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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913714/measuring-offenders-belief-in-the-possibility-of-desistance
#1
Kevin O'Sullivan, Rochelle Williams, Xiang Yan Hong, David Bright, Richard Kemp
This article describes the use of a questionnaire to measure offenders' belief in the likelihood of their making a successful re-entry into society after having committed crime, a "belief in redeemability" (BIR) as described by Maruna and King. The 37 items for the scale were taken from statements by offenders about their prospects of making good. This set of items was tested with a pilot group of offenders recruited from clients on parole or on supervised bonds at community corrections offices in metropolitan Sydney, Australia, and their responses were coded to yield a score we called the "BIR" score...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884933/using-the-personality-assessment-inventory-antisocial-and-borderline-features-scales-to-predict-behavior-change-a-multisite-longitudinal-study-of-youthful-offenders
#2
Brittany N Penson, Jared R Ruchensky, Leslie C Morey, John F Edens
A substantial amount of research has examined the developmental trajectory of antisocial behavior and, in particular, the relationship between antisocial behavior and maladaptive personality traits. However, research typically has not controlled for previous behavior (e.g., past violence) when examining the utility of personality measures, such as self-report scales of antisocial and borderline traits, in predicting future behavior (e.g., subsequent violence). Examination of the potential interactive effects of measures of both antisocial and borderline traits also is relatively rare in longitudinal research predicting adverse outcomes...
November 24, 2016: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873375/desistance-mandates-compared-with-treatment-mandates-in-criminal-justice-populations
#3
EDITORIAL
Mark A R Kleiman, Beau Kilmer, Angela Hawken
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 21, 2016: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824233/cigarette-smoking-and-adhd-an-examination-of-prognostically-relevant-smoking-behaviors-among-adolescents-and-young-adults
#4
Jessica D Rhodes, William E Pelham, Elizabeth M Gnagy, Saul Shiffman, Karen J Derefinko, Brooke S G Molina
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with health risks in adolescence which includes the potential for smoking cigarettes, early smoking initiation, and rapid progression to daily smoking. Much less is known, however, about prognostically relevant smoking behaviors among individuals with childhood ADHD. Further research in this area is important for identifying individuals at pronounced risk for nicotine addiction, and for developing effective interventions for this population. This study examined initiation of cigarette smoking, progression to regular smoking, quantity of use, indicators of tobacco dependence, and quit rates among adolescents and young adults with (n = 364) and without (n = 240) childhood ADHD...
August 2016: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806862/functional-adult-outcomes-16-years-after-childhood-diagnosis-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-mta-results
#5
Lily Hechtman, James M Swanson, Margaret H Sibley, Annamarie Stehli, Elizabeth B Owens, John T Mitchell, L Eugene Arnold, Brooke S G Molina, Stephen P Hinshaw, Peter S Jensen, Howard B Abikoff, Guillermo Perez Algorta, Andrea L Howard, Betsy Hoza, Joy Etcovitch, Sylviane Houssais, Kimberley D Lakes, J Quyen Nichols
OBJECTIVE: To compare educational, occupational, legal, emotional, substance use disorder, and sexual behavior outcomes in young adults with persistent and desistent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and a local normative comparison group (LNCG) in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA). METHOD: Data were collected 12, 14, and 16 years postbaseline (mean age 24.7 years at 16 years postbaseline) from 476 participants with ADHD diagnosed at age 7 to 9 years, and 241 age- and sex-matched classmates...
November 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806861/childhood-factors-affecting-persistence-and-desistence-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-symptoms-in-adulthood-results%C3%A2-from%C3%A2-the-mta
#6
Arunima Roy, Lily Hechtman, L Eugene Arnold, Margaret H Sibley, Brooke S G Molina, James M Swanson, Andrea L Howard
OBJECTIVE: To determine childhood factors that predict attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) persistence and desistence in adulthood. METHOD: Regression analyses were used to determine associations between childhood factors and adult ADHD symptom persistence in 453 participants (mean age, 25 years) from the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA). Childhood IQ, total number of comorbidities, child-perceived parenting practices, child-perceived parent-child relationships, parental mental health problems, marital problems of parents, household income levels, and parental education were assessed at a mean age of 8 years in all participants...
