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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791433/the-belfast-youth-development-study-byds-a-prospective-cohort-study-of-the-initiation-persistence-and-desistance-of-substance-use-from-adolescence-to-adulthood-in-northern-ireland
#1
Kathryn Higgins, Aisling McLaughlin, Oliver Perra, Claire McCartan, Mark McCann, Andrew Percy, Julie-Ann Jordan
BACKGROUND: Substance misuse persists as a major public health issue worldwide with significant costs for society. The development of interventions requires methodologically sound studies to explore substance misuse causes and consequences. This Cohort description paper outlines the design of the Belfast Youth Development (BYDS), one of the largest cohort studies of its kind in the UK. The study was established to address the need for a long-term prospective cohort study to investigate the initiation, persistence and desistance of substance use, alongside life course processes in adolescence and adulthood...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790431/-this-time-it-s-different-preparing-for-release-through-a-prison-model-of-cosa-a-phenomenological-and-repertory-grid-analysis
#2
Rosie Kitson-Boyce, Nicholas Blagden, Belinda Winder, Gayle Dillon
Circles of support and accountability (CoSA) in the prison-model begin prior to the core members' release from prison and continue with them on release in to the community. The purpose of this study was to explore the expectations of release of those convicted of a sexual offense and how this develops during their participation in the prison sessions of CoSA. The research question was to consider how the prison-model of CoSA relates to the desistance of crime, in particular the phases of desistance developed by Gobbels, Ward, and Willis...
May 1, 2018: Sexual Abuse: a Journal of Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755185/recidivism-in-a-sample-of-serious-adolescent-offenders
#3
Robert Brame, Edward P Mulvey, Carol A Schubert, Alex R Piquero
Objectives: A broad research literature in criminology documents key aspects of how criminal offending develops and changes over the life span. We contribute to this literature by showcasing methods that are useful for studying medium-term patterns of subsequent criminal justice system involvement among a sample of serious adolescent offenders making the transition to early adulthood. Methods: Our approach relies on 7 years of post-enrollment follow-up from the Pathways to Desistance Study...
March 2018: Journal of Quantitative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743806/troubled-or-traumatized-youth-the-relations-between-psychopathy-violence-exposure-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-antisocial-behavior-among-juvenile-offenders
#4
Siny Tsang
The current study examined how psychopathy, exposure to violence, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are associated with antisocial behavior among 1,354 serious delinquent adolescents from the Pathways to Desistance study. Results showed that psychopathy, violence exposure, and PTSD are independently linked to self-reported involvement of delinquency, even after controlling for respondents' demographic characteristics. However, the effect of PTSD on antisocial behavior was small. Differential associations were observed between the 2 factors of psychopathy, interpersonal/affective and social deviance, and PTSD symptoms...
2018: Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681519/blunted-frontostriatal-blood-oxygen-level-dependent-signals-predict-stimulant-and-marijuana-use
#5
Melanie A Blair, Jennifer L Stewart, April C May, Martina Reske, Susan F Tapert, Martin P Paulus
BACKGROUND: Occasional recreational stimulant (amphetamine and cocaine) use is an important public health problem among young adults because 16% of those who experiment develop stimulant use disorder. This study aimed to determine whether behavioral and/or neural processing measures can forecast the transition from occasional to problematic stimulant use. METHODS: Occasional stimulant users completed a Risky Gains Task during functional magnetic resonance imaging and were followed up 3 years later...
March 21, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671376/desistance-and-treatment-seeking-among-women-with-substance-use-disorders
#6
Blythe E Rhodes, Nisha C Gottfredson, Lauren M Hill
Addiction rates are rising faster among women than men. However, women with substance use disorders are less likely to enter treatment than males. This study seeks to understand how turning-point events and other maturational processes affect "life course persistent" women's motivations for seeking treatment for their disorder. We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with 30 women who were receiving treatment for addiction using thematic analysis. Recurring themes were as follows: experiences of rock-bottom events prior to entering treatment, feeling "sick and tired" in regard to both their physical and mental health, and shifting identities or perceptions of themselves...
