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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156091/multifarious-anchovy-and-sardine-regimes-in-the-humboldt-current-system-during-the-last-150-years
#1
Renato Salvatteci, David Field, Dimitri Gutierrez, Tim Baumgartner, Vicente Ferreira, Luc Ortlieb, Abdel Sifeddine, Daniel Grados, Arnaud Bertrand
The Humboldt Current System (HCS) has the highest production of forage fish in the world, though it is highly variable and the future of the primary component, anchovy, is uncertain in the context of global warming. Paradigms based on late 20(th) century observations suggest that large-scale forcing controls decadal-scale fluctuations of anchovy and sardine across different boundary currents of the Pacific. We develop records of anchovy and sardine fluctuations since 1860 AD using fish scales from multiple sites containing laminated sediments and compare them with Pacific basin-scale and regional indices of ocean-climate variability...
November 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156068/lmwf-5a-for-the-treatment-of-severe-osteoarthritis-of-the-knee-integrated-analysis-of-safety-and-efficacy
#2
Brian Cole, Brian McGrath, Kristin Salottolo, David Bar-Or
The low-molecular-weight fraction of 5% human serum albumin (LMWF-5A) is being developed to treat the signs and symptoms of severe osteoarthritis of the knee. This study was a post hoc pooled analysis of 3 randomized placebo-controlled trials of a single intra-articular injection of LMWF-5A, focusing on the subset of patients with severe osteoarthritis of the knee (Kellgren-Lawrence grade 4). Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive a single 4-mL intra-articular knee injection of either LMWF-5A or saline. Safety was assessed as the incidence and severity of adverse events...
November 20, 2017: Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156049/management-of-pregnant-women-and-children-focusing-on-preventing-mother-to-infant-transmission
#3
Huey-Ling Chen, Wan-Hsin Wen, Mei-Hwei Chang
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) immunization has been effectively preventing chronic HBV infection with >90% efficacy in countries with universal neonatal immunization. Perinatal mother-to-infant transmission of HBV remains the major cause of chronic HBV infection despite immunization. Maternal hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg) and high viral load have been noted to be the most important risk factors for transmission. In recent years, short-term antiviral therapy for pregnant women in the third trimester has been shown to be highly effective in reducing 90% of vaccine failure in children...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156005/abiofilm-a-resource-of-anti-biofilm-agents-and-their-potential-implications-in-targeting-antibiotic-drug-resistance
#4
Akanksha Rajput, Anamika Thakur, Shivangi Sharma, Manoj Kumar
Biofilms play an important role in the antibiotic drug resistance, which is threatening public health globally. Almost, all microbes mimic multicellular lifestyle to form biofilm by undergoing phenotypic changes to adapt adverse environmental conditions. Many anti-biofilm agents have been experimentally validated to disrupt the biofilms during last three decades. To organize this data, we developed the 'aBiofilm' resource (http://bioinfo.imtech.res.in/manojk/abiofilm/) that harbors a database, a predictor, and the data visualization modules...
