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Coral Reefs

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155453/large-scale-bleaching-of-corals-on-the-great-barrier-reef
#1
T P Hughes, J T Kerry, T Simpson
In 2015-2016, record temperatures triggered a pan-tropical episode of coral bleaching. In the southern hemisphere summer of March-April 2016, we used aerial surveys to measure the level of bleaching on 1,156 individual reefs throughout the 2,300 km length of the Great Barrier Reef, the world's largest coral reef system. The accuracy of the aerial scores was ground-truthed with detailed underwater surveys of bleaching at 260 sites (104 reefs), allowing us to compare aerial and underwater bleaching data with satellite-derived temperatures and with associated model predictions of bleaching...
November 20, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153324/the-paradox-of-environmental-symbiont-acquisition-in-obligate-mutualisms
#2
Aaron C Hartmann, Andrew H Baird, Nancy Knowlton, Danwei Huang
Mutually beneficial interactions between species (mutualisms) shaped the evolution of eukaryotes and remain critical to the survival of species globally [1, 2]. Theory predicts that hosts should pass mutualist symbionts to their offspring (vertical transmission) [3-8]. However, offspring acquire symbionts from the environment in a surprising number of species (horizontal acquisition) [9-12]. A classic example of this paradox is the reef-building corals, in which 71% of species horizontally acquire algal endosymbionts [9]...
November 14, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150733/correction-to-coral-symbiodinium-community-composition-across-the-belize-mesoamerican-barrier-reef-system-is-influenced-by-host-species-and-thermal-variability
#3
J H Baumann, S W Davies, H E Aichelman, K D Castillo
The authors regret that acknowledgment for Dr. Adrian Marchetti was omitted from the manuscript. The correct acknowledgment is written below.
November 17, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149641/site-closure-management-strategies-and-the-responsiveness-of-conservation-outcomes-in-recreational-fishing
#4
Lei Gao, Atakelty Hailu
We develop and use an empirically based model, which integrates fishing behaviour and a coral reef system, to evaluate outcomes from site closure strategies to manage the effects of recreational fishing. The model is designed to estimate management effects in complex settings with two-way feedback effects (between fishing and ecosystem dynamics) as well as spillover effects where the closure of a site (or sites) leads to the redistribution of fishing effort. An iconic coral reef system is used as a case study...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146986/cascading-predator-effects-in-a-fijian-coral-reef-ecosystem
#5
Douglas B Rasher, Andrew S Hoey, Mark E Hay
Coral reefs are among Earth's best-studied ecosystems, yet the degree to which large predators influence the ecology of coral reefs remains an open and contentious question. Recent studies indicate the consumptive effects of large reef predators are too diffuse to elicit trophic cascades. Here, we provide evidence that such predators can produce non-consumptive (fear) effects that flow through herbivores to shape the distribution of seaweed on a coral reef. This trophic cascade emerged because reef topography, tidal oscillations, and shark hunting behaviour interact to create predictable "hot spots" of fear on the reef where herbivores withhold feeding and seaweeds gain a spatial refuge...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146203/responses-of-reef-building-corals-to-microplastic-exposure
#6
Jessica Reichert, Johannes Schellenberg, Patrick Schubert, Thomas Wilke
Pollution of marine environments with microplastic particles (i.e. plastic fragments <5 mm) has increased rapidly during the last decades. As these particles are mainly of terrestrial origin, coastal ecosystems such as coral reefs are particularly threatened. Recent studies revealed that microplastic ingestion can have adverse effects on marine invertebrates. However, little is known about its effects on small-polyp stony corals that are the main framework builders in coral reefs. The goal of this study is to characterise how different coral species I) respond to microplastic particles and whether the exposure might II) lead to health effects...
November 13, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134754/a-decrease-in-the-abundance-and-strategic-sophistication-of-cleaner-fish-after-environmental-perturbations
#7
Zegni Triki, Sharon Wismer, Elena Levorato, Redouan Bshary
Coral reef ecosystems are declining worldwide and under foreseeable threat due to climate change, resulting in significant changes in reef communities. It is unknown, however, how such community changes impact interspecific interactions. Recent extreme weather events affecting the Great Barrier Reef, that is, consecutive cyclones and the 2016 El Niño event, allowed us to explore potential consequences in the mutualistic interactions involving cleaner fish Labroides dimidiatus (hereafter "cleaner"). After the perturbations, cleaner densities were reduced by 80%, disproportionally compared to the variety of reef fish clients from which cleaners remove ectoparasites...
