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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310476/development-of-a-case-formulation-model-for-individuals-who-have-viewed-distributed-and-or-shared-child-sexual-exploitation-material
#1
Hannah L Merdian, Derek E Perkins, Elspeth Dustagheer, Emily Glorney
Increases in the number of arrests of individuals who download or distribute Child Sexual Exploitation Material (CSEM) have highlighted a need to further understand the offending pathways of this offender group. This article describes the development of an aetiological model specific to CSEM offending. Individuals who had viewed, distributed, and/or shared CSEM ( n = 20) were interviewed regarding their life and sexual history, relationships, substance use, offending details, and circumstances leading to their CSEM offending, resulting in seven superordinate themes: Developmental Context, Individual Propensities (risk-related and risk-protective) and Psychological Vulnerabilities, Personal Circumstances, Permission-Giving Thoughts, Internet Environment and Behaviour, Evaluation of Consequences for the Individual, and Desistance...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302830/gender-specific-trajectories-of-conduct-problems-from-ages-3-to-11
#2
Leslie Morrison Gutman, Heather Joshi, Michael Parsonage, Ingrid Schoon
Gender-specific pathways of conduct problems (CP) from toddlerhood have received little attention. Using a nationally representative sample of UK children born in 2000-2001 (6458 boys and 6340 girls), the current study (a) identified subgroups of CP pathways separately for boys and girls from ages 3 to 11 and (b) examined early precursors (pregnancy to 9 months) of these trajectories. Group-based trajectory models identified four distinct trajectories for both boys and girls: each characterized as 'low'; 'early-onset, desisting'; 'early-onset, persistent' and 'school-onset'...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294948/the-role-of-adhd-in-predicting-the-development-of-violent-behavior-among-juvenile-offenders-participation-versus-frequency
#3
Thomas W Wojciechowski
Past research has identified attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a risk factor for engagement in violent offending. Despite the link between the disorder and violent offending, this risk factor has yet to be examined as a predictor of heterogeneity in the development of violent offending among juvenile offenders. It is likely that the impulsivity, genetic link, and generally chronic disorder course which are characteristics of the disorder play roles in predicting violent offending, which is consistent with both self-control theory and general developmental theory related to early life deficits and life-course persistent offending...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294909/the-prediction-of-repeated-violence-among-individuals-with-serious-mental-disorders-situational-versus-dispositional-factors
#4
Michelle N Harris, Brent Teasdale
The question we attempt to answer in this study is why some individuals with serious mental illness engage in repeated violence, while others do not. There appear to be two perspectives that may explain repeated violence: one that emphasizes situational factors and one that emphasizes dispositional factors. Situational factors are those that are constantly changing within one's life, whereas dispositional factors are those that remain relatively stable over time. Therefore, dispositional factors would theoretically put individuals with serious mental illness at stable risk for repeated violence because these factors remain relatively stable over time...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294774/the-role-of-family-support-in-the-explanation-of-patterns-of-desistance-among-individuals-convicted-of-a-sexual-offense
#5
Allyson Walker, Lila Kazemian, Patrick Lussier, Chongmin Na
Despite the growing body of research on desistance from crime, there have been comparatively few studies that have focused specifically on desistance from sex offending. Much remains unknown about whether the findings from the general desistance literature are applicable to individuals convicted of a sexual offense. The current study explores this issue. Given the well-established importance of the social support network in the process of desistance from crime, this research focuses on the influence of indicators of family support on reoffending outcomes...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294720/ptsd-as-a-risk-factor-for-the-development-of-violence-among-juvenile-offenders-a-group-based-trajectory-modeling-approach
#6
Thomas W Wojciechowski
Violent offending is a public health problem disproportionately perpetrated by adolescents. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been identified as a risk factor that increases an individual's odds of engaging in violent behavior. Juvenile offenders are a population indicated to be at high risk of the development and perpetuation of violent behavior across the life course. Despite the fact that PTSD also has a high prevalence among juvenile offenders, there has yet to be any research examining PTSD as a risk factor for violent offending among juvenile offenders...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237313/the-watchful-eye-of-god-the-role-of-religion-in-the-rehabilitation-and-reentry-of-repentant-jewish-prisoners