November 16, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155792/assessment-of-dictyostelium-discoideum-response-to-acute-mechanical-stimulation
#5
Yulia Artemenko, Peter N Devreotes
Chemotaxis, or migration up a gradient of a chemoattractant, is the best understood mode of directed migration. Studies using social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum revealed that a complex signal transduction network of parallel pathways amplifies the response to chemoattractants, and leads to biased actin polymerization and protrusion of a pseudopod in the direction of a gradient. In contrast, molecular mechanisms driving other types of directed migration, for example, due to exposure to shear flow or electric fields, are not known...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155765/continuous-hydrologic-and-water-quality-monitoring-of-vernal-ponds
#6
Odette Mina, Heather E Gall, Joseph W Chandler, Jeremy Harper, Malcolm Taylor
Vernal ponds, also referred to as vernal pools, provide critical ecosystem services and habitat for a variety of threatened and endangered species. However, they are vulnerable parts of the landscapes that are often poorly understood and understudied. Land use and management practices, as well as climate change are thought to be a contribution to the global amphibian decline. However, more research is needed to understand the extent of these impacts. Here, we present methodology for characterizing a vernal pond's morphology and detail a monitoring station that can be used to collect water quantity and quality data over the duration of a vernal pond's hydroperiod...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155729/sample-preparation-and-analysis-of-rnaseq-based-gene-expression-data-from-zebrafish
#7
Timothy L Hostelley, Jessica E Nesmith, Norann A Zaghloul
The analysis of global gene expression changes is a valuable tool for identifying novel pathways underlying observed phenotypes. The zebrafish is an excellent model for rapid assessment of whole transcriptome from whole animal or individual cell populations due to the ease of isolation of RNA from large numbers of animals. Here a protocol for global gene expression analysis in zebrafish embryos using RNA sequencing (RNASeq) is presented. We describe preparation of RNA from whole embryos or from cell populations obtained using cell sorting in transgenic animals...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155669/centers-for-disease-control-and-prevention-public-health-response-to-humanitarian-emergencies-2007-2016
#8
Andrew T Boyd, Susan T Cookson, Mark Anderson, Oleg O Bilukha, Muireann Brennan, Thomas Handzel, Colleen Hardy, Farah Husain, Barbara Lopes Cardozo, Carlos Navarro Colorado, Cyrus Shahpar, Leisel Talley, Michael Toole, Michael Gerber
Humanitarian emergencies, including complex emergencies associated with fragile states or areas of conflict, affect millions of persons worldwide. Such emergencies threaten global health security and have complicated but predictable effects on public health. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Emergency Response and Recovery Branch (ERRB) (Division of Global Health Protection, Center for Global Health) contributes to public health emergency responses by providing epidemiologic support for humanitarian health interventions...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155508/microarray-bioinformatics-in-cancer-a-review
#9
Ziqi Tao, Aimin Shi, Rui Li, Yiqiu Wang, Xin Wang, Jing Zhao
Bioinformatics is one of the newest fields of biological research, and should be viewed broadly as the use of mathematical, statistical, and computational methods for the processing and analysis of biological data. Over the last decade, the rapid growth of information and technology in both "genomics" and "omics" eras has been overwhelming for the laboratory scientists to process experimental results. Traditional gene-by-gene approaches in research are insufficient to meet the growth and demand of biological research in understanding the true biology...
July 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155464/both-life-history-plasticity-and-local-adaptation-will-shape-range-wide-responses-to-climate-warming-in-the-tundra-plant-silene-acaulis
#10
Megan L Peterson, Daniel F Doak, William F Morris
Many predictions of how climate change will impact biodiversity have focused on range shifts using species-wide climate tolerances, an approach that ignores the demographic mechanisms that enable species to attain broad geographic distributions. But these mechanisms matter, as responses to climate change could fundamentally differ depending on the contributions of life history plasticity vs local adaptation to species-wide climate tolerances. In particular, if local adaptation to climate is strong, populations across a species' range - not only those at the trailing range edge - could decline sharply with global climate change...
November 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155435/periventricular-white-matter-hyperintensities-and-functional-decline
#11
Mandip S Dhamoon, Ying-Kuen Cheung, Ahmet Bagci, Noam Alperin, Ralph L Sacco, Mitchell S V Elkind, Clinton B Wright
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: We previously showed that global brain white matter hyperintensity volume (WMHV) was associated with accelerated long-term functional decline. The objective of the current study was to determine whether WMHV in particular brain regions is more predictive of functional decline. DESIGN: Prospective population-based study. SETTING: Northern Manhattan magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals free of stroke at baseline (N = 1,195; mean age 71 ± 9; n = 460 (39%) male)...
