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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330535/the-stoichiometry-of-coral-dinoflagellate-symbiosis-carbon-and-nitrogen-cycles-are-balanced-in-the-recycling-and-double-translocation-system
#1
Yasuaki Tanaka, Atsushi Suzuki, Kazuhiko Sakai
Symbioses between microalgae and animal hosts have the advantage of acquiring and sharing autotrophically produced organic carbon (C) as their energy source. However, the stoichiometry and turnover rates of biological elements in symbioses are not fully understood because of complicated metabolic interactions. We report the first comprehensive and simultaneous measurement of C and nitrogen (N) flows through coral-dinoflagellate symbiosis by using the unique approach of dual-isotope labeling with 13C and 15N, in situ chasing, and isotope-mixing models...
January 12, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330503/effects-of-larvae-density-and-food-concentration-on-crown-of-thorns-seastar-acanthaster-cf-solaris-development-in-an-automated-flow-through-system
#2
S Uthicke, M Liddy, F Patel, M Logan, C Johansson, M Lamare
Coral-eating Crown-of-Thorns Sea stars (Acanthaster spp.) are major contributors to coral reef loss in the Indo-Pacific region. A release from food limitation of their planktotrophic larvae through enhanced pelagic productivity is one of the main hypothesis explaining population outbreaks ('nutrient limitation hypothesis'). To improve the understanding of these outbreaks we developed an automated flow- through larvae rearing system that maintained food (microalgae) at set levels over the course of four 15d experiments...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328509/high-refuge-availability-on-coral-reefs-increases-the-vulnerability-of-reef-associated-predators-to-overexploitation
#3
Alice Rogers, Julia L Blanchard, Steven P Newman, Charlie S Dryden, Peter J Mumby
Refuge availability and fishing alter predator-prey interactions on coral reefs, but our understanding of how they interact to drive food web dynamics, community structure and vulnerability of different trophic groups is unclear. Here, we apply a size-based ecosystem model of coral reefs, parameterized with empirical measures of structural complexity, to predict fish biomass, productivity and community structure in reef ecosystems under a broad range of refuge availability and fishing regimes. In unfished ecosystems, the expected positive correlation between reef structural complexity and biomass emerges, but a non-linear effect of predation refuges is observed for the productivity of predatory fish...
January 12, 2018: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326840/reproductive-gene-expression-in-a-coral-reef-fish-exposed-to-increasing-temperature-across-generations
#4
Heather D Veilleux, Jennifer M Donelson, Philip L Munday
Reproduction in marine fish is generally tightly linked with water temperature. Consequently, when adults are exposed to projected future ocean temperatures, reproductive output of many species declines precipitously. Recent research has shown that in the common reef fish, Acanthochromis polyacanthus, step-wise exposure to higher temperatures over two generations (parents: +1.5°C, offspring: +3.0°C) can improve reproductive output in the F2 generation compared to F2 fish that have experienced the same high temperatures over two generations (F1 parents: +3...
2018: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321691/deciphering-the-nature-of-the-coral-chromera-association
#5
Amin R Mohamed, Vivian R Cumbo, Saki Harii, Chuya Shinzato, Cheong Xin Chan, Mark A Ragan, Nori Satoh, Eldon E Ball, David J Miller
Since the discovery of Chromera velia as a novel coral-associated microalga, this organism has attracted interest because of its unique evolutionary position between the photosynthetic dinoflagellates and the parasitic apicomplexans. The nature of the relationship between Chromera and its coral host is controversial. Is it a mutualism, from which both participants benefit, a parasitic relationship, or a chance association? To better understand the interaction, larvae of the common Indo-Pacific reef-building coral Acropora digitifera were experimentally infected with Chromera, and the impact on the host transcriptome was assessed at 4, 12, and 48 h post-infection using Illumina RNA-Seq technology...
