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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724200/effect-of-memantine-on-serum-levels-of-neuron-specific-enolase-and-on-the-glasgow-coma-scale-in-patients-with-moderate-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
Majid Mokhtari, Hossein Nayeb-Aghaei, Mehran Kouchek, Mir Mohammad Miri, Reza Goharani, Arash Amoozandeh, Sina Akhavan Salamat, Mohammad Sistanizad
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of disability and death globally. Despite significant progress in neuromonitoring and neuroprotection, pharmacological interventions have failed to generate favorable results. We examined the effect of memantine on serum levels of neuron-specific enolase (NSE), a marker of neuronal damage, and the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) in patients with moderate TBI. Patients were randomly assigned to the control group (who received standard TBI management) and the treatment group (who, alongside their standard management, received enteral memantine 30 mg twice daily for 7 days)...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724005/human-resources-for-health-global-crisis-and-international-cooperation
#2
Gustavo Zoio Portela, Amanda Cavada Fehn, Regina Lucia Sarmento Ungerer, Mario Roberto Dal Poz
From the 1990s onwards, national economies became connected and globalized. Changes in the demographic and epidemiological profile of the population highlighted the need for further discussions and strategies on Human Resources for Health (HRH). The health workforce crisis is a worldwide phenomenon. It includes: difficulties in attracting and retaining health professionals to work in rural and remote areas, poor distribution and high turnover of health staff particularly physicians, poor training of health workforces in new sanitation and demographic conditions and the production of scientific evidence to support HRH decision making, policy management, programs and interventions...
July 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723654/disrupted-small-world-brain-network-topology-in-pure-conduct-disorder
#3
Feng-Mei Lu, Jian-Song Zhou, Jiang Zhang, Xiao-Ping Wang, Zhen Yuan
OBJECTIVES: Conduct disorder (CD) is characterized by the violation of the rights of others or basic social rules and a repetitive, persistent pattern of antisocial and aggressive behaviors. A large number of functional and structural neuroimaging studies have identified widely abnormalities in specific brain regions in CD, but the alterations in the topological organization of functional networks among them remain largely unknown. METHODS: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was applied to investigate the intrinsic functional connectivity in 18 pure CD patients and eighteen typically developing healthy controls...
July 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723206/evaluating-dye-labeled-dna-dendrimers-for-potential-applications-in-molecular-biosensing
#4
Carl W Brown, Susan Buckhout-White, Sebastián A Díaz, Joseph S Melinger, Mario G Ancona, Ellen R Goldman, Igor L Medintz
DNA nanostructures provide a reliable and predictable scaffold for precisely positioning fluorescent dyes to form energy transfer cascades. Furthermore, these structures and their attendant dye networks can be dynamically manipulated by biochemical inputs, with the changes reflected in the spectral response. However, the complexity of DNA structures that have undergone such types of manipulation for direct biosensing applications is quite limited. Here, we investigate four different modification strategies to effect such dynamic manipulations using a DNA dendrimer scaffold as a testbed, and with applications to biosensing in mind...
March 24, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723117/versatile-barometer-biosensor-based-on-au-pt-core-shell-nanoparticle-probe
#5
Qiangqiang Fu, Ze Wu, Dan Du, Chengzhou Zhu, Yuehe Lin, Yong Tang
There is a high global demand for sensitive, portable, user-friendly, and cost-effective biosensors. In this work, we introduce a barometer-based biosensor for the detection of a broad range of targets. The device is operated by measuring the pressure change produced by oxygen (O2) generation in a limited chamber using a portable barometer. The design employs core-shell Au@Pt nanoparticles (Au@PtNPs) as the bioassay probe to catalyze the decomposition of H2O2 and the release of O2. As a proof of concept, we developed barometer-based immunosensors to detect carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and ractopamine (Rac)...
June 23, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722548/the-change-makers-of-west-africa
#6
EDITORIAL
Sue Godt, Sharmila Mhatre, Anne-Marie Schryer-Roy
West Africa was the focus of global attention during the Ebola virus disease outbreak, when systemic health system weaknesses compounded a serious emergency and complicated response efforts. Following the crisis, calls were made to strengthen health systems, but investments to date have fallen short of delivering the support needed to build strong health systems able to prevent and manage future outbreaks.In part, this reality serves to highlight the shortcomings of the solutions being repeatedly prioritised by external funders and experts, solutions that often fail to consider the wealth of West African evidence and actors actively working to strengthen the leadership and health systems needed to drive and sustainably improve national health outcomes...
