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Autistic spectrum disorders

Tao Tan, Wei Wang, Haitao Xu, Zhilin Huang, Yu Tian Wang, Zhifang Dong
Patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) display abnormalities in neuronal development, synaptic function and neural circuits. The imbalance of excitatory and inhibitory (E/I) synaptic transmission has been proposed to cause the main behavioral characteristics of ASD. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can directly or indirectly induce excitability and synaptic plasticity changes in the brain noninvasively. However, whether rTMS can ameliorate autistic-like behaviors in animal model via regulating the balance of E/I synaptic transmission is unknown...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
L Bell, C Oliver, A Wittkowski, J Moss, D Hare
BACKGROUND: Catatonia-like presentations in people with autism have been increasingly recognised within research and diagnostic guidelines. The recently developed Attenuated Behaviour Questionnaire has identified that attenuated behaviour [autistic catatonia] is very prevalent in people with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and associated with repetitive behaviour. In the current study, we investigated attenuated behaviour within two genetic syndromes associated with ASD and examined ASD and repetitive behaviour as longitudinal predictors of attenuated behaviour...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
Avniel Singh Ghuman, Rebecca N van den Honert, Theodore J Huppert, Gregory L Wallace, Alex Martin
BACKGROUND: Prevailing theories suggest that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) results from impaired brain communication, causing aberrant synchrony among neuronal populations. However, it remains debated whether synchrony abnormalities are among local or long-range circuits, are circuit specific or are generalized, reflect hypersynchrony or reflect hyposynchrony, and are frequency band-specific or are distributed across the frequency spectrum. METHODS: To help clarify these unresolved questions, we recorded spontaneous magnetoencephalography data and used a data-driven, whole-brain analysis of frequency-specific interregional synchrony in higher-functioning adolescents and adults, with 17 ASD and 18 control subjects matched on age, IQ, and sex, and equal for motion...
April 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Góra Bartłomiej, Gofron Zygmunt, Grosiak Magdalena, Aptekorz Małgorzata, Kazek Beata, Kocelak Piotr, Radosz-Komoniewska Halina, Chudek Jerzy, Martirosian Gayane
Infectious factors are taken into consideration in pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). ASD patients often suffer from gastrointestinal disorders. The intestinal microbiota of autistic patients significantly differs from that in healthy individuals. The aim of the study was to compare the profile of toxins produced by C. perfringens strains isolated from feces of children with ASD, with healthy individuals and obese subjects. This study included 111 strains of C. perfringens: 49 isolates from 29 children with ASD, 30 - from 17 healthy individuals and 32 - from 24 young obese subjects...
March 8, 2018: Anaerobe
Adeline A Lau, Sarah J Tamang, Kim M Hemsley
Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) type IIIA is an inherited, neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder resulting from mutations in the SGSH gene. Consequently, N-sulphoglucosamine sulphohydrolase enzyme activity is reduced resulting in impaired catabolism of heparan sulphate. After an asymptomatic period, patients typically show a progressive loss of cognitive and motor skills, with death often during the second decade of life. The diagnostic criteria of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) include impaired communication and social interactions, as well as displays of repetitive behaviours and fixed interests...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
M Martinez-Morga, M P Quesada-Rico, C Bueno, S Martinez
AIM: To know the neural processes linked to the activity of brain circuits in order to understand the consequences of their dysfunction and their role in the development of neurodevelopmental diseases, such as autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). DEVELOPMENT: The activity of neuronal circuits is the neurobiological basis of behavior and mental activity (emotions, memory and thoughts). The processes of differentiation of neural cells and the formation of circuits by synaptic contacts between neurons (synaptogenesis) occur in the central nervous system during the late stages of prenatal development and the first months after birth...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
M Palau-Baduell, B Salvado-Salvado, M A Idiazabal-Alecha, A Fernandez-Teruel, T Ortiz
INTRODUCTION: The perisylvian areas, located around the Sylvian fissure, are constituted by frontal, temporal and parietal brain regions. These are connected forming specialized neural networks and play a primary role in the development of linguistic skills and social cognition. These areas are a possible neuronal substrate of cognitive and behavioral impairments in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). AIM: To locate and quantify epileptiform activity sources through magnetoencephalography in frontal perisylvian areas in children with idiopathic ASD...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
V L Ruggieri, C L Arberas
INTRODUCTION: Autism spectrum disorders are neurodevelopmental dysfunctions that are characterised by deficits in social integration and communication, associated with restricted interests and stereotypic behaviour. A high percentage are related to language disorders, sensory dysfunctions, attention deficit disorder, bipolarity, intellectual disability or epilepsy, among other comorbidities. It is estimated that around 30% of children with autism, with typical early development, may present regression in the first years of life, which was already reported by Kanner in one of his original cases...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Meng-Ning Tsai, Ching-Lin Wu, Lei-Pin Tseng, Chih-Pei An, Hsueh-Chih Chen
Previous research has shown that individuals with autism are frequently mocked in their childhood and are consequently more anxious about being ridiculed. Research has also shown that autistic individuals have a higher level of gelotophobia (fear of being laughed at) compared to typically developed individuals. However, recent studies have also found that gelotophobia is strongly related to personality, which suggests that personality is a factor that helps to create a higher level of gelotophobia in autistic individuals...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Koji Karasawa, Yoshihiro Sano, Nobumasa Kato, Hidetoshi Arakawa
The development of a highly sensitive analytical method for oxytocin could be useful in the diagnosis and treatment of autistic spectrum disorder. We previously developed a colorimetric enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for plasma oxytocin measurement. In this study, we developed a method to measure oxytocin concentrations using a higher sensitivity bioluminescent EIA. Biotinylated oxytocin bridged with five lysine residues was used in a competitive format. The standard curve range for oxytocin was 1.0 to 1000 pg/assay...