January 10, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321526/the-chemical-armament-of-reef-building-corals-inter-and-intra-specific-variation-and-the-identification-of-an-unusual-actinoporin-in-stylophora-pistilata
#6
Hanit Ben-Ari, Moran Paz, Daniel Sher
Corals, like other cnidarians, are venomous animals that rely on stinging cells (nematocytes) and their toxins to catch prey and defend themselves against predators. However, little is known about the chemical arsenal employed by stony corals, despite their ecological importance. Here, we show large differences in the density of nematocysts and whole-body hemolytic activity between different species of reef-building corals. In the branched coral Stylophora pistillata, the tips of the branches exhibited a greater hemolytic activity than the bases...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321299/host-size-and-proximity-to-diseased-neighbours-drive-the-spread-of-a-coral-disease-outbreak-in-hawai-i
#7
Jamie M Caldwell, Megan J Donahue, C Drew Harvell
Understanding how disease risk varies over time and across heterogeneous populations is critical for managing disease outbreaks, but this information is rarely known for wildlife diseases. Here, we demonstrate that variation in host and pathogen factors drive the direction, duration and intensity of a coral disease outbreak. We collected longitudinal health data for 200 coral colonies, and found that disease risk increased with host size and severity of diseased neighbours, and disease spread was highest among individuals between 5 and 20 m apart...
January 10, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319173/digest-drivers-of-coral-diversification-in-a-major-marine-biodiversity-hotspot
#8
Oscar Alejandro Pérez-Escobar, Susannah Cass, Steven Dodsworth
Coral reefs are of great ecological importance to marine ecosystems, yet their origins are still poorly understood. Using a robust phylogenetic framework, Huang et al. (2017) show that most diversity within the Indo-Pacific Coral Triangle region is driven by range expansions of lineages from outside the region, rather than rapid diversification within. This highlights the need for macroevolutionary studies to fully understand species assemblages in biodiversity hotspots, and the potential importance of adjacent areas for conservation...
January 10, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316019/cell-cycle-dynamics-of-cultured-coral-endosymbiotic-microalgae-symbiodinium-across-different-types-species-under-alternate-light-and-temperature-conditions
#9
Lisa Fujise, Matthew R Nitschke, Jörg C Frommlet, João Serôdio, Stephen Woodcock, Peter J Ralph, David J Suggett
Dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium live in symbiosis with many invertebrates, including reef-building corals. Hosts maintain this symbiosis through continuous regulation of Symbiodinium cell density via expulsion and degradation (post-mitotic) and/or constraining cell growth and division through manipulation of the symbiont cell cycle (pre-mitotic). Importance of pre-mitotic regulation is unknown since little data exists on cell cycles for the immense genetic diversity of Symbiodinium. We therefore examined cell cycle progression for several distinct Symbiodinium ITS2-types (B1, C1, D1a)...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315312/taking-the-metabolic-pulse-of-the-world-s-coral-reefs
#10
Tyler Cyronak, Andreas J Andersson, Chris Langdon, Rebecca Albright, Nicholas R Bates, Ken Caldeira, Renee Carlton, Jorge E Corredor, Rob B Dunbar, Ian Enochs, Jonathan Erez, Bradley D Eyre, Jean-Pierre Gattuso, Dwight Gledhill, Hajime Kayanne, David I Kline, David A Koweek, Coulson Lantz, Boaz Lazar, Derek Manzello, Ashly McMahon, Melissa Meléndez, Heather N Page, Isaac R Santos, Kai G Schulz, Emily Shaw, Jacob Silverman, Atsushi Suzuki, Lida Teneva, Atsushi Watanabe, Shoji Yamamoto
