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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617075/follow-up-of-young-adults-with-adhd-in-the-mta-design-and-methods-for-qualitative-interviews
#1
Thomas S Weisner, Desiree W Murray, Peter S Jensen, John T Mitchell, James M Swanson, Stephen P Hinshaw, Karen Wells, Lily Hechtman, Brooke S G Molina, L Eugene Arnold, Page Sorensen, Annamarie Stehli
OBJECTIVE: Qualitative interviews with 183 young adults (YA) in the follow-up of the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With and Without ADHD (MTA) provide rich information on beliefs and expectations regarding ADHD, life's turning points, medication use, and substance use (SU). METHOD: Participants from four MTA sites were sampled to include those with persistent and atypically high SU, and a local normative comparison group (LNCG). Respondents were encouraged to "tell their story" about their lives, using a semistructured conversational interview format...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595673/neonatal-dna-methylation-and-early-onset-conduct-problems-a-genome-wide-prospective-study
#2
Charlotte A M Cecil, Esther Walton, Sara R Jaffee, Tom O'Connor, Barbara Maughan, Caroline L Relton, Rebecca G Smith, Wendy McArdle, Tom R Gaunt, Isabelle Ouellet-Morin, Edward D Barker
Early-onset conduct problems (CP) are a key predictor of adult criminality and poor mental health. While previous studies suggest that both genetic and environmental risks play an important role in the development of early-onset CP, little is known about potential biological processes underlying these associations. In this study, we examined prospective associations between DNA methylation (cord blood at birth) and trajectories of CP (4-13 years), using data drawn from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children...
June 9, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549156/early-subjective-sensory-experiences-with-cigalike-e-cigarettes-among-african-american-menthol-smokers-a-qualitative-study
#3
Sabrina L Smiley, Teresa DeAtley, Leslie F Rubin, Emily Harvey, Elexis C Kierstead, Monica Webb Hooper, Raymond S Niaura, David B Abrams, Jennifer L Pearson
Introduction: Despite smoker interest in e-cigarettes as a harm reduction or cessation aid, many smokers prematurely discontinue vaping after trying a product. This study explored the role of early subjective sensory experience in vaping persistence and desistence. Methods: African American menthol cigarette smokers aged ≥18 years (n=15; M=54.1 years; SD=8.2), motivated to quit smoking, and interested in trying e-cigarettes were recruited in Washington, D.C. Participants were followed for three weeks and provided menthol cigalike e-cigarettes after week one...
May 26, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530437/developmental-continuity-and-change-in-physical-verbal-and-relational-aggression-and-peer-victimization-from-childhood-to-adolescence
#4
Idean Ettekal, Gary W Ladd
To investigate the developmental course of aggression and peer victimization in childhood and adolescence, distinct subgroups of children were identified based on similarities and differences in their physical, verbal and relational aggression, and victimization. Developmental continuity and change were assessed by examining transitions within and between subgroups from Grades 1 to 11. This longitudinal study consisted of 482 children (50% females) and was based on peer report data on multiple forms of aggression and peer victimization...
May 22, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505701/-compatibility-of-work-and-family-life-survey-of-physicians-in-the-munich-metropolitan-area
#5
Meike Lauchart, Philipp Ascher, Karin Kesel, Sabine Weber, Beatrice Grabein, Bertram Schneeweiss, Cordula Fischer-Truestedt, Michael Schoenberg, Gudrun Rogler, Claudia Borelli
Aim Investigation of the compatibility of work and family life for physicians in the Munich metropolitan area. Methods Survey of a representative sample of 1,800 physicians using a questionnaire. Results Men were less satisfied (7% very satisfied vs. 21%) with compatibility between work and family life than women. The group least satisfied overall was hospital-based physicians (p=0.000, chi-square=122.75). Women rather than men cut back their career due to children, perceived their professional advancement as impaired, desisted from establishing private practice or quit hospital employment altogether...
May 15, 2017: Das Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503968/the-five-stages-of-prisoner-reentry-toward-a-process-theory
#6
Ioan Durnescu
This article is based on an ethnographic study involving 58 Roma and Romanian participants who were released from Jilava Prion in Romania between January and July 2015. The methodology involved interviews, observation, questionnaires, and photovoice. The findings seem to suggest that most of the factors associated with desistance and reentry in the literature are relevant to the ex-prisoner's experiences. The main contribution of this article is the observation that these factors come into play at different times and in different stages of the reentry process...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470460/navigating-the-disability-determination-process-from-the-perspective-of-incarcerated-adults-with-serious-mental-illnesses
#7
Erin McCauley, Leah Samples
In the U.S. serious mental illness (SMI) is common in jails, which are often primary healthcare providers. Incarceration and healthcare are intertwined-lack of care access increases the risk of imprisonment which decreases care access. This case study explores a jail program which assists people with SMI with the disability determination process. Interviews with employees (n = 4) and clients (n = 25), and administrative data from jail databases on recidivism, benefit receipt, and demographics highlight the importance of reentry planning and access to resources in crime desistance, as well as how the program increased resource access, and provided feelings of hope and safety...
