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Coral Reefs

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781155/human-impacts-decouple-a-fundamental-ecological-relationship-the-positive-association-between-host-diversity-and-parasite-diversity
#1
Chelsea L Wood, Brian J Zgliczynski, Alison J Haupt, Ana Sofía Guerra, Fiorenza Micheli, Stuart A Sandin
Human impacts on ecosystems can decouple the fundamental ecological relationships that create patterns of diversity in free-living species. Despite the abundance, ubiquity, and ecological importance of parasites, it is unknown whether the same decoupling effects occur for parasitic species. We investigated the influence of fishing on the relationship between host diversity and parasite diversity for parasites of coral reef fishes on three fished and three unfished islands in the central equatorial Pacific. Fishing was associated with a shallowing of the positive host-diversity-parasite-diversity relationship...
May 20, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778407/the-current-status-of-coral-reefs-and-their-vulnerability-to-climate-change-and-multiple-human-stresses-in-the-comoros-archipelago-western-indian-ocean
#2
B Cowburn, M A Samoilys, D Obura
Coral bleaching and various human stressors have degraded the coral reefs of the Comoros Archipelago in the past 40 years and rising atmospheric CO2 levels are predicted to further impact marine habitats. The condition of reefs in the Comoros is poorly known; using SCUBA based methods we surveyed reef condition and resilience to bleaching at sites in Grande Comore and Mohéli in 2010 and 2016. The condition of reefs was highly variable, with a range in live coral cover between 6% and 60% and target fishery species biomass between 20 and 500 kg per ha...
May 16, 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778222/exploring-dinoflagellate-biology-with-high-throughput-proteomics
#3
REVIEW
David Morse, Sirius P K Tse, Samuel C L Lo
Dinoflagellates are notorious for their ability to form the harmful algal blooms known as "red tides," yet the mechanisms underlying bloom formation remain poorly understood. Despite recent advances in nucleic acid sequencing, which have generated transcriptomes from a wide range of species exposed to a variety of different conditions, measuring changes in RNA levels have not generally produced great insight into dinoflagellate cell biology or environmental physiology, nor do we have a thorough grasp on the molecular events underpinning bloom formation...
May 2018: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773843/loss-of-live-coral-compromises-predator-avoidance-behaviour-in-coral-reef-damselfish
#4
Lisa Boström-Einarsson, Mary C Bonin, Philip L Munday, Geoffrey P Jones
Tropical reefs have experienced an unprecedented loss of live coral in the past few decades and the biodiversity of coral-dependent species is under threat. Many reef fish species decline in abundance as coral cover is lost, yet the mechanisms responsible for these losses are largely unknown. A commonly hypothesised cause of fish decline is the loss of shelter space between branches as dead corals become overgrown by algae. Here we tested this hypothesis by quantifying changes in predator-avoidance behaviour of a common damselfish, Pomacentrus moluccensis, before and after the death of their coral colony...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773316/rapid-recovery-of-a-coral-dominated-eastern-tropical-pacific-reef-after-experimentally-produced-anthropogenic-disturbance
#5
Ranjan Muthukrishnan, Peggy Fong
Local anthropogenic stressors such as overfishing, nutrient enrichment and increased sediment loading have been shown to push coral reefs toward greater dominance by algae. In a few cases this shift has been temporary, with the ability to recover to a healthy coral-dominated community after disturbance, suggesting some systems have considerable resilience. However, an understanding of the circumstances under which reefs may recover is only beginning to emerge. We monitored recovery of a coral-dominated reef in the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP) after cessation of a ∼6 month multiple stressor experiment (with herbivore exclosure, nutrient addition, and sediment addition)...