November 20, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155178/induction-of-immune-related-gene-expression-by-seminal-exosomes-in-the-porcine-endometrium
#12
Rulan Bai, Zeinab Latifi, Kazuya Kusama, Keigo Nakamura, Masayuki Shimada, Kazuhiko Imakawa
Seminal plasma (SP) is considered as a vehicle to carry sperm into female reproductive tract, of which functions have not been completely understood. This study aimed to identify the function of seminal exosomes on porcine endometrium. Exosomes were isolated from the sperm-rich fraction of boar semen and were confirmed by the expression of exosome marker HSP70 and size distribution using nano-sight tracking analysis. Porcine endometrial epithelial cells (EECs) were then treated with seminal exosomes, and RNA extracted were subjected to global expression analysis...
November 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155150/enhancement-of-cutaneous-immunity-during-ageing-by-blocking-p38-mapkinase-induced-inflammation
#13
Milica Vukmanovic-Stejic, Emma S Chambers, Mayte Suarez- Farinas, Daisy Sandhu, Judilyn Fuentes-Duculan, Neil Patel, Elaine Agius, Katie E Lacy, Carolin T Turner, Anis Larbi, Veronique Birault, Mahdad Noursadeghi, Neil A Mabbott, Malcolm H A Rustin, James Krueger, Arne N Akbar
BACKGROUND: Immunity declines with age that leads to re-activation of varicella zoster virus (VZV). In humans, age associated immune changes are usually measured in blood leukocytes however this may not reflect alterations in tissue-specific immunity. OBJECTIVES: We used a VZV antigen challenge system in the skin to investigate changes in tissue specific mechanisms involved in the decreased response to this virus during ageing. METHODS: We assessed cutaneous immunity by the extent of erythema and induration after intradermal VZV antigen injection...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155018/emerging-infections-are-an-increasingly-important-topic
#14
REVIEW
Eskild Petersen, Nicola Petrosillo, Marion Koopmans
OBJECTIVES: This paper review trends in emerging infections and the need for increased clinical and laboratory surveillance. METHODS: Factors that contributed to the emergence of recent outbreaks have been reviewed. Known, major outbreaks over the past two decades were reviewed. RESULTS: We identified at least four major drivers of emergent infections: i. increasing density of the human population; ii. stress from farmland expansion on the environment; iii...
November 15, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154458/epigenetic-mechanisms-of-major-depression-targeting-neuronal-plasticity
#15
REVIEW
Shusaku Uchida, Hirotaka Yamagata, Tomoe Seki, Yoshifumi Watanabe
Major depressive disorder is one of the most common mental illnesses as it affects more than 350 million people globally. Major depressive disorder is etiologically complex and disabling. Genetic factors play a role in the etiology of major depression. However, identical twin studies have shown high rates of discordance, indicating non-genetic mechanisms as well. For instance, stressful life events increase the risk of depression. Environmental stressors also induce stable changes in gene expression within the brain that may lead to maladaptive neuronal plasticity in regions implicated in disease pathogenesis...
