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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152865/adolescent-offenders-qualitative-reflections-on-desistance-from-crime
#1
Jamie Amemiya, Jessica Kieta, Kathryn C Monahan
Although many young offenders desist from crime during adolescence, little is known about this process. This study used a qualitative approach to elucidate adolescent offenders' experiences in desisting from crime. Thirty-nine male adolescent offenders (Mage  = 16.59 years) participated in a semistructured interview about the desistance process. One of four themes characterized adolescents' reflections on their own desistance: having a psychological reorientation, reacting to consequences, persisting, or being in the wrong place at the wrong time...
December 2017: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094954/procedural-justice-legitimacy-beliefs-and-moral-disengagement-in-emerging-adulthood-explaining-continuity-and-desistance-in-the-moral-model-of-criminal-lifestyle-development
#2
Glenn D Walters
Research has shown that procedural justice reliably predicts future offending behavior, although there is some indication that this may be more a function of legitimacy beliefs than of procedural justice per se. The current study sought to explain continuity and desistance in the moral model of criminal lifestyle development by comparing legitimacy beliefs, procedural justice, and moral disengagement as initiators and mediators of pathways leading to early adult offending. It was hypothesized that low legitimacy beliefs but not perceived procedural (in)justice or moral disengagement would initiate, and that moral disengagement but not low legitimacy beliefs or procedural injustice would mediate, the effect of low legitimacy beliefs on subsequent offending behavior...
November 2, 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094621/what-i-d-tell-my-16-year-old-self-criminal-desistance-young-adults-and-psychosocial-maturation
#3
Matthew L Mizel, Laura S Abrams
This study qualitatively explored how young adult men on probation or parole view the components of psychosocial maturation that contribute to criminal desistance. The authors conducted nine focus groups with 40 men on probation or parole, including seven groups with men aged 18 to 25 years. Two additional focus groups were conducted with older men (ages 29-60 years) to refine our evolving understanding. According to the participants, psychosocial maturation processes of personal growth, learning from mistakes, considering consequences before acting, developing and executing long-range plans, improving peer associations, and recognizing and responding to a motivating event all contributed to their desire to change their course of criminal offending...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082568/stopping-khat-use-predictors-of-success-in-an-unaided-quit-attempt
#4
Samson W Duresso, Raimondo Bruno, Allison J Matthews, Stuart G Ferguson
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Despite the adverse effects of khat use and chewers interest in cessation, there are few studies that have reported on the outcome of khat cessation attempts, and limited resources available for potential quitters. We used electronic diaries to monitor the outcomes of an unassisted quit attempt among daily and near daily khat consumers, and examine predictors of success. DESIGN AND METHODS: Sixty participants between the ages of 18 and 35 years who regularly chewed khat and who were attempting to quit were purposively recruited from an Ethiopian University campus...
October 30, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065391/rural-and-urban-comparisons-of-polysubstance-use-profiles-and-associated-injection-behaviors-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-puerto-rico
#5
Dane Hautala, Roberto Abadie, Bilal Khan, Kirk Dombrowski
INTRODUCTION: In contrast to urban populations, little is known about polysubstance use among rural people who inject drugs (PWID), particularly in Puerto Rico where injection drug use and related health consequences are prevalent. The aim of the study is to compare injection and non-injection substance use profiles among separate urban and rural samples of Puerto Rican PWID. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data for the urban sample come from 455 PWID who participated in the CDC's National HIV Behavioral Surveillance survey of injection drug use in San Juan...
December 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990267/the-role-of-identity-in-committing-acts-of-violent-extremism-and-in-desisting-from-them
#6
EDITORIAL
Christopher Dean
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983792/conduct-problems-trajectories-and-psychosocial-outcomes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
Leonardo Bevilacqua, Daniel Hale, Edward D Barker, Russell Viner
There is increasing evidence that youth who follow the early onset persistent (EOP), adolescent-onset (AO) and childhood-limited (CL) trajectories of conduct problems show varying patterns of health, mental health, educational, and social outcomes in adulthood. However, there has been no systematic review and meta-analysis on outcomes associated with different conduct problems trajectories. We systematically reviewed the literature of longitudinal studies considering outcomes of three conduct problems trajectories: EOP, AO, and CL compared with individuals with low levels of conduct problems (low)...