July 12, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721836/assisted-reproductive-technologies-a-hierarchy-of-risks-for-conception-pregnancy-outcomes-and-treatment-decisions
#7
M J Davies, A R Rumbold, V M Moore
The use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) for the treatment of infertility has grown exponentially over the last 20 years, and now accounts for 4% of all births in Australia, and over 1 m births annually around the globe. There is consistent reporting of increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes and birth defects following infertility treatment. However, change in practice has been stymied by critical knowledge gaps with regards to (a) the relative contribution of patient and treatment factors to adverse outcomes, (b) the independent contribution of specific contemporary treatments and treatment combinations to outcomes, (c) the impact of innovations in laboratory and clinical practice on treatment success and observed risk and (d) changes over time in patient characteristics...
August 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721188/trait-variation-along-elevation-gradients-in-a-dominant-woody-shrub-is-population-specific-and-driven-by-plasticity
#8
Alix A Pfennigwerth, Joseph K Bailey, Jennifer A Schweitzer
Elevation gradients are frequently used as space-for-time substitutions to infer species' trait responses to climate change. However, studies rarely investigate whether trait responses to elevation are widespread or population-specific within a species, and the relative genetic and plastic contributions to such trait responses may not be well understood. Here, we examine plant trait variation in the dominant woody shrub, Rhododendron maximum, along elevation gradients in three populations in the South Central Appalachian Mountains, USA, in both field and common garden environments...
July 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721178/global-reproductive-health-why-do-we-persist-in-neglecting-the-undeniable-problem-of-childlessness-in-resource-poor-countries
#9
EDITORIAL
W Ombelet, J Goossens
The consequences of involuntary childlessness in developing countries create more wide-ranging societal problems compared to Western societies, particularly for women. Negative psychosocial and economical consequences for childless couples are often severe and underestimated by the local and international society. Infertility treatment is often limited to certain procedures and certain costumers. Most common arguments against supporting infertility care in resource-poor countries are the "overpopulation" and the "limited resources" argument, but they totally neglect the reproductive rights and systematic exclusion of millions of women from the right to reproduce...
March 2017: Facts, Views & Vision in ObGyn
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720866/surges-in-trematode-prevalence-linked-to-centennial-scale-flooding-events-in-the-adriatic
#10
Daniele Scarponi, Michele Azzarone, Michał Kowalewski, John Warren Huntley
The forecasts of increasing global temperature and sea level rise have led to concern about the response of parasites to anthropogenic climate change. Whereas ecological studies of parasite response to environmental shifts are necessarily limited to short time scales, the fossil record can potentially provide a quantitative archive of long-term ecological responses to past climate transitions. Here, we document multi-centennial scale changes in prevalence of trematodes infesting the bivalve host Abra segmentum through multiple sea-level fluctuations preserved in brackish Holocene deposits of the Po Plain, Italy...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720730/drought-stress-results-in-a-compartment-specific-restructuring-of-the-rice-root-associated-microbiomes
#11
Christian Santos-Medellín, Joseph Edwards, Zachary Liechty, Bao Nguyen, Venkatesan Sundaresan
Plant roots support complex microbial communities that can influence plant growth, nutrition, and health. While extensive characterizations of the composition and spatial compartmentalization of these communities have been performed in different plant species, there is relatively little known about the impact of abiotic stresses on the root microbiota. Here, we have used rice as a model to explore the responses of root microbiomes to drought stress. Using four distinct genotypes, grown in soils from three different fields, we tracked the drought-induced changes in microbial composition in the rhizosphere (the soil immediately surrounding the root), the endosphere (the root interior), and unplanted soils...
July 18, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720666/inactivation-of-receptor-tyrosine-kinases-reverts-aberrant-dna-methylation-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#12
Na Shen, Fei Yan, Jiuxia Pang, Na Zhao, Naseema Gangat, Lai-Chu Wu, Ann M Bode, Aref Al-Kali, Mark R Litzow, Shujun Liu
Purpose: Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are frequently deregulated in leukemia, yet the biological consequences of this deregulation remain elusive. The mechanisms underlying aberrant methylation, a hallmark of leukemia, are not fully understood. Here we investigated the role of RTKs in methylation abnormalities and characterized the hypomethylating activities of RTK inhibitors.<br />Experimental Design: Whether and how RTKs regulate expression of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) as well as global and gene specific DNA methylation were examined...
July 18, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720387/the-other-microeukaryotes-of-the-coral-reef-microbiome
#13
REVIEW
T D Ainsworth, A J Fordyce, E F Camp
In marine ecosystems microbial communities are critical to ocean function, global primary productivity, and biogeochemical cycles. Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes are essential symbionts and mutualists, nonpathogenic invaders, primary pathogens, have been linked to disease emergence, and can underpin broader ecosystem changes. However, in the effort to determine coral-microbial interactions, the structure and function of the eukaryotic microbes of the microbiome have been studied less. Eukaryotic microbes are important members of the microbiome, constitute entire kingdoms of life, and make important contributions to ecosystem function...
