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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103604/modification-of-first-impression-formation-and-personality-by-manipulating-outer-appearance
#1
Susanne-Marie Hüttner, Michael Linden
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Global impression is the first item in any psychopathological evaluation, as patients often elicit negative responses in other persons by a dysfunctional first impression formation. This can lead to interactional problems and stigmatization. This study tested to what degree the perception of "personality" can be changed by simple manipulations of the outer appearance of a person. METHOD: A total of 92 persons were given two different photos of the same female, one with hair combed back and the other with "open" curly hair...
January 20, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103280/formulation-general-features-and-global-calibration-of-a-bioenergetically-constrained-fishery-model
#2
David A Carozza, Daniele Bianchi, Eric D Galbraith
Human exploitation of marine resources is profoundly altering marine ecosystems, while climate change is expected to further impact commercially-harvested fish and other species. Although the global fishery is a highly complex system with many unpredictable aspects, the bioenergetic limits on fish production and the response of fishing effort to profit are both relatively tractable, and are sure to play important roles. Here we describe a generalized, coupled biological-economic model of the global marine fishery that represents both of these aspects in a unified framework, the BiOeconomic mArine Trophic Size-spectrum (BOATS) model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103274/prenatal-exposure-to-lipopolysaccharide-alters-renal-dna-methyltransferase-expression-in-rat-offspring
#3
Jing Wang, Jinghong Cui, Rui Chen, Youcai Deng, Xi Liao, Yanling Wei, Xiaohui Li, Min Su, Jianhua Yu, Ping Yi
Prenatal exposure to inflammation results in hypertension during adulthood but the mechanisms are not well understood. Maternal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) alters interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels in the fetal environment. As reported in many recent studies, IL-6 regulates DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) through the transcription factor friend leukemia virus integration 1 (Fli-1). The present study explores the role of intrarenal DNMTs during development of hypertension induced by prenatal exposure to LPS...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103262/serotype-distribution-and-antimicrobial-sensitivity-profile-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-carried-in-healthy-toddlers-before-pcv13-introduction-in-niamey-niger
#4
Sani Ousmane, Bouli A Diallo, Rasmata Ouedraogo, Abdel-Kader A Sanda, Amadou M Soussou, Jean-Marc Collard
BACKGROUND: To mitigate the burden of pneumococcal infections in Niger, a 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine, PCV13, was introduced for routine child vaccination in July 2014. In order to provide pre-vaccine baseline data and allow appreciation of changes on carriage due to vaccination, we analyzed retrospectively pneumococcal isolates obtained from healthy, 0 to 2 year old children prior to the vaccine introduction. METHODS: From June 5, 2007, to May 26, 2008, 1200 nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from healthy 0 to 2 year old children and analyzed by standard microbiological methods...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103187/convexity-shape-prior-for-binary-segmentation
#5
Lena Gorelick, Olga Veksler, Yuri Boykov, Claudia Nieuwenhuis
Convexity is a known important cue in human vision. We propose shape convexity as a new high-order regularization constraint for binary image segmentation. In the context of discrete optimization, object convexity is represented as a sum of three-clique potentials penalizing any 1- 0- 1 configuration on all straight lines. We show that these non-submodular potentials can be efficiently optimized using an iterative trust region approach. At each iteration the energy is linearly approximated and globally optimized within a small trust region around the current solution...
February 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103132/functional-gains-in-energy-and-cell-metabolism-after-tspo-gene-insertion
#6
Guo-Jun Liu, Ryan J Middleton, Winnie Wai-Ying Kam, David Y Chin, Claire R Hatty, Ronald H Y Chan, Richard B Banati
Recent loss-of-function studies in tissue-specific as well as global Tspo (Translocator Protein 18 kDa) knockout mice have not confirmed its long assumed indispensability for the translocation of cholesterol across the mitochondrial inter-membrane space, a rate-limiting step in steroid biosynthesis. Instead, recent studies in global Tspo knockout mice indicate that TSPO may play a more fundamental role in cellular bioenergetics, which may include the indirect down-stream regulation of transport or metabolic functions...
January 19, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102779/long-term-dust-aerosol-production-from-natural-sources-in-iceland
#7
Pavla Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Olafur Arnalds, Haraldur Olafsson
: Iceland is a volcanic island in the North Atlantic Ocean with maritime climate. In spite of moist climate, large areas are with limited vegetation cover where >40% of Iceland is classified with considerable to very severe erosion and 21% of Iceland is volcanic sandy deserts. Not only do natural emissions from these sources influenced by strong winds affect regional air quality in Iceland ("Reykjavik haze"), but dust particles are transported over the Atlantic ocean and Arctic Ocean >1000 km at times...