May 3, 2017: Community Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447243/the-longitudinal-association-of-relationship-quality-and-reoffending-among-first-time-juvenile-offenders-and-their-mothers
#8
Caitlin Cavanagh, Elizabeth Cauffman
To understand how youth desist from crime after their first arrest, it is necessary to investigate their primary support system: their parents. As such, this study examined the reciprocal effects of justice system contact on the mother-child dyad. Interviews with 317 mothers and their sons from Orange County, CA, Jefferson Parish, LA, and Philadelphia, PA were conducted semiannually over two and a half years. At the beginning of the study, the sons were first-time offenders aged 13-17 and mostly non-White (i...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423975/turning-points-in-the-lives-of-youth-of-with-without-adhd-are-they-linked-to-changes-in-substance-use
#9
Peter S Jensen, Kumi Yuki, Desiree Murray, John T Mitchell, Thomas Weisner, Steven Hinshaw, Brooke Molina, James Swanson, L Eugene Arnold, Lily Hechtman, Karen Wells
OBJECTIVE: This study examines the behavior beliefs, social supports, and turning points in individuals with/without ADHD related to their substance use/abuse (SU/A) decisions. METHOD: The coded interviews from 60 participants with/without ADHD were compared for their SU/A decisions and precipitants with these decisions among abstainers, persisters, and desisters. RESULTS: ADHD participants reported fewer social advantages to avoid SU/A than non-ADHD participants...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413921/preventing-the-onset-of-child-sexual-abuse-by-targeting-young-adolescents-with-universal-prevention-programming
#10
Elizabeth J Letourneau, Cindy M Schaeffer, Catherine P Bradshaw, Kenneth A Feder
Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a serious public health problem that increases risk for physical and mental health problems across the life course. Young adolescents are responsible for a substantial portion of CSA offending, yet to our knowledge, no validated prevention programs that target CSA perpetration by youth exist. Most existing efforts to address CSA rely on reactive criminal justice policies or programs that teach children to protect themselves; neither approach is well validated. Given the high rates of desistance from sexual offending following a youth's first CSA-related adjudication, it seems plausible that many youth could be prevented from engaging in their first offense...
May 2017: Child Maltreatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387975/insular-and-cingulate-attenuation-during-decision-making-is-associated-with-future-transition-to-stimulant-use-disorder
#11
Jennifer L Stewart, Mamona Butt, April C May, Susan F Tapert, Martin P Paulus
AIMS: To understand processes placing individuals at risk for stimulant (amphetamine and cocaine) use disorder. DESIGN: Longitudinal study. SETTING: University of California, San Diego Department of Psychiatry, USA. PARTICIPANTS: Occasional stimulant users (OSU; n = 184) underwent a baseline clinical interview and a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) session. On the basis of a follow-up clinical interview completed three years later, OSU (n = 147) were then categorized as problem stimulant users (PSU: n = 36; those who developed stimulant use disorders in the interim) or desisted stimulant users (DSU: n = 74; those who stopped using)...
April 7, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383985/violent-offending-among-juveniles-a-7-year-longitudinal-study-of-recidivism-desistance-and-associations-with-mental-health
#12
Sascha Hein, Baptiste Barbot, Amanda Square, John Chapman, Catherine Foley Geib, Elena L Grigorenko
Serious and violent offending among juveniles is a consistent concern of researchers, practitioners, and policymakers, yet the development of violent offending remains poorly understood because of limited availability of relevant data, small sample sizes, and shortage of longitudinal data sets. This study analyzed developmental patterns of violent offending over 7 years in the complete population of court-referred youth in Connecticut between 2006 and 2012 (N = 58,678; mean age at first offense = 14.7 years)...