November 14, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134196/environmental-controls-on-modern-scleractinian-coral-and-reef-scale-calcification
#8
Travis A Courtney, Mario Lebrato, Nicholas R Bates, Andrew Collins, Samantha J de Putron, Rebecca Garley, Rod Johnson, Juan-Carlos Molinero, Timothy J Noyes, Christopher L Sabine, Andreas J Andersson
Modern reef-building corals sustain a wide range of ecosystem services because of their ability to build calcium carbonate reef systems. The influence of environmental variables on coral calcification rates has been extensively studied, but our understanding of their relative importance is limited by the absence of in situ observations and the ability to decouple the interactions between different properties. We show that temperature is the primary driver of coral colony (Porites astreoides and Diploria labyrinthiformis) and reef-scale calcification rates over a 2-year monitoring period from the Bermuda coral reef...
November 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132921/empirical-data-demonstrates-risk-tradeoffs-between-landscapes-for-herbivorous-fish-may-promote-reef-resilience
#9
Caitlin R Fong, Matthew Frias, Nicholas Goody, Sarah Joy Bittick, Rachel J Clausing, Peggy Fong
Herbivores balance resource requirements with predation risk, which can differ among landscapes; hence, landscape can shape these trade-offs, influencing herbivore distribution and behavior. While this paradigm has been well established on coral-dominated reefs, tropical reefs worldwide are shifting to algal dominance. If herbivores avoid algae due to higher risk and forage in coral, these algal states may be stabilized. However, if herbivores forage more in resource-rich algal states, this may promote coral recovery...
November 6, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129968/bleaching-response-of-coral-species-in-the-context-of-assemblage-response
#10
Timothy D Swain, Emily DuBois, Scott J Goldberg, Vadim Backman, Luisa A Marcelino
Caribbean coral reefs are declining due to a mosaic of local and global stresses, including climate change-induced thermal stress. Species and assemblage responses differ due to factors that are not easily identifiable or quantifiable. We calculated a novel species-specific metric of coral bleaching response, taxon-α and -β, which relates the response of a species to that of its assemblages for 16 species over 18 assemblages. By contextualizing species responses within the response of their assemblages, the effects of environmental factors are removed and intrinsic differences among taxa are revealed...
June 2017: Coral Reefs: Journal of the International Society for Reef Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127798/characterization-and-sources-of-colored-dissolved-organic-matter-in-a-coral-reef-ecosystem-subject-to-ultramafic-erosion-pressure-new-caledonia-southwest-pacific
#11
Chloé Martias, Marc Tedetti, François Lantoine, Léocadie Jamet, Cécile Dupouy
The eastern lagoon of New Caledonia (NC, Southwest Pacific), listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site, hosts the world's second longest double-barrier coral reef. This lagoon receives river inputs, oceanic water arrivals, and erosion pressure from ultramafic rocks, enriched in nickel (Ni) and cobalt (Co). The aim of this study was to characterize colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), as well as to determine its main sources and its possible relationships (through the use of Pearson correlation coefficients, r) with biogeochemical parameters, plankton communities and trace metals in the NC eastern lagoon...
November 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124861/inhibiting-bacterial-quorum-sensing-arrests-coral-disease-development-and-disease-associated-microbes
#12
Rebecca H Certner, Steven V Vollmer
Among the greatest threats to coral reefs are coral epizootics, which are increasing in frequency and severity across many reef ecosystems. In particular, white band disease (WBD) has devastated Caribbean acroporid populations since its initial outbreak in 1979. However, despite its widespread and damaging effects, the etiology of WBD remains largely unresolved. Here we examine the role of quorum sensing within bacterial communities associated with WBD-infected Acropora cervicornis. Microbial communities isolated from WBD-infected corals were exposed to quorum sensing inhibitor (QSI) - a N-acyl homoserine lactone autoinducer antagonist - and then dosed onto healthy test corals...
November 10, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119574/effects-of-emf-emissions-from-undersea-electric-cables-on-coral-reef-fish
#13
Audie K Kilfoyle, Robert F Jermain, Manhar R Dhanak, Joseph P Huston, Richard E Spieler
The objective of this study was to determine if electromagnetic field (EMF) emissions from undersea power cables impacted local marine life, with an emphasis on coral reef fish. The work was done at the South Florida Ocean Measurement Facility of Naval Surface Warfare Center in Broward County, Florida, which has a range of active undersea detection and data transmission cables. EMF emissions from a selected cable were created during non-destructive visual fish surveys on SCUBA. During surveys, the transmission of either alternating current (AC), direct current (DC), or none (OFF) was randomly initiated by the facility at a specified time...