October 6, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942808/effects-of-excessive-alcohol-use-on-antisocial%C3%A2-behavior-across-adolescence-and%C3%A2-early-adulthood
#8
Gemma Hammerton, Liam Mahedy, Joseph Murray, Barbara Maughan, Alexis C Edwards, Kenneth S Kendler, Matthew Hickman, Jon Heron
OBJECTIVE: Antisocial behavior (ASB) decreases with age in most of the population; however, excessive alcohol use can inhibit the desistance process. This study investigated whether excessive early drinking might slow a young person's overall pattern of crime desistance compared with that of others ("between-person effects") and whether short-term increases in alcohol consumption might result in short-term increases in ASB ("within-person effects"). METHOD: Frequency of ASB and typical alcohol consumption were assessed repeatedly in young people 15 to 21 years old in a population-based birth cohort (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children)...
October 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905165/interpersonal-relationships-as-protective-and-risk-factors-for-psychopathy-a-follow-up-study-in-adolescent-offenders
#9
Heidi Backman, Taina Laajasalo, Markus Jokela, Eeva T Aronen
Friendships and romantic relationships may function as protective and risk factors for psychopathic traits. To better understand potential causal associations, we investigated whether within-individual changes in relationship characteristics were related to changes in psychopathic traits over time. Data were derived from ten repeated measurements of the Pathways to Desistance longitudinal study of 1354 offending adolescents (14.3% female; 40.1% Black). Analyses were adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, self-reported offending and living facilities...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879682/criminal-thinking-shifts-among-male-prisoners-participating-in-a-cognitive-based-education-programme
#10
Cody Warner, Timothy Conley, Riley Murphy
BACKGROUND: Many prisoners rationalise criminal behaviour, and this type of thinking has been linked to recidivism. Correctional programmes for modifying criminal thinking can reshape how offenders view themselves and their circumstances. AIM: Our aim was to test whether participation in a cognitive-based curriculum called Steps to Economic and Personal Success (STEPS) was associated with changes in criminal thinking. METHODS: The STEPS curriculum is delivered in 15 video-based facilitated classes...
September 6, 2017: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874094/the-pursuit-of-primary-human-goods-in-men-desisting-from-sexual-offending
#11
Danielle Arlanda Harris, Amelie Pedneault, Gwenda Willis
The good lives model proposes at least 10 primary human goods that are thought to be common to all individuals which, when secured, contribute to enhanced well-being and life satisfaction. Prosocial attainment of primary human goods is thought to promote desistance from crime. However, individuals convicted of sexual offenses face significant obstacles upon their reentry into the community that likely undermine their ability to obtain such goods. The current study explored the pursuit and attainment of primary human goods in a U...
September 1, 2017: Sexual Abuse: a Journal of Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801945/bullying-victimization-trajectories-for-sexual-minority-adolescents-stable-victims-desisters-and-late-onset-victims
#12
Paul R Sterzing, Jeremy J Gibbs, Rachel E Gartner, Jeremy T Goldbach
Sexual minority adolescents are bullied more frequently than heterosexual peers. Research is lacking on their rates of general and sexual orientation bullying victimization. The present study identified (1) the rate, onset, and desistance of general and sexual orientation bullying victimization, (2) the rate of bullying victimization trajectories, and (3) risk and protective factors across trajectories. A life history calendar method and thematic analysis were employed with a sexual minority adolescent sample (N = 52, 14-20 y/o)...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797805/trajectories-of-energy-drink-consumption-and-subsequent-drug-use-during-young-adulthood
#13
Amelia M Arria, Kimberly M Caldeira, Brittany A Bugbee, Kathryn B Vincent, Kevin E O'Grady
BACKGROUND: Highly caffeinated energy drinks (EDs) are popular with adolescents and young adults, but longitudinal consumption patterns are poorly understood especially in relation to other substance use. METHODS: ED and other substance use were assessed annually (modal ages 21-25) among a sample (n=1099) who were originally recruited as first-year college students (modal age 18). Trajectory groups were derived based on probability of past-year use during ages 21-24, and compared for possible differences in substance use outcomes at age 25, holding constant demographics, sensation-seeking, other caffeine consumption, and age 21 substance use...
October 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741174/angiosarcoma-around-total-hip-arthroplasty-case-series-and-review-of-the-literature
#14
REVIEW
S Terrando, A Sambri, G Bianchi, L Cevolani, L Foschi, E Gozzi, G Pignatti, D M Donati
BACKGROUND: Angiosarcoma (AS) is a rare and malignant tumor which mainly arises in the skin and superficial soft tissue and less frequently in deep soft tissue and bones. Some cases of AS are described in association with vascular and orthopedic devices. Nonetheless, only a few cases of AS around THA are reported in the literature. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We describe five cases of AS arising around total hip arthroplasty who received surgery at our institution (Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna, Italy), and we report the cases described in literature...