#7
Michal Morag, Elly Teman
Can participation in a religious rehabilitation program benefit a released prisoner's reentry into the community, and if so, how? Which elements of the religious worldview can be translated into tools for promoting desistance? Using a qualitative approach, we conducted 30 interviews with released prisoners from 3 months to 5 years beyond release who participated in a Jewish faith-based rehabilitation program administered by Israel's Prisoner Rehabilitation Authority. We interviewed participants in the Torah Rehabilitation Program about the role of religion in their lives and in their desistance from crime...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237306/spiritual-criminology-the-case-of-jewish-criminology
#8
Natti Ronel, Y Ben Yair
Throughout the ages and in most cultures, spiritual and religious thinking have dealt extensively with offending (person against person and person against the Divine), the response to offending, and rehabilitation of offenders. Although modern criminology has generally overlooked that body of knowledge and experience, the study of spirituality and its relation to criminology is currently growing. Frequently, though, it is conducted from the secular scientific perspective, thus reducing spiritual knowledge into what is already known...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225448/commentary-de-implementation-science-a-virtuous-cycle-of-ceasing-and-desisting-low-value-care-before-implementing-new-high-value-care
#9
EDITORIAL
Karina W Davidson, Siqin Ye, George A Mensah
Implementation science has traditionally focused on increasing the delivery of evidence-based care. The science of systematically stopping low-value and wasteful care is substantially under-recognized, and if successful, may decrease the workload of clinicians. De-implementation science identifies problem areas of low-value and wasteful practice, carries out rigorous scientific examination of the factors that initiate and maintain such behaviors, and then employs evidence-based interventions to cease these practices...
2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224418/the-characteristics-and-age-effects-of-emotional-lability-in-adhd-children-with-and-without-oppositional-defiant-disorder
#10
Lu Liu, Wai Chen, Li Sun, Jia Cheng, Yi Su, Daniel Rudaizky, Hai-Mei Li, Li Yang, Qiu-Jin Qian, Yu-Feng Wang
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the concurrent validity of emotional lability (EL) in children with ADHD. METHOD: A total of 2,015 children with ADHD and 745 typically developed controls (TDCs) were assessed and compared on EL. RESULTS: ADHD participants expressed higher EL scores than TDCs, not influenced by gender or IQ. Higher levels of EL symptoms were found in children with comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and with ADHD-combined subtype...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194695/a-grounded-theory-study-of-how-couples-desist-from-intimate-partner-violence
#11
Lisa V Merchant, Jason B Whiting
Intimate partner violence is a common and damaging experience for many couples, and therapists struggle to address it adequately (Johnson, 2008). Despite its negative effects, many violent couples stay together, with some stopping their violent behaviors. Unfortunately, we know little about the systemic factors affecting violence desistance. This study used grounded theory methods to analyze the process of desistance in formerly violent couples. A model of desistance consisting of three categories was developed, which for most couples included a (a) Turning Point, (b) Decision to Change, and (c) Doing Things Differently...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Marital and Family Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193491/age-related-changes-in-the-dynamics-of-fear-related-regulation-in-early-childhood
#12
Santiago Morales, Nilam Ram, Kristin A Buss, Pamela M Cole, Jonathan L Helm, Sy-Miin Chow
Self-regulation is a dynamic process wherein executive processes (EP) delay, minimize or desist prepotent responses (PR) that arise in situations that threaten well-being. It is generally assumed that, over the course of early childhood, children expand and more effectively deploy their repertoire of EP-related strategies to regulate PR. However, longitudinal tests of these assumptions are scarce in part because self-regulation has been mostly studied as a static construct. This study engages dynamic systems modeling to examine developmental changes in self-regulation between ages 2 and 5 years...
November 29, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188754/-it-s-sort-of-reaffirmed-to-me-that-i-m-not-a-monster-i-m-not-a-terrible-person-sex-offenders-movements-toward-desistance-via-peer-support-roles-in-prison
#13
Christian Perrin, Nicholas Blagden, Belinda Winder, Gayle Dillon
Individuals incarcerated in prisons across the United Kingdom and abroad are able to volunteer for a variety of peer-support roles, which are characterized by prisoner-to-prisoner helping. Some research has found that such roles can represent turning points in the lives of those who have offended and encourage movements toward desistance. This proposed redemptive influence is argued to result from the prosocial behaviors that such roles appear to elicit in their holders. The present study aims to explore the mechanics of this claimed influence...