November 9, 2017: Bioelectromagnetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117191/detecting-conservation-benefits-of-marine-reserves-on-remote-reefs-of-the-northern-gbr
#14
Carolina Castro-Sanguino, Yves-Marie Bozec, Alexandra Dempsey, Badi R Samaniego, Katie Lubarsky, Stefan Andrews, Valeriya Komyakova, Juan Carlos Ortiz, William D Robbins, Philip G Renaud, Peter J Mumby
The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP) is the largest network of marine reserves in the world, yet little is known of the efficacy of no-fishing zones in the relatively lightly-exploited remote parts of the system (i.e., northern regions). Here, we find that the detection of reserve effects is challenging and that heterogeneity in benthic habitat composition, specifically branching coral cover, is one of the strongest driving forces of fish assemblages. As expected, the biomass of targeted fish species was generally greater (up to 5-fold) in no-take zones than in fished zones, but we found no differences between the two forms of no-take zone: 'no-take' versus 'no-entry'...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116109/topographic-effect-on-the-phenology-of-ficus-pedunculosa-var-mearnsii-mearns-fig-in-its-northern-boundary-distribution-taiwan
#15
Chu-Chia Kuo, Anthony Bain, Yu-Ting Chiu, Yi-Chiao Ho, Wen-Hsuan Chen, Lien-Siang Chou, Hsy-Yu Tzeng
Mearns fig grows at the edge of coastal vegetation on uplifted coral reefs, its population and mutualistic-pollinators are susceptible to the influence of extreme weather. To determine the phenology of Mearns fig and the effects of various weather events under small-scale topographic differences, phenology was conducted for 3 years and 7 months. Results showed that Mearns figs had multiple leaf and fig productions year-round. Topographic effects caused population in Frog Rock Trail and Jialeshuei, which are less than 10 km away from each other, to exhibit different phenological patterns after experiencing severe weather events...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114244/phage-and-nucleocytoplasmic-large-viral-sequences-dominate-coral-viromes-from-the-arabian-gulf
#16
Huda Mahmoud, Liny Jose
Corals that naturally thrive under extreme conditions are gaining increasing attention due to their importance as living models to understand the impact of global warming on world corals. Here, we present the first metagenomic study of viral communities in corals thriving in a thermally variable water body in which the temperature fluctuates between 11 and 39°C in different seasons. The viral assemblages of two of the most abundant massive (Porites harrisoni) and branching (Acropora downingi) corals in offshore and inshore reef systems in the northern Arabian Gulf were investigated...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109975/genomic-models-predict-successful-coral-adaptation-if-future-ocean-warming-rates-are-reduced
#17
Rachael A Bay, Noah H Rose, Cheryl A Logan, Stephen R Palumbi
Population genomic surveys suggest that climate-associated genetic variation occurs widely across species, but whether it is sufficient to allow population persistence via evolutionary adaptation has seldom been quantified. To ask whether rapid adaptation in reef-building corals can keep pace with future ocean warming, we measured genetic variation at predicted warm-adapted loci and simulated future evolution and persistence in a high-latitude population of corals from Rarotonga, Cook Islands. Alleles associated with thermal tolerance were present but at low frequencies in this cooler, southerly locality...
November 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107631/cryopreservation-of-sperm-from-the-coral-acropora-humilis
#18
Voranop Viyakarn, Suchana Chavanich, Gabriella Chong, Sujune Tsai, Chiahsin Lin
Corals are sensitive to minute changes in their environments, and their continued existence is substantially threatened by the increasing number of destructive anthropogenic activities and unprecedented rates of climate change. Although cryopreservation has been successfully to preserve mammalian gametes for decades, coral cryopreservation was attempted for the first time less than 15 years ago, and freezing protocols exist for only a handful of coral species. The present study developed a cryopreservation protocol for the sperm of the common Indo-Pacific reef-builder Acropora humilis...
October 28, 2017: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101370/signatures-of-adaptation-and-symbiosis-in-genomes-and-transcriptomes-of-symbiodinium
#19
Raúl A González-Pech, Mark A Ragan, Cheong Xin Chan
Symbiodinium is best-known as the photosynthetic symbiont of corals, but some clades are symbiotic in other organisms or include free-living forms. Identifying similarities and differences among these clades can help us understand their relationship with corals, and thereby inform on measures to manage coral reefs in a changing environment. Here, using sequences from 24 publicly available transcriptomes and genomes of Symbiodinium, we assessed 78,389 gene families in Symbiodinium clades and the immediate outgroup Polarella glacialis, and identified putative overrepresented functions in gene families that (1) distinguish Symbiodinium from other members of Order Suessiales, (2) are shared by all of the Symbiodinium clades for which we have data, and (3) based on available information, are specific to each clade...
November 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101362/marine-heatwave-causes-unprecedented-regional-mass-bleaching-of-thermally-resistant-corals-in-northwestern-australia
#20
Morane Le Nohaïc, Claire L Ross, Christopher E Cornwall, Steeve Comeau, Ryan Lowe, Malcolm T McCulloch, Verena Schoepf
In 2015/16, a marine heatwave associated with a record El Niño led to the third global mass bleaching event documented to date. This event impacted coral reefs around the world, including in Western Australia (WA), although WA reefs had largely escaped bleaching during previous strong El Niño years. Coral health surveys were conducted during the austral summer of 2016 in four bioregions along the WA coast (~17 degrees of latitude), ranging from tropical to temperate locations. Here we report the first El Niño-related regional-scale mass bleaching event in WA...
November 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
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