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Coral Reefs

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905045/differential-response-of-coral-communities-to-caulerpa-spp-bloom-in-the-reefs-of-indian-ocean
#1
B Manikandan, J Ravindran
Coral reef ecosystems are disturbed in tandem by climatic and anthropogenic stressors. A number of factors act synergistically to reduce the live coral cover and threaten the existence of reefs. Continuous monitoring of the coral communities during 2012-2014 captured an unprecedented growth of macroalgae as a bloom at Gulf of Mannar (GoM) and Palk Bay (PB) which are protected and unprotected reefs, respectively. The two reefs varying in their protection level enabled to conduct an assessment on the response of coral communities and their recovery potential during and after the macroalgal bloom...
December 1, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904802/abundance-and-physiology-of-dominant-soft-corals-linked-to-water-quality-in-jakarta-bay-indonesia
#2
Gunilla Baum, Indra Januar, Sebastian C A Ferse, Christian Wild, Andreas Kunzmann
Declining water quality is one of the main reasons of coral reef degradation in the Thousand Islands off the megacity Jakarta, Indonesia. Shifts in benthic community composition to higher soft coral abundances have been reported for many degraded reefs throughout the Indo-Pacific. However, it is not clear to what extent soft coral abundance and physiology are influenced by water quality. In this study, live benthic cover and water quality (i.e. dissolved inorganic nutrients (DIN), turbidity (NTU), and sedimentation) were assessed at three sites (< 20 km north of Jakarta) in Jakarta Bay (JB) and five sites along the outer Thousand Islands (20-60 km north of Jakarta)...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904505/composition-and-biological-activities-of-the-aqueous-extracts-of-three-scleractinian-corals-from-the-mexican-caribbean-pseudodiploria-strigosa-porites-astreoides-and-siderastrea-siderea
#3
Alejandro García-Arredondo, Alejandra Rojas-Molina, César Ibarra-Alvarado, Fernando Lazcano-Pérez, Roberto Arreguín-Espinosa, Judith Sánchez-Rodríguez
BACKGROUND: Scleractinian corals (stony corals) are the most abundant reef-forming cnidarians found in coral reefs throughout the world. Despite their abundance and ecological importance, information about the diversity of their toxins and their biological activities is very scarce. In this study, the chemical composition and the biological activities of the aqueous extracts of Pseudodiploria strigosa, Porites astreoides and Siderastrea siderea, three scleractinian corals from the Mexican Caribbean, have been assessed for the first time...
2016: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903867/in-situ-developmental-responses-of-tropical-sea-urchin-larvae-to-ocean-acidification-conditions-at-naturally-elevated-pco2-vent-sites
#4
Miles D Lamare, Michelle Liddy, Sven Uthicke
Laboratory experiments suggest that calcifying developmental stages of marine invertebrates may be the most ocean acidification (OA)-sensitive life-history stage and represent a life-history bottleneck. To better extrapolate laboratory findings to future OA conditions, developmental responses in sea urchin embryos/larvae were compared under ecologically relevant in situ exposures on vent-elevated pCO2 and ambient pCO2 coral reefs in Papua New Guinea. Echinometra embryos/larvae were reared in meshed chambers moored in arrays on either venting reefs or adjacent non-vent reefs...
November 30, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902715/local-stressors-resilience-and-shifting-baselines-on-coral-reefs
#5
Matthew McLean, Javier Cuetos-Bueno, Osamu Nedlic, Marston Luckymiss, Peter Houk
Understanding how and why coral reefs have changed over the last twenty to thirty years is crucial for sustaining coral-reef resilience. We used a historical baseline from Kosrae, a typical small island in Micronesia, to examine changes in fish and coral assemblages since 1986. We found that natural gradients in the spatial distribution of fish and coral assemblages have become amplified, as island geography is now a stronger determinant of species abundance patterns, and habitat forming Acropora corals and large-bodied fishes that were once common on the leeward side of the island have become scarce...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902710/aspergillus-sydowii-and-other-potential-fungal-pathogens-in-gorgonian-octocorals-of-the-ecuadorian-pacific
#6
M Mar Soler-Hurtado, José Vladimir Sandoval-Sierra, Annie Machordom, Javier Diéguez-Uribeondo
Emerging fungal diseases are threatening ecosystems and have increased in recent decades. In corals, the prevalence and consequences of these infections have also increased in frequency and severity. Coral reefs are affected by an emerging fungal disease named aspergillosis, caused by Aspergillus sydowii. This disease and its pathogen have been reported along the Caribbean and Pacific coasts of Colombia. Despite this, an important number of coral reefs worldwide have not been investigated for the presence of this pathogen...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896036/detecting-sedimentation-impacts-to-coral-reefs-resulting-from-dredging-the-port-of-miami-florida-usa
#7
Margaret W Miller, Jocelyn Karazsia, Carolyn E Groves, Sean Griffin, Tom Moore, Pace Wilber, Kurtis Gregg