May 7, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770279/testing-methods-to-mitigate-caribbean-yellow-band-disease-on-orbicella-faveolata
#6
Carly J Randall, Elizabeth M Whitcher, Tessa Code, Clayton Pollock, Ian Lundgren, Zandy Hillis-Starr, Erinn M Muller
Outbreaks of coral diseases continue to reduce global coral populations. In the Caribbean, yellow band is a severe and wide-spread disease that commonly affects corals of the Orbicella spp. complex, significantly impeding coral reproduction, and hindering the natural recovery of Orbicella spp. POPULATIONS: Caribbean yellow-band disease (CYBD) lesions may be severe, and often result in the complete loss of coral tissue. The slow spread of CYBD, however, provides an opportunity to test methods to mitigate the disease...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765676/using-virtual-reality-to-estimate-aesthetic-values-of-coral-reefs
#7
Julie Vercelloni, Sam Clifford, M Julian Caley, Alan R Pearse, Ross Brown, Allan James, Bryce Christensen, Tomasz Bednarz, Ken Anthony, Manuel González-Rivero, Kerrie Mengersen, Erin E Peterson
Aesthetic value, or beauty, is important to the relationship between humans and natural environments and is, therefore, a fundamental socio-economic attribute of conservation alongside other ecosystem services. However, beauty is difficult to quantify and is not estimated well using traditional approaches to monitoring coral-reef aesthetics. To improve the estimation of ecosystem aesthetic values, we developed and implemented a novel framework used to quantify features of coral-reef aesthetics based on people's perceptions of beauty...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765363/subtle-differences-in-symbiont-cell-surface-glycan-profiles-do-not-explain-species-specific-colonization-rates-in-a-model-cnidarian-algal-symbiosis
#8
John E Parkinson, Trevor R Tivey, Paige E Mandelare, Donovon A Adpressa, Sandra Loesgen, Virginia M Weis
Mutualisms between cnidarian hosts and dinoflagellate endosymbionts are foundational to coral reef ecosystems. These symbioses are often re-established every generation with high specificity, but gaps remain in our understanding of the cellular mechanisms that control symbiont recognition and uptake dynamics. Here, we tested whether differences in glycan profiles among different symbiont species account for the different rates at which they initially colonize aposymbiotic polyps of the model sea anemone Aiptasia ( Exaiptasia pallida )...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761059/biodiversity-of-the-great-barrier-reef-how-adequately-is-it-protected
#9
Zoe T Richards, Jon C Day
Background: The Great Barrier Reef (GBR) is the world's most iconic coral reef ecosystem, recognised internationally as a World Heritage Area of outstanding significance. Safeguarding the biodiversity of this universally important reef is a core legislative objective; however, ongoing cumulative impacts including widespread coral bleaching and other detrimental impacts have heightened conservation concerns for the future of the GBR. Methods: Here we review the literature to report on processes threatening species on the GBR, the status of marine biodiversity, and evaluate the extent of species-level monitoring and reporting...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761039/fine-grained-compositional-analysis-of-port-everglades-inlet-microbiome-using-high-throughput-dna-sequencing
#10
Lauren O'Connell, Song Gao, Donald McCorquodale, Jay Fleisher, Jose V Lopez
Background: Similar to natural rivers, manmade inlets connect inland runoff to the ocean. Port Everglades Inlet (PEI) is a busy cargo and cruise ship port in South Florida, which can act as a source of pollution to surrounding beaches and offshore coral reefs. Understanding the composition and fluctuations of bacterioplankton communities ("microbiomes") in major port inlets is important due to potential impacts on surrounding environments. We hypothesize seasonal microbial fluctuations, which were profiled by high throughput 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and analysis...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761035/small-tropical-islands-with-dense-human-population-differences-in-water-quality-of-near-shore-waters-are-associated-with-distinct-bacterial-communities
#11