February 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102610/outcomes-of-hiv-positive-patients-lost-to-follow-up-in-african-treatment-programs
#8
REVIEW
Kathrin Zürcher, Anne Mooser, Nanina Anderegg, Olga Tymejczyk, Margaret J Couvillon, Denis Nash, Matthias Egger
OBJECTIVE: The retention of patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is key to achieving global targets in response to the HIV epidemic. Loss to follow-up (LTFU) can be substantial, with unknown outcomes for patients lost to ART programs. We examined changes in outcomes of patients LTFU over calendar time, assessed associations with other studies and program characteristics, and investigated the relative success of different tracing methods. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and logistic random-effects meta-regression analysis of studies that traced adults or children who started ART and were LTFU in sub-Saharan African treatment programs...
January 19, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101740/improving-parameter-inference-from-frap-data-an-analysis-motivated-by-pattern-formation-in-the-drosophila-wing-disc
#9
Lin Lin, Hans G Othmer
Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) is used to obtain quantitative information about molecular diffusion and binding kinetics at both cell and tissue levels of organization. FRAP models have been proposed to estimate the diffusion coefficients and binding kinetic parameters of species for a variety of biological systems and experimental settings. However, it is not clear what the connection among the diverse parameter estimates from different models of the same system is, whether the assumptions made in the model are appropriate, and what the qualities of the estimates are...
January 18, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100914/tet-mediated-hydroxymethylcytosine-at-the-ppar%C3%AE-locus-is-required-for-initiation-of-adipogenic-differentiation
#10
Y Yoo, J H Park, C Weigel, D B Liesenfeld, D Weichenhan, C Plass, D-G Seo, A M Lindroth, Y J Park
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Adipose tissue is one of the main organs regulating energy homeostasis, via energy storage as well as endocrine function. The adipocyte cell number is largely determined by adipogenesis. While the molecular mechanism of adipogenesis has been extensively studied, its role in dynamic DNA methylation plasticity remains unclear. Recently, it has been shown that Tet methylcytosine dioxygenase (TET) are catalytically capable of oxidizing DNA 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) towards a complete removal of the methylated cytosine...
January 19, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100875/the-role-of-thiol-disulphide-homeostasis-in-anthracycline-associated-cardiac-toxicity
#11
Mustafa Topuz, Omer Şen, Mehmet Kaplan, Oguz Akkus, Ozcan Erel, Mustafa Gur
The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the baseline thiol/disulfide state can predict the occurrence of anthracycline induced cardiac toxicity. A total of 186 cancer patients receiving anthracycline (doxorubicin)-based chemotherapy were enrolled. All patients underwent 2-dimensional (2D) speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) to determine their left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and blood samples for measuring thiol forms were obtained before treatment and 4 weeks after completion of the chemotherapy...
January 17, 2017: International Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100818/lowland-biotic-attrition-revisited-body-size-and-variation-among-climate-change-winners-and-losers
#12
Jedediah F Brodie, Matthew Strimas-Mackey, Jayasilan Mohd-Azlan, Alys Granados, Henry Bernard, Anthony J Giordano, Olga E Helmy
The responses of lowland tropical communities to climate change will critically influence global biodiversity but remain poorly understood. If species in these systems are unable to tolerate warming, the communities-currently the most diverse on Earth-may become depauperate ('biotic attrition'). In response to temperature changes, animals can adjust their distribution in space or their activity in time, but these two components of the niche are seldom considered together. We assessed the spatio-temporal niches of rainforest mammal species in Borneo across gradients in elevation and temperature...
January 25, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100688/the-use-of-oxytocin-to-improve-feeding-and-social-skills-in-infants-with-prader-willi-syndrome
#13
Maïthé Tauber, Kader Boulanouar, Gwenaelle Diene, Sophie Çabal-Berthoumieu, Virginie Ehlinger, Pascale Fichaux-Bourin, Catherine Molinas, Sandy Faye, Marion Valette, Jeanne Pourrinet, Catie Cessans, Sylvie Viaux-Sauvelon, Céline Bascoul, Antoine Guedeney, Patric Delhanty, Vincent Geenen, Henri Martens, Françoise Muscatelli, David Cohen, Angèle Consoli, Pierre Payoux, Catherine Arnaud, Jean-Pierre Salles
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patients with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) display poor feeding and social skills as infants and fewer hypothalamic oxytocin (OXT)-producing neurons were documented in adults. Animal data demonstrated that early treatment with OXT restores sucking after birth. Our aim is to reproduce these data in infants with PWS. METHODS: We conducted a phase 2 escalating dose study of a short course (7 days) of intranasal OXT administration. We enrolled 18 infants with PWS under 6 months old (6 infants in each step) who received 4 IU of OXT either every other day, daily, or twice daily...