November 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768994/creating-visual-differences-methamphetamine-users-perceptions-of-anti-meth-campaigns
#7
Whitney Marsh, Heith Copes, Travis Linnemann
BACKGROUND: Because of increased law enforcement and subsequent media attention, methamphetamine users appear in the public's imagination as diseased, zombie-like White trash. We explore methamphetamine users' perceptions about whether the images, people, and situations in anti-methamphetamine campaigns reflect their own lives and experiences using meth. METHODS: To explore these perceptions, we used photo-elicitation interviews with 47 people who used methamphetamine (30 former and 17 active)...
October 18, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756856/social-work-contribution-to-desistance-among-at-risk-youth
#8
Chau-Kiu Cheung, Jessica Chi-Mei Li, Tak-Yan Lee
Desistance as a process to forgo delinquent habits is an important target for intervention into youth at risk of delinquency. The intervention through social work services, nevertheless, has not clearly demonstrated its effectiveness. For such a demonstration, the present study examines the contribution of social work services with reference to the voluntaristic theory of action. The theory suggests that promoting the youth's voluntarism underlying desistance, encompassing appreciation, facilitation, observation, and identification concerning desistance is essential...
October 7, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753127/predicting-persistence-of-eating-disorder-compensatory-weight-control-behaviors
#9
Paul Rohde, Eric Stice, Jeff M Gau
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to identify variables that predicted persistence versus desistence of eating disorder-related compensatory behaviors in a high-risk factor sample of women who reported repeated compensatory behaviors at baseline. Data came from a randomized trial evaluating two brief obesity prevention interventions for college students with weight concerns. METHOD: Two hundred and sixty one young women (Mean age = 19.1, 79% European American) with weight concerns were randomly assigned to one of two brief obesity prevention interventions or educational video control...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716477/maternal-trajectories-of-cigarette-use-as-a-function-of-maternal-age-and-race
#10
Natacha Marie De Genna, Lidush Goldschmidt, Nancy L Day, Marie D Cornelius
BACKGROUND: Patterns of smoking vary as a function of age and race. The goals of this study were to identify trajectories of maternal cigarette use over a 17-year span, and to determine if maternal age at first birth and race were associated with smoking trajectories. METHODS: Pregnant women (N=690) were recruited at an urban prenatal clinic. The women (13-42years old; 62% African-American, 38% White) were interviewed about cigarette use during pregnancy and 6, 10, 14, and 16years postpartum...
February 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709989/borderline-personality-disorder-and-the-emerging-field-of-developmental-neuroscience
#11
Sheila E Crowell, Erin A Kaufman
Over the past 2 decades there has been a dramatic shift in understanding of personality disorders, such as borderline personality disorder (BPD). What was historically viewed as an entrenched pattern of antagonistic, interpersonally dependent, and uncorrectable conduct is now seen as the outcome of complex-yet modifiable-developmental processes. The borderline label, which once inspired such harsh opprobrium in clinical communities that early diagnosis was considered taboo, is now increasingly applied to adolescents who are receiving effective treatment and desisting from a borderline trajectory...
October 2016: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709748/predictors-of-emotional-and-physical-dating-violence-in-a-sample-of-serious-juvenile-offenders
#12
Gary Sweeten, Matthew Larson, Alex R Piquero
AIM: We estimate group-based dating violence trajectories and identify the adolescent risk factors that explain membership in each trajectory group. METHOD: Using longitudinal data from the Pathways to Desistance Study, which follows a sample of 1354 serious juvenile offenders from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and Phoenix, Arizona between mid-adolescence and early adulthood, we estimate group-based trajectory models of both emotional dating violence and physical dating violence over a span of five years in young adulthood...
October 2016: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696535/community-unemployment-and-disaster-related-stressors-shape-risk-for-posttraumatic-stress-in-the-longer-term-aftermath-of-hurricane-sandy
#13
Sarah R Lowe, Laura Sampson, Oliver Gruebner, Sandro Galea
Persons living in communities with limited resources are at heightened risk of posttraumatic stress (PTS) after disasters, especially if they were highly exposed. The support deterrence desistence model and the conservation of resources theory suggest that this risk might increase in the longer-term aftermath of disasters. In the present study, we aimed to test this hypothesis. Two population-based samples of New York City residents in communities affected by Hurricane Sandy were surveyed at either 13-16 months (Time 1; n = 421) or 25-28 months (Time 2; n = 420) postdisaster...
