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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108594/parental-perceptions-of-barriers-to-active-commuting-to-school-in-spanish-children-and-adolescents
#1
Francisco Javier Huertas-Delgado, Manuel Herrador-Colmenero, Emilio Villa-González, María Jesús Aranda-Balboa, María Victoria Cáceres, Sandra Mandic, Palma Chillón
BACKGROUND: Understanding parental barriers is crucial to promote active commuting to school since the parental perceptions influence how young people commute. This study examined parental barriers to active commuting to school among Spanish children and adolescents, and their association with their gender and the usual mode of commuting. METHODS: Parents of children (n = 628) and parents of adolescents (n = 151) from Granada (Spain) completed a paper-based questionnaire about perceived parental barriers to active commuting to school and mode of commuting...
January 19, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107680/a-randomized-clinical-trial-of-buprenorphine-for-prisoners-findings-at-12-months-post-release
#2
Michael S Gordon, Timothy W Kinlock, Robert P Schwartz, Kevin E O'Grady, Terrence T Fitzgerald, Frank J Vocci
BACKGROUND: This study examined whether starting buprenorphine treatment prior to prison and after release from prison would be associated with better drug treatment outcomes and whether males and females responded differently to the combination of in-prison treatment and post-release service setting. METHODS: Study design was a 2 (In-Prison Treatment: Condition: Buprenorphine Treatment: vs. Counseling Only)×2 [Post-Release Service Setting Condition: Opioid Treatment: Program (OTP) vs...
January 11, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107530/broad-scale-genetic-diversity-of-cannabis-for-forensic-applications
#3
Christophe Dufresnes, Catherine Jan, Friederike Bienert, Jérôme Goudet, Luca Fumagalli
Cannabis (hemp and marijuana) is an iconic yet controversial crop. On the one hand, it represents a growing market for pharmaceutical and agricultural sectors. On the other hand, plants synthesizing the psychoactive THC produce the most widespread illicit drug in the world. Yet, the difficulty to reliably distinguish between Cannabis varieties based on morphological or biochemical criteria impedes the development of promising industrial programs and hinders the fight against narcotrafficking. Genetics offers an appropriate alternative to characterize drug vs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104541/does-the-biopsychosocial-spiritual-model-of-addiction-apply-in-an-islamic-context-a-qualitative-study-of-jordanian-addicts-in-treatment
#4
Hamad Al Ghaferi, Christine Bond, Catriona Matheson
BACKGROUND: There is a dearth of research in the published literature on substance use and addiction in the Middle East and Islamic countries. This study was the first to explore whether the biopsychosocial-spiritual model of addiction was relevant to an addicted treatment population in Jordan, an Islamic country. METHODS: A qualitative study design using semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were conducted with a sample of 25 males in addiction treatment. The sample was drawn from a cohort of in-patients at a treatment centre in Amman, Jordan who had already participated in a quantitative survey...
November 23, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104290/exploring-the-longitudinal-offending-pathways-of-child-sexual-abuse-victims-a-preliminary-analysis-using-latent-variable-modeling
#5
Nina L Papalia, Stefan Luebbers, James R P Ogloff, Margaret Cutajar, Paul E Mullen
Very little research has been conducted to show the way in which criminal behavior unfolds over the life-course in children who have been sexually abused, and whether it differs from the 'age-crime' patterns consistently documented in the criminology literature. This study investigated the temporal pathways of criminal offending between the ages of 10-25 years among medically confirmed cases of child sexual abuse (CSA), and considered whether abuse variables, offense variables, and the presence of other adverse outcomes, were associated with heterogeneity in offending pathways among CSA survivors...
January 16, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103842/one-size-doesn-t-fit-all-cross-sectional-associations-between-neighborhood-walkability-crime-and-physical-activity-depends-on-age-and-sex-of-residents
#6
Andrea S Richardson, Wendy M Troxel, Madhumita B Ghosh-Dastidar, Robin Beckman, Gerald P Hunter, Amy S DeSantis, Natalie Colabianchi, Tamara Dubowitz
BACKGROUND: Low-income African American adults are disproportionately affected by obesity and are also least likely to engage in recommended levels of physical activity (Flegal et al. JAMA 303(3):235-41, 2010; Tucker et al. Am J Prev Med 40(4):454-61, 2011). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is an important factor for weight management and control, as well as for reducing disease risk (Andersen et al. Lancet 368(9532):299-304, 2006; Boreham and Riddoch J Sports Sci 19(12):915-29, 2001; Carson et al...