Hauke F Kegler, Christiane Hassenrück, Pia Kegler, Tim C Jennerjahn, Muhammad Lukman, Jamaluddin Jompa, Astrid Gärdes
Water quality deterioration caused by an enrichment in inorganic and organic matter due to anthropogenic inputs is one of the major local threats to coral reefs in Indonesia. However, even though bacteria are important mediators in coral reef ecosystems, little is known about the response of individual taxa and whole bacterial communities to these anthropogenic inputs. The present study is the first to investigate how bacterial community composition responds to small-scale changes in water quality in several coral reef habitats of the Spermonde Archipelago including the water column, particles, and back-reef sediments, on a densely populated and an uninhabited island...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760772/engineering-a-palette-of-eukaryotic-chromoproteins-for-bacterial-synthetic-biology
#12
Josefine Liljeruhm, Saskia K Funk, Sandra Tietscher, Anders D Edlund, Sabri Jamal, Pikkei Wistrand-Yuen, Karl Dyrhage, Arvid Gynnå, Katarina Ivermark, Jessica Lövgren, Viktor Törnblom, Anders Virtanen, Erik R Lundin, Erik Wistrand-Yuen, Anthony C Forster
Background: Coral reefs are colored by eukaryotic chromoproteins (CPs) that are homologous to green fluorescent protein. CPs differ from fluorescent proteins (FPs) by intensely absorbing visible light to give strong colors in ambient light. This endows CPs with certain advantages over FPs, such as instrument-free detection uncomplicated by ultra-violet light damage or background fluorescence, efficient Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) quenching, and photoacoustic imaging. Thus, CPs have found utility as genetic markers and in teaching, and are attractive for potential cell biosensor applications in the field...
2018: Journal of Biological Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760298/a-newly-designed-primer-revealed-high-phylogenetic-diversity-of-endozoicomonas-in-coral-reefs
#13
Jia-Ho Shiu, Jiun-Yan Ding, Ching-Hung Tseng, Shueh-Ping Lou, Takuma Mezaki, Yu-Ting Wu, Hsiang-Iu Wang, Sen-Lin Tang
Endozoicomonas bacteria are commonly regarded as having a potentially symbiotic relationship with their coral hosts. However, their diversity and phylogeny in samples collected from various sources remain unclear. Therefore, we designed an Endozoicomonas-specific primer paired with a bacterial universal primer to detect the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes of this taxon and conducted an in-depth investigation of the Endozoicomonas community structure in reef-building corals. The primer had high specificity in the V3-V4 region (95...
May 12, 2018: Microbes and Environments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755445/coral-bacterial-core-abundance-and-network-complexity-as-proxies-for-anthropogenic-pollution
#14
Deborah C A Leite, Joana F Salles, Emiliano N Calderon, Clovis B Castro, Adalto Bianchini, Joseane A Marques, Jan Dirk van Elsas, Raquel S Peixoto
Acclimatization via changes in the stable (core) or the variable microbial diversity and/or abundance is an important element in the adaptation of coral species to environmental changes. Here, we explored the spatial-temporal dynamics, diversity and interactions of variable and core bacterial populations associated with the coral Mussismilia hispida and the surrounding water. This survey was performed on five reefs along a transect from the coast (Reef 1) to offshore (Reef 5), representing a gradient of influence of the river mouth, for almost 12 months (4 sampling times), in the dry and rainy seasons...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755140/resilience-in-carbonate-production-despite-three-coral-bleaching-events-in-5-years-on-an-inshore-patch-reef-in-the-florida-keys
#15
Derek P Manzello, Ian C Enochs, Graham Kolodziej, Renée Carlton, Lauren Valentino
The persistence of coral reef frameworks requires that calcium carbonate (CaCO3 ) production by corals and other calcifiers outpaces CaCO3 loss via physical, chemical, and biological erosion. Coral bleaching causes declines in CaCO3 production, but this varies with bleaching severity and the species impacted. We conducted census-based CaCO3 budget surveys using the established ReefBudget approach at Cheeca Rocks, an inshore patch reef in the Florida Keys, annually from 2012 to 2016. This site experienced warm-water bleaching in 2011, 2014, and 2015...