October 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669732/sex-offending-and-situational-motivation-findings-from-a-qualitative-analysis-of-desistance-from-sexual-offending
#14
Mark Farmer, Anne-Marie McAlinden, Shadd Maruna
Sex offending is typically understood from a pathology perspective with the origin of the behavior thought to be within the offending individual. Such a perspective may not be beneficial for those seeking to desist from sexual offending and reintegrate into mainstream society. A thematic analysis of 32 self-narratives of men convicted of sexual offences against children suggests that such individuals typically explain their pasts utilizing a script consistent with routine activity theory, emphasizing the role of circumstantial changes in both the onset of and desistance from sexual offending...
September 25, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650299/pathways-to-desistance-among-men-convicted-of-sexual-offenses-linking-post-hoc-accounts-of-offending-behavior-and-outcomes
#15
Kimberly R Kras, Brandy L Blasko
Within many sexual offender-specific treatment programs, clients and their therapists devote considerable time to understanding "cycles" or "pathways" to sexual offending, and clients often need to fit their stories into existing offending paradigms. Although this post hoc processing of offending behaviors may assist clients in understanding their individual pathway toward crime, we know little about how they situate this information within their lives moving forward. Relying on in-depth interview data, the current study examined accounts of the sexually related crimes that brought 28 men to prison...
September 20, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634818/-while-this-does-not-in-any-way-excuse-my-conduct-the-role-of-treatment-and-neutralizations-in-desistance-from-sexual-offending
#16
Joanne L Hulley
This article explores the role of neutralizations in desistance from sexual offending. The project involved interviews with 15 men convicted of a sexual offence against a child and living in the community for between 1 and 15 years following a period of incarceration. The majority had undertaken sex offender treatment and highlighted its utility. Participants less than 9 years post-release tended to neutralize their offending via the technique of "denial of responsibility," while those 9 years plus post-release displayed less evidence of neutralizations...
September 15, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634817/desistance-from-crime-without-reintegration-a-longitudinal-study-of-the-social-context-and-life-course-path-to-desistance-in-a-sample-of-adults-convicted-of-a-sex-crime
#17
Patrick Lussier, Evan McCuish
Criminological theories suggest that desistance from crime cannot be considered outside its social context. Few studies, however, have examined the social context and its importance for individuals convicted of a sex offense. Their unique experience during community reentry warrants specific attention to this group. Using prospective longitudinal data, the current study examined desistance from general offending in a sample of 500 adult males convicted of at least one sex offense. Cox proportional hazards models showed that, although desistance is associated with the presence of prosocial social influences, these differences disappeared after controlling for prior involvement in crime and delinquency...
September 15, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630222/indigenous-partner-violence-indigenous-sentencing-courts-and-pathways-to-desistance
#18
Elena Marchetti, Kathleen Daly
Mainstream sentencing courts do little to change the behavior of partner violence offenders, let alone members of more socially marginal groups. Indigenous offenders face a court system that has little relevance to the complexity of their relations and lived experiences. Assisted by respected Elders and Community Representatives, Australian Indigenous sentencing courts seek to create a more meaningful sentencing process that has a deeper impact on Indigenous offenders' attitudes and, ultimately, their behavior...
September 13, 2016: Violence Against Women
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621271/a-descriptive-model-of-desistance-from-sexual-offending-examining-the-narratives-of-men-released-from-custody
#19
Danielle Arlanda Harris
Despite an increasing interest in desistance from sexual offending, a comprehensive theoretical account of the process has yet to be provided. This study examines the narratives of 60 men interviewed in the community, who were incarcerated for sexual offenses and released. Recent findings from this research conclude that men desist from sexual offending, but they seldom follow the processes described by traditional criminology. In many cases, in fact, they desist in spite of their inability to pursue Sampson and Laub's "informal social controls" or Giordano et al...
September 12, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604970/desistance-from-sexual-offending-a-policy-and-research-agenda-whose-time-has-come
#20
Patrick Lussier, Danielle A Harris, Anne-Marie McAlinden
For the past three decades or so, criminal justice policies have been enacted under the assumption that individuals who have been convicted of a sex offense are life course persistent sex offenders. In that context, research has been heavily focused on the assessment of risk and the prediction of sexual recidivism.Simultaneously, little to no attention has been given to the majority of individuals convicted of sex offenses who are not arrested or convicted again.Researchers have witnessed a growing gap between scientific knowledge and the sociolegal response to sexual violence and abuse...
September 7, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
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