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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938022/advising-caution-in-studying-seasonal-oscillations-in-crime-rates
#1
Kun Dong, Yunbai Cao, Beatrice Siercke, Matthew Wilber, Scott G McCalla
Most types of crime are known to exhibit seasonal oscillations, yet the annual variations in the amplitude of this seasonality and their causes are still uncertain. Using a large collection of data from the Houston and Los Angeles Metropolitan areas, we extract and study the seasonal variations in aggravated assault, break in and theft from vehicles, burglary, grand theft auto, rape, robbery, theft, and vandalism for many years from the raw daily data. Our approach allows us to see various long term and seasonal trends and aberrations in crime rates that have not been reported before...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937800/when-is-neuropsychological-testing-medically-necessary-for-children-on-medicaid-in-new-mexico
#2
Noah K Kaufman, Carola Mullins, Andrew S Davis, Silvina Tonarelli, Hugo Sandoval, Luis Ramos-Duran
Healthcare for poor children, also known as Medicaid, is disproportionately relied upon by citizens of poor states such as New Mexico, where (a) there are more unintended pregnancies, (b) domestic violence during and after pregnancies occurs with regularity, (c) youth substance use is much more common, (d) crime rates are some of the worst in the country, (e) many never graduate from high school, and (f) incarceration is often inevitable. Yet, there is a dearth of research into the neuropsychological health of these children...
September 22, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936821/-forensic-psychiatric-assessment-with-the-claim-of-incitement-solicitation-assistance-to-suicide-and-reinforcement-of-suicide-decision-a-case-report
#3
Altan Eşsizoğlu, Mustafa Sercan
Although the act of suicide is not considered a crime in Turkish Criminal Law, any contribution (incitement, solicitation, assistance and reinforcement of suicide decision) to the commitment of suicide is a crime according to the 84th item. However, the number of cases opened with respect to this item as well as request for forensic psychiatric expertise is very rare. In these cases, forensic psychiatric expertise depends on the psychiatric evaluation of the individual that committed suicide and the analysis of his/her relationship with the person that incited the suicide...
2017: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929174/-operation-pangea-standing-together-in-combat-against-international-pharmaceutical-crime
#4
REVIEW
Kirstin Smolka, Klaus Gronwald
Crime on the internet has grown accordingly to the increased use of the internet in everyday life. This includes illegal trading of pharmaceuticals via the internet. Trading in pharmaceuticals as "special commodities" underlies certain legal regulations in Germany, as in most other countries worldwide.Mail order trade (colloquially also known as internet trade) in pharmaceuticals requires approval of the competent regulatory authority. However, numerous illegal internet vendors of medicines present their websites to customers, purporting to be legal pharmacies and trading good and genuine medicines...
September 19, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929171/-impact-of-european-e-commerce-liberalisation-on-pharmaceutical-crime-the-alpha-research-project
#5
REVIEW
Arndt Sinn
The trading of illicit and falsified pharmaceuticals is a growth market. Factors influencing this illegal market are high profit margins, a low risk of detection, low control density, an obscure legal situation, and lastly, the easy and anonymous ways of selling over the Internet, usually across national borders. This situation was the background for the research project on the impact of European e‑commerce liberalisation on pharmaceutical crime (ALPhA). The goal of the project was to develop concrete recommendations for action regarding the improved prosecution of internet-based pharmaceutical crime and to create a broad body of data for effective law-making by legislators...
September 19, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928687/the-development-and-preliminary-validation-of-a-brief-questionnaire-of-psychopathic-personality-traits
#6
Sonja Etzler, Sonja Rohrmann
The measurement of psychopathic personality traits via self-report has become an important tool in legal psychology. One prominent instrument is the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI; Lilienfeld and Andrews, 1996), a well-validated questionnaire that is widely applied in many countries. In Germany, it is the only questionnaire assessing psychopathic traits that is available from a publisher with a manual edited for easy administration. Nevertheless, the PPI shows certain shortcomings: the high number of 154 items makes it less economic, it was developed on a non-representative undergraduate sample, and studies revealed an inconsistent factor structure...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928168/factors-that-support-successful-transition-to-the-community-among-women-leaving-prison-in-british-columbia-a-prospective-cohort-study-using-participatory-action-research
#7
Patricia A Janssen, Mo Korchinski, Sarah L Desmarais, Arianne Y K Albert, Lara-Lisa Condello, Marla Buchanan, Alison Granger-Brown, Vivian R Ramsden, Lynn Fels, Jane A Buxton, Carl Leggo, Ruth Elwood Martin
BACKGROUND: In Canada, the number of women sentenced to prison has almost doubled since 1995. In British Columbia, the rate of reincarceration is 70% within 2 years. Our aim was to identify factors associated with recidivism among women in British Columbia. METHODS: We prospectively followed women after discharge from provincial corrections centres in British Columbia. We defined recidivism as participation in criminal activity disclosed by participants during the year following release...