Worldwide, coral reef ecosystems are experiencing increasing pressure from a variety of anthropogenic perturbations including ocean warming and acidification, increased sedimentation, eutrophication, and overfishing, which could shift reefs to a condition of net calcium carbonate (CaCO3) dissolution and erosion. Herein, we determine the net calcification potential and the relative balance of net organic carbon metabolism (net community production; NCP) and net inorganic carbon metabolism (net community calcification; NCC) within 23 coral reef locations across the globe...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309969/management-strategies-for-coral-reefs-and-people-under-global-environmental-change-25-years-of-scientific-research
#11
REVIEW
Adrien Comte, Linwood H Pendleton
Coral reef ecosystems and the people who depend on them are increasingly exposed to the adverse effects of global environmental change (GEC), including increases in sea-surface temperature and ocean acidification. Managers and decision-makers need a better understanding of the options available for action in the face of these changes. We refine a typology of actions developed by Gattuso et al. (2015) that could serve in prioritizing strategies to deal with the impacts of GEC on reefs and people. Using the typology we refined, we investigate the scientific effort devoted to four types of management strategies: mitigate, protect, repair, adapt that we tie to the components of the chain of impact they affect: ecological vulnerability or social vulnerability...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302011/spatial-and-temporal-patterns-of-mass-bleaching-of-corals-in-the-anthropocene
#12
Terry P Hughes, Kristen D Anderson, Sean R Connolly, Scott F Heron, James T Kerry, Janice M Lough, Andrew H Baird, Julia K Baum, Michael L Berumen, Tom C Bridge, Danielle C Claar, C Mark Eakin, James P Gilmour, Nicholas A J Graham, Hugo Harrison, Jean-Paul A Hobbs, Andrew S Hoey, Mia Hoogenboom, Ryan J Lowe, Malcolm T McCulloch, John M Pandolfi, Morgan Pratchett, Verena Schoepf, Gergely Torda, Shaun K Wilson
Tropical reef systems are transitioning to a new era in which the interval between recurrent bouts of coral bleaching is too short for a full recovery of mature assemblages. We analyzed bleaching records at 100 globally distributed reef locations from 1980 to 2016. The median return time between pairs of severe bleaching events has diminished steadily since 1980 and is now only 6 years. As global warming has progressed, tropical sea surface temperatures are warmer now during current La Niña conditions than they were during El Niño events three decades ago...
January 5, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301490/molecular-characterization-of-larval-development-from-fertilization-to-metamorphosis-in-a-reef-building-coral
#13
Marie E Strader, Galina V Aglyamova, Mikhail V Matz
BACKGROUND: Molecular mechanisms underlying coral larval competence, the ability of larvae to respond to settlement cues, determine their dispersal potential and are potential targets of natural selection. Here, we profiled competence, fluorescence and genome-wide gene expression in embryos and larvae of the reef-building coral Acropora millepora daily throughout 12 days post-fertilization. RESULTS: Gene expression associated with competence was positively correlated with transcriptomic response to the natural settlement cue, confirming that mature coral larvae are "primed" for settlement...
January 4, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301345/eicosanoid-diversity-of-stony-corals
#14
Helike Lõhelaid, Nigulas Samel
Oxylipins are well-established lipid mediators in plants and animals. In mammals, arachidonic acid (AA)-derived eicosanoids control inflammation, fever, blood coagulation, pain perception and labor, and, accordingly, are used as drugs, while lipoxygenases (LOX), as well as cyclooxygenases (COX) serve as therapeutic targets for drug development. In soft corals, eicosanoids are synthesized on demand from AA by LOX, COX, and catalase-related allene oxide synthase-lipoxygenase (cAOS-LOX) and hydroperoxide lyase-lipoxygenase (cHPL-LOX) fusion proteins...