April 1, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577840/the-relevance-of-victimization-experiences-for-predicting-the-development-of-threat-symptoms-during-adolescence-and-early-adulthood
#7
Thomas W Wojciechowski
The "threat" portion of the threat/control override symptom constellation is characterized by the belief by an individual that others seek to do them harm. There has yet to be an examination of the link between perceived threat symptomatology and the experience of victimization, despite the fact that both constructs are linked to the perpetration of violent behavior. Furthermore, there has yet to be research which examines the heterogeneity in developmental patterns of threat symptomatology. The present research utilized the Pathways to Desistance data to model the developmental heterogeneity in perceived threat symptomatology across adolescence and early adulthood using group-based trajectory modeling...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525289/the-stability-of-intimate-partner-violence-perpetration-from-adolescence-to-emerging-adulthood-in-sexual-minorities
#8
Ryan C Shorey, Paula J Fite, Joseph R Cohen, Gregory L Stuart, Jeff R Temple
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to examine the stability of physical and sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration from adolescence to emerging adulthood among sexual minorities. METHODS: Adolescents who identified as a sexual minority (N = 135; 71.1% female; mean age = 15.02, standard deviation=.77; 34.1% African-American/black, 26.7% white, 22.2% Hispanic) from southeast Texas were assessed annually for 6 years on their IPV perpetration...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516559/exploring-the-efficacy-of-reintegrative-shaming-for-non-predatory-offending
#9
Chivon H Fitch, Zavin Nazaretian, Devon Himmel
BACKGROUND: Since Braithwaite advanced reintegrative shaming theory about 25 years ago, the theory has almost invariably been retested only in relation to predatory offending. Few studies have tested the relevance of the theory for non-predatory offending. AIM: This study aims to explore the utility of reintegrative shaming theory in explaining non-predatory crimes. Our main research question was: is acknowledgement of shame apportioned by others associated with reduction in non-predatory offending? METHODS: We used zero-inflated negative binomial modelling to analyse data from a national, longitudinal, population-based study of 1,726 adolescents...
March 8, 2018: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509061/the-observed-longitudinal-relationship-between-future-orientation-and-substance-use-among-a-cohort-of-youth-with-serious-criminal-offenses
#10
Merrian Brooks, Elizabeth Miller, Kaleab Abebe, Edward Mulvey
BACKGROUND: Future orientation (FO), an essential construct in youth development, encompassing goals, expectations for life, and ability to plan for the future. This study uses a multidimensional measure of future orientation to assess the relationship between change in future orientation and change in substance use over time. METHODS: Data were from the Pathways to Desistence study. Justice involved youth (n = 1,354), ages 14 to 18 at time of recruitment, completed interviews every six months for three years...
March 6, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502219/protecting-high-risk-youth-in-high-risk-contexts-neighborhoods-parenting-and-victimization
#11
Marie Skubak Tillyer, James V Ray, Marissa E Hinton
Victimization theories suggest parents can serve as guardians to protect adolescents from victimization, yet findings from studies examining the main effects of parenting variables on adolescent victimization are mixed. Prior research suggests that it is the combination of parental warmth and monitoring that produces the best results across a range of other outcomes. The current study used data collected from a sample of serious adolescent offenders as part of the Pathways to Desistance study (N = 888; 16...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498133/religion-and-desistance-from-substance-use-among-adolescent-offenders-the-role-of-cognitive-functioning
#12
Richard Stansfield
BACKGROUND: Religious beliefs and practices have been shown to have some association with desistance from offending, as have cognitive processes, including emotion regulation, self-control, reasoning, learning, and empathy. Religious behaviours may, however, be moderated or mediated by cognitive abilities, but few studies take this into account. AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the role of cognitive ability in any relationship between religious beliefs and behaviours and desistance from substance use among adolescents...
March 1, 2018: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463586/evaluation-of-a-complex-intervention-engager-for-prisoners-with-common-mental-health-problems-near-to-and-after-release-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#13
Tim Kirkpatrick, Charlotte Lennox, Rod Taylor, Rob Anderson, Michael Maguire, Mark Haddad, Susan Michie, Christabel Owens, Graham Durcan, Alex Stirzaker, William Henley, Caroline Stevenson, Lauren Carroll, Cath Quinn, Sarah Louise Brand, Tirril Harris, Amy Stewart, Roxanne Todd, Sarah Rybczynska-Bunt, Rebecca Greer, Mark Pearson, Jenny Shaw, Richard Byng
INTRODUCTION: The 'Engager' programme is a 'through-the-gate' intervention designed to support prisoners with common mental health problems as they transition from prison back into the community. The trial will evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of the Engager intervention. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The study is a parallel two-group randomised controlled trial with 1:1 individual allocation to either: (a) the Engager intervention plus standard care (intervention group) or (b) standard care alone (control group) across two investigation centres (South West and North West of England)...