July 24, 2017: Musculoskeletal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677906/enhancing-the-desistance-trajectory-in-prison-commentary-on-mcmurran-and-delight-s-2017-process-of-change-in-an-opd-pathway-prison-progression-unit
#15
Nikki Jeffcote
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617075/follow-up-of-young-adults-with-adhd-in-the-mta-design-and-methods-for-qualitative-interviews
#16
Thomas S Weisner, Desiree W Murray, Peter S Jensen, John T Mitchell, James M Swanson, Stephen P Hinshaw, Karen Wells, Lily Hechtman, Brooke S G Molina, L Eugene Arnold, Page Sorensen, Annamarie Stehli
OBJECTIVE: Qualitative interviews with 183 young adults (YA) in the follow-up of the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With and Without ADHD (MTA) provide rich information on beliefs and expectations regarding ADHD, life's turning points, medication use, and substance use (SU). METHOD: Participants from four MTA sites were sampled to include those with persistent and atypically high SU, and a local normative comparison group (LNCG). Respondents were encouraged to "tell their story" about their lives, using a semistructured conversational interview format...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595673/neonatal-dna-methylation-and-early-onset-conduct-problems-a-genome-wide-prospective-study
#17
Charlotte A M Cecil, Esther Walton, Sara R Jaffee, Tom O'Connor, Barbara Maughan, Caroline L Relton, Rebecca G Smith, Wendy McArdle, Tom R Gaunt, Isabelle Ouellet-Morin, Edward D Barker
Early-onset conduct problems (CP) are a key predictor of adult criminality and poor mental health. While previous studies suggest that both genetic and environmental risks play an important role in the development of early-onset CP, little is known about potential biological processes underlying these associations. In this study, we examined prospective associations between DNA methylation (cord blood at birth) and trajectories of CP (4-13 years), using data drawn from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children...
June 9, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549156/early-subjective-sensory-experiences-with-cigalike-e-cigarettes-among-african-american-menthol-smokers-a-qualitative-study
#18
Sabrina L Smiley, Teresa DeAtley, Leslie F Rubin, Emily Harvey, Elexis C Kierstead, Monica Webb Hooper, Raymond S Niaura, David B Abrams, Jennifer L Pearson
Introduction: Despite smoker interest in e-cigarettes as a harm reduction or cessation aid, many smokers prematurely discontinue vaping after trying a product. This study explored the role of early subjective sensory experience in vaping persistence and desistence. Methods: African American menthol cigarette smokers aged ≥18 years (n=15; M=54.1 years; SD=8.2), motivated to quit smoking, and interested in trying e-cigarettes were recruited in Washington, D.C. Participants were followed for three weeks and provided menthol cigalike e-cigarettes after week one...
May 26, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530437/developmental-continuity-and-change-in-physical-verbal-and-relational-aggression-and-peer-victimization-from-childhood-to-adolescence
#19
Idean Ettekal, Gary W Ladd
To investigate the developmental course of aggression and peer victimization in childhood and adolescence, distinct subgroups of children were identified based on similarities and differences in their physical, verbal and relational aggression, and victimization. Developmental continuity and change were assessed by examining transitions within and between subgroups from Grades 1 to 11. This longitudinal study consisted of 482 children (50% females) and was based on peer report data on multiple forms of aggression and peer victimization...
September 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505701/-compatibility-of-work-and-family-life-survey-of-physicians-in-the-munich-metropolitan-area
#20
Meike Lauchart, Philipp Ascher, Karin Kesel, Sabine Weber, Beatrice Grabein, Bertram Schneeweiss, Cordula Fischer-Truestedt, Michael Schoenberg, Gudrun Rogler, Claudia Borelli
Aim Investigation of the compatibility of work and family life for physicians in the Munich metropolitan area. Methods Survey of a representative sample of 1,800 physicians using a questionnaire. Results Men were less satisfied (7% very satisfied vs. 21%) with compatibility between work and family life than women. The group least satisfied overall was hospital-based physicians (p=0.000, chi-square=122.75). Women rather than men cut back their career due to children, perceived their professional advancement as impaired, desisted from establishing private practice or quit hospital employment altogether...
May 15, 2017: Das Gesundheitswesen
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