September 13, 2017: CMAJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927710/the-hanging-of-derek-bentley-a-19-year-old-boy-with-epilepsy
#8
Mia Tuft, Karl O Nakken
Derek Bentley (1933-1953) was sentenced to death by hanging at the age of 19. He was convicted as a party to murder, and he died in Wandsworth Prison in London. After the police had reached the crime scene, he ostensibly shouted to his 16-year-old friend Christopher (Chris) Craig the ambiguous phrase, "Let him have it, Chris!" Chris fired shots at two policemen, wounding one and killing another. Derek Bentley had epilepsy and a mental age of about 11, and he could neither read nor write. In 1993, 40years after his death, he received a posthumous pardon from the British government...
September 15, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926135/a-spatial-approach-to-combatting-wildlife-crime
#9
Sally C Faulkner, Michael C A Stevens, Stephanie S Romañach, Peter A Lindsey, Steven C Le Comber
Poaching can have devastating impacts on animal and plant numbers, and in many countries has reached crisis levels, with illegal hunters employing increasingly sophisticated techniques. Here, we show how geographic profiling - a mathematical technique originally developed in criminology and recently applied to animal foraging and epidemiology - can be adapted for use in investigations of wildlife crime, using data from an eight-year study in Savé Valley Conservancy, Zimbabwe that in total includes more than 10,000 incidents of illegal hunting and the deaths of 6,454 wild animals...
September 19, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924450/comorbidities-and-correlates-of-conduct-disorder-among-male-juvenile-detainees-in-south-korea
#10
Bum-Sung Choi, Johanna Inhyang Kim, Bung-Nyun Kim, Bongseog Kim
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the rate and distribution of comorbidities, severity of childhood maltreatment, and clinical characteristics of adolescents with conduct disorder detained in a juvenile detention center in South Korea. METHODS: In total, 173 juvenile detainees were recruited. We analyzed the distribution of psychiatric disorders among the sample and compared the rate of comorbidities between groups with and without conduct disorder...
2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923026/dementia-and-cognitive-disorder-identified-at-a-forensic-psychiatric-examination-a-study-from-sweden
#11
Anette Ekström, Marianne Kristiansson, Karin Sparring Björkstén
BACKGROUND: Few studies have addressed the relationship between dementia and crime. We conducted a study of persons who got a primary or secondary diagnosis of dementia or cognitive disorder in a forensic psychiatric examination. METHODS: In Sweden, annually about 500 forensic psychiatric examinations are carried out. All cases from 2008 to 2010 with the diagnoses dementia or cognitive disorder were selected from the database of the Swedish National Board of Forensic Medicine...
September 18, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921582/retribution-as-hierarchy-regulation-hierarchy-preferences-moderate-the-effect-of-offender-socioeconomic-status-on-support-for-retribution
#12
Liz Redford, Kate A Ratliff
People punish others for various reasons, including deterring future crime, incapacitating the offender, and retribution, or payback. The current research focuses on retribution, testing whether support for retribution is motivated by the desire to maintain social hierarchies. If so, then the retributive tendencies of hierarchy enhancers or hierarchy attenuators should depend on whether offenders are relatively lower or higher in status, respectively. Three studies showed that hierarchy attenuators were more retributive against high-status offenders than for low-status offenders, that hierarchy enhancers showed a stronger orientation towards retributive justice, and that relationship was stronger for low-status, rather than high-status, criminal offenders...
September 17, 2017: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918370/a-metric-study-of-insole-foot-impressions-in-footwear-of-identical-twins
#13
Michael S Nirenberg, Kewal Krishan, Tanuj Kanchan
Foot impressions are of utmost importance in crime scene investigations. Foot impressions are available in the form of barefoot prints, sock-clad footprints, and as impressions within footwear. Sometimes suspects leave their footwear at the crime scene, and the insole of this footwear may contain the foot impression of the suspect which may be important evidence linking him or her to the crime. The task of identification based on the analysis of footprints can be challenging when the footprints belonging to one of the identical twin is available for examination...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915888/stigmatization-of-people-who-inject-drugs-pwid-by-pharmacists-in-tajikistan-sociocultural-context-and-implications-for-a-pharmacy-based-prevention-approach
#14
Umedjon Ibragimov, Hannah L Cooper, Regine Haardörfer, Kristin L Dunkle, William A Zule, Frank Y Wong
BACKGROUND: Pharmacies are an important source of sterile syringes for people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tajikistan who are under high risk of HIV and hepatitis C virus. Accessibility of sterile syringes at pharmacies without prescription may depend on pharmacists' attitudes towards PWID. This qualitative inquiry examines meanings and processes of stigmatization of PWID among pharmacists and pharmacy students in Tajikistan. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured interviews with 19 pharmacists and 9 students (N = 28) in the cities of Dushanbe and Kulob, Tajikistan...