November 20, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154276/sparcl1-accelerates-symptom-onset-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-influences-brain-structure-and-function-during-aging
#16
Sahba Seddighi, Vijay R Varma, Yang An, Sudhir Varma, Lori L Beason-Held, Toshiko Tanaka, Melissa H Kitner-Triolo, Michael A Kraut, Christos Davatzikos, Madhav Thambisetty
We recently reported that alpha-2 macroglobulin (A2M) is a biomarker of neuronal injury in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and identified a network of nine genes co-expressed with A2M in the brain. This network includes the gene encoding SPARCL1, a protein implicated in synaptic maintenance. Here, we examine whether SPARCL1 is associated with longitudinal changes in brain structure and function in older individuals at risk for AD in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Using data from the Gene-Tissue Expression Project, we first identified two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs9998212 and rs7695558, associated with lower brain SPARCL1 gene expression...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154130/neuropilin-2-plexina3-receptors-associate-with-glua1-and-mediate-sema3f-dependent-homeostatic-scaling-in-cortical-neurons
#17
Qiang Wang, Shu-Ling Chiu, Eleftheria Koropouli, Ingie Hong, Sarah Mitchell, Teresa P Easwaran, Natalie R Hamilton, Ahleah S Gustina, Qianwen Zhu, David D Ginty, Richard L Huganir, Alex L Kolodkin
Regulation of AMPA-type glutamate receptor (AMPAR) number at synapses is a major mechanism for controlling synaptic strength during homeostatic scaling in response to global changes in neural activity. We show that the secreted guidance cue semaphorin 3F (Sema3F) and its neuropilin-2 (Npn-2)/plexinA3 (PlexA3) holoreceptor mediate homeostatic plasticity in cortical neurons. Sema3F-Npn-2/PlexA3 signaling is essential for cell surface AMPAR homeostatic downscaling in response to an increase in neuronal activity, Npn-2 associates with AMPARs, and Sema3F regulates this interaction...
November 14, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153770/rats-exposed-to-2-45ghz-of-non-ionizing-radiation-exhibit-behavioral-changes-with-increased-brain-expression-of-apoptotic-caspase-3
#18
Rini Varghese, Anuradha Majumdar, Girish Kumar, Amit Shukla
In recent years there has been a tremendous increase in use of Wi-Fi devices along with mobile phones, globally. Wi-Fi devices make use of 2.4GHz frequency. The present study evaluated the impact of 2.45GHz radiation exposure for 4h/day for 45days on behavioral and oxidative stress parameters in female Sprague Dawley rats. Behavioral tests of anxiety, learning and memory were started from day 38. Oxidative stress parameters were estimated in brain homogenates after sacrificing the rats on day 45. In morris water maze, elevated plus maze and light dark box test, the 2...
November 14, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153580/effectiveness-and-safety-of-oro-dispersible-sildenafil-in-a-new-film-formulation-for-the-treatment-of-erectile-dysfunction-comparison-between-sildenafil-100-mg-film-coated-tablet-and-75-mg-oro-dispersible-film
#19
Andrea Cocci, Marco Capece, Gianmartin Cito, Giorgio Ivan Russo, Marco Falcone, Massimiliano Timpano, Michele Rizzo, Pier Andrea Della Camera, Simone Morselli, Riccardo Campi, Francesco Sessa, Giovanni Cacciamani, Andrea Minervini, Mauro Gacci, Vincenzo Mirone, Girolamo Morelli, Nicola Mondaini, Gaia Polloni, Sergio Serni, Alessandro Natali
BACKGROUND: A new oro-dispersible film (ODF) formulation of sildenafil has been developed for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) to overcome the drawbacks that some patients experience when taking the conventional film-coated tablet (FCT). AIM: To assess the effectiveness and safety of sildenafil ODF formulation in patients with ED who were using the conventional FCT. METHODS: From May 2017 through July 2017, 139 patients with ED were enrolled...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153551/remote-sensing-based-deforestation-analysis-in-mahanadi-and-brahmaputra-river-basin-in-india-since-1985
#20
M D Behera, P Tripathi, P Das, S K Srivastava, P S Roy, C Joshi, P R Behera, J Deka, P Kumar, M L Khan, O P Tripathi, T Dash, Y V N Krishnamurthy
Land use and land cover (LULC) change has been recognized as a key driver of global climate change by influencing land surface processes. Being in constant change, river basins are always subjected to LULC changes, especially decline in forest cover to give way for agricultural expansion, urbanization, industrialization etc. We used on-screen digital interpretation technique to derive LULC maps from Landsat images at three decadal intervals i.e., 1985, 1995 and 2005 of two major river basins of India. Rain-fed, Mahanadi river basin (MRB) attributed to 55% agricultural area wherein glacier-fed, Brahmaputra river basin (BRB) had only 16% area under agricultural land...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
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