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Invertebrate reproduction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099777/positive-selection-on-sperm-ion-channels-in-a-brooding-brittle-star-consequence-of-life-history-traits-evolution
#1
A A-T Weber, L Abi-Rached, N Galtier, A Bernard, J I Montoya-Burgos, A Chenuil
Closely related species are key models to investigate mechanisms leading to reproductive isolation and early stages of diversification, also at the genomic level. The brittle star cryptic species complex Ophioderma longicauda encompasses the sympatric broadcast spawning species C3 and the internal brooding species C5. Here we used de novo transcriptome sequencing and assembly in two closely related species displaying contrasting reproductive modes to compare their genetic diversity and to investigate the role of natural selection in reproductive isolation...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095467/phylogenetically-widespread-polyembryony-in-cyclostome-bryozoans-and-the-protracted-asynchronous-release-of-clonal-brood-mates
#2
Helen L Jenkins, Andrea Waeschenbach, Beth Okamura, Roger N Hughes, John D D Bishop
Polyembryony-the production of multiple cloned embryos from a single fertilised egg-is a seemingly paradoxical combination of reproductive modes that nevertheless persists in diverse taxa. We document features of polyembryony in the Cyclostomata (Bryozoa)-an ancient order of modular colonial marine invertebrates-that suggest a substantial reduction in the paradoxical nature of this enigmatic reproductive mode. Firstly, we provide molecular evidence for polyembryony in three exemplar species, supporting the widely cited inference that polyembryony characterises the entire order...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091617/switch-from-sexual-to-parthenogenetic-reproduction-in-a-zebra-shark
#3
Christine L Dudgeon, Laura Coulton, Ren Bone, Jennifer R Ovenden, Severine Thomas
Parthenogenesis is a natural form of asexual reproduction in which embryos develop in the absence of fertilisation. Most commonly found in plants and invertebrate organisms, an increasing number of vertebrate species have recently been reported employing this reproductive strategy. Here we use DNA genotyping to report the first demonstration of an intra-individual switch from sexual to parthenogenetic reproduction in a shark species, the zebra shark Stegostoma fasciatum. A co-housed, sexually produced daughter zebra shark also commenced parthenogenetic reproduction at the onset of maturity without any prior mating...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069465/effect-of-rnai-mediated-knockdown-of-nltor-gene-on-fertility-of-male-nilaparvata-lugens
#4
Ji-Chong Zhuo, Jian Xue, Jia-Bao Lu, Hai-Jian Huang, Hai-Jun Xu, Chuan-Xi Zhang
The target gene of rapamycin (TOR) is conserved from invertebrates to vertebrates, and plays critical roles in cell growth, nutrient sensing, lifespan and reproduction. In this paper, we employed RNA interference (RNAi) to study the function of TOR in male brown planthoppers (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens. Here we discovered that no offspring was produced when wildtype females BPH mated with NlTOR RNAi males. To understand the influence of NlTOR on male BPH infertility, we dissected the reproductive system of a NlTOR RNAi male, and found that the testes were normal and the seminal vesicles were full of sperm, while the accessory gland was poorly developed after knocking down NlTOR expression...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057344/depuration-of-perfluoroalkyl-substances-from-the-edible-tissues-of-wild-caught-invertebrate-species
#5
Matthew D Taylor, Karl C Bowles, Daniel D Johnson, Natalie A Moltschaniwskyj
Detection and quantification of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in aquatic organisms is increasing, particularly for saltwater species. Depuration can remove PFASs from the tissues of some species once they are removed from the contaminant source, but it is not known if this process occurs for saltwater crustaceans. Such information is important for managing human health risks for exploited migratory species following exposure. We present the results of a depuration trial for School Prawn (Metapenaeus macleayi) and Mud Crab (Scylla serrata), two commercially important crustaceans in Australia...
