keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Crime

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811910/falls-in-scottish-homicide-lessons-for-homicide-reduction-in-mental-health-patients
#1
EDITORIAL
John H M Crichton
The sustained fall in Scottish homicide rates follows crime reduction measures informed by the epidemiology of suicide. The violence reduction unit targeted young men carrying knives in public. The restriction of weapons immediately to hand appears to have caused an absolute fall in homicide just as suicide reduction was observed following changes to domestic gas supply. Further homicide reduction may be accomplished in the domestic setting with targeted changes in kitchen knife design in home safety planning for high-risk households...
August 2017: BJPsych Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811136/determination-of-ghb-and-ghb-%C3%AE-o-glucuronide-in-hair-of-three-narcoleptic-patients-comparison-between-single-and-chronic-ghb-exposure
#2
Lena-Maria Mehling, Xin Wang, Sys-Stybe Johansen, Annika Spottke, Anna Heidbreder, Peter Young, Burkhard Madea, Cornelius Hess
Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) can be used as a knock-out drug in drug facilitated crime (DFC). Due to its rapid metabolism and resulting narrow detection window, uncovering GHB use in DFC still constitutes a problem. In this experiment we determined the GHB and GHB-β-O-glucuronide (GHB-Gluc) concentrations in hair samples after single and chronic GHB exposures. Hair samples of three narcoleptic patients therapeutically taking sodium oxybate (GHB-sodium-salt) were collected. Patients 1 (P1) and 2 (P2) took the medication for nine and six years, respectively...
July 31, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810937/tweets-gangs-and-guns-a-snapshot-of-gang-communications-in-detroit
#3
Desmond Patton, Sadiq Patel, Jun Sung Hong, Megan Ranney, Marie Crandall, Lyle Dungy
The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of violent and criminal Twitter communications among gang-affiliated individuals in Detroit, Michigan. We analyzed 8.5 million Detroit gang members' tweets from January 2013 to March 2014 to assess whether they contained Internet banging-related keywords. We found that 4.7% of gangaffiliated user tweets consisted of terms related to violence and crime. Violence and crime-related communications fell into 4 main categories: (a) beefing (267,221 tweets), (b) grief (79,971 tweets), (c) guns (3,551 tweets), and (d) substance use and distribution (47,638 tweets)...
August 15, 2017: Violence and Victims
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809481/spectral-mining-for-discriminating-blood-origins-in-the-presence-of-substrate-interference-via-atr-ft-ir-postmortem-or-antemortem-blood
#4
Ayari Takamura, Ken Watanabe, Tomoko Akutsu, Hiroshi Ikegaya, Takeaki Ozawa
Often in criminal investigations, discrimination of types of body fluid evidence is crucially important to ascertain how a crime was committed. Compared to current methods using biochemical techniques, vibrational spectroscopic approaches can provide versatile applicability to identify various body fluid types without sample invasion. However, their applicability is limited to pure body fluid samples because important signals from body fluids incorporated in a substrate are affected strongly by interference from substrate signals...
August 15, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809091/different-localizations-of-drugs-simultaneously-administered-in-a-strand-of-hair-by-micro-segmental-analysis
#5
Kenji Kuwayama, Hajime Miyaguchi, Yuko T Iwata, Tatsuyuki Kanamori, Kenji Tsujikawa, Tadashi Yamamuro, Hiroki Segawa, Hiroyuki Inoue
Segmental hair analysis is used to estimate the time of drug intake at monthly precision in drug-related crimes. Previously we advanced this analytical method to specify the day of drug intake by cutting a strand of hair into 0.4-mm segments, which correspond to daily hair growth. Herein, we investigated the distributions of seven compounds in a strand of hair using micro-segmental analysis. Several strands of hair were collected 33.1-229.4 days after subjects were administered four pharmaceutical products that contained 10 drugs in single doses within 32 h...
August 15, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807464/sex-estimation-using-dimensions-around-the-nutrient-foramen-of-the-long-bones-of-the-arm-and-forearm-in-south-africans
#6
Palesa Mokoena, Brendon K Billings, Mubarak A Bidmos, Pedzisai Mazengenya
South Africa has had an increase in rates of crime, interpersonal violence and homicide since the introduction of democracy in 1994. Forensic osteological standards was lacking for South Africans of different population groups necessitating the generation of new standards for forensic identification of individuals from skeletal remains. For these reasons, there is a concerted demand for methods of identifying skeletal remains with sex being amongst the most important of the biological characteristics required...
