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Autistic spectrum disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223908/elevated-urinary-glyphosate-and-clostridia-metabolites-with-altered-dopamine-metabolism-in-triplets-with-autistic-spectrum-disorder-or-suspected-seizure-disorder-a-case-study
#1
William Shaw
CONTEXT: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder for which a number of genetic, environmental, and nutritional causes have been proposed. Glyphosate is used widely as a crop desiccant and as an herbicide in fields of genetically modified foods that are glyphosate resistant. Several researchers have proposed that it may be a cause of autism, based on epidemiological data that correlates increased usage of glyphosate with an increased autism rate. OBJECTIVE: The current study was intended to determine if excessive glyphosate was present in the triplets and their parents and to evaluate biochemical findings for the family to determine the potential effects of its presence...
February 2017: Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222761/new-evidences-on-the-altered-gut-microbiota-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#2
Francesco Strati, Duccio Cavalieri, Davide Albanese, Claudio De Felice, Claudio Donati, Joussef Hayek, Olivier Jousson, Silvia Leoncini, Daniela Renzi, Antonio Calabrò, Carlotta De Filippo
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are neurodevelopmental conditions characterized by social and behavioural impairments. In addition to neurological symptoms, ASD subjects frequently suffer from gastrointestinal abnormalities, thus implying a role of the gut microbiota in ASD gastrointestinal pathophysiology. RESULTS: Here, we characterized the bacterial and fungal gut microbiota in a cohort of autistic individuals demonstrating the presence of an altered microbial community structure...
February 22, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214050/communication-deficits-and-avoidance-of-angry-faces-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#3
Ana García-Blanco, Concepción López-Soler, Máximo Vento, María Carmen García-Blanco, Belén Gago, Manuel Perea
BACKGROUND: Understanding how emotional faces are processed is important to help characterize the social deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). AIMS: We examined: (i) whether attention is modulated by emotional facial expression; (ii) the time course of the attentional preferences (short vs. long stimulus presentation rates); and (iii) the association between attentional biases and autistic symptomatology. METHOD AND PROCEDURES: We applied a dot-probe experiment with emotional faces (happy, sad, and angry)...
February 14, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213838/brief-report-autism-like-traits-are-associated-with-enhanced-ability-to-disembed-visual-forms
#4
Antoinette Sabatino DiCriscio, Vanessa Troiani
Atypical visual perceptual skills are thought to underlie unusual visual attention in autism spectrum disorders. We assessed whether individual differences in visual processing skills scaled with quantitative traits associated with the broader autism phenotype (BAP). Visual perception was assessed using the Figure-ground subtest of the Test of visual perceptual skills-3rd Edition (TVPS). In a large adult cohort (n = 209), TVPS-Figure Ground scores were positively correlated with autistic-like social features as assessed by the Broader autism phenotype questionnaire...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213836/the-psychometric-properties-of-a-new-measure-of-sensory-behaviors-in-autistic-children
#5
Louise Neil, Dido Green, Elizabeth Pellicano
Unusual reactions to sensory input became part of the diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder in the DSM-5. Measures accurately assessing these symptoms are important for clinical decisions. This study examined the reliability and validity of the Sensory Behavior Questionnaire, a parent-report scale designed to assess frequency and impact of sensory behaviors in autistic children. The scale demonstrated excellent internal consistency and concurrent validity, and was a better predictor of autistic symptoms than the Short Sensory Profile within a group of 66 school-age autistic children...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209607/parenting-for-autism-language-and-communication-evaluation-study-palaces-protocol-for-a-pilot-randomised-controlled-trial
#6
Margiad Elen Williams, Richard Hastings, Joanna Mary Charles, Sue Evans, Judy Hutchings
INTRODUCTION: Children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) often have associated behavioural difficulties that can present a challenge for parents and parenting. There are several effective social learning theory-based parenting programmes for dealing with behavioural difficulties, including the Incredible Years (IY) parent programmes. However, these programmes typically do not specifically target parents of children with ASD. Recently, a new addition to the IY suite of programmes known as the IY Autistic Spectrum and Language Delays (IY-ASLD) parent programme was developed...
February 16, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202961/early-brain-development-in-infants-at-high-risk-for-autism-spectrum-disorder
#7
Heather Cody Hazlett, Hongbin Gu, Brent C Munsell, Sun Hyung Kim, Martin Styner, Jason J Wolff, Jed T Elison, Meghan R Swanson, Hongtu Zhu, Kelly N Botteron, D Louis Collins, John N Constantino, Stephen R Dager, Annette M Estes, Alan C Evans, Vladimir S Fonov, Guido Gerig, Penelope Kostopoulos, Robert C McKinstry, Juhi Pandey, Sarah Paterson, John R Pruett, Robert T Schultz, Dennis W Shaw, Lonnie Zwaigenbaum, Joseph Piven
Brain enlargement has been observed in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but the timing of this phenomenon, and the relationship between ASD and the appearance of behavioural symptoms, are unknown. Retrospective head circumference and longitudinal brain volume studies of two-year olds followed up at four years of age have provided evidence that increased brain volume may emerge early in development. Studies of infants at high familial risk of autism can provide insight into the early development of autism and have shown that characteristic social deficits in ASD emerge during the latter part of the first and in the second year of life...