February 20, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411674/is-this-kid-a-likely-experimenter-or-a-likely-persister-an-analysis-of-individual-level-and-family-level-risk-factors-predicting-multiple-offending-among-a-group-of-adjudicated-youth
#14
Hasan Buker, Ayhan Erbay
To implement effective diversion programs and determine for a well-suited intervention strategy, ascertaining who, among the adjudicated youth, is more likely to involve in multiple offending, rather than desisting after an initial delinquent behavior, is of great significance. The overall objective of this study, therefore, is to contribute to the existing knowledge on assessing the risks for multiple offending during juvenile adjudication processes. In this regard, this study examined the predicting powers of several individual-level and family-level risk factors on multiple offending during adolescence, based on a data set derived from court-ordered social examination reports (SERs) on 400 adjudicated youth in Turkey...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400150/does-educational-success-mitigate-the-effect-of-child-maltreatment-on-later-offending-patterns
#15
Hyunzee Jung, Todd I Herrenkohl, Martie L Skinner, Ashley N Rousson
Analyses examined offending patterns during adolescence and adulthood and their relation to child maltreatment subtypes and education factors measured during adolescence and adulthood. A total of 356 participants were followed from preschool to adulthood in a prospective longitudinal study. Child maltreatment subtypes include physical-emotional abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect. Offending patterns were analyzed as latent classes of (a) chronic offending, (b) desistence, and (c) stable low-level or non-offending...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399843/longitudinal-examination-of-aggression-and-study-skills-from-middle-to-high-school-implications-for-dropout-prevention
#16
Pamela Orpinas, Katherine Raczynski, Hsien-Lin Hsieh, Lusine Nahapetyan, Arthur M Horne
BACKGROUND: High school completion provides health and economic benefits. The purpose of this study is to describe dropout rates based on longitudinal trajectories of aggression and study skills using teacher ratings. METHODS: The sample consisted of 620 randomly selected sixth graders. Every year from Grade 6 to 12, a teacher completed a nationally normed behavioral rating scale. We used latent class mixture modeling to identify the trajectories. RESULTS: Participants followed 3 trajectories of aggression (Low, Medium Desisting, and High Desisting) and 5 trajectories of study skills (Low, Average-Low, Decreasing, Increasing, and High)...
March 2018: Journal of School Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388447/just-sentences-human-rights-to-enable-participation-and-equity-for-prisoners-and-all
#17
Rosalie Martin
Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights holds up the right to opinion and expression for all. Just Sentences was a prison-based language-literacy pilot project for men, delivered by a speech-language pathologist at Risdon Prison in Tasmania, Australia. The pilot provided input into the various interpretative permutations of "just sentences". It enabled skills of opinion and expression. This commentary takes language and social reciprocity to be privileged drivers of personal agency and pro-social personal freedom...
February 2018: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335673/desistance-and-severity-of-alcohol-use-disorder-a-lifespan-developmental-investigation
#18
Matthew R Lee, Cassandra L Boness, Yoanna E McDowell, Alvaro Vergés, Douglas L Steinley, Kenneth J Sher
Key to an understanding of alcohol use disorder (AUD) are the drinking-related reductions that begin in young adulthood and continue throughout the adult lifespan. Research is needed to precisely characterize the form of these reductions, including possible developmental differences across the lifespan. Using U.S.-representative data, we estimated multiple-group Markov models characterizing longitudinal transitions among five drinking statuses and differences in transition patterns across six adult age periods...
2018: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332511/the-process-of-primary-desistance-from-intimate-partner-violence
#19
Kate Walker, Erica Bowen, Sarah Brown, Emma Sleath
This study examined the interaction between structure and agency for individuals in the first or early phase of primary desistance (1 year offending free) from intimate partner violence (IPV). Narrative accounts of perpetrators, survivors, and IPV program facilitators were analyzed using Thematic Analysis. Changes in the self and the contexts, structures, and conditions were necessary to promote desistance. Perpetrators made behavioral and cognitive changes taking on different identities (agentic role) by removing external stressors and instability within the confines of a supportive environment (structural role)...
August 1, 2017: Violence Against Women
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310476/development-of-a-case-formulation-model-for-individuals-who-have-viewed-distributed-and-or-shared-child-sexual-exploitation-material
#20
Hannah L Merdian, Derek E Perkins, Elspeth Dustagheer, Emily Glorney
Increases in the number of arrests of individuals who download or distribute Child Sexual Exploitation Material (CSEM) have highlighted a need to further understand the offending pathways of this offender group. This article describes the development of an aetiological model specific to CSEM offending. Individuals who had viewed, distributed, and/or shared CSEM ( n = 20) were interviewed regarding their life and sexual history, relationships, substance use, offending details, and circumstances leading to their CSEM offending, resulting in seven superordinate themes: Developmental Context, Individual Propensities (risk-related and risk-protective) and Psychological Vulnerabilities, Personal Circumstances, Permission-Giving Thoughts, Internet Environment and Behaviour, Evaluation of Consequences for the Individual, and Desistance...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
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