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Global change

Penny J Tricker, Abdeljalil ElHabti, Jessica Schmidt, Delphine Fleury
Drought and heat stress cause losses in wheat productivity in major growing regions worldwide, and both the occurrence and the severity of these events is likely to increase with global climate change. Water deficits and high temperatures frequently occur simultaneously at sensitive growth stages, reducing wheat yields by reducing grain number or weight. Although genetic variation and underlying quantitative trait loci for either individual stress are known, the combination of the two stresses has rarely been studied...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Tao Zhang, Ülo Niinemets, Justin Sheffield, Jeremy W Lichstein
Forests have a key role in global ecosystems, hosting much of the world's terrestrial biodiversity and acting as a net sink for atmospheric carbon. These and other ecosystem services that are provided by forests may be sensitive to climate change as well as climate variability on shorter time scales (for example, annual to decadal). Previous studies have documented responses of forest ecosystems to climate change and climate variability, including drought-induced increases in tree mortality rates. However, relationships between forest biomass, tree species composition and climate variability have not been quantified across a large region using systematically sampled data...
March 21, 2018: Nature
Teemu J Niiranen, Mir Henglin, Brian Claggett, Vito M R Muggeo, Elizabeth McCabe, Mohit Jain, Ramachandran S Vasan, Martin G Larson, Susan Cheng
Importance: Given that hypertension remains a leading risk factor for chronic disease globally, there are substantial ongoing efforts to define the optimal range of blood pressure (BP). Objective: To identify a common threshold level above which BP rise tends to accelerate in progression toward hypertension. Design, Setting, and Participants: This longitudinal, community-based epidemiological cohort study of adults enrolled in Framingham, Massachusetts, included 1252 participants (mean [SD] age, 35...
March 21, 2018: JAMA Cardiology
Eliza de Almeida Gripp, Gabriela Escudini de Oliveira, Luiz Augusto Feijó, Marcelo Iorio Garcia, Sergio Salles Xavier, Andréa Silvestre de Sousa
BACKGROUND: The high cardiotoxicity morbidity and mortality rates associated with the antineoplastic therapy for breast cancer could be reduced with the early use of cardioprotective drugs. However, the low sensitivity of left ventricular ejection fraction limits its use in that preventive strategy. New parameters, such as global longitudinal strain, are being used in the early detection of contractile function changes. OBJECTIVES: To assess the incidence of cardiotoxicity in patients treated for breast cancer, the independent factors associated with that event, and the ability of strain to identify it early...
February 2018: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
Gustav M Kessel, Nicole E Phillips
For organisms with complex life histories, carry-over effects (COEs) can manifest between life stages, when conditions experienced by one stage influence the next, as well as trans-generationally, when the parental environment affects offspring. Here we used multiple global change-associated stressors to examine both forms of COE simultaneously in an intertidal limpet with mixed development (i.e. planktonic larvae hatch from benthic egg masses). Adult Siphonaria australis were subjected to four treatments over four weeks: an ambient control, a treatment featuring elevated water temperature (25°C) and UVB (1...
2018: PloS One
Sumana Sharma, Evangelia Petsalaki
The cellular signalling process is a highly complex mechanism, involving multiple players, which together orchestrate the cell's response to environmental changes and perturbations. Given the multitude of genes that participate in the process of cellular signalling, its study in a genome-wide manner has proven challenging. Recent advances in gene editing technologies, including clustered regularly-interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9 (CRISPR/Cas9) approaches, have opened new opportunities to investigate global regulatory signalling programs of cells in an unbiased manner...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ji Liu, Qiang Lu, Xiao-Yan Jiang, Bin Hu, Xiao-Lei Zhang, Chang-Qing Dong, Yong-Ping Yang
Coal is a major contributor to the global emission of nitrogen oxides (NOx ). The NOx formation during coal utilization typically derives from the thermal decomposition of N-containing compounds (e.g., pyrrolic groups). NH₃ and HCN are common precursors of NOx from the decomposition of N-containing compounds. The existence of H₂O has significant influences on the pyrrole decomposition and NOx formation. In this study, the effects of H₂O on pyrrole pyrolysis to form NOx precursors HCN and NH₃ are investigated using the density functional theory (DFT) method...
March 21, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Eui Seon Baek, Soonshin Hwang, Yoon Jeong Choi, Mi Ryung Roh, Tung Nguyen, Kyung-Ho Kim, Chooryung J Chung
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the quantitative and perceived visual changes of the nasolabial fold (NLF) after maximum retraction in adults and to determine its contributing factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 39 adult women's cone-beam computed tomography images were collected retrospectively and divided into the retraction group (age 26.9 ± 8.80) that underwent maximum retraction following 4 premolar extraction and the control group (age 24...