February 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193868/dopamine-in-the-medial-amygdala-network-mediates-human-bonding
#8
Shir Atzil, Alexandra Touroutoglou, Tali Rudy, Stephanie Salcedo, Ruth Feldman, Jacob M Hooker, Bradford C Dickerson, Ciprian Catana, Lisa Feldman Barrett
Research in humans and nonhuman animals indicates that social affiliation, and particularly maternal bonding, depends on reward circuitry. Although numerous mechanistic studies in rodents demonstrated that maternal bonding depends on striatal dopamine transmission, the neurochemistry supporting maternal behavior in humans has not been described so far. In this study, we tested the role of central dopamine in human bonding. We applied a combined functional MRI-PET scanner to simultaneously probe mothers' dopamine responses to their infants and the connectivity between the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), the amygdala, and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which form an intrinsic network (referred to as the "medial amygdala network") that supports social functioning...
February 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185043/exploring-the-cognitive-foundations-of-the-shared-attention-mechanism-evidence-for-a-relationship-between-self-categorization-and-shared-attention-across-the-autism-spectrum
#9
Daniel P Skorich, Tahlia B Gash, Katie L Stalker, Lidan Zheng, S Alexander Haslam
The social difficulties of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are typically explained as a disruption in the Shared Attention Mechanism (SAM) sub-component of the theory of mind (ToM) system. In the current paper, we explore the hypothesis that SAM's capacity to construct the self-other-object relations necessary for shared-attention arises from a self-categorization process, which is weaker among those with more autistic-like traits. We present participants with self-categorization and shared-attention tasks, and measure their autism-spectrum quotient (AQ)...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182283/chromatographic-determination-of-harmalans-in-the-urine-of-autistic-children
#10
Joanna Kałużna-Czaplińska, Jagoda Jóźwik-Pruska, Andrea Axt
This paper presents a new approach to autism- a complex and still enigmatic condition. We present the results of our preliminary research which was based on the detection of the hallucinogenic substance 6- (or 10-) methoxyharmalan in the urine samples of autistic children with the use of chromatographic methods. Additionally, we aim to describe the relationship between the level of tryptophan and harmalan, and the influence of supplementation on the level of this compound. We applied HPLC-UV/Vis, HPLC-DAD and LC-MS in order to determine McIsaac's compound in the urine samples obtained from autistic children (n = 132) and healthy individuals (n = 10)...
February 9, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181411/infant-muscle-tone-and-childhood-autistic-traits-a-longitudinal-study-in-the-general-population
#11
Fadila Serdarevic, Akhgar Ghassabian, Tamara van Batenburg-Eddes, Tonya White, Laura M E Blanken, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Frank C Verhulst, Henning Tiemeier
In a longitudinal population-based study of 2,905 children, we investigated if infants' neuromotor development was associated with autistic traits in childhood. Overall motor development and muscle tone were examined by trained research assistants with an adapted version of Touwen's Neurodevelopmental Examination between ages 2 and 5 months. Tone was assessed in several positions and items were scored as normal, low, or high tone. Parents rated their children's autistic traits with the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) and the Pervasive Developmental Problems (PDP) subscale of the Child Behavior Checklist at 6 years...
February 9, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174603/mlpa-analysis-in-a-cohort-of-patients-with-autism
#12
Sara Peixoto, Joana B Melo, José Ferrão, Luís M Pires, Nuno Lavoura, Marta Pinto, Guiomar Oliveira, Isabel M Carreira
BACKGROUND: Autism is a global neurodevelopmental disorder which generally manifests during the first 2 years and continues throughout life, with a range of symptomatic variations. Epidemiological studies show an important role of genetic factors in autism and several susceptible regions and genes have been identified. The aim of our study was to validate a cost-effective set of commercial Multiplex Ligation dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) and methylation specific multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA) test in autistic children refered by the neurodevelopmental center and autism unit of a Paediatric Hospital...