January 19, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101273/who-scared-the-cat-a-molecular-crime-scene-investigation-laboratory-exercise
#7
Laura E Ott, Susan D Carson
This introductory laboratory exercise gives first-year life science majors or nonmajors an opportunity to gain knowledge and experience in basic bioinformatics and molecular biology laboratory techniques and analysis in the context of a mock crime scene investigation. In this laboratory, students determine if a human (Lady) or dog (Kona) committed the fictional crime of scaring a cat. Students begin by performing in silico PCR using provided dog- and human-specific PCR primers to determine the sequences to be amplified and predict PCR amplicon sizes...
December 2016: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100148/palliative-care-in-uk-prisons
#8
Mary Turner, Marian Peacock
Despite falling crime rates in England and Wales over the past 20 years, the number of prisoners has doubled. People over the age of 50 constitute the fastest growing section of the prison population, and increasing numbers of older prisoners are dying in custody. This article discusses some of the issues raised by these changing demographics and draws on preliminary findings from a study underway in North West England. It describes the context behind the rise in the numbers of older prisoners; explores the particular needs of this growing population; and discusses some of the practical and emotional challenges for prison officers, health care staff, and fellow prisoners who are involved in caring for dying prisoners in a custodial environment...
January 2017: Journal of Correctional Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098785/neighborhood-design-physical-activity-and-wellbeing-applying-the-walkability-model
#9
Adriana A Zuniga-Teran, Barron J Orr, Randy H Gimblett, Nader V Chalfoun, David P Guertin, Stuart E Marsh
Neighborhood design affects lifestyle physical activity, and ultimately human wellbeing. There are, however, a limited number of studies that examine neighborhood design types. In this research, we examine four types of neighborhood designs: traditional development, suburban development, enclosed community, and cluster housing development, and assess their level of walkability and their effects on physical activity and wellbeing. We examine significant associations through a questionnaire (n = 486) distributed in Tucson, Arizona using the Walkability Model...
January 13, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095932/the-role-of-marriage-in-criminal-recidivism-a-longitudinal-and-co-relative-analysis
#10
K S Kendler, S L Lönn, J Sundquist, K Sundquist
AIMS: Marriage is associated with a reduced rate of criminal recidivism, but the underlying mechanisms have only partly been elucidated. We seek to clarify the nature of the association between marriage and recidivism and how that relationship may be moderated as a function of gender, deviance of spouse, a history of violence and familial risk. METHOD: We utilise a longitudinal cohort design consisting of Swedish men (n = 239 328) and women (n = 72 280), born between 1958 and 1986, who were convicted of at least one crime before age 20 and were not married prior to age 20...
January 18, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091862/the-role-of-adolescent-friendship-group-integration-and-cohesion-in-weapon-related-violent-crime-as-a-young-adult
#11
Marlon P Mundt, Olena P Antonaccio, Michael T French, Larissa I Zakletskaia
Weapon-related violent crime is a serious, complex, and multifaceted public health problem. The present study uses data from Waves I and III of Add Health (n = 10,482, 54% female) to examine how friendship group integration and cohesion in adolescence (ages 12-19) is associated with weapon-related criminal activity as a young adult (ages 18-26). Results indicate that greater cohesion in friendship groups is associated with significantly lower weapon-related criminal activity in young adulthood. In addition, for adolescent girls, a greater number of close friendship ties-an indicator of friendship group integration-is associated with less weapon-related criminal activity in young adulthood...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089301/time-since-discharge-of-9mm-cartridges-by-headspace-analysis-part-2-ageing-study-and-estimation-of-the-time-since-discharge-using-multivariate-regression
#12
M Gallidabino, F S Romolo, C Weyermann
Estimating the time since discharge of spent cartridges can be a valuable tool in the forensic investigation of firearm-related crimes. To reach this aim, it was previously proposed that the decrease of volatile organic compounds released during discharge is monitored over time using non-destructive headspace extraction techniques. While promising results were obtained for large-calibre cartridges (e.g., shotgun shells), handgun calibres yielded unsatisfying results. In addition to the natural complexity of the specimen itself, these can also be attributed to some selective choices in the methods development...
December 27, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089297/time-since-discharge-of-9mm-cartridges-by-headspace-analysis-part-1-comprehensive-optimisation-and-validation-of-a-headspace-sorptive-extraction-hsse-method
#13
M Gallidabino, F S Romolo, C Weyermann
Estimating the time since discharge of spent cartridges can be a valuable tool in the forensic investigation of firearm-related crimes. To reach this aim, it was previously proposed that the decrease of volatile organic compounds released during discharge is monitored over time using non-destructive headspace extraction techniques. While promising results were obtained for large-calibre cartridges (e.g., shotgun shells), handgun calibres yielded unsatisfying results. In addition to the natural complexity of the specimen itself, these can also be attributed to some selective choices in the methods development...