2018: Marine Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754219/monitoring-and-assessing-a-2-year-outbreak-of-the-corallivorous-seastar-acanthaster-planci-in-ari-atoll-republic-of-maldives
#16
Luca Saponari, Enrico Montalbetti, Paolo Galli, Giovanni Strona, Davide Seveso, Inga Dehnert, Simone Montano
Outbreaks of the corallivorous crown-of-thorns seastars have received increasing attention due to their negative impacts on coral reefs in the Indo-Pacific Ocean. However, outbreaks in remote and dislocated islands are still poorly understood. This study aims to begin filling informational gaps regarding outbreaks of Acanthaster planci in the remote islands of the central Ari Atoll, Republic of Maldives. The population of A. planci was monitored during three periods over 2 years (2015-2016) to evaluate variations in abundance and to characterise size structure and feeding behaviour...
May 12, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754063/transcriptional-responses-of-acropora-hyacinthus-embryo-under-the-benzo-a-pyrene-stress-by-deep-sequencing
#17
Rong Xiao, Hailong Zhou, Chien-Min Chen, Huamin Cheng, Hongwu Li, Jia Xie, Hongwei Zhao, Qian Han, Xiaoping Diao
Coral embryos are a critical and sensitive period for the early growth and development of coral. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is widely distributed in the ocean and has strong toxicity, but there is little information on the toxic effects to coral embryos exposed to this widespread environmental contaminant. Thus, in this study, we utilized the Illumina Hiseq™ 4000 platform to explore the gene response of Acropora hyacinthus embryos under the BaP stress. A total of 130,042 Unigenes were obtained and analyzed, and approximately 37...
April 24, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753494/biodiversity-and-distribution-of-the-meiofaunal-community-in-the-reef-slopes-of-the-maldivian-archipelago-indian-ocean
#18
Federica Semprucci, Fabrizio Frontalini, Valentina Losi, Eric Armynot du Châtelet, Lucia Cesaroni, Roberto Sandulli, Rodolfo Coccioni, Maria Balsamo
Marine biologists have progressively increased their consciousness of the importance of meiofauna for the benthic domain in both temperate and tropical regions. After the 1998 bleaching, Maldivian reefs (Indian Ocean) have been regarded as a vulnerable ecosystem that must be carefully monitored. Accordingly, an extensive investigation of meiofaunal distribution in the reef slopes of the Maldivian archipelago has been carried out, taking into account geographical position, type of habitat (inner vs. outer slope), inclination and depth gradient...
May 5, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750192/attenuating-effects-of-ecosystem-management-on-coral-reefs
#19
Robert S Steneck, Peter J Mumby, Chancey MacDonald, Douglas B Rasher, George Stoyle
Managing diverse ecosystems is challenging because structuring drivers are often processes having diffuse impacts that attenuate from the people who were "managed" to the expected ecosystem-wide outcome. Coral reef fishes targeted for management only indirectly link to the ecosystem's foundation (reef corals). Three successively weakening interaction tiers separate management of fishing from coral abundance. We studied 12 islands along the 700-km eastern Caribbean archipelago, comparing fished and unfished coral reefs...
May 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743539/recruitment-drives-spatial-variation-in-recovery-rates-of-resilient-coral-reefs
#20
Sally J Holbrook, Thomas C Adam, Peter J Edmunds, Russell J Schmitt, Robert C Carpenter, Andrew J Brooks, Hunter S Lenihan, Cheryl J Briggs
Tropical reefs often undergo acute disturbances that result in landscape-scale loss of coral. Due to increasing threats to coral reefs from climate change and anthropogenic perturbations, it is critical to understand mechanisms that drive recovery of these ecosystems. We explored this issue on the fore reef of Moorea, French Polynesia, following a crown-of-thorns seastar outbreak and cyclone that dramatically reduced cover of coral. During the five-years following the disturbances, the rate of re-establishment of coral cover differed systematically around the triangular-shaped island; coral cover returned most rapidly at sites where the least amount of live coral remained after the disturbances...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
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