2017: Molecular Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167942/distinct-cytokine-and-chemokine-profiles-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#13
Yvonne M Y Han, Winnie K Y Cheung, Chun Kwok Wong, Sophia L Sze, Timmy W S Cheng, Michael K Yeung, Agnes S Chan
Previous studies have shown that immunological factors are involved in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). However, this research has been conducted almost exclusively in Western contexts, and only a handful of studies on immune measures have been conducted in Asian populations, such as Chinese populations. The present study examined whether immunological abnormalities are associated with cognitive deficits and problem behaviors in Chinese children with ASD and whether these children show different immunological profiles...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167244/impact-of-risperidone-on-leptin-and-insulin-in-children-and-adolescents-with-autistic-spectrum-disorders
#14
Pornpen Srisawasdi, Natchaya Vanwong, Yaowaluck Hongkaew, Apichaya Puangpetch, Somlak Vanavanan, Boontarika Intachak, Nattawat Ngamsamut, Penkhae Limsila, Chonlaphat Sukasem, Martin H Kroll
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of dose and duration of risperidone treatment on cardiovascular and diabetes risk biomarkers in children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs). DESIGN AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional analysis, a total of 168 ASDs patients (89% male) treated with a risperidone-based regimen for ≥12months were included. Blood samples were analyzed for glucose and lipid metabolic markers, adiponectin, leptin, prolactin, cortisol and high sensitive C-reactive protein...
February 3, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167115/association-between-autistic-traits-and-emotion-adaptation-to-partially-occluded-faces
#15
Chengwen Luo, Edwin Burns, Hong Xu
Prolonged exposure to a happy face makes subsequently presented faces appear sadder: the facial emotion aftereffect (FEA). People with autism spectrum disorders and their relatives have diminished holistic perception of faces. Levels of autism can be measured continuously in the general population by autistic traits using the autism-quotient (AQ). Prior work has not found any association between AQ and FEA in adults, possibly due to non-holistic processing strategies employed by those at the higher end of the spectrum...
February 16, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163867/umbilical-cord-blood-androgen-levels-and-asd-related-phenotypes-at-12-and-36%C3%A2-months-in-an-enriched-risk-cohort-study
#16
Bo Y Park, Brian K Lee, Igor Burstyn, Loni P Tabb, Jeff A Keelan, Andrew J O Whitehouse, Lisa A Croen, Margaret D Fallin, Irva Hertz-Picciotto, Owen Montgomery, Craig J Newschaffer
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affects more than 1% of children in the USA. The male-to-female prevalence ratio of roughly 4:1 in ASD is a well-recognized but poorly understood phenomenon. An explicit focus on potential etiologic pathways consistent with this sex difference, such as those involving prenatal androgen exposure, may help elucidate causes of ASD. Furthermore, the multi-threshold liability model suggests that the genetic mechanisms in females with ASD may be distinct and may modulate ASD risk in families with female ASD in the pedigree...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152400/what-is-the-prevalence-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-asd-traits-in-psychosis-a-systematic-review
#17
Debbie L Kincaid, Michael Doris, Ciaran Shannon, Ciaran Mulholland
There is increasing evidence to suggest both a symptomatic overlap and a clinically significant degree of co-occurrence between Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia but the nature of such relationships remain unclear. We reviewed the literature reporting prevalence rates of Autistic-like Traits (ALTs) and ASD in populations with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or other psychotic disorder. A search of three large databases was conducted and from this seven studies met the criteria for inclusion...
January 7, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152398/derailing-the-trolley-everyday-utilitarian-judgments-in-groups-high-versus-low-in-psychopathic-traits-or-autistic-traits
#18
Karishma Vyas, Leila Jameel, Giulia Bellesi, Sarah Crawford, Shelley Channon
Moral decision-making has been linked with empathy. The present study built on previous work examining the relationship between psychopathy or autism spectrum disorder (ASD), two conditions putatively associated with deficits in empathy, and utilitarian decision-making. Students scoring high on self-report measures of psychopathic or autistic traits were presented with a novel task, 'Utilitarian Judgments', and compared to low trait control groups. This study replicated the classic finding that more direct links between the agents' actions and harm to victims mitigated utilitarian decision-making...
January 22, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149288/attention-orienting-in-response-to-non-conscious-hierarchical-arrows-individuals-with-higher-autistic-traits-differ-in-their-global-local-bias
#19
Robin Laycock, Daniel Chan, Sheila G Crewther
One aspect of the social communication impairments that characterize autism spectrum disorder (ASD) include reduced use of often subtle non-verbal social cues. People with ASD, and those with self-reported sub-threshold autistic traits, also show impairments in rapid visual processing of stimuli unrelated to social or emotional properties. Hence, this study sought to investigate whether perceptually non-conscious visual processing is related to autistic traits. A neurotypical sample of thirty young adults completed the Subthreshold Autism Trait Questionnaire and a Posner-like attention cueing task...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145469/high-throughput-screen-detects-calcium-signaling-dysfunction-in-typical-sporadic-autism-spectrum-disorder
#20
Galina Schmunk, Rachel L Nguyen, David L Ferguson, Kenny Kumar, Ian Parker, J Jay Gargus
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders without any defined uniting pathophysiology. Ca(2+) signaling is emerging as a potential node in the genetic architecture of the disorder. We previously reported decreased inositol trisphosphate (IP3)-mediated Ca(2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum in several rare monogenic syndromes highly comorbid with autism - fragile X and tuberous sclerosis types 1 and 2 syndromes. We now extend those findings to a cohort of subjects with sporadic ASD without any known mutations...
February 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
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