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Karen P Hayhurst, Matthias Pierce, Matthew Hickman, Toby Seddon, Graham Dunn, John Keane, Tim Millar
BACKGROUND: Although evidence points to a strong link between illicit drug use and crime, robust evidence for temporal order in the relationship is scant. We carried out a systematic review to assess the evidence for pathways through opiate/crack cocaine use and offending to determine temporal order. METHODS: A systematic review sourced five databases, three online sources, bibliographies and citation mapping. Inclusion criteria were: focus on opiate/crack use, and offending; pre-drug use information; longitudinal design; corroborative official crime records...
October 19, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
K Ryan, D Gareth Williams, David J Balding
Many DNA profiles recovered from crime scene samples are of a quality that does not allow them to be searched against, nor entered into, databases. We propose a method for the comparison of profiles arising from two DNA samples, one or both of which can have multiple donors and be affected by low DNA template or degraded DNA. We compute likelihood ratios to evaluate the hypothesis that the two samples have a common DNA donor, and hypotheses specifying the relatedness of two donors. Our method uses a probability distribution for the genotype of the donor of interest in each sample...
September 21, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Tommi L Gaines, Daniel Werb, Jaime Arredondo, Victor M Alaniz, Carlos Vilalta, Leo Beletsky
BACKGROUND: In 2009, Mexico enacted a drug policy reform (Narcomenudeo) designed to divert persons possessing small amounts of illicit drugs to treatment rather than incarceration. To assess reform impact, this study examines the spatial-temporal trends of drug-related policing in Tijuana, Mexico post-enactment. METHOD: Location of self-reported arrests (N = 1,160) among a prospective, community-recruited cohort of people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana (N = 552) was mapped across city neighborhoods...
October 21, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Erika E Atienzo, Susan K Baxter, Eva Kaltenthaler
OBJECTIVES: This review aims to summarise evidence on the effectiveness of interventions to prevent youth violence in Latin America. METHODS: A systematic search on 13 academic databases was conducted to locate studies evaluating a primary or secondary prevention intervention in Latin America. Studies could use any type of quantitative design to assess outcomes related to youth violence. A search of websites, references and citation searching was also carried out...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Public Health
Kostas Kapellas, Lisa M Jamieson
The Northern Territory (N.T.) of Australia has the highest imprisonment rate per capita in the country. The vast majority of prisoners (86%) are Indigenous Australian despite only 30% of the N.T. population identifying as Indigenous. This paper investigates factors influencing this over-representation. The most common reason for imprisonment concerns violence. Alcohol is consumed in high quantities, particularly in Central Australia and is thought to affect incarceration rates. Recent strategies to control alcohol abuse in the N...
2016: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
Manuel Eisner, Amy Nivette, Aja Louise Murray, Maria Krisch
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) adopted by the United Nations for the period 2016-2030 aim to achieve a substantial reduction of interpersonal violence. An increasing body of evidence of what works, emerging from randomized controlled trials, can inform public health policy decisions. However, there is very limited evidence on the kinds of mechanisms that lead to sustained declines in interpersonal violence at the population level. We discuss the implications of what is known about recent major declines in violence to guide violence-reduction policies...
September 2016: Journal of Public Health Policy
Yuttamol Muangkram, Worawidh Wajjwalku, Akira Amano, Manakorn Sukmak
We presented the powerful techniques for species identification using the short amplicon of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequence. Two faecal samples and one single hair sample of the Asian tapir were tested using the new cytochrome b primers. The results showed a high sequence similarity with the mainland Asian tapir group. The comparative sequence analysis of the reserved wild mammals in Thailand and the other endangered mammal species from Southeast Asia comprehensibly verified the potential of our novel primers...
October 19, 2016: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
Karol Kumpfer, Catia Magalhães, Jing Xie
Family evidence-based interventions (FEBIs) are effective in creating lasting improvements and preventing children's behavioral health problems, even in genetically at-risk children. Most FEBIs, however, were designed for English-speaking families. Consequently, providers have difficulty engaging non-English-speaking populations in their own country or in other countries where the content, language, and recruitment methods of the FEBIs do not reflect their culture. The practical solution has been to culturally adapt existing FEBIs...
October 18, 2016: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
Jennifer D H Walthall, Aaron Burgess, Elizabeth Weinstein, Charles Miramonti, Thomas Arkins, Sarah Wiehe
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe spatiotemporal correlates of pediatric violent injury in an urban community. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study using patient-level data (2009-2011) from a novel emergency medical service computerized entry system for violent injury resulting in an ambulance dispatch among children aged 0 to 16 years. Assault location and patient residence location were cleaned and geocoded at a success rate of 98%. Distances from the assault location to both home and nearest school were calculated...
October 17, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Carlos Javier Vilalta, Skye Allmang
BACKGROUND: A limited amount of research has been conducted on the association between marijuana use and adolescent crime in developing countries such as Mexico, where crime rates are high and marijuana use is increasing. OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between the frequency of marijuana use and the likelihood of committing of a property crime, and to identify contextual factors explaining individual differences in the likelihood of committing a property crime...