July 10, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806636/blood-or-not-blood-that-is-the-question-a-non-destructive-method-for-the-detection-of-blood-contaminated-fingermarks
#7
Alfonso Bentolila, Ira Hartman, Michal Levin-Elad
Working in crime scenes presents a challenge to the forensic scientist, as some surfaces, such as floors and walls, cannot be transferred to the lab for further development and must, therefore, be processed at the crime scene itself. Two main types of latent fingermarks may be encountered in crime scenes: amino acids based and blood contaminated. One of the most common reagents, which are able to develop both types of fingermarks on porous surfaces, is ninhydrin. As blood contaminated fingermarks may be crucial in connecting the suspect to the crime it is important to be able to distinguish between them and natural fingermarks...
August 5, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805124/migration-violence-and-the-role-of-psychiatry-in-italy
#8
Antonio Ventriglio, Antonello Bellomo, Giovanna Vitrani, Eleonora Stella, Alessandro Gentile, Dinesh Bhugra
Immigration to Italy has been increasing exponentially in the last decades due to the international political changes and conflicts in the Middle East. The relationship between immigration and crimes is a debated issue, and violent radicalization of second or third generations of migrants is under increased scrutiny. Consequently, many politicians and political parties use nationalist and xenophobic language. Inevitably, this will have an impact on reactions of the larger population, as well as that of migrants...
August 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804260/modelling-the-fear-of-crime
#9
Rafael Prieto Curiel, Steven Bishop
How secure people feel in a particular region is obviously linked to the actual crime suffered in that region but the exact relationship between crime and its fear is quite subtle. Two regions may have the same crime rate but their local perception of security may differ. Equally, two places may have the same perception of security even though one may have a significantly lower crime rate. Furthermore, a negative perception might persist for many years, even when crime rates drop. Here, we develop a model for the dynamics of the perception of security of a region based on the distribution of crime suffered by the population using concepts similar to those used for opinion dynamics...
July 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803002/the-characteristics-of-reports-to-the-police-of-child-sexual-abuse-and-the-likelihood-of-cases-proceeding-to-prosecution-after-delays-in-reporting
#10
Judy Cashmore, Alan Taylor, Patrick Parkinson
Delays in disclosing and reporting child sexual abuse to the police are common, particularly among males and those who have been abused by clergy and others in a position of trust. This study, commissioned by the Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse, examined the patterns of timely and delayed reporting of sexual offences against children, and the likelihood of legal action commencing. De-identified unit record data for all sexual offences against children reported to the police over 20 years were obtained from official crime statistics agencies in two Australian states...
August 9, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802949/an-investigation-into-secondary-transfer-the-transfer-of-textile-fibres-to-seats
#11
R Palmer, K Sheridan, J Puckett, N Richardson, W Lo
Textile fibres can be transferred directly, person to person or person to scene (primary transfer), or indirectly via an intermediate (secondary transfer). In criminal cases involving a transfer of textile fibres, it is often the case that whilst the provenance of recovered 'crime significant' fibres is accepted by the defence, it is a particular activity leading to their transfer to a surface in question which is disputed. In such circumstances, transfer and persistence studies relating to fibres on a particular substrate in particular conditions assist in evaluating whether the presence of crime relevant fibres is more likely to have occurred by one particular activity compared to another...
August 3, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800604/the-scaling-of-crime-concentration-in-cities
#12
Marcos Oliveira, Carmelo Bastos-Filho, Ronaldo Menezes
Crime is a major threat to society's well-being but lacks a statistical characterization that could lead to uncovering some of its underlying mechanisms. Evidence of nonlinear scaling of urban indicators in cities, such as wages and serious crime, has motivated the understanding of cities as complex systems-a perspective that offers insights into resources limits and sustainability, but that usually neglects details of the indicators themselves. Notably, since the nineteenth century, criminal activities have been known to occur unevenly within a city; crime concentrates in such way that most of the offenses take place in few regions of the city...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800280/evaluations-of-antigay-hate-crimes-and-hate-crime-legislation-independent-and-differentially-predicted
#13
Wayne W Wilkinson, Christopher S Peters
Minimal studies have investigated individuals' evaluations of antigay hate crimes and hate crime legislation simultaneously, with most research focusing on one or the other. In a sample of 246 heterosexual undergraduates, the present study found that evaluations of antigay hate crimes and hate crime legislation were unrelated. Higher social dominance orientation (SDO) and crime control orientation scores were associated with more positive evaluations of antigay hate crimes. Positive evaluations of hate crime legislation were associated with more positive attitudes toward gay men and lesbians...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799198/does-paying-service-providers-by-results-improve-recovery-outcomes-for-drug-misusers-in-treatment-in-england
#14
Andrew Jones, Matthias Pierce, Matt Sutton, Thomas Mason, Tim Millar
AIM: To compare drug recovery outcomes in commissioning areas included in a 'payment by results' scheme with all other areas. DESIGN: Observational and data linkage study of the National Drug Treatment Monitoring System, Office for National Statistics mortality database, and Police National Computer criminal records, for two years before and after introduction of the scheme. Pre-post controlled comparison compared outcomes in participating versus non-participating areas following adjustment for drug use, functioning and drug treatment status...