September 16, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915129/atypical-exit-wound-in-high-voltage-electrocution
#15
Jamshid Parakkattil, Shanmugam Kandasamy, Siddhartha Das, Gerard Pradeep Devnath, Vinod Ashok Chaudhari, Kusa Kumar Shaha
Electrocution fatality cases are difficult to investigate. High-voltage electrocution burns resemble burns caused by other sources, especially if the person survives for few days. In that case, circumstantial evidence if correlated with the autopsy findings helps in determining the cause and manner of death. In addition, the crime scene findings also help to explain the pattern of injuries observed at autopsy. A farmer came in contact with a high-voltage transmission wire and sustained superficial to deep burns over his body...
September 14, 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915092/sexual-orientation-in-state-hate-crime-laws-exploring-social-construction-and-criminal-law
#16
Jace L Valcore
Several studies have described and analyzed the development and diffusion of hate crime laws in the United States, but none specifically examined state-level differences in protected categories. Forty-five of the 50 states have a hate crime statute, but only 30 of those include sexual orientation. In this study the Social Construction Framework is applied to the hate crime policy domain for the in order to determine whether or not variations in the social and political status of gays and lesbians are associated with the inclusion of sexual orientation in state hate crime laws...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914968/neighborhood-characteristics-and-adolescent-suicidal-behavior-evidence-from-a-population-based-study
#17
Kristina Allen, Sidra Goldman-Mellor
Research on the relationship between neighborhood characteristics and adolescents' risk of nonfatal suicidal behavior is scarce. We used California survey data to examine associations between measures of objective neighborhood quality (levels of violent crime, property crime, and socioeconomic disadvantage) and subjective neighborhood quality (perceptions of neighborhood safety and social cohesion) and adolescents' self-reported suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. Objective measures of neighborhood quality were unrelated to adolescents' risk of suicidal behavior...
September 15, 2017: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914163/truth-or-punishment-secrecy-and-punishing-the-self
#18
Michael L Slepian, Brock Bastian
We live in a world that values justice; when a crime is committed, just punishment is expected to follow. Keeping one's misdeed secret therefore appears to be a strategic way to avoid (just) consequences. Yet, people may engage in self-punishment to right their own wrongs to balance their personal sense of justice. Thus, those who seek an escape from justice by keeping secrets may in fact end up serving that same justice on themselves (through self-punishment). Six studies demonstrate that thinking about secret (vs...
July 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913969/spray-inlet-microwave-plasma-torch-ionization-tandem-mass-spectrometry-for-the-direct-detection-of-drug-samples-in-liquid-solutions
#19
Meng Miao, Gaosheng Zhao, Yaliang Wang, Li Xu, Junguo Dong, Ping Cheng
RATIONALE: Drug abuse or dependence results in a series of social problems, including crime and traffic accidents. Spray inlet microwave plasma torch tandem mass spectrometry (MPT-MS/MS) was developed and used for the direct detection of such drugs in liquid solutions. METHODS: Drug sample solutions were directly sprayed into the flame of MPT by a sampling pump and the ions produced by Penning ionization and ion-molecule reactions were guided into a QTOF tandem mass spectrometer for mass analysis...
September 14, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912449/red-and-green-colors-emitting-spherical-shaped-calcium-molybdate-nanophosphors-for-enhanced-latent-fingerprint-detection
#20
L Krishna Bharat, G Seeta Rama Raju, Jae Su Yu
We report the synthesis of spherical-shaped rare-earth (Eu(3+) and Tb(3+)) ions doped CaMoO4 nanoparticles in double solvents (IPA and H2O) with the help of autoclave. The X-ray diffraction patterns well match with the standard values and confirm the crystallization in a tetragonal phase with an I41/a (88) space group. The luminescence spectra exhibit the strong red and green emissions from Eu(3+) and Tb(3+) ions doped samples, respectively. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results show the oxidation states of all the elements present in the sample...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
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