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Bryozoan ecology

Lee Hsiang Liow, Emanuela Di Martino, Kjetil Lysne Voje, Seabourne Rust, Paul D Taylor
Ecological interactions affect the survival and reproduction of individuals. However, ecological interactions are notoriously difficult to measure in extinct populations, hindering our understanding of how the outcomes of interactions such as competition vary in time and influence long-term evolutionary changes. Here, the outcomes of spatial competition in a temporally continuous community over evolutionary timescales are presented for the first time. Our research domain is encrusting cheilostome bryozoans from the Wanganui Basin of New Zealand over a ca 2 Myr time period (Pleistocene to Recent)...
August 31, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Gilles Lepoint, André Heughebaert, Loïc N Michel
BACKGROUND: The seagrass Posidonia oceanica L. Delile, commonly known as Neptune grass, is an endemic species of the Mediterranean Sea. It hosts a distinctive and diverse epiphytic community, dominated by various macroalgal and animal organisms. Mediterranean bryozoans have been extensively studied but quantitative data assessing temporal and spatial variability have rarely been documented. In Lepoint et al. (2014a, b) occurrence and abundance data of epiphytic bryozoan communities on leaves of Posidonia oceanica inhabiting Revellata Bay (Corsica, Mediterranean Sea) were reported and trophic ecology of Electra posidoniae Gautier assessed...
2016: ZooKeys
Adiël A Klompmaker, Sten L Jakobsen, Bodil W Lauridsen
BACKGROUND: Modern cold-water coral and tropical coral environments harbor a highly diverse and ecologically important macrofauna of crustaceans that face elevated extinction risks due to reef decline. The effect of environmental conditions acting on decapod crustaceans comparing these two habitats is poorly understood today and in deep time. Here, we compare the biodiversity, eye socket height as a proxy for eye size, and body size of decapods in fossil cold-water and tropical reefs that formed prior to human disturbance...
2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Norah E M Brown, Thomas W Therriault, Christopher D G Harley
Increasing levels of CO2 in the atmosphere are affecting ocean chemistry, leading to increased acidification (i.e. decreased pH) and reductions in calcium carbonate saturation state. Many species are likely to respond to acidification, but the direction and magnitude of these responses will be based on interspecific and ontogenetic variation in physiology and the relative importance of calcification. Differential responses to ocean acidification (OA) among species will likely result in important changes in community structure and diversity...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
Heidi M Luter, Alan R Duckworth, Carsten W Wolff, Elizabeth Evans-Illidge, Steve Whalan
One of the key components in assessing marine sessile organism demography is determining recruitment patterns to benthic habitats. An analysis of serially deployed recruitment tiles across depth (6 and 12 m), seasons (summer and winter) and space (meters to kilometres) was used to quantify recruitment assemblage structure (abundance and percent cover) of corals, sponges, ascidians, algae and other sessile organisms from the northern sector of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR). Polychaetes were most abundant on recruitment titles, reaching almost 50% of total recruitment, yet covered <5% of each tile...
2016: PloS One
Ashlie Hartigan, Mark Wilkinson, David J Gower, Jeffrey W Streicher, Astrid S Holzer, Beth Okamura
Myxozoans are parasitic cnidarians that infect a wide variety of hosts. Vertebrates typically serve as intermediate hosts whereas definitive hosts are invertebrates, including annelids and bryozoans. Myxozoans are known to exploit species in two of the three extant amphibian orders (Anura: frogs and toads; Caudata: newts and salamanders). Here we use museum collections to determine, to our knowledge for the first time, whether myxozoans also exploit the third amphibian order (Gymnophiona: caecilians). Caecilians are a poorly known group of limbless amphibians, the ecologies of which range from aquatic to fully terrestrial...
May 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
Nikola Koletić, Maja Novosel, Nives Rajević, Damjan Franjević
Bryozoans are aquatic invertebrates that inhabit all types of aquatic ecosystems. They are small animals that form large colonies by asexual budding. Colonies can reach the size of several tens of centimeters, while individual units within a colony are the size of a few millimeters. Each individual within a colony works as a separate zooid and is genetically identical to each other individual within the same colony. Most freshwater species of bryozoans belong to the Phylactolaemata class, while several species that tolerate brackish water belong to the Gymnolaemata class...
