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Whitney Marsh, Heith Copes, Travis Linnemann
BACKGROUND: Because of increased law enforcement and subsequent media attention, methamphetamine users appear in the public's imagination as diseased, zombie-like White trash. We explore methamphetamine users' perceptions about whether the images, people, and situations in anti-methamphetamine campaigns reflect their own lives and experiences using meth. METHODS: To explore these perceptions, we used photo-elicitation interviews with 47 people who used methamphetamine (30 former and 17 active)...
October 18, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
Chau-Kiu Cheung, Jessica Chi-Mei Li, Tak-Yan Lee
Desistance as a process to forgo delinquent habits is an important target for intervention into youth at risk of delinquency. The intervention through social work services, nevertheless, has not clearly demonstrated its effectiveness. For such a demonstration, the present study examines the contribution of social work services with reference to the voluntaristic theory of action. The theory suggests that promoting the youth's voluntarism underlying desistance, encompassing appreciation, facilitation, observation, and identification concerning desistance is essential...
October 7, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Paul Rohde, Eric Stice, Jeff M Gau
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to identify variables that predicted persistence versus desistence of eating disorder-related compensatory behaviors in a high-risk factor sample of women who reported repeated compensatory behaviors at baseline. Data came from a randomized trial evaluating two brief obesity prevention interventions for college students with weight concerns. METHOD: Two hundred and sixty one young women (Mean age = 19.1, 79% European American) with weight concerns were randomly assigned to one of two brief obesity prevention interventions or educational video control...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Eating Disorders
Natacha Marie De Genna, Lidush Goldschmidt, Nancy L Day, Marie D Cornelius
BACKGROUND: Patterns of smoking vary as a function of age and race. The goals of this study were to identify trajectories of maternal cigarette use over a 17-year span, and to determine if maternal age at first birth and race were associated with smoking trajectories. METHODS: Pregnant women (N=690) were recruited at an urban prenatal clinic. The women (13-42years old; 62% African-American, 38% White) were interviewed about cigarette use during pregnancy and 6, 10, 14, and 16years postpartum...
September 29, 2016: Addictive Behaviors
Sheila E Crowell, Erin A Kaufman
Over the past 2 decades there has been a dramatic shift in understanding of personality disorders, such as borderline personality disorder (BPD). What was historically viewed as an entrenched pattern of antagonistic, interpersonally dependent, and uncorrectable conduct is now seen as the outcome of complex-yet modifiable-developmental processes. The borderline label, which once inspired such harsh opprobrium in clinical communities that early diagnosis was considered taboo, is now increasingly applied to adolescents who are receiving effective treatment and desisting from a borderline trajectory...
October 2016: Personality Disorders
Gary Sweeten, Matthew Larson, Alex R Piquero
AIM: We estimate group-based dating violence trajectories and identify the adolescent risk factors that explain membership in each trajectory group. METHOD: Using longitudinal data from the Pathways to Desistance Study, which follows a sample of 1354 serious juvenile offenders from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and Phoenix, Arizona between mid-adolescence and early adulthood, we estimate group-based trajectory models of both emotional dating violence and physical dating violence over a span of five years in young adulthood...
October 2016: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
Sarah R Lowe, Laura Sampson, Oliver Gruebner, Sandro Galea
Persons living in communities with limited resources are at heightened risk of posttraumatic stress (PTS) after disasters, especially if they were highly exposed. The support deterrence desistence model and the conservation of resources theory suggest that this risk might increase in the longer-term aftermath of disasters. In the present study, we aimed to test this hypothesis. Two population-based samples of New York City residents in communities affected by Hurricane Sandy were surveyed at either 13-16 months (Time 1; n = 421) or 25-28 months (Time 2; n = 420) postdisaster...
October 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Mark Farmer, Anne-Marie McAlinden, Shadd Maruna
Sex offending is typically understood from a pathology perspective with the origin of the behavior thought to be within the offending individual. Such a perspective may not be beneficial for those seeking to desist from sexual offending and reintegrate into mainstream society. A thematic analysis of 32 self-narratives of men convicted of sexual offences against children suggests that such individuals typically explain their pasts utilizing a script consistent with routine activity theory, emphasizing the role of circumstantial changes in both the onset of and desistance from sexual offending...
September 25, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Kimberly R Kras, Brandy L Blasko
Within many sexual offender-specific treatment programs, clients and their therapists devote considerable time to understanding "cycles" or "pathways" to sexual offending, and clients often need to fit their stories into existing offending paradigms. Although this post hoc processing of offending behaviors may assist clients in understanding their individual pathway toward crime, we know little about how they situate this information within their lives moving forward. Relying on in-depth interview data, the current study examined accounts of the sexually related crimes that brought 28 men to prison...
September 20, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Joanne L Hulley
This article explores the role of neutralizations in desistance from sexual offending. The project involved interviews with 15 men convicted of a sexual offence against a child and living in the community for between 1 and 15 years following a period of incarceration. The majority had undertaken sex offender treatment and highlighted its utility. Participants less than 9 years post-release tended to neutralize their offending via the technique of "denial of responsibility," while those 9 years plus post-release displayed less evidence of neutralizations...
