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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346905/modeling-the-terrestrial-n-processes-in-a-small-mountain-catchment-through-inca-n-a-case-study-in-taiwan
#1
Meng-Chang Lu, Chung-Te Chang, Teng-Chiu Lin, Lih-Jih Wang, Chiao-Ping Wang, Ting-Chang Hsu, Jr-Chuan Huang
Riverine dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) is an important indicator of trophic status of aquatic ecosystems. High riverine DIN export in Taiwan, ~3800kg-Nkm(-2)yr(-1), which is ~18 times higher than the global average, urges the need of thorough understanding of N cycling processes. We applied INCA-N (Integrated Nitrogen Catchment Model) to simulate riverine DIN export and infer terrestrial N processes using weekly rainwater and streamwater samples collected at the Fushan Experimental Forest (FEF) of northern Taiwan...
March 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346758/commentary-distillation-and-element-based-design-of-psychological-treatments-in-global-mental-health-a-commentary-on-brown-et%C3%A2-al-2017
#2
Daniel Michelson, Vikram Patel
This commentary reflects on the "elements" approach in psychological treatment research, and its specific application to a systematic review of psychosocial interventions for youth in conflict-affected areas. We discuss three key questions for the field. First, what psychological treatment elements are necessary and/or sufficient to achieve clinically significant change for a given population? Second, how should elements be sequenced to achieve optimal outcomes? Third, what might account for the large heterogeneity observed in psychological treatment trials, other than the constituent practice elements? We conclude by describing a new research programme that aims to develop a transdiagnostic intervention targeting common mental health difficulties among school-going adolescents in India...
April 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346500/night-time-lights-a-global-long-term-look-at-links-to-socio-economic-trends
#3
Jeremy Proville, Daniel Zavala-Araiza, Gernot Wagner
We use a parallelized spatial analytics platform to process the twenty-one year totality of the longest-running time series of night-time lights data-the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) dataset-surpassing the narrower scope of prior studies to assess changes in area lit of countries globally. Doing so allows a retrospective look at the global, long-term relationships between night-time lights and a series of socio-economic indicators. We find the strongest correlations with electricity consumption, CO2 emissions, and GDP, followed by population, CH4 emissions, N2O emissions, poverty (inverse) and F-gas emissions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346493/aberrant-neuronal-activity-induced-signaling-and-gene-expression-in-a-mouse-model-of-rasopathy
#4
Franziska Altmüller, Santosh Pothula, Anil Annamneedi, Saeideh Nakhei-Rad, Carolina Montenegro-Venegas, Eneko Pina-Fernández, Claudia Marini, Monica Santos, Denny Schanze, Dirk Montag, Mohammad R Ahmadian, Oliver Stork, Martin Zenker, Anna Fejtova
Noonan syndrome (NS) is characterized by reduced growth, craniofacial abnormalities, congenital heart defects, and variable cognitive deficits. NS belongs to the RASopathies, genetic conditions linked to mutations in components and regulators of the Ras signaling pathway. Approximately 50% of NS cases are caused by mutations in PTPN11. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying cognitive impairments in NS patients are still poorly understood. Here, we report the generation and characterization of a new conditional mouse strain that expresses the overactive Ptpn11D61Y allele only in the forebrain...
March 27, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346474/the-microrna-205-5p-is-correlated-to-metastatic-potential-of-21t-series-a-breast-cancer-progression-model
#5
L Stankevicins, A Barat, P Dessen, Y Vassetzky, C V de Moura Gallo
MicroRNA is a class of noncoding RNAs able to base pair with complementary messenger RNA sequences, inhibiting their expression. These regulatory molecules play important roles in key cellular processes including cell proliferation, differentiation and response to DNA damage; changes in miRNA expression are a common feature of human cancers. To gain insights into the mechanisms involved in breast cancer progression we conducted a microRNA global expression analysis on a 21T series of cell lines obtained from the same patient during different stages of breast cancer progression...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346461/geometry-can-provide-long-range-mechanical-guidance-for-embryogenesis
#6
Mahamar Dicko, Pierre Saramito, Guy B Blanchard, Claire M Lye, Bénédicte Sanson, Jocelyn Étienne
Downstream of gene expression, effectors such as the actomyosin contractile machinery drive embryo morphogenesis. During Drosophila embryonic axis extension, actomyosin has a specific planar-polarised organisation, which is responsible for oriented cell intercalation. In addition to these cell rearrangements, cell shape changes also contribute to tissue deformation. While cell-autonomous dynamics are well described, understanding the tissue-scale behaviour challenges us to solve the corresponding mechanical problem at the scale of the whole embryo, since mechanical resistance of all neighbouring epithelia will feedback on individual cells...