January 2015: Ecology and Evolution
Leandro M Vieira, Alvaro E Migotto, Judith E Winston
This paper describes 21 ctenostomatous bryozoans from the state of São Paulo, Brazil, based on specimens observed in vivo. A new family, Jebramellidae n. fam., is erected for a newly described genus and species, Jebramella angusta n. gen. et sp. Eleven other species are described as new: Alcyonidium exiguum n. sp., Alcyonidium pulvinatum n. sp., Alcyonidium torquatum n. sp., Alcyonidium vitreum n. sp., Bowerbankia ernsti n. sp., Bowerbankia evelinae n. sp., Bowerbankia mobilis n. sp., Nolella elizae n. sp...
2014: Zootaxa
Blanca Figuerola, Laura Sala-Comorera, Carlos Angulo-Preckler, Jennifer Vázquez, M Jesús Montes, Cristina García-Aljaro, Elena Mercadé, Anicet R Blanch, Conxita Avila
The antimicrobial activity of Antarctic bryozoans and the ecological functions of the chemical compounds involved remain largely unknown. To determine the significant ecological and applied antimicrobial effects, 16 ether and 16 butanol extracts obtained from 13 different bryozoan species were tested against six Antarctic (including Psychrobacter luti, Shewanella livingstonensis and 4 new isolated strains) and two bacterial strains from culture collections (Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus). Results from the bioassays reveal that all ether extracts exhibited antimicrobial activity against some bacteria...
October 2014: Marine Environmental Research
Jenni A Stanley, Serena L Wilkens, Andrew G Jeffs
Globally billions of dollars are spent each year on attempting to reduce marine biofouling on commercial vessels, largely because it results in higher fuel costs due to increased hydrodynamic drag. Biofouling has been long assumed to be primarily due to the availability of vacant space on the surface of the hull. Here, it is shown that the addition of the noise emitted through a vessel's hull in port increases the settlement and growth of biofouling organisms within four weeks of clean surfaces being placed in the sea...
2014: Biofouling
Massimo Ponti, Rossella Angela Perlini, Vincenzo Ventra, Daniele Grech, Marco Abbiati, Carlo Cerrano
Mediterranean gorgonian forests are threatened by several human activities and are affected by climatic anomalies that have led to mass mortality events in recent decades. The ecological role of these habitats and the possible consequence of their loss are poorly understood. Effects of gorgonians on the recruitment of epibenthic organisms were investigated by manipulating presence of gorgonians on experimental panels at 24 m depth, for Eunicella cavolinii, and at 40 m depth, for Paramuricea clavata, at two sites: Tavolara Island (Tyrrhenian Sea) and Portofino Promontory (Ligurian Sea)...
2014: PloS One
Julia Reisser, Jeremy Shaw, Gustaaf Hallegraeff, Maira Proietti, David K A Barnes, Michele Thums, Chris Wilcox, Britta Denise Hardesty, Charitha Pattiaratchi
Millimeter-sized plastics are abundant in most marine surface waters, and known to carry fouling organisms that potentially play key roles in the fate and ecological impacts of plastic pollution. In this study we used scanning electron microscopy to characterize biodiversity of organisms on the surface of 68 small floating plastics (length range = 1.7-24.3 mm, median = 3.2 mm) from Australia-wide coastal and oceanic, tropical to temperate sample collections. Diatoms were the most diverse group of plastic colonizers, represented by 14 genera...
2014: PloS One
Hanna Hartikainen, Alexander Gruhl, Beth Okamura
Malacosporeans are a poorly known myxozoan clade that uniquely demonstrates a tissue level of organisation. Thus, when exploiting their invertebrate hosts (freshwater bryozoans) they occur as non-motile sacs or vermiform stages capable of active swimming. We combine phylogenetic analyses of SSU and LSU rDNA with morphological observations to substantially enhance understanding of malacosporean diversification. The phylogenetic analyses incorporate the widest taxon sampling and geographic cover to date, reveal four novel malacosporean lineages and several putatively new species, one with a novel morphology of irregular, bulbous sacs and no musculature...
