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Coral Reefs

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432153/comparison-of-functional-and-anatomical-estimations-of-visual-acuity-in-two-species-of-coral-reef-fish
#1
Amira N Parker, Kerstin A Fritsches, Cait Newport, Guy Wallis, Ulrike E Siebeck
The high contrast, complex patterns typical of many reef fish serve several purposes, including providing disruptive camouflage and a basis for vision-based communication. In trying to understand the role of a specific pattern it is important to first assess the extent to which an observer can resolve the pattern, itself determined, at least in part, by the observer's visual acuity. In this study, we study the visual acuity of two species of reef fish using both anatomical and behavioural estimates. The two species in question share a common habitat but are members of different trophic levels (predator vs...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431143/characterisation-of-the-gill-mucosal-bacterial-communities-of-four-butterflyfish-species-a-reservoir-of-bacterial-diversity-in-coral-reefs-ecosystems
#2
Miriam Reverter, Pierre Sasal, N Tapissier-Bontemps, D Lecchini, Suzuki M
While recent studies have suggested that fish mucus microbiota play an important role in homeostasis and prevention of infections, very few studies have investigated the bacterial communities of gill mucus. We characterised the gill mucus bacterial communities of four butterflyfish species and although the bacterial diversity of gill mucus varied significantly between species, Shannon diversities were high (H = 3.7 - 5.7) in all species. Microbiota composition differed between butterflyfishes, with Chaetodon lunulatus and C...
April 18, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430780/the-importance-of-standardization-for-biodiversity-comparisons-a-case-study-using-autonomous-reef-monitoring-structures-arms-and-metabarcoding-to-measure-cryptic-diversity-on-mo-orea-coral-reefs-french-polynesia
#3
Emma Ransome, Jonathan B Geller, Molly Timmers, Matthieu Leray, Angka Mahardini, Andrianus Sembiring, Allen G Collins, Christopher P Meyer
The advancement of metabarcoding techniques, declining costs of high-throughput sequencing and development of systematic sampling devices, such as autonomous reef monitoring structures (ARMS), have provided the means to gather a vast amount of diversity data from cryptic marine communities. However, such increased capability could also lead to analytical challenges if the methods used to examine these communities across local and global scales are not standardized. Here we compare and assess the underlying biases of four ARMS field processing methods, preservation media, and current bioinformatic pipelines in evaluating diversity from cytochrome c oxidase I metabarcoding data...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429531/sugar-enrichment-provides-evidence-for-a-role-of-nitrogen-fixation-in-coral-bleaching
#4
Claudia Pogoreutz, Nils Rädecker, Anny Cárdenas, Astrid Gärdes, Christian R Voolstra, Christian Wild
The disruption of the coral-algae symbiosis (coral bleaching) due to rising sea surface temperatures has become an unprecedented global threat to coral reefs. Despite decades of research, our ability to manage mass bleaching events remains hampered by an incomplete mechanistic understanding of the processes involved. In this study, we induced a coral bleaching phenotype in the absence of heat and light stress by adding sugars. The sugar addition resulted in coral symbiotic breakdown accompanied by a fourfold increase of coral-associated microbial nitrogen fixation...
April 21, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428853/coral-reef-mesopredators-switch-prey-shortening-food-chains-in-response-to-habitat-degradation
#5
Tessa N Hempson, Nicholas A J Graham, M Aaron MacNeil, David H Williamson, Geoffrey P Jones, Glenn R Almany
Diet specificity is likely to be the key predictor of a predator's vulnerability to changing habitat and prey conditions. Understanding the degree to which predatory coral reef fishes adjust or maintain prey choice, in response to declines in coral cover and changes in prey availability, is critical for predicting how they may respond to reef habitat degradation. Here, we use stable isotope analyses to characterize the trophic structure of predator-prey interactions on coral reefs of the Keppel Island Group on the southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427567/benthic-dinoflagellate-integrator-bedi-a-new-method-for-the-quantification-of-benthic-harmful-algal-blooms
#6
Luisa Mangialajo, Anna Fricke, Gala Perez-Gutierrez, Daniela Catania, Cécile Jauzein, Rodolphe Lemee
Despite the potential negative human health, ecological and economic impact, the ecology of harmful benthic dinoflagellate blooms remains largely unknown. This is probably due to the complex interactions among biotic and abiotic drivers that influence blooms, but also to the difficulty in quantifying cell abundance in a comparable way over large spatial and temporal scales. One of the recognized priorities for bHABs (benthic Harmful Algal Blooms) assessment is developing and standardizing methods that can provide comparable data...