March 21, 2018: Angle Orthodontist
Sangkwan Lee, Seon-Jong Kim
BACKGROUND: Arthritis is the most common disease in elderly individuals. Many medications for osteoarthritis treatment have the potential for side effects. Using a bioinformatics tool and preclinical studies, ChondroT, 5 herbal complexes, was identified from Ganghwaljetongyeum, which is a18 herbal complex, which has often used to treat osteoarthritis. The goal of this study is to evaluate short-term safety of ChondroT. METHODS: This will be a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Juri L Habicht, Claudia Kiessling, Andreas Winkelmann
The International Federation of Associations of Anatomists (IFAA) recommended in 2012 that only donated bodies be used for anatomy teaching and research. However, in many countries around the world, anatomists still depend on bodies that do not stem from voluntary donations by the deceased, but rather are "unclaimed." A broad search of the literature was conducted to produce a baseline overview of the sources of cadavers used for anatomy teaching in undergraduate medical curricula on a global scale...
March 20, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Hongxia Lei, Frédéric Preitner, Gwenaël Labouèbe, Rolf Gruetter, Bernard Thorens
Glucose transporter 2 ( Glut2)-positive cells are sparsely distributed in brain and play an important role in the stimulation of glucagon secretion in response to hypoglycemia. We aimed to determine if Glut2-positive cells can influence another response to hypoglycemia, i.e. increased cerebral blood flow (CBF). CBF of adult male mice devoid of Glut2, either globally ( ripglut1:glut2- / - ) or in the nervous system only (NG2KO), and their respective controls were studied under basal glycemia and insulin-induced hypoglycemia using quantitative perfusion magnetic resonance imaging at 9...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Kang Jia Lu, Jian Zuo, Jian Chang, Hong Nan Kuan, Tai-Shung Chung
Management of produced water from shale gas production is a global challenge. Vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) is considered as a promising solution because of its various advantages. However, low surface tension species in produced water can easily deposit on the membrane surface and cause severe fouling or wetting problems. To solve the problems, an omniphobic polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) hollow fiber membrane has been developed via silica nanoparticle deposition followed by a Teflon® AF 2400 coating in this study...
March 21, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Inuk Jung, Hyejin Kang, Jang Uk Kim, Hyeonsook Chang, Sun Kim, Woosuk Jung
BACKGROUND: Ginseng is a popular traditional herbal medicine in north-eastern Asia. It has been used for human health for over thousands of years. With the rise in global temperature, the production of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A.Meyer) in Korea have migrated from mid to northern parts of the Korean peninsula to escape from the various higher temperature related stresses. Under the high ambient temperature, vegetative growth was accelerated, which resulted in early flowering. This precocious phase change led to yield loss...
March 19, 2018: BMC Systems Biology
Kazuaki Tokuhashi, Kenji Takizawa, Shigeo Kondo
The rate constants of OH radicals with CF3 CF=CCl2 , CF3 CH=CF2 , CF3 CF=CH2 , CF3 CH=CH2 , and (CF3 )2 C=CH2 have been measured over the temperature range 250-430 K. Kinetic measurements have been carried out using flash photolysis and laser photolysis methods combined respectively with laser-induced fluorescence technique. The Arrhenius rate parameters have been determined as k(CF3 CF=CCl2 ) = (6.50 ± 0.22) × 10-13 ∙exp[(200 ± 10)/T], k(CF3 CH=CF2 ) = (4.85 ± 0.14) × 10-13 ∙exp[(120 ± 10)/T], k(CF3 CF=CH2 ) = (1...
March 20, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Abdelilah Benallou, Habib El Alaoui El Abdallaoui, Hocine Garmes
The mechanism nature of the intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction has been performed; and thus, the changes of C-C bond forming/breaking along IRC are characterized in this study. Conceptual DFT analyses of the most favorable adduct fused/exo shows that the flux electronic will take place from diene to dienophile moiety. Moreover, ELF topological analysis based on the electron density predicts that C-C bond is formed by the coupling of two pseudoradical centers generated at the most significant atoms of the molecules...
February 2018: Heliyon
Heather M O'Leary, Walter E Kaufmann, Katherine V Barnes, Kshitiz Rakesh, Kush Kapur, Daniel C Tarquinio, Nicole G Cantwell, Katherine J Roche, Suzanne A Rose, Alexandra C Walco, Natalie M Bruck, Grace A Bazin, Ingrid A Holm, Mark E Alexander, Lindsay C Swanson, Lauren M Baczewski, Juan M Mayor Torres, Charles A Nelson, Mustafa Sahin
Objective: To measure the efficacy of mecasermin (recombinant human insulin-like growth factor 1, rhIGF-1), for treating symptoms of Rett syndrome (RTT) in a pediatric population using a double-blind crossover study design. Methods: Thirty girls with classic RTT in postregression stage were randomly assigned to placebo or rhIGF-1 in treatment period 1 and crossed over to the opposite assignment for period 2 (both 20 weeks), separated by a 28-week washout period...