January 18, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100380/-cigarette-consumer-price-and-affordability-in-china-results-from-2015-china-adult-survey
#14
L L Wang, Y Yang, Y Nan, M W Tu, J J Wang, Y Jiang
Objective: To analyze the change of cigarette consumption price, and understand the cigarette affordability in China. Methods: A total of 16 800 households were selected through multi-stage stratified cluster sampling. Then IPAQ was used to randomly select one family member to conduct the survey. Questionnaire from Global Tobacco Surveillance System with added country-specific questions was used. Results: Up to 50% of current smokers would buy 20 cigarettes with price of 9.9 yuan (RMB) or less, and 25% of current smokers would not buy 20 cigarettes with price exceed 5...
January 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100297/transcriptional-analysis-of-mating-and-pre-infection-stages-of-the-anther-smut-microbotryum-lychnidis-dioicae
#15
Su San Toh, Zehua Chen, David J Schultz, Christina A Cuomo, Michael H Perlin
Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae is an obligate biotrophic parasite of the wildflower species, Silene latifolia. This dikaryotic fungus, commonly known as an anther smut, requires that haploid, yeast-like sporidia of opposite mating types fuse and differentiate into dikaryotic hyphae that penetrate host tissue as part of the fungal lifecycle. Mating occurs under conditions of cool temperatures and limited nutrients. Further development requires host cues or chemical mimics, including a variety of lipids, e.g...
January 17, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100168/effects-of-pleistocene-sea-level-fluctuations-on-mangrove-population-dynamics-a-lesson-from-sonneratia-alba
#16
Yuchen Yang, Jianfang Li, Shuhuan Yang, Xinnian Li, Lu Fang, Cairong Zhong, Norman C Duke, Renchao Zhou, Suhua Shi
BACKGROUND: A large-scale systematical investigation of the influence of Pleistocene climate oscillation on mangrove population dynamics could enrich our knowledge about the evolutionary history during times of historical climate change, which in turn may provide important information for their conservation. RESULTS: In this study, phylogeography of a mangrove tree Sonneratia alba was studied by sequencing three chloroplast fragments and seven nuclear genes. A low level of genetic diversity at the population level was detected across its range, especially at the range margins, which was mainly attributed to the steep sea-level drop and associated climate fluctuations during the Pleistocene glacial periods...
January 18, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100167/conserved-gene-expression-in-sperm-reservoirs-between-birds-and-mammals-in-response-to-mating
#17
Mohammad Atikuzzaman, Manuel Alvarez-Rodriguez, Alejandro Vicente Carrillo, Martin Johnsson, Dominic Wright, Heriberto Rodriguez-Martinez
BACKGROUND: Spermatozoa are stored in the oviductal functional sperm reservoir in animals with internal fertilization, including zoologically distant classes such as pigs or poultry. They are held fertile in the reservoir for times ranging from a couple of days (in pigs), to several weeks (in chickens), before they are gradually released to fertilize the newly ovulated eggs. It is currently unknown whether females from these species share conserved mechanisms to tolerate such a lengthy presence of immunologically-foreign spermatozoa...
January 18, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100041/contrasting-growth-forecasts-across-the-geographical-range-of-scots-pine-due-to-altitudinal-and-latitudinal-differences-in-climatic-sensitivity
#18
Luis Matías, Juan C Linares, Ángela Sánchez-Miranda, Alistair S Jump
Ongoing changes in global climate are altering ecological conditions for many species. The consequences of such changes are typically most evident at the edge of a species' geographical distribution, where differences in growth or population dynamics may result in range expansions or contractions. Understanding population responses to different climatic drivers along wide latitudinal and altitudinal gradients is necessary in order to gain a better understanding of plant responses to ongoing increases in global temperature and drought severity...
January 18, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100027/moving-beyond-presence-and-absence-when-examining-changes-in-species-distributions
#19
Michael B Ashcroft, Diana H King, Ben Raymond, Johanna D Turnbull, Jane Wasley, Sharon A Robinson
Species distributions are often simplified to binary representations of the ranges where they are present and absent. It is then common to look for changes in these ranges as indicators of the effects of climate change, the expansion or control of invasive species or the impact of human land use changes. We argue that there are inherent problems with this approach, and more emphasis should be placed on species relative abundance rather than just presence. The sampling effort required to be confident of absence is often impractical to achieve, and estimates of species range changes based on survey data are therefore inherently sensitive to sampling intensity...
January 18, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098789/implications-of-changing-temperatures-on-the-growth-fecundity-and-survival-of-intermediate-host-snails-of-schistosomiasis-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Chester Kalinda, Moses Chimbari, Samson Mukaratirwa
Climate change has been predicted to increase the global mean temperature and to alter the ecological interactions among organisms. These changes may play critical roles in influencing the life history traits of the intermediate hosts (IHs). This review focused on studies and disease models that evaluate the potential effect of temperature rise on the ecology of IH snails and the development of parasites within them. The main focus was on IH snails of schistosome parasites that cause schistosomiasis in humans...
January 13, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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