April 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425096/influence-of-coral-cover-and-structural-complexity-on-the-accuracy-of-visual-surveys-of-coral-reef-fish-communities
#7
D J Coker, J P Nowicki, N A J Graham
Using manipulated patch reefs with combinations of varying live-coral cover (low, medium and high) and structural complexity (low and high), common community metrics (abundance, diversity, richness and community composition) collected through standard underwater visual census techniques were compared with exhaustive collections using a fish anaesthetic (clove oil). This study showed that reef condition did not influence underwater visual census estimates at a community level, but reef condition can influence the detectability of some small and cryptic species and this may be exacerbated if surveys are conducted on a larger scale...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422965/diet-and-condition-of-mesopredators-on-coral-reefs-in-relation-to-shark-abundance
#8
Shanta C Barley, Mark G Meekan, Jessica J Meeuwig
Reef sharks may influence the foraging behaviour of mesopredatory teleosts on coral reefs via both risk effects and competitive exclusion. We used a "natural experiment" to test the hypothesis that the loss of sharks on coral reefs can influence the diet and body condition of mesopredatory fishes by comparing two remote, atoll-like reef systems, the Rowley Shoals and the Scott Reefs, in northwestern Australia. The Rowley Shoals are a marine reserve where sharks are abundant, whereas at the Scott Reefs numbers of sharks have been reduced by centuries of targeted fishing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422134/genetic-structure-and-signatures-of-selection-in-grey-reef-sharks-carcharhinus-amblyrhynchos
#9
P Momigliano, R Harcourt, W D Robbins, V Jaiteh, G N Mahardika, A Sembiring, A Stow
With overfishing reducing the abundance of marine predators in multiple marine ecosystems, knowledge of genetic structure and local adaptation may provide valuable information to assist sustainable management. Despite recent technological advances, most studies on sharks have used small sets of neutral markers to describe their genetic structure. We used 5517 nuclear single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) gene to characterize patterns of genetic structure and detect signatures of selection in grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos)...
April 19, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419173/sponge-symbioses-between-xestospongia-deweerdtae-and-plakortis-spp-are-not-motivated-by-shared-chemical-defense-against-predators
#10
Micah Jaarsma Marty, Jan Vicente, Benjamin L Oyler, Allen Place, Russell T Hill
The recently described epizoic sponge-sponge symbioses between Xestospongia deweerdtae and two species of Plakortis present an unusual series of sponge interactions. Sponges from the genus Plakortis are fierce allelopathic competitors, rich in cytotoxic secondary metabolites, and yet X. deweerdtae flourishes as an epizoic encrustation on Plakortis deweerdtaephila and Plakortis symbiotica. Our objective in this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that X. deweerdtae grows epizoic to these two species of Plakortis due to a shared chemical defense against predators...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418173/rebutting-the-inclined-analyses-on-the-cost-effectiveness-and-feasibility-of-coral-reef-restoration
#11
Baruch Rinkevich
Active reef restoration is a fast developing scientific discipline, since under the current forecasts of global climate change and the ever-continuing anthropogenic impacts, further degradation in the functions, ecology and structures of coral reefs worldwide is anticipated. This scientific field, though still in its infancy and facing a variety of challenges, has emerged as a discipline capable of successfully restoring ravaged reefs when correctly and efficiently executed. In concert with a wide range of biological and ecological applications, reef restoration today encompasses a variety of societal equity capitals and other social commodification, all intermingled within a single unabridged socio-economic perspective (Rinkevich 2014, 2015b)...
April 18, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413732/calcification-and-growth-rate-recovery-of-the-reef-building-pocillopora-species-in-the-northeast-tropical-pacific-following-an-enso-disturbance
#12
Jose de Jesús A Tortolero-Langarica, Alma P Rodríguez-Troncoso, Amílcar L Cupul-Magaña, Juan P Carricart-Ganivet
Pocilloporids are one of the major reef-building corals in the eastern tropical Pacific (ETP) and also the most affected by thermal stress events, mainly those associated with El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) periods. To date, coral growth parameters have been poorly reported in Pocillopora species in the northeastern region of the tropical Pacific. Monthly and annual growth rates of the three most abundant morphospecies (P. cf. verrucosa, P. cf. capitata, and P. cf. damicornis) were evaluated during two annual periods at a site on the Pacific coast of Mexico...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411315/contamination-of-marine-fauna-by-chlordecone-in-guadeloupe-evidence-of-a-seaward-decreasing-gradient
#13
Charlotte R Dromard, Mathilde Guéné, Yolande Bouchon-Navaro, Soazig Lemoine, Sébastien Cordonnier, Claude Bouchon
Chlordecone is an organochlorine pesticide, used in the Lesser Antilles from 1972 to 1993 to fight against a banana weevil. That molecule is very persistent in the natural environment and ends up in the sea with runoff waters. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the level of contamination in several trophic groups of marine animals according to their distance from the source of pollution. Samples of suspended matter, macroalgae, herbivorous fishes, detrivorous crustaceans, zooplanktivorous fishes, first- and second-order of carnivorous fishes, and piscivorous fishes have been collected in two sites, located downstream the contaminated sites (Goyave and Petit-Bourg), in three marine habitats (coastal mangroves, seagrass beds located 1...