March 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Hang Joon Jo, Kevin W McCairn, William S Gibson, Paola Testini, Cong Zhi Zhao, Krzysztof R Gorny, Joel P Felmlee, Kirk M Welker, Charles D Blaha, Bryan T Klassen, Hoon-Ki Min, Kendall H Lee
Background and objectives: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the thalamus is a promising therapeutic alternative for treating medically refractory Tourette syndrome (TS). However, few human studies have examined its mechanism of action. Therefore, the networks that mediate the therapeutic effects of thalamic DBS remain poorly understood. Methods: Five participants diagnosed with severe medically refractory TS underwent bilateral thalamic DBS stereotactic surgery. Intraoperative fMRI characterized the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response evoked by thalamic DBS and determined whether the therapeutic effectiveness of thalamic DBS, as assessed using the Modified Rush Video Rating Scale test, would correlate with evoked BOLD responses in motor and limbic cortical and subcortical regions...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
José C Ramalho, Isabel P Pais, António E Leitão, Mauro Guerra, Fernando H Reboredo, Cristina M Máguas, Maria L Carvalho, Paula Scotti-Campos, Ana I Ribeiro-Barros, Fernando J C Lidon, Fábio M DaMatta
Climate changes, mostly related to high temperature, are predicted to have major negative impacts on coffee crop yield and bean quality. Recent studies revealed that elevated air [CO2 ] mitigates the impact of heat on leaf physiology. However, the extent of the interaction between elevated air [CO2 ] and heat on coffee bean quality was never addressed. In this study, the single and combined impacts of enhanced [CO2 ] and temperature in beans of Coffea arabica cv. Icatu were evaluated. Plants were grown at 380 or 700 μL CO2 L-1 air, and then submitted to a gradual temperature rise from 25°C up to 40°C during ca...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
R Henrik Nilsson, Andy F S Taylor, Rachel I Adams, Christiane Baschien, Johan Bengtsson-Palme, Patrik Cangren, Claudia Coleine, Heide-Marie Daniel, Sydney I Glassman, Yuuri Hirooka, Laszlo Irinyi, Reda Iršėnaitė, Pedro M Martin-Sanchez, Wieland Meyer, Seung-Yoon Oh, Jose Paulo Sampaio, Keith A Seifert, Frantisek Sklenář, Dirk Stubbe, Sung-Oui Suh, Richard Summerbell, Sten Svantesson, Martin Unterseher, Cobus M Visagie, Michael Weiss, Joyce Hc Woudenberg, Christian Wurzbacher, Silke Van den Wyngaert, Neriman Yilmaz, Andrey Yurkov, Urmas Kõljalg, Kessy Abarenkov
Recent DNA-based studies have shown that the built environment is surprisingly rich in fungi. These indoor fungi - whether transient visitors or more persistent residents - may hold clues to the rising levels of human allergies and other medical and building-related health problems observed globally. The taxonomic identity of these fungi is crucial in such pursuits. Molecular identification of the built mycobiome is no trivial undertaking, however, given the large number of unidentified, misidentified, and technically compromised fungal sequences in public sequence databases...
2018: MycoKeys
Masayuki Kondo, Kazuhito Ichii, Prabir K Patra, Joseph G Canadell, Benjamin Poulter, Stephen Sitch, Leonardo Calle, Yi Y Liu, Albert I J M van Dijk, Tazu Saeki, Nobuko Saigusa, Pierre Friedlingstein, Almut Arneth, Anna Harper, Atul K Jain, Etsushi Kato, Charles Koven, Fang Li, Thomas A M Pugh, Sönke Zaehle, Andy Wiltshire, Frederic Chevallier, Takashi Maki, Takashi Nakamura, Yosuke Niwa, Christian Rödenbeck
An integrated understanding of the biogeochemical consequences of climate extremes and land use changes is needed to constrain land-surface feedbacks to atmospheric CO2 from associated climate change. Past assessments of the global carbon balance have shown particularly high uncertainty in Southeast Asia. Here, we use a combination of model ensembles to show that intensified land use change made Southeast Asia a strong source of CO2 from the 1980s to 1990s, whereas the region was close to carbon neutral in the 2000s due to an enhanced CO2 fertilization effect and absence of moderate-to-strong El Niño events...
March 20, 2018: Nature Communications
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