March 1, 2017: Sexual Abuse: a Journal of Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152865/adolescent-offenders-qualitative-reflections-on-desistance-from-crime
#14
Jamie Amemiya, Jessica Kieta, Kathryn C Monahan
Although many young offenders desist from crime during adolescence, little is known about this process. This study used a qualitative approach to elucidate adolescent offenders' experiences in desisting from crime. Thirty-nine male adolescent offenders (Mage  = 16.59 years) participated in a semistructured interview about the desistance process. One of four themes characterized adolescents' reflections on their own desistance: having a psychological reorientation, reacting to consequences, persisting, or being in the wrong place at the wrong time...
December 2017: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094954/procedural-justice-legitimacy-beliefs-and-moral-disengagement-in-emerging-adulthood-explaining-continuity-and-desistance-in-the-moral-model-of-criminal-lifestyle-development
#15
Glenn D Walters
Research has shown that procedural justice reliably predicts future offending behavior, although there is some indication that this may be more a function of legitimacy beliefs than of procedural justice per se. The current study sought to explain continuity and desistance in the moral model of criminal lifestyle development by comparing legitimacy beliefs, procedural justice, and moral disengagement as initiators and mediators of pathways leading to early adult offending. It was hypothesized that low legitimacy beliefs but not perceived procedural (in)justice or moral disengagement would initiate, and that moral disengagement but not low legitimacy beliefs or procedural injustice would mediate, the effect of low legitimacy beliefs on subsequent offending behavior...
November 2, 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094621/what-i-d-tell-my-16-year-old-self-criminal-desistance-young-adults-and-psychosocial-maturation
#16
Matthew L Mizel, Laura S Abrams
This study qualitatively explored how young adult men on probation or parole view the components of psychosocial maturation that contribute to criminal desistance. The authors conducted nine focus groups with 40 men on probation or parole, including seven groups with men aged 18 to 25 years. Two additional focus groups were conducted with older men (ages 29-60 years) to refine our evolving understanding. According to the participants, psychosocial maturation processes of personal growth, learning from mistakes, considering consequences before acting, developing and executing long-range plans, improving peer associations, and recognizing and responding to a motivating event all contributed to their desire to change their course of criminal offending...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082568/stopping-khat-use-predictors-of-success-in-an-unaided-quit-attempt
#17
Samson W Duresso, Raimondo Bruno, Allison J Matthews, Stuart G Ferguson
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Despite the adverse effects of khat use and chewers interest in cessation, there are few studies that have reported on the outcome of khat cessation attempts, and limited resources available for potential quitters. We used electronic diaries to monitor the outcomes of an unassisted quit attempt among daily and near daily khat consumers, and examine predictors of success. DESIGN AND METHODS: Sixty participants between the ages of 18 and 35 years who regularly chewed khat and who were attempting to quit were purposively recruited from an Ethiopian University campus...
October 30, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065391/rural-and-urban-comparisons-of-polysubstance-use-profiles-and-associated-injection-behaviors-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-puerto-rico
#18
Dane Hautala, Roberto Abadie, Bilal Khan, Kirk Dombrowski
INTRODUCTION: In contrast to urban populations, little is known about polysubstance use among rural people who inject drugs (PWID), particularly in Puerto Rico where injection drug use and related health consequences are prevalent. The aim of the study is to compare injection and non-injection substance use profiles among separate urban and rural samples of Puerto Rican PWID. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data for the urban sample come from 455 PWID who participated in the CDC's National HIV Behavioral Surveillance survey of injection drug use in San Juan...
December 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990267/the-role-of-identity-in-committing-acts-of-violent-extremism-and-in-desisting-from-them
#19
EDITORIAL
Christopher Dean
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983792/conduct-problems-trajectories-and-psychosocial-outcomes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Leonardo Bevilacqua, Daniel Hale, Edward D Barker, Russell Viner
There is increasing evidence that youth who follow the early onset persistent (EOP), adolescent-onset (AO) and childhood-limited (CL) trajectories of conduct problems show varying patterns of health, mental health, educational, and social outcomes in adulthood. However, there has been no systematic review and meta-analysis on outcomes associated with different conduct problems trajectories. We systematically reviewed the literature of longitudinal studies considering outcomes of three conduct problems trajectories: EOP, AO, and CL compared with individuals with low levels of conduct problems (low)...
October 6, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
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