August 10, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797200/the-polymorphism-of-dopamine-receptor-d4-drd4-and-dopamine-transporter-dat-genes-in-the-men-with-antisocial-behavior-and-mixed-martial-arts-fighters
#15
Elena Cherepkova, Vladimir Maksimov, Alexandr Kushnarev, Igor Shakhmatov, Lyubomir I Aftanas
OBJECTIVES: VNTR polymorphisms of DRD4 and DAT genes were studied in the Russian and Chechen men convicted of crimes, and two control groups comprised of the MMA fighters and a sample of general population. A group of MMA fighters included only the subjects without history of antisocial behavior. METHODS: DNA was isolated by phenol-chloroform extraction from the blood. Genotyping VNTR polymorphisms of the DRD4 and DAT genes were performed by PCR on published methods...
August 11, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796650/using-skin-gene-markers-for-estimating-early-postmortem-interval-at-different-temperatures
#16
Mona Mohamed Ali, Samah Fathy Ibrahim, Amel Ahmed Fayed
Many researches document long-term RNA persistence in a variety of tissues and its applicability in estimating the postmortem interval (PMI). Skin-specific mRNA marker, late cornified envelope 1C (LCE1C), was used to identified skin samples. Before using the LCE1C in criminal casework, its persistence and applicability for estimating PMI in different temperatures were tested. Twelve skin samples were collected from 6 patients, and 6 samples were kept at 24°C and others were kept at 40°C for 5 days. The expression levels of LCE1C mRNA are serially detected and quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction...
August 8, 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794976/general-and-emotion-specific-alterations-to-cognitive-control-in-women-with-a-history-of-childhood-abuse
#17
Kristen L Mackiewicz Seghete, Roselinde H Kaiser, Anne P DePrince, Marie T Banich
BACKGROUND: Although limited, the literature suggests alterations in activation of cognitive control regions in adults and adolescents with a history of childhood abuse. The current study examined whether such alterations are increased in the face of emotionally-distracting as compared to emotionally neutral information, and whether such alterations occur in brain regions that exert cognitive control in a more top-down sustained manner or a more bottom-up transient manner. METHODS: Participants were young adult women (ages 23-30): one group with a history of childhood physical or sexual abuse (N = 15) and one with no trauma exposure (N = 17), as assessed through the Trauma History Questionnaire and a two-stage interview adapted from the National Crime Victims Survey...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794547/evolution-of-ethics-in-clinical-research-and-ethics-committee
#18
Nilay Kanti Das, Amrita Sil
Ethics are the moral values of human behavior and the principles which govern these values. The situation becomes challenging for a doctor when he assumes the role of researcher. The doctor-researcher has to serve both the roles and at times the zeal of an investigator has the potential to cloud the morality of the physician inside. It is very important to realize that exploiting the faith of patients is an offence that tantamount to a crime. Medical science is one discipline where the advancement of knowledge is hugely guided by research and mankind has benefitted from many experiments...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791709/risk-of-being-convicted-of-theft-and-other-crimes-in-anorexia-and-bulimia-nervosa-a-prospective-cohort-study-in-a-swedish-female-population
#19
Shuyang Yao, Ralf Kuja-Halkola, Laura M Thornton, Claes Norring, Catarina Almqvist, Brian M D'Onofrio, Paul Lichtenstein, Niklas Långström, Cynthia M Bulik, Henrik Larsson
OBJECTIVE: We examined epidemiological associations between anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) and risks of committing theft and other crimes in a nationwide female population. METHOD: Females born in Sweden during 1979-1998 (N = 957,106) were followed from age 15 for up to 20 years using information on clinically diagnosed AN and BN (exposures), convictions of theft and other crimes (outcomes), psychiatric comorbidities, and familial relatedness from Swedish national registers...
August 9, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789831/how-linguistic-metaphor-scaffolds-reasoning
#20
REVIEW
Paul H Thibodeau, Rose K Hendricks, Lera Boroditsky
Language helps people communicate and think. Precise and accurate language would seem best suited to achieve these goals. But a close look at the way people actually talk reveals an abundance of apparent imprecision in the form of metaphor: ideas are 'light bulbs', crime is a 'virus', and cancer is an 'enemy' in a 'war'. In this article, we review recent evidence that metaphoric language can facilitate communication and shape thinking even though it is literally false. We first discuss recent experiments showing that linguistic metaphor can guide thought and behavior...
August 5, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
keyword
keyword
30537
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"