July 15, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720289/transcriptomics-in-toxicology
#14
Pius Joseph
Xenobiotics, of which many are toxic, may enter the human body through multiple routes. Excessive human exposure to xenobiotics may exceed the body's capacity to defend against the xenobiotic-induced toxicity and result in potentially fatal adverse health effects. Prevention of the adverse health effects, potentially associated with human exposure to the xenobiotics, may be achieved by detecting the toxic effects at an early, reversible and, therefore, preventable stage. Additionally, an understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the toxicity may be helpful in preventing and/or managing the ensuing adverse health effects...
July 15, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720125/profiling-of-the-perturbed-metabolomic-state-of-mouse-spleen-during-acute-and-chronic-toxoplasmosis
#15
Xiao-Qing Chen, Chun-Xue Zhou, Hany M Elsheikha, Shuai He, Gui-Xue Hu, Xing-Quan Zhu
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii, a common opportunistic protozoan, is a leading cause of illness and mortality among immunosuppressed individuals and during congenital infections. Current therapeutic strategies for toxoplasmosis are not fully effective at curtailing disease progression in these cases. Given the parasite ability to influence host immunity and metabolism, understanding of the metabolic alterations in the host's immune organs during T. gondii infection may enhance the understanding of the molecular mechanisms that define the pathophysiology of T...
July 18, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720109/cancer-related-fatigue-implementing-guidelines-for-optimal-management
#16
Elizabeth J M Pearson, Meg E Morris, Carol E McKinstry
BACKGROUND: Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is a key concern for people living with cancer and can impair physical functioning and activities of daily living. Evidence-based guidelines for CRF are available, yet inconsistently implemented globally. This study aimed to identify barriers and enablers to applying a cancer fatigue guideline and to derive implementation strategies. METHODS: A mixed-method study explored the feasibility of implementing the CRF guideline developed by the Canadian Association for Psychosocial Oncology (CAPO)...
July 18, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720102/environmental-lifestyle-factors-in-the-pathogenesis-and-prevention-of-type-2-diabetes
#17
REVIEW
Hubert Kolb, Stephan Martin
BACKGROUND: Environmental and lifestyle changes, in addition to the ageing of populations, are generally believed to account for the rapid global increase in type 2 diabetes prevalence and incidence in recent decades. DISCUSSION: In this review, we present a comprehensive overview of factors contributing to diabetes risk, including aspects of diet quality and quantity, little physical activity, increased monitor viewing time or sitting in general, exposure to noise or fine dust, short or disturbed sleep, smoking, stress and depression, and a low socioeconomic status...
July 19, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720089/analysis-of-the-association-between-millennium-development-goals-4-5-and-the-physician-workforce-across-international-economic-strata
#18
Christopher P Morley, Dongliang Wang, Emily M Mader, Kyle P Plante, Lindsey N Kingston, Azadeh Rabiei
BACKGROUND: The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are 8 international development goals voluntarily adopted by 189 nations. The goals included health related aims to reduce the under-five child mortality rate by two-thirds (MDG4), and to reduce the maternal mortality ratio by three-quarters (MDG5). To assess the relationship between the healthcare workforce and MDGs 4-5, we examined the physician workforces of countries around the globe, in terms of the Physician Density Level (PDL, or number of physicians per 1000 population), and compared this rate across a number of years to several indicator variables specified as markers of progress towards MDG4 and MDG5...
July 18, 2017: BMC International Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719317/climate-influence-on-emerging-risk-areas-for-rift-valley-fever-epidemics-in-tanzania
#19
Clement N Mweya, Leonard E G Mboera, Sharadhuli I Kimera
Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a climate-related arboviral infection of animals and humans. Climate is thought to represent a threat toward emerging risk areas for RVF epidemics globally. The objective of this study was to evaluate influence of climate on distribution of suitable breeding habitats for Culex pipiens complex, potential mosquito vector responsible for transmission and distribution of disease epidemics risk areas in Tanzania. We used ecological niche models to estimate potential distribution of disease risk areas based on vectors and disease co-occurrence data approach...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719286/the-economic-value-of-long-lasting-insecticidal-nets-and-indoor-residual-spraying-implementation-in-mozambique
#20
Bruce Y Lee, Sarah M Bartsch, Nathan T B Stone, Shufang Zhang, Shawn T Brown, Chandrani Chatterjee, Jay V DePasse, Eli Zenkov, Olivier J T Briët, Chandana Mendis, Kirsi Viisainen, Baltazar Candrinho, James Colborn
AbstractMalaria-endemic countries have to decide how much of their limited resources for vector control to allocate toward implementing long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) versus indoor residual spraying (IRS). To help the Mozambique Ministry of Health use an evidence-based approach to determine funding allocation toward various malaria control strategies, the Global Fund convened the Mozambique Modeling Working Group which then used JANUS, a software platform that includes integrated computational economic, operational, and clinical outcome models that can link with different transmission models (in this case, OpenMalaria) to determine the economic value of vector control strategies...
June 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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