December 24, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088088/prevalence-of-new-psychoactive-substances-in-northeast-asia-from-2007-to-2015
#14
Junhui Lee, Songhee Yang, Yujin Kang, Eunyoung Han, Ling-Yi Feng, Jih-Heng Li, Heesun Chung
The proliferation of new psychoactive substances (NPS) has been a global trend in drug abuse and its regulation has been a worldwide concern. There is no doubt that it is necessary to share information related to these emerging substances between countries and continents for the effective regulation of NPS. With efforts for the efficient regulation of NPS, many studies and information have been published for the prevalence of NPS in the United States and other countries in Europe and Oceania. However, there is lack of information available for the prevalence of NPS in Asian and African countries...
October 20, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076983/multidimensional-family-therapy-reduces-self-reported-criminality-among-adolescents-with-a-cannabis-use-disorder
#15
Thimo M van der Pol, Craig E Henderson, Vincent Hendriks, Michael P Schaub, Henk Rigter
Multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) is an established treatment program for youth displaying multiproblem behavior. We examined whether MDFT decreased criminal offending among cannabis abusing adolescents, as compared with individual psychotherapy (IP). In a Western European randomized controlled trial comparing MDFT with IP, a sample of 169 adolescents with a cannabis disorder completed self-reports on criminal offending. Half indicated they had committed one or more criminal offenses in the 90 days before the baseline assessment...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074429/longitudinal-associations-between-change-in-neighborhood-social-disorder-and-change-in-food-swamps-in-an-urban-setting
#16
Yeeli Mui, Joel Gittelsohn, Jessica C Jones-Smith
Few studies have examined how neighborhood contextual features may influence the food outlet mix. We evaluated the relationship between changes in neighborhood crime and changes in the food environment, namely the relative density of unhealthy (or intermediate) food outlets out of total food outlets, or food swamp score, in Baltimore City from 2000 to 2012, using neighborhood fixed-effects linear regression models. Comparing neighborhoods to themselves over time, each unit increase in crime rate was associated with an increase in the food swamp score (b = 0...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073089/application-of-a-mitochondrial-dna-control-region-frequency-database-for-uk-domestic-cats
#17
Barbara Ottolini, Gurdeep Matharu Lall, Federico Sacchini, Mark A Jobling, Jon H Wetton
DNA variation in 402bp of the mitochondrial control region flanked by repeat sequences RS2 and RS3 was evaluated by Sanger sequencing in 152 English domestic cats, in order to determine the significance of matching DNA sequences between hairs found with a victim's body and the suspect's pet cat. Whilst 95% of English cats possessed one of the twelve globally widespread mitotypes, four new variants were observed, the most common of which (2% frequency) was shared with the evidential samples. No significant difference in mitotype frequency was seen between 32 individuals from the locality of the crime and 120 additional cats from the rest of England, suggesting a lack of local population structure...
December 21, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073053/applying-3d-measurements-and-computer-matching-algorithms-to-two-firearm-examination-proficiency-tests
#18
Daniel Ott, Robert Thompson, Junfeng Song
In order for a crime laboratory to assess a firearms examiner's training, skills, experience, and aptitude, it is necessary for the examiner to participate in proficiency testing. As computer algorithms for comparisons of pattern evidence become more prevalent, it is of interest to test algorithm performance as well, using these same proficiency examinations. This article demonstrates the use of the Congruent Matching Cell (CMC) algorithm to compare 3D topography measurements of breech face impressions and firing pin impressions from a previously distributed firearms proficiency test...
December 21, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066153/collectors-on-illicit-collecting-higher-loyalties-and-other-techniques-of-neutralization-in-the-unlawful-collecting-of-rare-and-precious-orchids-and-antiquities
#19
Simon Mackenzie, Donna Yates
Trafficking natural objects and trafficking cultural objects have been treated separately both in regulatory policy and in criminological discussion. The former is generally taken to be 'wildlife crime' while the latter has come to be considered under the auspices of a debate on 'illicit art and antiquities'. In this article we study the narrative discourse of high-end collectors of orchids and antiquities. The illicit parts of these global trades are subject to this analytical divide between wildlife trafficking and art trafficking, and this has resulted in quite different regulatory structures for each of these markets...
August 2016: Theor Criminol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064063/a-new-approach-to-obtain-metric-data-from-video-surveillance-preliminary-evaluation-of-a-low-cost-stereo-photogrammetric-system
#20
Paolo Russo, Emanuela Gualdi-Russo, Alberto Pellegrinelli, Juri Balboni, Alessio Furini
Using an interdisciplinary approach the authors demonstrate the possibility to obtain reliable anthropometric data of a subject by means of a new video surveillance system. In general the use of current video surveillance systems provides law enforcement with useful data to solve many crimes. Unfortunately the quality of the images and the way in which they are taken often makes it very difficult to judge the compatibility between suspect and perpetrator. In this paper, the authors present the results obtained with a low-cost photogrammetric video surveillance system based on a pair of common surveillance cameras synchronized with each other...
December 23, 2016: Forensic Science International
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