April 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407448/draft-genomes-of-the-corallimorpharians-amplexidiscus-fenestrafer-and-discosoma-sp
#14
Xin Wang, Yi Jin Liew, Yong Li, Didier Zoccola, Sylvie Tambutte, Manuel Aranda
Corallimorpharia are the closest non-calcifying relatives of reef-building corals. Aside from their popularity among aquarium hobbyists, their evolutionary position between the Actiniaria (sea anemones) and the Scleractinia (hard corals) makes them ideal candidates for comparative studies aiming at understanding the evolution of hexacorallian orders in general and reef-building corals in particular. Here we have sequenced and assembled two draft genomes for the Corallimorpharia species Amplexidiscus fenestrafer and Discosoma sp...
April 13, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406937/cost-and-time-effective-method-for-multi-scale-measures-of-rugosity-fractal-dimension-and-vector-dispersion-from-coral-reef-3d-models
#15
G C Young, S Dey, A D Rogers, D Exton
We present a method to construct and analyse 3D models of underwater scenes using a single cost-effective camera on a standard laptop with (a) free or low-cost software, (b) no computer programming ability, and (c) minimal man hours for both filming and analysis. This study focuses on four key structural complexity metrics: point-to-point distances, linear rugosity (R), fractal dimension (D), and vector dispersion (1/k). We present the first assessment of accuracy and precision of structure-from-motion (SfM) 3D models from an uncalibrated GoPro™ camera at a small scale (4 m2) and show that they can provide meaningful, ecologically relevant results...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404773/not-equal-in-the-face-of-habitat-change-closely-related-fishes-differ-in-their-ability-to-use-predation-related-information-in-degraded-coral
#16
Maud C O Ferrari, Mark I McCormick, Bridie J M Allan, Douglas P Chivers
Coral reefs are biodiversity hotpots that are under significant threat due to the degradation and death of hard corals. When obligate coral-dwelling species die, the remaining species must either move or adjust to the altered conditions. Our goal was to investigate the effect of coral degradation on the ability of coral reef fishes to assess their risk of predation using alarm cues from injured conspecifics. Here, we tested the ability of six closely related species of juvenile damselfish (Pomacentridae) to respond to risk cues in both live coral or dead-degraded coral environments...
April 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400749/radiative-energy-budgets-of-phototrophic-surface-associated-microbial-communities-and-their-photosynthetic-efficiency-under-diffuse-and-collimated-light
#17
Mads Lichtenberg, Kasper E Brodersen, Michael Kühl
We investigated the radiative energy budgets of a heterogeneous photosynthetic coral reef sediment and a compact uniform cyanobacterial biofilm on top of coastal sediment. By combining electrochemical, thermocouple and fiber-optic microsensor measurements of O2, temperature and light, we could calculate the proportion of the absorbed light energy that was either dissipated as heat or conserved by photosynthesis. We show, across a range of different incident light regimes, that such radiative energy budgets are highly dominated by heat dissipation constituting up to 99...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400049/species-co-occurrence-affects-the-trophic-interactions-of-two-juvenile-reef-shark-species-in-tropical-lagoon-nurseries-in-moorea-french%C3%A2-polynesia
#18
Philip Matich, Jeremy J Kiszka, Johann Mourier, Serge Planes, Michael R Heithaus
Food web structure is shaped by interactions within and across trophic levels. As such, understanding how the presence and absence of predators, prey, and competitors affect species foraging patterns is important for predicting the consequences of changes in species abundances, distributions, and behaviors. Here, we used plasma δ(13)C and δ(15)N values from juvenile blacktip reef sharks (Carcharhinus melanopterus) and juvenile sicklefin lemon sharks (Negaprion acutidens) to investigate how species co-occurrence affects their trophic interactions in littoral waters of Moorea, French Polynesia...
March 28, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396400/social-interactions-among-grazing-reef-fish-drive-material-flux-in-a-coral-reef-ecosystem
#19
Michael A Gil, Andrew M Hein
In human financial and social systems, exchanges of information among individuals cause speculative bubbles, behavioral cascades, and other correlated actions that profoundly influence system-level function. Exchanges of information are also widespread in ecological systems, but their effects on ecosystem-level processes are largely unknown. Herbivory is a critical ecological process in coral reefs, where diverse assemblages of fish maintain reef health by controlling the abundance of algae. Here, we show that social interactions have a major effect on fish grazing rates in a reef ecosystem...
April 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395870/dongsha-atoll-a-potential-thermal-refuge-for-reef-building-corals-in-the-south-china-sea
#20
Konstantin S Tkachenko, Keryea Soong
Dongsha Atoll (also known as the Pratas Islands), the northernmost atoll in the South China Sea, experiences two contrasting physical phenomena: repetitive anomalies of the sea surface temperature exceeding the coral bleaching threshold and regular effects of the world's strongest internal waves resulting in the rhythmic upwelling of cold deep waters at the outer reef slopes of the atoll. This unique combination may result in significant differences in coral species composition and structure between the lagoon and forereef...
April 4, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
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