January 2, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052125/biosynthesis-of-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-in-sea-urchins-molecular-and-functional-characterisation-of-three-fatty-acyl-desaturases-from-paracentrotus-lividus-lamark-1816
#6
Naoki Kabeya, Alicia Sanz-Jorquera, Stefano Carboni, Andrew Davie, Angela Oboh, Oscar Monroig
Sea urchins are broadly recognised as a delicacy and their quality as food for humans is highly influenced by their diet. Lipids in general and the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in particular, are essential nutrients that determine not only the nutritional value of sea urchins but also guarantee normal growth and reproduction in captivity. The contribution of endogenous production (biosynthesis) of LC-PUFA in sea urchins remained unknown. Using Paracentrotus lividus as our model species, we aimed to characterise both molecularly and functionally the repertoire of fatty acyl desaturases (Fads), key enzymes in the biosynthesis of LC-PUFA, in sea urchins...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043021/toxic-effects-of-diclofenac-on-life-history-parameters-and-the-expression-of-detoxification-related-genes-in-daphnia-magna
#7
Yang Liu, Lan Wang, Benben Pan, Chao Wang, Shuang Bao, Xiangping Nie
Diclofenac (DCF), as a widely used drug, has been detected in various environmental media such as municipal wastewater effluent. However, there is little information on the effects of DCF on freshwater invertebrates potentially exposing to its residues in surface water. In the present study, we investigated the toxic effects of DCF on the physiological parameters (e.g., survival, growth rate, and reproduction) of a crustacean, Daphnia magna, via a 21-d chronic toxicity test, and we also evaluated the effects of DCF on the expression of the genes related to the detoxification metabolism, growth, development and reproduction (e...
December 26, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028546/identification-and-characterization-of-novel-rat-polyomavirus-2-in-a-colony-of-x-scid-rats-by-p-pit-assay
#8
Lora H Rigatti, Tuna Toptan, Joseph T Newsome, Patrick S Moore, Yuan Chang
Polyomaviruses (PyVs) are known to infect a wide range of vertebrates and invertebrates and are associated with a broad spectrum of diseases, including cancers, particularly in immune-suppressed hosts. A novel polyomavirus, designated rat polyomavirus 2 (RatPyV2), was identified from a breeding colony of rats having X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency. Using a human panpolyomavirus immunohistochemistry test (P-PIT), RatPyV2 was initially detected in the parotid salivary gland of a colony member. Rolling circle amplification using DNA from harderian and parotid glands identified a novel 5...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992549/molecular-characterization-and-functional-analysis-of-a-putative-octopamine-tyramine-receptor-during-the-developmental-stages-of-the-pacific-oyster-crassostrea-gigas
#9
Peng Ji, Fei Xu, Baoyu Huang, Yingxiang Li, Li Li, Guofan Zhang
Octopamine (OA) and its precursor, tyramine (TA), participate in invertebrate development such as growth, maturation, and reproduction by activating their corresponding G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Although OA was first discovered in mollusks (octopus), subsequent studies on OA, TA and related receptors have primarily been conducted in Ecdysozoa, especially in insects. Accordingly, only limited reports on OA/TA receptors in mollusks are available and their physiological roles remain unclear. Here, a full-length cDNA encoding a putative 524 amino acid OA/TA receptor (CgGPR1) was isolated from the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990106/localization-of-neuropeptide-gene-expression-in-larvae-of-an-echinoderm-the-starfish-asterias-rubens
#10
Tatiana D Mayorova, Shi Tian, Weigang Cai, Dean C Semmens, Esther A Odekunle, Meet Zandawala, Yusef Badi, Matthew L Rowe, Michaela Egertová, Maurice R Elphick
Neuropeptides are an ancient class of neuronal signaling molecules that regulate a variety of physiological and behavioral processes in animals. The life cycle of many animals includes a larval stage(s) that precedes metamorphic transition to a reproductively active adult stage but, with the exception of Drosophila melanogaster and other insects, research on neuropeptide signaling has hitherto largely focused on adult animals. However, recent advances in genome/transcriptome sequencing have facilitated investigation of neuropeptide expression/function in the larvae of protostomian (e...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964922/transcriptomic-information-from-pacific-white-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei-ovary-and-eyestalk-and-expression-patterns-for-genes-putatively-involved-in-the-reproductive-process
#11
Claudia Ventura-López, Pavel E Galindo-Torres, Fabiola G Arcos, Clara Galindo-Sánchez, Ilie S Racotta, Cristina Escobedo-Fregoso, Raúl Llera-Herrera, Ana M Ibarra
The increased use of massive sequencing technologies has enabled the identification of several genes known to be involved in different mechanisms associated with reproduction that so far have only been studied in vertebrates and other model invertebrate species. In order to further investigate the genes involved in Litopenaeus vannamei reproduction, cDNA and SSH libraries derived from female eyestalk and gonad were produced, allowing the identification of expressed sequences tags (ESTs) that potentially have a role in the regulation of gonadal maturation...