September 15, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Patrick Lussier, Evan McCuish
Criminological theories suggest that desistance from crime cannot be considered outside its social context. Few studies, however, have examined the social context and its importance for individuals convicted of a sex offense. Their unique experience during community reentry warrants specific attention to this group. Using prospective longitudinal data, the current study examined desistance from general offending in a sample of 500 adult males convicted of at least one sex offense. Cox proportional hazards models showed that, although desistance is associated with the presence of prosocial social influences, these differences disappeared after controlling for prior involvement in crime and delinquency...
September 15, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Elena Marchetti, Kathleen Daly
Mainstream sentencing courts do little to change the behavior of partner violence offenders, let alone members of more socially marginal groups. Indigenous offenders face a court system that has little relevance to the complexity of their relations and lived experiences. Assisted by respected Elders and Community Representatives, Australian Indigenous sentencing courts seek to create a more meaningful sentencing process that has a deeper impact on Indigenous offenders' attitudes and, ultimately, their behavior...
September 13, 2016: Violence Against Women
Danielle Arlanda Harris
Despite an increasing interest in desistance from sexual offending, a comprehensive theoretical account of the process has yet to be provided. This study examines the narratives of 60 men interviewed in the community, who were incarcerated for sexual offenses and released. Recent findings from this research conclude that men desist from sexual offending, but they seldom follow the processes described by traditional criminology. In many cases, in fact, they desist in spite of their inability to pursue Sampson and Laub's "informal social controls" or Giordano et al...
September 12, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Patrick Lussier, Danielle A Harris, Anne-Marie McAlinden
For the past three decades or so, criminal justice policies have been enacted under the assumption that individuals who have been convicted of a sex offense are life course persistent sex offenders. In that context, research has been heavily focused on the assessment of risk and the prediction of sexual recidivism.Simultaneously, little to no attention has been given to the majority of individuals convicted of sex offenses who are not arrested or convicted again.Researchers have witnessed a growing gap between scientific knowledge and the sociolegal response to sexual violence and abuse...
September 7, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Dahlnym Yoon, Daniel Turner, Verena Klein, Martin Rettenberger, Reinhard Eher, Peer Briken
The present study aims at validating the German version of the Structured Assessment of PROtective Factors (SAPROF) for violence risk in a representative sample of incarcerated adult male sexual offenders. Sexual offenders (n = 450) were rated retrospectively with the SAPROF using the database of the Federal Evaluation Centre for Violent and Sexual Offenders (FECVSO) in the Austrian Prison System. Interrater reliability and predictive validity of the SAPROF scores concerning desistance from recidivism were calculated...
August 16, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Elaine Eggleston Doherty, Jaclyn M Cwick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: Journal of Developmental and Life-course Criminology
Jane Jean-Hee Lee, Vincent Guilamo-Ramos, Miguel Muñoz-Laboy, Kevin Lotz, Lindsay Bornheimer
In the United States more than 10,000 people are released from state and federal prisons every week and often reenter the communities in which they were arrested. Formerly incarcerated individuals face considerable challenges to securing employment and housing. Subsequently, approximately two-thirds of former prisoners are rearrested within three years of their release. Latino men represent the fastest growing ethnic group of prisoners in the United States with unique cultural and social needs during the reentry process...
July 2016: Social Work
Caitlin S Sayegh, Brittany N Hall-Clark, Dawn D McDaniel, Colleen A Halliday-Boykins, Phillippe B Cunningham, Stanley J Huey
Therapy process research suggests that an inverted U-shaped trajectory of client resistance, referred to as the struggle-and-working-through pattern, predicts positive treatment outcomes. However, this research may lack external validity given the exclusive focus on European Americans. This preliminary study explores differences in resistance patterns in a sample of African American and European American juvenile drug offenders and their families (n = 41) participating in Multisystemic Therapy. Resistance was coded from session recordings at the beginning, middle, and end of treatment...
August 5, 2016: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
Derek A Kreager, Daniel T Ragan, Holly Nguyen, Jeremy Staff
PURPOSE: Desistance scholars primarily focus on changing social roles, cognitive transformations, and shifting identities to understand the cessation of serious crime and illicit drug use in adulthood. In the current study, we move the spotlight away from adulthood and toward adolescence, the developmental stage when the prevalence of offending and substance use peak and desistance from most of these behaviors begins. Our primary hypothesis is that changes in perceived psychic rewards surrounding initial forays into marijuana use strongly predict adolescents' decisions to cease or persist that behavior...
June 2016: Journal of Developmental and Life-course Criminology
Timothy S Walsh, Kalliopi Kydonaki, Jean Antonelli, Jacqueline Stephen, Robert J Lee, Kirsty Everingham, Janet Hanley, Emma C Phillips, Kimmo Uutela, Petra Peltola, Stephen Cole, Tara Quasim, James Ruddy, Marcia McDougall, Alan Davidson, John Rutherford, Jonathan Richards, Christopher J Weir
BACKGROUND: Optimal sedation of patients in intensive care units (ICUs) requires the avoidance of pain, agitation, and unnecessary deep sedation, but these outcomes are challenging to achieve. Excessive sedation can prolong ICU stay, whereas light sedation can increase pain and frightening memories, which are commonly recalled by ICU survivors. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of three interventions to improve sedation and analgesia quality: an online education programme; regular feedback of sedation-analgesia quality data; and use of a novel sedation-monitoring technology (the Responsiveness Index [RI])...
October 2016: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
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