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Bertine de Vries, Jooske T van Busschbach, Elisabeth C D van der Stouwe, André Aleman, Jan J M van Dijk, Paul H Lysaker, Johan Arends, Saskia A Nijman, Gerdina H M Pijnenborg
Psychotic disorders often have been linked with violence. However, studies have shown that people with a psychotic disorder are more often victim than perpetrator of violence. The objective of this meta-analysis was to review prevalence rates for different types of victimization and to identify risk factors associated with victimization. Based on a search in MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science, 27 studies were found with samples consisting of adults with a psychotic disorder and possible victimization occurring during adulthood and data on "violent victimization," "sexual victimization," "non-violent victimization," and/or "victimization not otherwise specified...
March 14, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Jason M Lindo, María Padilla-Romo
This study considers the effects of the kingpin strategy, an approach to fighting organized crime in which law-enforcement efforts focus on capturing the leaders of criminal organizations, on community violence in the context of Mexico's drug war. Newly constructed historical data on drug-trafficking organizations' areas of operation at the municipality level and monthly homicide data allow us to control for a rich set of fixed effects and to leverage variation in the timing of kingpin captures to estimate their effects...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Health Economics
Sherry Hamby, Zach Blount, Alli Smith, Lisa Jones, Kimberly Mitchell, Elizabeth Taylor
Many forms of victimization, including bullying and property crime, are increasingly moving online, but most studies of poly-victimization still primarily focus on in-person crime and violence. Few studies have examined the importance of incorporating technology-based victimizations for assessing the true burden of violence. The purpose of this study is to explore whether digital poly-victimization contributes to post-traumatic stress and anxiety/dysphoria symptoms after controlling for in-person poly-victimization...
May 2018: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
Alessia Bramanti, Ernesto D'Aloja, Federico Cabras, Pasquale Paribello, Maria Francesca Moro, Jutta Lindert, Mauro Giovanni Carta
Introduction: Two main demographic phenomena have substantially changed the condition of elderly: the growth of the urban population and the increase in longevity. Objective: The aim of the present review is to investigate how the elderly living in the cities perceive the sense of insecurity compared to those who reside in rural areas, and their Quality of Life (QoL). Method: Studies published from January 2011 to August 2017 were identified on Google and PubMed combining the following terms: "elderly urban/rural QoL" or "old age urban/rural QoL"...
2018: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH
Burak M Gönültaş, Bahadir Sahin
A great deal of attention has been devoted to sexual molestation cases, both in theory and in practice. Child molesters are versatile and are not easily identified. Various theories and tactics, the most contemporary of which is environmental criminology, have been developed to find those criminals. Locations of victims, crime scenes, and distances among them as well as other situational variables are used to predict possible future offences in environmental criminology. This study applies the theory to sexual molestation crimes in Istanbul...
April 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Joanne Rechdan, Lorraine Hope, James D Sauer, Melanie Sauerland, James Ost, Harald Merckelbach
We examined the influence of co-witness discussion on the metacognitive regulation of memory reports. Participants (N = 92) watched a crime video. Later, a confederate confidently agreed with (gave confirming feedback), disagreed with (gave disconfirming feedback), or gave no feedback (control) regarding participants' answers to questions about the video. Participants who received disconfirming feedback reported fewer fine-grain details than participants in the confirming and control conditions on a subsequent, individual recall test for a different question set...
March 13, 2018: Memory
Elizabeth J Letourneau, Derek S Brown, Xiangming Fang, Ahmed Hassan, James A Mercy
The present study provides an estimate of the U.S. economic impact of child sexual abuse (CSA). Costs of CSA were measured from the societal perspective and include health care costs, productivity losses, child welfare costs, violence/crime costs, special education costs, and suicide death costs. We separately estimated quality-adjusted life year (QALY) losses. For each category, we used the best available secondary data to develop cost per case estimates. All costs were estimated in U.S. dollars and adjusted to the reference year 2015...
March 10, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
(no author information available yet)
Original article: Shaw, J., & Porter, S. (2015). Constructing rich false memories of committing crime. Psychological Science, 26, 291-301. doi:10.1177/0956797614562862.
March 1, 2018: Psychological Science
Niels Okkels, Christina Blanner Kristiansen, Povl Munk-Jørgensen, Norman Sartorius
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update on urban mental health and highlight the challenges that require urgent attention. RECENT FINDINGS: The majority of the world's population live in towns and urbanization is expected to increase in all areas of the world. Challenges to mental health in urban areas include loneliness, violence, high crime rates, homelessness, noise and other pollutants, traffic accidents, drug abuse, and insufficiency of mental health services...
March 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Lorraine T Benuto, Yueran Yang, Andrew Ahrendt, Caroline Cummings
Secondary traumatic stress (STS) is a pattern of psychological symptoms that approximates the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and occurs in professionals who are exposed to individuals who have experienced trauma. While victim advocates are frontline health professionals who are trained to support victims of crime and interpersonal violence and are at risk for developing STS, they have been largely neglected in the extant literature on STS. The STS Scale (STSS) is a 17-item self-report questionnaire utilized to assess frequency of symptoms of intrusion, avoidance, and arousal, specifically related to providing services to victims of trauma...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Elizabeth L Tung, Kelly Boyd, Stacy Tessler Lindau, Monica E Peek
Neighborhood crime may be an important social determinant of health in many high-poverty, urban communities, yet little is known about its relationship with access to health-enabling resources. We recruited an address-based probability sample of 267 participants (ages ≥35 years) on Chicago's South Side between 2012 and 2013. Participants were queried about their perceptions of neighborhood safety and prior experiences of neighborhood crime. Survey data were paired to a comprehensive, directly-observed census of the built environment on the South Side of Chicago...