March 27, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346137/histone-gene-replacement-reveals-a-post-transcriptional-role-for-h3k36-in-maintaining-metazoan-transcriptome-fidelity
#7
Michael P Meers, Telmo Henriques, Christopher A Lavender, Daniel J McKay, Brian D Strahl, Robert J Duronio, Karen Adelman, A Gregory Matera
Histone H3 lysine 36 methylation (H3K36me) is thought to participate in a host of co-transcriptional regulatory events. To study the function of this residue independent from the enzymes that modify it, we used a 'histone replacement' system in Drosophila to generate a non-modifiable H3K36 lysine-to-arginine (H3K36R) mutant. We observed global dysregulation of mRNA levels in H3K36R animals that correlates with the incidence of H3K36me3. Similar to previous studies, we found that mutation of H3K36 also resulted in H4 hyperacetylation...
March 27, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346122/non-targeted-metabolomics-in-sport-and-exercise-science
#8
Liam M Heaney, Kevin Deighton, Toru Suzuki
Metabolomics incorporates the study of metabolites that are produced and released through physiological processes at both the systemic and cellular levels. Biological compounds at the metabolite level are of paramount interest in the sport and exercise sciences, although research in this field has rarely been referred to with the global 'omics terminology. Commonly studied metabolites in exercise science are notably within cellular pathways for adenosine triphosphate production such as glycolysis (e.g., pyruvate and lactate), β-oxidation of free fatty acids (e...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345955/smoking-dependent-distal-to-proximal-repatterning-of-the-adult-human-small-airway-epithelium
#9
Jing Yang, Wu-Lin Zuo, Tomoya Fukui, IonWa Chao, Kazunori Gomi, Busub Lee, Michelle R Staudt, Robert J Kaner, Yael Strulovici-Barel, Jacqueline Salit, Ronald G Crystal, Renat Shaykhiev
RATIONALE: Small airways are the primary site of pathologic changes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the major smoking-induced lung disorder. OBJECTIVES: Based on the concept of proximal-distal patterning that determines regional specialization of the airway epithelium during lung development, we hypothesized that a similar program operates in the adult human lung being altered by smoking leading to decreased regional identity of the small airway epithelium (SAE)...
March 27, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345669/a-coupled-human-earth-model-perspective-on-long-term-trends-in-the-global-marine-fishery
#10
E D Galbraith, D A Carozza, D Bianchi
The global wild marine fish harvest increased fourfold between 1950 and a peak value near the end of the 20th century, reflecting interactions between anthropogenic and ecological forces. Here, we examine these interactions in a bio-energetically constrained, spatially and temporally resolved model of global fisheries. We conduct historical hindcasts with the model, which suggest that technological progress can explain most of the 20th century increase of fish harvest. In contrast, projections extending this rate of technological progress into the future under open access suggest a long-term decrease in harvest due to over-fishing...
March 27, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345368/sponsors-and-investigative-staffs-perceptions-of-the-current-investigational-new-drug-safety-reporting-process-in-oncology-trials
#11
Raymond Perez, Patrick Archdeacon, Nancy Roach, Robert Goodwin, Jonathan Jarow, Nina Stuccio, Annemarie Forrest
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The Food and Drug Administration's final rule on investigational new drug application safety reporting, effective from 28 March 2011, clarified the reporting requirements for serious and unexpected suspected adverse reactions occurring in clinical trials. The Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative released recommendations in 2013 to assist implementation of the final rule; however, anecdotal reports and data from a Food and Drug Administration audit indicated that a majority of reports being submitted were still uninformative and did not result in actionable changes...
March 1, 2017: Clinical Trials: Journal of the Society for Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345305/temperature-mediated-local-adaptation-alters-the-symbiotic-function-in-arbuscular-mycorrhiza
#12
Rong Yang, Xiaobu Cai, Xiaolin Li, Peter Christie, Junling Zhang, Jingping Gai
Variation in the symbiotic function of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM fungi) has been demonstrated among distinct biotic and abiotic interactions. However, there is little knowledge on how local temperature conditions influence the functional divergence of AM symbionts in alpine ecosystems. Here, we conduct a reciprocal inoculation experiment to explore the three-way interactions among plants, AM fungal inoculum and temperature at sites of contrasting elevation. Evidence of local adaptation of plant growth was found only under low temperature conditions, with no consistent local versus foreign effect found in AM fungal performance...
March 27, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345058/nonrainfall-water-origins-and-formation-mechanisms
#13
Kudzai Farai Kaseke, Lixin Wang, Mary K Seely
Dryland ecosystems cover 40% of the total land surface on Earth and are defined broadly as zones where precipitation is considerably less than the potential evapotranspiration. Nonrainfall waters (for example, fog and dew) are the least-studied and least-characterized components of the hydrological cycle, although they supply critical amounts of water for dryland ecosystems. The sources of nonrainfall waters are largely unknown for most systems. In addition, most field and modeling studies tend to consider all nonrainfall inputs as a single category because of technical constraints, which hinders prediction of dryland responses to future warming conditions...
