei and the collembolan Folsomia candida; and reproduction with the previous species plus the enchytraeid Enchytraeus crypticus...
April 21, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465591/shorter-lifetime-of-a-soil-invertebrate-species-when-exposed-to-copper-oxide-nanoparticles-in-a-full-lifespan-exposure-test
#5
Micael F M Gonçalves, Susana I L Gomes, Janeck J Scott-Fordsmand, Mónica J B Amorim
Toxicity tests that last the all life duration of the organisms are not common, instead, long-term tests usually include one reproductive cycle. In the present study we optimized and propose a lifespan (all life) term test using Enchytraeus crypticus (Oligochaeta). The effect of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs) was assessed in this lifespan test and compared to copper salt (CuCl2), using the same effect concentrations on reproduction (EC50). Monitored endpoints included survival and reproduction over-time (202 days)...
May 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452048/artificial-light-at-night-alters-trophic-interactions-of-intertidal-invertebrates
#6
Charlotte N Underwood, Thomas W Davies, Ana M Queirós
Despite being globally widespread in coastal regions, the impacts of light pollution on intertidal ecosystems has received little attention. Intertidal species exhibit many night-time-dependent ecological strategies, including feeding, reproduction, orientation and predator avoidance, which are likely negatively affected by shifting light regimes, as has been observed in terrestrial and aquatic taxa. Coastal lighting may shape intertidal communities through its influence on the nocturnal foraging activity of dogwhelks (Nucella lapillus), a widespread predatory mollusc that structures biodiversity in temperate rocky shores...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448906/variation-in-the-toxicity-of-sediment-associated-substituted-phenylamine-antioxidants-to-an-epibenthic-hyalella-azteca-and-endobenthic-tubifex-tubifex-invertebrate
#7
R S Prosser, A J Bartlett, D Milani, E A M Holman, H Ikert, D Schissler, J Toito, J L Parrott, P L Gillis, V K Balakrishnan
Substituted phenylamine antioxidants (SPAs) are produced in relatively high volumes and used in a range of applications (e.g., rubber, polyurethane); however, little is known about their toxicity to aquatic biota. Therefore, current study examined the effects of chronic exposure (28 d) to four sediment-associated SPAs on epibenthic (Hyalella azteca) and endobenthic (Tubifex tubifex) organisms. In addition, acute (96-h), water-only exposures were conducted with H. azteca. Mortality, growth and biomass production were assessed in juvenile H...
April 17, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440581/the-toxicity-of-silver-to-soil-organisms-exposed-to-silver-nanoparticles-and-silver-nitrate-in-biosolids-amended-field-soil
#8
Alexander H Jesmer, Jessica R Velicogna, Dina M Schwertfeger, Richard P Scroggins, Juliska I Princz
The use of engineered silver nanoparticles (AgNP) is widespread, with expected release to the terrestrial environment through the application of biosolids onto agricultural lands. The toxicity of AgNP and AgNO3 (as ionic Ag(+) ) to plant (Elymus lanceolatus and Trifolium pratense) and soil invertebrate (Eisenia andrei and Folsomia candida) species was assessed using silver-amended biosolids applied to a natural sandy loam soil. Bioavailable Ag(+) in soil samples was estimated using an ion-exchange technique applied to KNO3 soil extracts while exposure to dispersible AgNP was verified by single particle-ICP-MS and TEM-EDS analysis...
April 25, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438125/chlamydia-spp-development-is-differentially-altered-by-treatment-with-the-lpxc-inhibitor-lpc-011
#9
Erik D Cram, Daniel D Rockey, Brian P Dolan
BACKGROUND: Chlamydia species are obligate intracellular bacteria that infect a broad range of mammalian hosts. Members of related genera are pathogens of a variety of vertebrate and invertebrate species. Despite the diversity of Chlamydia, all species contain an outer membrane lipooligosaccharide (LOS) that is comprised of a genus-conserved, and genus-defining, trisaccharide 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid Kdo region. Recent studies with lipopolysaccharide inhibitors demonstrate that LOS is important for the C...