July 2014: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Blanca Figuerola, Laura Núñez-Pons, Juan Moles, Conxita Avila
The Antarctic sea star Odontaster validus and the amphipod Cheirimedon femoratus are important predators in benthic communities. Some bryozoans are part of the diet of the asteroid and represent both potential host biosubstrata and prey for this omnivorous lysianassid amphipod. In response to such ecological pressure, bryozoans are expected to develop strategies to deter potential predators, ranging from physical to chemical mechanisms. However, the chemical ecology of Antarctic bryozoans has been scarcely studied...
November 2013: Die Naturwissenschaften
Anna C L Wood, Ashley A Rowden, Tanya J Compton, Dennis P Gordon, P Keith Probert
Frame-building bryozoans occasionally occur in sufficient densities in New Zealand waters to generate habitat for other macrofauna. The environmental conditions necessary for bryozoans to generate such habitat, and the distributions of these species, are poorly known. Bryozoan-generated habitats are vulnerable to bottom fishing, so knowledge of species' distributions is essential for management purposes. To better understand these distributions, presence records were collated and mapped, and habitat suitability models were generated (Maxent, 1 km(2) grid) for the 11 most common habitat-forming bryozoan species: Arachnopusia unicornis, Cellaria immersa, Cellaria tenuirostris, Celleporaria agglutinans, Celleporina grandis, Cinctipora elegans, Diaperoecia purpurascens, Galeopsis porcellanicus, Hippomenella vellicata, Hornera foliacea, and Smittoidea maunganuiensis...
2013: PloS One
Natalie K Rivero, Katherine A Dafforn, Melinda A Coleman, Emma L Johnston
Anthropogenic modifications to waterways are common and their ecological consequences must be understood to effectively conserve local biodiversity. The facilitation of recreational boating activities often requires substantial alteration of natural areas, however the environmental and ecological consequences of such alterations are rarely described in the scientific literature. In this study, ecological and physico-chemical conditions were investigated in a recreational boating marina, located inside a marine park on the south-east coast of Australia...
2013: Biofouling
Jing-Tang Liu, Xiao-Ling Lu, Xiao-Yu Liu, Yun Gao, Bo Hu, Bing-Hua Jiao, Heng Zheng
Polar regions are remote and challenging areas on the earth. In view of the unique environment and the severe competition in polar regions, it's considered that the ecological system might be the producer of new compounds with diversity biological activities. This review is an attempt to consolidate the studies about 97 natural products isolated from Antarctic and Arctic organisms including microbes, algae, sponges, bryozoans, and tunicates and so on published in the recent years. The emphasis is mainly about the new compounds, source organisms and biological activities, which signifies the immense competence of Antarctic and Arctic organisms as bioactive natural products producers...
April 2013: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Núria Teixidó, Edgar Casas, Emma Cebrián, Cristina Linares, Joaquim Garrabou
Extreme events are rare, stochastic perturbations that can cause abrupt and dramatic ecological change within a short period of time relative to the lifespan of organisms. Studies over time provide exceptional opportunities to detect the effects of extreme climatic events and to measure their impacts by quantifying rates of change at population and community levels. In this study, we show how an extreme storm event affected the dynamics of benthic coralligenous outcrops in the NW Mediterranean Sea using data acquired before (2006-2008) and after the impact (2009-2010) at four different sites...
2013: PloS One
Joshua A Mackie, John A Darling, Jonathan B Geller
Watersipora is an invasive genus of bryozoans, easily dispersed by fouled vessels. We examined Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I haplotypes from introduced populations on the US Pacific coastline to investigate geographic segregation of species and/or haplotypes. In California, the W. subtorquata group fell into three major sub-groups: W. subtorquata clades A and B, and W. "new sp.". W. subtorquata clades A and B were common in southern California south of Point Conception, a recognized biogeographic boundary, whereas further north, W...
2012: Scientific Reports
Collin H Johnson, Robert M Woollacott
For sessile invertebrates, the degree to which dispersal mechanisms transport individuals away from their natal grounds can have significant ecological implications. Even though the larvae of the marine bryozoan Bugula stolonifera have limited dispersal potential, high levels of genetic mixing have been found within their conspecific aggregations. In this study, we investigated whether this high mixing within aggregations of B. stolonifera also resulted in high mixing between aggregations. Adult colonies were collected from five sites within and one site outside of Eel Pond, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, in August 2009 and genotyped at 10 microsatellite loci...
June 2012: Biological Bulletin
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