December 10, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958372/global-map-of-oxytocin-vasopressin-like-neuropeptide-signalling-in-insects
#12
Zita Liutkeviciute, Johannes Koehbach, Thomas Eder, Esther Gil-Mansilla, Christian W Gruber
Oxytocin and vasopressin mediate a range of physiological functions that are important for osmoregulation, reproduction, social behaviour, memory and learning. The origin of this signalling system is thought to date back ~600 million years. Oxytocin/vasopressin-like peptides have been identified in several invertebrate species and they appear to be functionally related across the entire animal kingdom. There is little information available about the biology of this peptide G protein-coupled receptor signalling system in insects...
December 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876417/does-long-term-low-impact-stress-cause-population-extinction
#13
M J B Amorim, C Pereira, A M V M Soares, J J Scott-Fordsmand
This study assessed and monitored 40 consecutive reproduction tests - multigenerational (MG) - of continuous exposure to Cd (at 2 reproduction Effect Concentrations (EC): EC10 and EC50) using the standard soil invertebrate Folsomia candida, in total 3.5 years of data were collected. Endpoints included survival, reproduction, size and metallothionein (MTc) gene expression. Further, to investigate adaptation to the toxicant, additional standard toxicity experiments were performed with the MG organisms of F6, F10, F26, F34 and F40 generations of exposure...
January 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859169/nipped-in-the-bud-mesograzer-feeding-preference-contributes-to-kelp-decline
#14
John M O'Brien, Robert E Scheibling
Small invertebrate grazers can disproportionately reduce plant fitness by discriminately consuming valuable tissues, but the context and attendant consequences of this activity at higher levels of ecological organization rarely are considered. To assess the impact of a gastropod mesograzer Lacuna vincta on fecundity and potential reproductive output of the habitat-forming kelp Saccharina latissima, we measured the intensity and distribution of grazing damage on kelp blades at five sites of varying kelp density, during the annual reproductive peak (October-November) in Nova Scotia...