January 3, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299297/herbivory-facilitates-growth-of-a-key-reef-building-caribbean-coral
#15
Adam Suchley, Lorenzo Alvarez-Filip
The decline of reef-building corals in conjunction with shifts to short-lived opportunistic species has prompted concerns that Caribbean reef framework-building capacity has substantially diminished. Restoring herbivore populations may be a potential driver of coral recovery; however, the impact of herbivores on coral calcification has been little studied. We performed an exclusion experiment to evaluate the impact of herbivory on Orbicella faveolata coral growth over 14 months. The experiment consisted of three treatments: full exclusion cages; half cage procedural controls; and uncaged control plates, each with small O...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299282/inducing-broadcast-coral-spawning-ex-situ-closed-system-mesocosm-design-and-husbandry-protocol
#16
Jamie Craggs, James R Guest, Michelle Davis, Jeremy Simmons, Ehsan Dashti, Michael Sweet
For many corals, the timing of broadcast spawning correlates strongly with a number of environmental signals (seasonal temperature, lunar, and diel cycles). Robust experimental studies examining the role of these putative cues in triggering spawning have been lacking until recently because it has not been possible to predictably induce spawning in fully closed artificial mesocosms. Here, we present a closed system mesocosm aquarium design that utilizes microprocessor technology to accurately replicate environmental conditions, including photoperiod, seasonal insolation, lunar cycles, and seasonal temperature from Singapore and the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291059/elevated-pco2-affects-tissue-biomass-composition-but-not-calcification-in-a-reef-coral-under-two-light-regimes
#17
C B Wall, R A B Mason, W R Ellis, R Cunning, R D Gates
Ocean acidification (OA) is predicted to reduce reef coral calcification rates and threaten the long-term growth of coral reefs under climate change. Reduced coral growth at elevated pCO2 may be buffered by sufficiently high irradiances; however, the interactive effects of OA and irradiance on other fundamental aspects of coral physiology, such as the composition and energetics of coral biomass, remain largely unexplored. This study tested the effects of two light treatments (7.5 versus 15.7 mol photons m-2 d-1) at ambient or elevated pCO2 (435 versus 957 µatm) on calcification, photopigment and symbiont densities, biomass reserves (lipids, carbohydrates, proteins), and biomass energy content (kJ) of the reef coral Pocillopora acuta from Kāne'ohe Bay, Hawai'i...
November 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290384/experimental-evidence-for-reduced-mortality-of-agaricia-lamarcki-on-a-mesophotic-reef
#18
Jack H Laverick, Alex D Rogers
Mesophotic Coral Ecosystems (MCEs) may act as a refuge for impacted shallow reefs as some of the stressors affecting tropical reefs attenuate with depth. A less impacted population at depth could provide recruits to recolonise shallow reefs. Recently, disturbance has been reported on several mesophotic reefs including storm damage, biological invasions, and coral bleaching; calling into question the extent of deep reef refuges. We report on a reciprocal transplant experiment between shallow and mesophotic reefs in the Caribbean, which occurred during a period of coral bleaching...
December 18, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282837/do-reef-corals-age
#19
John C Bythell, Barbara E Brown, Thomas B L Kirkwood
Hydra is emerging as a model organism for studies of ageing in early metazoan animals, but reef corals offer an equally ancient evolutionary perspective as well as several advantages, not least being the hard exoskeleton which provides a rich fossil record as well as a record of growth and means of ageing of individual coral polyps. Reef corals are also widely regarded as potentially immortal at the level of the asexual lineage and are assumed not to undergo an intrinsic ageing process. However, putative molecular indicators of ageing have recently been detected in reef corals...
December 28, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282714/bottom-up-processes-mediated-by-social-systems-drive-demographic-traits-of-coral-reef-fishes
#20
Brett M Taylor, Simon J Brandl, Maia Kapur, William D Robbins, Garrett Johnson, Charlie Huveneers, Phil Renaud, J Howard Choat
Ectotherms exhibit considerable plasticity in their life-history traits. This plasticity can reflect variability in environmental and social factors, but the causes of observed patterns are often obscured with increasing spatial scales. We surveyed dichromatic parrotfishes across the northern Great Barrier Reef to examine variation in body size distributions and concomitant size at sex change (L∆50 ) against hypotheses of directional influence from biotic and abiotic factors known to affect demography. By integrating top-down, horizontal, and bottom-up processes, we demonstrate a strong association between exposure regimes (which are known to influence nutritional ecology and mating systems) and both body size distribution and L∆50 (median length at female-to-male sex change), with an accompanying lack of strong empirical support for other biotic drivers previously hypothesized to affect body size distributions...
December 28, 2017: Ecology
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