April 6, 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333532/characterizing-spouse-partner-depression-and-alcohol-problems-over-the-course-of-military-deployment
#13
Christopher R Erbes, Mark Kramer, Paul A Arbisi, David DeGarmo, Melissa A Polusny
OBJECTIVE: Spouse/partners of military personnel demonstrate elevated levels of distress during military deployments, yet there is insufficient information about courses of adjustment over time. The current study identified trajectories of depression and alcohol use problems and predictors of those trajectories across the deployment cycle. METHOD: National Guard soldiers (N = 1973) and spouses/intimate partners (N = 1020) completed assessments of risk/protective factors and baseline measures of mental health functioning 2 to 5 months prior to soldiers' 1-year deployments (Time 1) to Kuwait/Iraq in support of Operation New Dawn or Afghanistan in support of Operation Enduring Freedom...
April 2017: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299972/older-and-incarcerated-policy-implications-of-aging-prison-populations
#14
Zachary Psick, Jonathan Simon, Rebecca Brown, Cyrus Ahalt
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the policy Implications of aging prison populations. Design/methodology/approach An examination of the worldwide aging trend in prison and its implications for correctional policy, including an examination of population aging in California prisons as a case example of needed reform. Findings Prison populations worldwide are aging at an unprecedented rate, and age-related medical costs have had serious consequences for jurisdictions struggling to respond to the changes...
March 13, 2017: International Journal of Prisoner Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166690/how-substance-users-with-adhd-perceive-the-relationship-between-substance-use-and-emotional-functioning
#15
John T Mitchell, Thomas S Weisner, Peter S Jensen, Desiree W Murray, Brooke S G Molina, Eugene L Arnold, Lily Hechtman, James M Swanson, Stephen P Hinshaw, Elizabeth C Victor, Scott H Kollins, Karen C Wells, Katherine A Belendiuk, Andrew Blonde, Celeste Nguyen, Lizeth Ambriz, Jenny L Nguyen
OBJECTIVE: Although substance use (SU) is elevated in ADHD and both are associated with disrupted emotional functioning, little is known about how emotions and SU interact in ADHD. We used a mixed qualitative-quantitative approach to explore this relationship. METHOD: Narrative comments were coded for 67 persistent (50 ADHD, 17 local normative comparison group [LNCG]) and 25 desistent (20 ADHD, 5 LNCG) substance users from the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA) adult follow-up (21...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135726/the-relationships-among-exposure-to-violence-psychological-distress-and-gun-carrying-among-male-adolescents-found-guilty-of-serious-legal-offenses-a-longitudinal-cohort-study
#16
Joan A Reid, Tara N Richards, Thomas A Loughran, Edward P Mulvey
Background: Gun violence and psychological problems are often conflated in public discourse on gun safety. However, few studies have empirically assessed the effect of exposure to violence when exploring the association between gun carrying and psychological distress. Objective: To examine the potential effect of exposure to violence on the associations between gun carrying and psychological distress among vulnerable adolescents. Design: Longitudinal cohort study...
March 21, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133399/parenthood-residency-status-and-criminal-desistance-across-neighborhood-contexts
#17
Jessica A Ziegler, Danielle C Kuhl, Raymond R Swisher, Jorge M Chavez
Research on desistance and parenthood has yielded mixed results bringing into question whether, and for whom, parenthood matters. Scholarship has not fully explored the importance of residency status or patterns of desistance across a full range of neighborhood contexts, nor examined distinctions between temporary and long-term desistance. Our study uses data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) to examine the association between parenthood residence and criminal desistance across levels of adolescent neighborhood poverty...
2017: Deviant Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107793/does-violence-in-adolescence-differentially-predict-offending-patterns-in-early-adulthood
#18
Stephanie M Cardwell, Alex R Piquero
Previous research is mixed on whether the commission of a violent offense in adolescence is predictive of criminal career characteristics. In the current study, we addressed the following: (a) What factors predict the commission of serious violence in mid-adolescence? and (b) Does involvement in serious violence in mid-adolescence lead to more chronic and/or more heterogeneous patterns of offending in early adulthood? Data were obtained from the Pathways to Desistance Study, a longitudinal study of serious adolescent offenders in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Phoenix, Arizona...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102245/cease-and-desist
#19
Tyler Young
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 18, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088674/people-s-reasons-for-wanting-to-complete-probation-use-and-predictive-validity-in-an-e-health-intervention
#20
Stephanie A Spohr, Faye S Taxman, Scott T Walters
The criminal justice system tends to emphasize external contingencies (e.g., fees, jail time) to motivate offender compliance. However, people's reasons for desistance vary considerably. This study evaluated the acceptability, utility, and predictive validity of questions that ask about people's reasons for wanting to successfully complete probation. Substance-using probationers (N=113) participated in a web-based computer intervention that targeted substance use and treatment initiation. Questions around seven dimensions of reasons for completing probation were developed to provide tailored feedback during the web-based program...
April 2017: Evaluation and Program Planning
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