October 18, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Gáspár Lukács, Béla Weiss, Vera Dalos, Tünde Kilencz, Szabina Tudja, Gábor Csifcsák
More than a dozen studies of the Complex Trial Protocol (CTP) version of the P300-based Concealed Information Test have been published since its introduction (Rosenfeld et al., 2008), and it has been fairly consistently proven to provide high accuracy and strong resistance to countermeasures (Rosenfeld et al., 2013). However, no independent authors have verified these findings until now. In the present, first independent study, we corroborate the accuracy and countermeasure-resistance of the CTP, when the probe item (critical presented information, e...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Ali Rowhani-Rahbar, Mary D Fan, Joseph A Simonetti, Vivian H Lyons, Jin Wang, Douglas Zatzick, Frederick P Rivara
Background: Hospital-based violence intervention programs typically focus on patients whose firearm injury occurred through interpersonal violence (assault). Knowledge of violence perpetration by victims of unintentional (accidental) firearm injury is limited. Objective: To examine violence perpetration before and after a patient becomes hospitalized for firearm injury according to injury intent (intentional [assault] or unintentional [accidental]). Design: A case-control study and a retrospective cohort study...
October 18, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
Norair Khachatryan, Kathleen M Heide, Jordyn Rad, Erich V Hummel
Killings by juvenile homicide offenders (JHOs) who use accomplices have been increasing since the 1980s and currently represent approximately half of juvenile arrests for murder in the United States. Nevertheless, prior research has not compared JHOs who kill alone with JHOs who kill in groups. The present research followed up 30 years later on a sample of 59 male murderers and attempted murderers sentenced to adult prison. This study was designed to analyze whether lone and group JHOs differed on pre-incarceration, incarceration, and post-incarceration variables...
October 17, 2016: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
Janet M Blair, Katherine A Fowler, Carter J Betz, Jason L Baumgardner
INTRODUCTION: Law enforcement officers (LEOs) in the U.S. are at an increased risk for homicide. The purpose of this study is to describe the characteristics of homicides of LEOs in 17 U.S. states participating in the National Violent Death Reporting System. This active surveillance system uses data from death certificates, coroner/medical examiner reports, and law enforcement reports. METHODS: This study used quantitative and qualitative methods to analyze National Violent Death Reporting System data for 2003-2013...
November 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Diana W Williams, Greg Gibson
A potential application of microbial genetics in forensic science is detection of transfer of the pubic hair microbiome between individuals during sexual intercourse using high-throughput sequencing. In addition to the primary need to show whether the pubic hair microbiome is individualizing, one aspect that must be addressed before using the microbiome in criminal casework involves the impact of storage on the microbiome of samples recovered for forensic testing. To test the effects of short-term storage, pubic hair samples were collected from volunteers and stored at room temperature (∼20°C), refrigerated (4°C), and frozen (-20°C) for 1 week, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, and 6 weeks along with a baseline sample...
October 7, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Michael S Gordon, Steven B Carswell, Monique Wilson, Timothy W Kinlock, Lauren Restivo, Michelle McKenzie, Josiah D Rich
Despite the strong correlation between HIV and corrections, testing and prevention efforts have largely been ignored among community corrections populations. The current study is a secondary analysis to compare characteristics of individuals under community corrections supervision who completed rapid HIV testing with those who refused such testing (N = 2,382) in Baltimore, Maryland, and Providence, Rhode Island. Results indicate that the following variables were significantly associated with the receipt of rapid HIV testing: being female (p = ...
October 2016: Journal of Correctional Health Care
Patricia E J Wiltshire
Palynology (including mycology) is widely used in palaeoecological and bioarchaeological studies. Lake and mire sediments, soils, and the deposits accumulating in archaeological features, invariably contain plant and fungal remains, particularly pollen and spores. These serve as proxy indicators of ancient environmental conditions and events. Forensic palynology has been successfully employed in criminal investigations for more than two decades. In recent years, it has included fungal palynomorphs in profiling samples from crime scenes, and from exhibits obtained from suspects and victims...
November 2016: Fungal Biology
Lorraine Mazerolle, Ingrid McGuffog, Jason Ferris, Mitchell B Chamlin
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Electronic Tracking Systems (ETS) are used extensively in pharmacies across the US and Australia to control suspicious sales of pseudoephedrine. This study measures the impact of one ETS - Project STOP - on the capacity of police to reduce production, supply and possession of methamphetamine. DESIGN: Using official police data of incidents of production, supply and possession from January 1996 to December 2011 (N = 192 data points/months over 16 years), we used a quasi-experimental, time series approach...
October 14, 2016: Addiction
Anthony J Rosellini, John Monahan, Amy E Street, Eric D Hill, Maria Petukhova, Ben Y Reis, Nancy A Sampson, David M Benedek, Paul Bliese, Murray B Stein, Robert J Ursano, Ronald C Kessler
Growing concerns exist about violent crimes perpetrated by U.S. military personnel. Although interventions exist to reduce violent crimes in high-risk populations, optimal implementation requires evidence-based targeting. The goal of the current study was to use machine learning methods (stepwise and penalized regression; random forests) to develop models to predict minor violent crime perpetration among U.S. Army soldiers. Predictors were abstracted from administrative data available for all 975,057 soldiers in the U...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Matthew D Fetzer, Frank S Pezzella
The core justification of bias crime statutes concerns whether bias-motivated crimes are qualitatively different from otherwise motivated crimes. We test the hypothesis that bias crimes are more detrimental than non-bias crimes by testing for multi-dimensional injuries to victims of bias and non-bias-motivated criminal conduct. Using National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) Extract 2013 Collection Year Incident-level Extract File, we analyzed physical injuries and psychological trauma to NCVS victims during 2013...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
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