April 24, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419105/year-round-breeding-equatorial-larks-from-three-climatically-distinct-populations-do-not-use-rainfall-temperature-or-invertebrate-biomass-to-time-reproduction
#10
Henry K Ndithia, Kevin D Matson, Maaike A Versteegh, Muchane Muchai, B Irene Tieleman
Timing of reproduction in birds is important for reproductive success and is known to depend on environmental cues such as day length and food availability. However, in equatorial regions, where day length is nearly constant, other factors such as rainfall and temperature are thought to determine timing of reproduction. Rainfall can vary at small spatial and temporal scales, providing a highly fluctuating and unpredictable environmental cue. In this study we investigated the extent to which spatio-temporal variation in environmental conditions can explain the timing of breeding of Red-capped Lark, Calandrella cinerea, a species that is capable of reproducing during every month of the year in our equatorial east African study locations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417180/multiplexed-assay-for-protein-quantitation-in-the-invertebrate-gammarus-fossarum-by-liquid-chromatography-coupled-to-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#11
Aurore Charnot, Duarte Gouveia, Jean Armengaud, Christine Almunia, Arnaud Chaumot, Jérôme Lemoine, Olivier Geffard, Arnaud Salvador
A highly multiplexed liquid chromatography mass spectrometry-selected reaction monitoring (SRM)-based assay for determination of 40 potential protein biomarkers from Gammarus fossarum, an ecotoxicological relevant species, was described. The assay relies on 71 stable isotope-labeled reported peptide standards for the quantitation of proteins of interest in relation to essential physiological functions such as reproductive cycle, defense mechanism, and enzymes involved in homeostasis process and in energy. A direct linear relationship between the spiked peptide concentration and the area under the peak was clearly demonstrated in biological extracts...
April 17, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410750/assessing-the-impact-of-diclofenac-ibuprofen-and-sildenafil-citrate-viagra-%C3%A2-on-the-fertilisation-biology-of-broadcast-spawning-marine-invertebrates
#12
Norlaila Binti Mohd Zanuri, Matthew G Bentley, Gary S Caldwell
Exposure to synthetic chemicals is a key environmental challenge faced by aquatic organisms. The time and dose effects of the pharmaceuticals diclofenac, ibuprofen, and sildenafil citrate on sperm motility and successful fertilisation are studied using the echinoderms, Asterias rubens and Psammechinus miliaris, and the polychaete worm Arenicola marina, all important components of the marine benthos. Motility was reduced for all species when exposed to diclofenac concentrations ≥0.1 μg/L. Exposure to ≥1...
April 8, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408352/characterization-and-spatiotemporal-expression-of-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-in-the-pacific-abalone-haliotis-discus-hannai
#13
Tae Ha Kim, Mi Ae Kim, Kyeong Seop Kim, Jae Won Kim, Han Kyu Lim, Jung Sick Lee, Young Chang Sohn
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a key neuropeptide regulating reproduction in humans and other vertebrates. Recently, GnRH-like cDNAs and peptides were reported in marine mollusks, implying that GnRH-mediated reproduction is an ancient neuroendocrine system that arose prior to the divergence of protostomes and deuterostomes. Here, we evaluated the reproductive control system mediated by GnRH in the Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai. We cloned a prepro-GnRH cDNA (Hdh-GnRH) from the pleural-pedal ganglion (PPG) in H...
July 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404823/noise-affects-resource-assessment-in-an-invertebrate
#14
Erin P Walsh, Gareth Arnott, Hansjoerg P Kunc
Anthropogenic noise is a global pollutant, affecting animals across taxa. However, how noise pollution affects resource acquisition is unknown. Hermit crabs (Pagurus bernhardus) engage in detailed assessment and decision-making when selecting a critical resource, their shell; this is crucial as individuals in poor shells suffer lower reproductive success and higher mortality. We experimentally exposed hermit crabs to anthropogenic noise during shell selection. When exposed to noise, crabs approached the shell faster, spent less time investigating it, and entered it faster...
April 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402234/apple-snail-perivitellin-precursor-properties-help-explain-predators-feeding-behavior
#15
María Pilar Cadierno, Marcos Sebastián Dreon, Horacio Heras
In contrast with vitellogenin maturation, it is unknown whether gastropod perivitellin precursors are subject to large structural changes. The gastropod reproductive tract includes an accessory organ, the albumen gland (AG), that produces and secretes perivitelline fluid. In the apple snail Pomacea canaliculata, the large, reddish-pink AG provides eggs with perivitellins that are defensive against predators. Although the AG makes a considerable contribution to apple snail biomass, field observations indicate that it is rejected by avian and mammalian predators, although the underlying reason remains unknown...