The federal channel at Port of Miami, Florida, USA, was dredged between late 2013 and early 2015 to widen and deepen the channel. Due to the limited spatial extent of impact-assessment monitoring associated with the project, the extent of the dredging impacts on surrounding coral reefs has not been well quantified. Previously published remote sensing analyses, as well as agency and anecdotal reports suggest the most severe and largest area of sedimentation occurred on a coral reef feature referred to as the Inner Reef, particularly in the sector north of the channel...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896028/the-scavenger-receptor-repertoire-in-six-cnidarian-species-and-its-putative-role-in-cnidarian-dinoflagellate-symbiosis
#8
Emilie F Neubauer, Angela Z Poole, Virginia M Weis, Simon K Davy
Many cnidarians engage in a mutualism with endosymbiotic photosynthetic dinoflagellates that forms the basis of the coral reef ecosystem. Interpartner interaction and regulation includes involvement of the host innate immune system. Basal metazoans, including cnidarians have diverse and complex innate immune repertoires that are just beginning to be described. Scavenger receptors (SR) are a diverse superfamily of innate immunity genes that recognize a broad array of microbial ligands and participate in phagocytosis of invading microbes...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894882/comparing-biomarker-responses-during-thermal-acclimation-a-lethal-vs-non-lethal-approach-in-a-tropical-reef-clownfish
#9
Carolina Madeira, Diana Madeira, Mário S Diniz, Henrique N Cabral, Catarina Vinagre
Knowledge of thermal stress biology for most tropical fish species in reef ecosystems under climate change is still quite limited. Thus, the objective of this study was to measure the time-course changes of thermal stress biomarkers in the commercially exploited coral reef fish Amphiprion ocellaris, during a laboratory simulated event of increased temperature. Heat shock protein 70kDa (Hsp70) and total ubiquitin (Ub) were determined in the muscle (lethal method) and in the fin (non-lethal alternative method) under two temperature treatments (control - 26°C and elevated temperature - 30°C) throughout one month with weekly samplings...
November 25, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889948/a-new-sequence-dataset-of-ssu-rrna-gene-for-scleractinia-and-its-phylogenetic-and-ecological-applications
#10
Roberto Arrigoni, Benoît Vacherie, Francesca Benzoni, Fabrizio Stefani, Eric Karsenti, Olivier Jaillon, Fabrice Not, Flavia Nunes, Claude Payri, Patrick Wincker, Valérie Barbe
Scleractinian corals (i.e. hard corals) play a fundamental role in building and maintaining coral reefs, one of the most diverse ecosystems on Earth. Nevertheless, their phylogenies remain largely unresolved and little is known about dispersal and survival of their planktonic larval phase. The small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) is a commonly-used gene for DNA barcoding in several metazoans, and small variable regions of SSU rRNA are largely adopted as barcode marker to investigate marine plankton community structure worldwide...
November 27, 2016: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889504/responses-of-the-sea-anemone-exaiptasia-pallida-to-ocean-acidification-conditions-and-zinc-or-nickel-exposure
#11
Christina G Duckworth, Codie R Picariello, Rachel K Thomason, Krina S Patel, Gretchen K Bielmyer-Fraser
Ocean acidification, caused by increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), is a growing concern in marine environments. Land-based sources of pollution, such as metals, have also been a noted problem; however, little research has addressed the combined exposure of both pollutants to coral reef organisms. In this study we examined tissue metal accumulation and physiological effects (activity of anti-oxidant enzymes, catalase and glutathione reductase) in the sea anemone, Exaiptasia pallida after exposure to increased CO2, as well as zinc (Zn) or nickel (Ni)...
November 17, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881745/natural-bounds-on-herbivorous-coral-reef-fishes
#12
Adel Heenan, Andrew S Hoey, Gareth J Williams, Ivor D Williams
Humans are an increasingly dominant driver of Earth's biological communities, but differentiating human impacts from natural drivers of ecosystem state is crucial. Herbivorous fish play a key role in maintaining coral dominance on coral reefs, and are widely affected by human activities, principally fishing. We assess the relative importance of human and biophysical (habitat and oceanographic) drivers on the biomass of five herbivorous functional groups among 33 islands in the central and western Pacific Ocean...
November 30, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873385/introgression-and-selection-shaped-the-evolutionary-history-of-sympatric-sister-species-of-coral-reef-fishes-genus-haemulon
#13
Moisés A Bernal, Michelle R Gaither, W Brian Simison, Luiz A Rocha
Closely related marine species with large sympatric ranges provide opportunities to study the mechanisms of speciation, particularly when there is evidence of gene flow between the lineages. Here we focus on a case of hybridization between the sympatric sister-species Haemulon maculicauda and H. flaviguttatum, using Sanger sequencing of mitochondrial and nuclear loci, as well as 2422 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) obtained via Restriction-site Associated DNA Sequencing (RADSeq). Mitochondrial markers revealed a shared haplotype for COI and low divergence for CytB and CR between the sister species...