March 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Baree Chilcote, LaTara Rust, Katie D Nizio, Shari L Forbes
At outdoor crime scenes, cadaver-detection and blood-detection dogs may be tasked with locating blood that is days, weeks or months old. Although it is known that the odour profile of blood will change during this time, it is currently unknown how the profile changes when exposed to the environment. Such variables must be studied in order to understand when the odour profile is no longer detectable by the scent-detection dogs and other crime scene tools should be implemented. In this study, blood was deposited onto concrete and varnished wood surfaces and weathered in an outdoor environment over a three-month period...
March 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
R S Corrêa, V F Melo, G G F Abreu, M H Sousa, J A Chaker, J A Gomes
Soil traces are useful as forensic evidences because they frequently adhere to individuals and objects associated with crimes and can place or discard a suspect at/from a crime scene. Soil is a mixture of organic and inorganic components and among them soil clay contains signatures that make it reliable as forensic evidence. In this study, we hypothesized that soils can be forensically distinguished through the analysis of their clay fraction alone, and that samples of the same soil type can be consistently distinguished according to the distance they were collected from each other...
March 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
Alicia Khuu, Scott Chadwick, Sébastien Moret, Xanthe Spindler, Peter Gunn, Claude Roux
Fingermarks can be exploited for both their ridge detail and touch DNA. One-step luminescent cyanoacrylate (CA) fuming techniques used for fingermark enhancement, such as PolyCyano UV (Foster+Freeman Ltd) and Lumicyano™ (Crime Science Technology), claim to be compatible with DNA analysis as they reduce the need for post-staining to increase contrast of the developed fingermark. The aim of this study was to determine the impact that these one-step luminescent cyanoacrylates have on DNA analysis and how they compare to conventional CA techniques...
February 23, 2018: Forensic Science International
Jukka Savolainen, Andria Eisman, W Alex Mason, Joseph A Schwartz, Jouko Miettunen, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin
Early exposure to multiple risk factors has been shown to predict criminal offending, but the mechanisms responsible for this association are poorly understood. Integrating social-environmental and dispositional theories of crime this research investigated the capacity of family socioeconomic disadvantage and individual psychological deficits to mediate the association between childhood cumulative risk and late adolescent criminal convictions. Male participants in the 1986 Northern Finland Birth Cohort Study (n = 3414) were followed from the prenatal period through age 19-20...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Adolescence
Jack Morrison, Giles Watts, Glyn Hobbs, Nick Dawnay
Field based forensic tests commonly provide information on the presence and identity of biological stains and can also support the identification of species. Such information can support downstream processing of forensic samples and generate rapid intelligence. These approaches have traditionally used chemical and immunological techniques to elicit the result but some are known to suffer from a lack of specificity and sensitivity. The last 10 years has seen the development of field-based genetic profiling systems, with specific focus on moving the mainstay of forensic genetic analysis, namely STR profiling, out of the laboratory and into the hands of the non-laboratory user...
February 21, 2018: Forensic Science International
Chivon H Fitch, Zavin Nazaretian, Devon Himmel
BACKGROUND: Since Braithwaite advanced reintegrative shaming theory about 25 years ago, the theory has almost invariably been retested only in relation to predatory offending. Few studies have tested the relevance of the theory for non-predatory offending. AIM: This study aims to explore the utility of reintegrative shaming theory in explaining non-predatory crimes. Our main research question was: is acknowledgement of shame apportioned by others associated with reduction in non-predatory offending? METHODS: We used zero-inflated negative binomial modelling to analyse data from a national, longitudinal, population-based study of 1,726 adolescents...
March 8, 2018: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
Heather M Kleider-Offutt, Alesha D Bond, Sarah E Williams, Corey J Bohil
Prior research indicates that stereotypical Black faces (e.g., wide nose, full lips: Afrocentric) are often associated with crime and violence. The current study investigated whether stereotypical faces may bias the interpretation of facial expression to seem threatening. Stimuli were prerated by face type (stereotypical, nonstereotypical) and expression (neutral, threatening). Later in a forced-choice task, different participants categorized face stimuli as stereotypical or not and threatening or not. Regardless of prerated expression, stereotypical faces were judged as more threatening than were nonstereotypical faces...
March 7, 2018: Memory & Cognition
James C Wo
Although some urban sociology perspectives suggest how certain sociodeomgraphic characteristics influence nonprofit development, there is a dearth of empirical research to assess neighborhood differences in nonprofit organizations. The goal of the current study is to build upon the extant literature by examining how both concentrated disadvantage and violent crime impact nonprofit density across neighborhoods. Using data from Los Angeles census tracts from 2010 to 2012, I test for linear and nonlinear influences that these two neighborhood factors might exert on nonprofit density...
March 2018: Social Science Research
Riccardo Valente, Sergi Valera Pertegas
Perception of insecurity arises as a complex social phenomenon affected by factors that go beyond actual crime rates. Previous contributions to the field of fear of crime studies have shown, for instance, that the perception of social and physical disorder may generate insecurity among residents even in contexts where crime is comparatively low. Meanwhile, sociological approaches have led to a conceptualization of insecurity as an umbrella sentiment grounded in a wider feeling of unease. Building further on this assumption, data gathered in a large-scale survey in Italy (n = 15,428) were analysed by implementing exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis with the objective of assessing the validity of a model of "ontological insecurity"...
March 2018: Social Science Research
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