July 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401572/morphological-structures-for-potential-sperm-storage-in-poeciliid-fishes-does-superfetation-matter
#16
Claudia Olivera-Tlahuel, Maricela Villagrán-Santa Cruz, Norma A Moreno-Mendoza, J Jaime Zúñiga-Vega
Sperm storage within the female reproductive tract has been reported as a reproductive strategy in several species of vertebrates and invertebrates. However, the morphological structures that allow for sperm to be stored and kept viable for long periods are relatively unknown in osteichthyes. We use histological and stereological tools to identify and quantify sperm storage structures (spermathecae) in 12 species of viviparous Poeciliidae. We found spermathecae in nine species, six of which exhibit superfetation (the ability of females to simultaneously carry within the ovary two or more broods of embryos at different stages of development)...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401394/revisiting-inland-hypoxia-diverse-exceedances-of-dissolved-oxygen-thresholds-for-freshwater-aquatic-life
#17
Gavin N Saari, Zhen Wang, Bryan W Brooks
Water resources in many regions are stressed by impairments resulting from climate change, population growth and urbanization. In the United States (US), water quality criteria (WQC) and standards (WQS) were established to protect surface waters and associated designated uses, including aquatic life. In inland waters of the south central US, for example, depressed dissolved oxygen (DO) consistently results in impaired aquatic systems due to noncompliance with DO WQC and WQS. In the present study, we systematically examined currently available DO threshold data for freshwater fish and invertebrates and performed probabilistic aquatic hazard assessments with low DO toxicity data that were used to derive the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Ambient Water Quality Criteria (AWQC) for DO and newly published information...
April 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392374/evaluation-of-the-toxic-effect-of-endocrine-disruptor-bisphenol-a-bpa-in-the-acute-and-chronic-toxicity-tests-with-pomacea-lineata-gastropod
#18
André Lucas Correa de Andrade, Priscila Rafaela Leão Soares, Stephannie Caroline Barros Lucas da Silva, Marília Cordeiro Galvão da Silva, Thamiris Pinheiro Santos, Marilia Ribeiro Sales Cadena, Pierre Castro Soares, Pabyton Gonçalves Cadena
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a plasticizer and a risk when it interacts with organisms, and can cause changes in the development and reproduction of them. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of BPA, by acute and chronic toxicity tests with neonates and adults of Pomacea lineata. Adults and neonates were divided into groups exposed to BPA (1-20mg/L), or 17β-estradiol (1mg/L) and control in the acute and chronic toxicity tests. Behavior, heart rate, reproduction and hemolymph biochemical analysis were measured...
April 6, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379636/conserved-insulin-signaling-in-the-regulation-of-oocyte-growth-development-and-maturation
#19
REVIEW
Debabrata Das, Swathi Arur
Insulin signaling regulates various aspects of physiology, such as glucose homeostasis and aging, and is a key determinant of female reproduction in metazoans. That insulin signaling is crucial for female reproductive health is clear from clinical data linking hyperinsulinemic and hypoinsulinemic condition with certain types of ovarian dysfunction, such as altered steroidogenesis, polycystic ovary syndrome, and infertility. Thus, understanding the signaling mechanisms that underlie the control of insulin-mediated ovarian development is important for the accurate diagnosis of and intervention for female infertility...
April 5, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371731/proteomic-response-of-macrobrachium-rosenbergii-hepatopancreas-exposed-to-chlordecone-identification-of-endocrine-disruption-biomarkers
#20
Anne Lafontaine, Dominique Baiwir, Célia Joaquim-Justo, Edwin De Pauw, Soazig Lemoine, Céline Boulangé-Lecomte, Joëlle Forget-Leray, Jean-Pierre Thomé, Eric Gismondi
The present work is the first study investigating the impacts of chlordecone, an organochlorine insecticide, on the proteome of the decapod crustacean Macrobrachium rosenbergii, by gel-free proteomic analysis. The hepatopancreas protein expression variations were analysed in organisms exposed to three environmental relevant concentrations of chlordecone (i.e. 0.2, 2 and 20µg/L). Results revealed that 62 proteins were significantly up- or down-regulated in exposed prawns compared to controls. Most of these proteins are involved in important physiological processes such as ion transport, defense mechanisms and immune system, cytoskeleton dynamics, or protein synthesis and degradation...
March 31, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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