November 22, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870065/photoacclimatory-and-photoprotective-responses-to-cold-versus-heat-stress-in-high-latitude-reef-corals
#14
Stefanie Pontasch, Paul L Fisher, Thomas Krueger, Sophie Dove, William Leggat, Ove Hoegh-Guldberg, Simon K Davy
Corals at the world's southernmost coral reef of Lord Howe Island (LHI) experience large temperature and light fluctuations and need to deal with periods of cold temperature (< 18 °C), but few studies have investigated how corals are able to cope with these conditions. Our study characterized the response of key photophysiological parameters, as well as photoacclimatory and photoprotective pigments (chlorophylls, xanthophylls and β-carotene), to short-term (5-day) cold stress (~ 15 °C; 7 °C below control) in three LHI coral species hosting distinct Symbiodinium ITS2 types, and compared the coral-symbiont response to that under elevated temperature (~ 29 °C; 7 °C above control)...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870014/sensitivity-of-coral-recruitment-to-subtle-shifts-in-early-community-succession
#15
Christopher Doropoulos, George Roff, Mart-Simone Visser, Peter J Mumby
Community succession following disturbance depends on positive and negative interactions, the strength of which change along environmental gradients. To investigate how early succession affects coral reef recovery, we conducted an 18 month experiment in Palau, using recruitment tiles and herbivore exclusion cages. One set of reefs has higher wave exposure and had previously undergone a phase shift to macroalgae following a major typhoon, whereas the other set of reefs have lower wave exposure and did not undergo a macroalgal phase shift...
November 21, 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870010/context-dependent-landscape-of-fear-algal-density-elicits-risky-herbivory-in-a-coral-reef
#16
Michael A Gil, Julie Zill, José M Ponciano
Foraging theory posits that isolation from refuge habitat within a landscape increases perceived predation risk and, thus, suppresses the foraging behavior of prey species. However, these effects may depend fundamentally on resource availability, which could affect prey boldness and can change considerably through bottom-up processes. We conducted a field survey and experiment in a coral reef to test the effects of isolation from refuge habitat (i.e., reef structure) on herbivory by reef fishes and whether these effects depend on resource density...
November 21, 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867759/the-potential-for-self-seeding-by-the-coral-pocillopora-spp-in-moorea-french-polynesia
#17
Georgios Tsounis, Peter J Edmunds
Coral reefs in Moorea, French Polynesia, suffered catastrophic coral mortality through predation by Acanthaster planci from 2006 to 2010, and Cyclone Oli in 2010, yet by 2015 some coral populations were approaching pre-disturbance sizes. Using long-term study plots, we quantified population dynamics of spawning Pocillopora spp. along the north shore of Moorea between 2010 and 2014, and considered evidence that population recovery could be supported by self-seeding. Results scaled up from study plots and settlement tiles suggest that the number of Pocillopora spp...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866895/empty-niches-after-extinctions-increase-population-sizes-of-modern-corals
#18
Carlos Prada, Bishoy Hanna, Ann F Budd, Cheryl M Woodley, Jeremy Schmutz, Jane Grimwood, Roberto Iglesias-Prieto, John M Pandolfi, Don Levitan, Kenneth G Johnson, Nancy Knowlton, Hiroaki Kitano, Michael DeGiorgio, Mónica Medina
Large environmental fluctuations often cause mass extinctions, extirpating species and transforming communities [1, 2]. While the effects on community structure are evident in the fossil record, demographic consequences for populations of individual species are harder to evaluate because fossils reveal relative, but not absolute, abundances. However, genomic analyses of living species that have survived a mass extinction event offer the potential for understanding the demographic effects of such environmental fluctuations on extant species...
November 12, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865519/fine-sediments-suppress-detritivory-on-coral-reefs
#19
Sterling B Tebbett, Christopher H R Goatley, David R Bellwood
Increasing sediment inputs are recognised as an important factor leading to coral reef degradation. However, the role of sediments in ecological processes is poorly understood. This study used paired-choice trials to quantify the effects of sediment grain size and chemical composition on feeding by the abundant detritivorous reef fish, Ctenochaetus striatus. The size of sediments from algal turfs were also compared to those ingested by reef-dwelling C. striatus. Algal turfs containing coarser sediments were preferred by C...
November 16, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862584/bayesian-adaptive-design-improving-the-effectiveness-of-monitoring-of-the-great-barrier-reef
#20
Su Yun Kang, James M McGree, Christopher C Drovandi, M Julian Caley, Kerrie L Mengersen
Monitoring programs are essential for understanding patterns, trends, and threats in ecological and environmental systems. However, such programs are costly in terms of dollars, human resources, and technology, and complex in terms of balancing short- and long-term requirements. In this work, We develop new statistical methods for implementing cost-effective adaptive sampling and monitoring schemes for coral reef that can better utilize existing information and resources, and which can incorporate available prior information...
December 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
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