March 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345044/continental-igneous-rock-composition-a-major-control-of-past-global-chemical-weathering
#14
Clément P Bataille, Amy Willis, Xiao Yang, Xiao-Ming Liu
The composition of igneous rocks in the continental crust has changed throughout Earth's history. However, the impact of these compositional variations on chemical weathering, and by extension on seawater and atmosphere evolution, is largely unknown. We use the strontium isotope ratio in seawater [((87)Sr/(86)Sr)seawater] as a proxy for chemical weathering, and we test the sensitivity of ((87)Sr/(86)Sr)seawater variations to the strontium isotopic composition ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) in igneous rocks generated through time...
March 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345033/improved-estimates-of-ocean-heat-content-from-1960-to-2015
#15
Lijing Cheng, Kevin E Trenberth, John Fasullo, Tim Boyer, John Abraham, Jiang Zhu
Earth's energy imbalance (EEI) drives the ongoing global warming and can best be assessed across the historical record (that is, since 1960) from ocean heat content (OHC) changes. An accurate assessment of OHC is a challenge, mainly because of insufficient and irregular data coverage. We provide updated OHC estimates with the goal of minimizing associated sampling error. We performed a subsample test, in which subsets of data during the data-rich Argo era are colocated with locations of earlier ocean observations, to quantify this error...
March 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345031/repetitive-mammalian-dwarfing-during-ancient-greenhouse-warming-events
#16
Abigail R D'Ambrosia, William C Clyde, Henry C Fricke, Philip D Gingerich, Hemmo A Abels
Abrupt perturbations of the global carbon cycle during the early Eocene are associated with rapid global warming events, which are analogous in many ways to present greenhouse warming. Mammal dwarfing has been observed, along with other changes in community structure, during the largest of these ancient global warming events, known as the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum [PETM; ~56 million years ago (Ma)]. We show that mammalian dwarfing accompanied the subsequent, smaller-magnitude warming event known as Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 [ETM2 (~53 Ma)]...
March 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344783/retrospective-report-of-antimicrobial-susceptibility-observed-in-bacterial-pathogens-isolated-from-ocular-samples-at-mount-sinai-hospital-2010-to-2015
#17
Marko Oydanich, Tanis C Dingle, Camille L Hamula, Claudia Ghisa, Penny Asbell
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance has emerged as a major threat to global public health. Thus, the surveillance of changes in antimicrobial resistance in local and global settings is a paramount necessity. While many studies have tracked antimicrobial resistance, only a small percentage surveyed ocular isolates. The purpose of this study was to report the in vitro susceptibility of bacterial pathogens isolated from ocular samples in New York, NY from 2010 to 2015. METHODS: A retrospective review of ocular isolates was conducted...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344773/escherichia-coli-st131-a-multidrug-resistant-clone-primed-for-global-domination
#18
REVIEW
Johann D D Pitout, Rebekah DeVinney
A single extra-intestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) clone, named sequence type (ST) 131, is responsible for millions of global antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) infections annually. Population genetics indicate that ST131 consists of different clades (i.e. A, B, and C); however, clade C is the most dominant globally. A ST131 subclade, named C1-M27, is emerging in Japan and has been responsible for the recent increase in AMR ExPEC in that country. The sequential acquisition of several virulence and AMR genes associated with mobile genetic elements during the 1960s to 1980s primed clade C (and its subclades C1 and C2) for success in the 1990s to 2000s...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344586/comparative-transcriptome-reveals-benzenoid-biosynthesis-regulation-as-inducer-of-floral-scent-in-the-woody-plant-prunus-mume
#19
Kai Zhao, Weiru Yang, Yuzhen Zhou, Jie Zhang, Yushu Li, Sagheer Ahmad, Qixiang Zhang
Mei (Prunus mume) is a peculiar woody ornamental plant famous for its inviting fragrance in winter. However, in this valuable plant, the mechanism behind floral volatile development remains poorly defined. Therefore, to explore the floral scent formation, a comparative transcriptome was conducted in order to identify the global transcripts specifying flower buds and blooming flowers of P. mume. Differentially expressed genes were identified between the two different stages showing great discrepancy in floral volatile production...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344447/movement-demands-and-running-intensities-of-semi-professional-rugby-league-players-during-a-9-s-tournament-a-case-study
#20
Paul Inglis, Stephen P Bird
The objective of the study was to describe the movement demands and running intensities of semi-professional rugby league players during a rugby league 9's (RL9's) tournament. Six semi-professional rugby league players competed in a RL9's tournament over a two-day period comprising of six games. Movement demands and running intensities were recorded using Global Positioning System (GPS) devices providing data on distance and speeds. Data is presented as mean (95% Confidence Intervals) with changes (≥ 75%) likely to exceed the smallest worthwhile change (0...
March 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
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