July 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835069/health-effects-of-metoprolol-in-epibenthic-and-endobenthic-invertebrates-a-basis-to-validate-future-in-vitro-biotests-for-effect-based-biomonitoring
#15
Dirk Jungmann, Kristin Berg, Andreas Dieterich, Martin Frank, Tonya Gräf, Marco Scheurer, Simon Schwarz, Carmen Siewert, Matthias Oetken
The aim of this study was to determine the effect data for metoprolol as a model substance for beta-blockers in aquatic invertebrates. The results will be used as a basis for the validation of future mode of action-based in vitro test systems targeting this class of pharmaceuticals. Effects of metoprolol were investigated in two autochthonous species with high relevance in stream ecology: the amphipod Gammarus fossarum and the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus. Mortality in G. fossarum was not observed in acute toxicity testing (48 h), and a significant increase of mortality at 45 mg/L was found when amphipods were exposed chronically (40 days)...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814382/highly-connected-populations-and-temporal-stability-in-allelic-frequencies-of-a-harvested-crab-from-the-southern-pacific-coast
#16
Noemi Rojas-Hernandez, David Veliz, Marcela P Riveros, Juan P Fuentes, Luis M Pardo
For marine invertebrates with a benthic adult form and a planktonic larva phase, the connectivity among populations is mainly based on larval dispersal. While an extended larval phase will promote gene flow, other factors such as an intensive fishery and geographical barriers could lead to changes in genetic variability. In this study, the population genetic structure of the commercial crab Metacarcinus edwardsii was analyzed along 700 km of the Chilean coast. The analysis, based on eight microsatellite loci genotyped from megalopae and adult crabs, considered temporal and spatial patterns of genetic variation...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812427/post-reproductive-parthenogenetic-pea-aphids-acyrthosiphon-pisum-are-visually-identifiable-and-disproportionately-positioned-distally-to-clonal-colonies
#17
Erik T Saberski, Julia Daisy Diamond, Nathaniel Fath Henneman, Daniel A Levitis
The role of kin-selection in the evolution of post-reproductive life is controversial. While anthropological and demographic studies strongly suggest that humans and a few other species experience kin selection for significant post-reproductive survival, these results are necessarily correlational. Understanding could therefore be advanced by the development of a globally available, field and laboratory tractable experimental model of kin-selected post-reproductive survival. In only one invertebrate (Quadrartus yoshinomiyai, a gall-forming aphid endemic to Japan) have individuals too old to reproduce been shown to be both numerous in natural habitats and able to help close relatives survive or reproduce...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805042/functional-insights-into-the-testis-transcriptome-of-the-edible-sea-urchin-loxechinus-albus
#18
Juan Diego Gaitán-Espitia, Roland Sánchez, Paulina Bruning, Leyla Cárdenas
The edible sea urchin Loxechinus albus (Molina, 1782) is a keystone species in the littoral benthic systems of the Pacific coast of South America. The international demand for high-quality gonads of this echinoderm has led to an extensive exploitation and decline of its natural populations. Consequently, a more thorough understanding of L. albus gonad development and gametogenesis could provide valuable resources for aquaculture applications, management, conservation and studies about the evolution of functional and structural pathways that underlie the reproductive toolkit of marine invertebrates...
November 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804275/oxytocin-mediated-behavior-in-invertebrates-an-evolutionary-perspective
#19
REVIEW
Meghan A Lockard, Margaret S Ebert, Cornelia I Bargmann
The molecular and functional conservation of oxytocin-related neuropeptides in behavior is striking. In animals separated by at least 600 million years of evolution, from roundworms to humans, oxytocin homologs play critical roles in the modulation of reproductive behavior and other biological functions. Here, we review the roles of oxytocin in invertebrate behavior from an evolutionary perspective. We begin by tracing the evolution of oxytocin through the invertebrate animal lineages, and then describe common themes in invertebrate behaviors that are mediated by oxytocin-related peptides, including reproductive behavior, learning and memory, food arousal, and predator/prey relationships...
November 2, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787216/a-morphological-study-of-diplodiscus-subclavatus-pallas-1760-trematoda-diplodiscidae-adults-from-the-accidental-host-viviparus-contectus-millet-1813-caenogastropoda-viviparidae
#20
Anna Cichy, Elżbieta Żbikowska
A phenomenon of switching of the parasite in the food chain to an accidental host is commonly observed in nature. However, there is little available data concerning the morphological descriptions of parasites that passively get into the atypical hosts and are capable, at least to some degree, of somatic growth and development of reproductive structures. A morphological survey of Diplodiscus subclavatus (Pallas, 1760) adults isolated from a digestive tract of an accidental host, Viviparus contectus (Millet, 1813), was carried out...
December 1, 2016: Acta Parasitologica
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