March 7, 2018: Luminescence: the Journal of Biological and Chemical Luminescence
Mauro Mozael Hirsch, Iohanna Deckmann, Mellanie Fontes-Dutra, Guilherme Bauer-Negrini, Gustavo Della-Flora Nunes, Walquiria Nunes, Bruna Rabelo, Rudimar Riesgo, Rogerio Margis, Victorio Bambini-Junior, Carmem Gottfried
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by difficulties in social interaction, communication and language, and restricted repertoire of activities and interests. The etiology of ASD remains unknown and no clinical markers for diagnosis were identified. Environmental factors, including prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA), may contribute to increased risk of developing ASD. MicroRNA (miRNA) are small noncoding RNA that regulate gene expression and are frequently linked to biological processes affected in neurodevelopmental disorders...
March 3, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Yulong Cai, Xiaotong Tang, Xi Chen, Xin Li, Ying Wang, Xiaohang Bao, Lian Wang, Dayu Sun, Jinghui Zhao, Yan Xing, Margaret Warner, Haiwei Xu, Jan-Åke Gustafsson, Xiaotang Fan
The dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus is a laminated brain region in which neurogenesis begins during early embryonic development and continues until adulthood. Recent studies have implicated that defects in the neurogenesis of the DG seem to be involved in the genesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD)-like behaviors. Liver X receptor β (LXRβ) has recently emerged as an important transcription factor involved in the development of laminated CNS structures, but little is known about its role in the development of the DG...
March 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Monika Sommer, Katrin Döhnel, Irina Jarvers, Lore Blaas, Manuela Singer, Victoria Nöth, Tobias Schuwerk, Rainer Rupprecht
A central diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is the qualitative impairment in reciprocal social interaction and a prominent hypotheses that tried to explain this impairment is the Theory of Mind (ToM) deficit hypotheses. On a behavioral level the critical test for having a ToM, the understanding of false beliefs (FB), is often used for testing ToM abilities in individuals with ASD. Investigating the neural underpinnings several neuroimaging studies revealed a network of areas involved in FB reasoning in neurotypical individuals...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Wiebe Braam, Friederike Ehrhart, Anneke P H M Maas, Marcel G Smits, Leopold Curfs
BACKGROUND: It is assumed that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is caused by a combination of de novo inherited variation and common variation as well as environmental factors. It often co-occurs with intellectual disability (ID). Almost eight hundred potential causative genetic variations have been found in ASD patients. However, not one of them is responsible for more than 1% of ASD cases. Low melatonin levels are a frequent finding in ASD patients. Melatonin levels are negatively correlated with severity of autistic impairments, it is important for normal neurodevelopment and is highly effective in protecting DNA from oxidative damage...
February 28, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Shibani Myne, Veronica Kennedy
OBJECTIVE: Hyperacusis is commonly seen in clinical paediatric practice and can be distressing for the children and their families. This paper looks at the clinical profile of children seen for hyperacusis in a paediatric audiology service and reviews the possible underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Retrospective study of case notes of 61 children with troublesome hyperacusis seen in the paediatric audiology service, looking at their clinical presentation and presence of other medical conditions...
April 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Liliana Dell'Osso, Ivan Mirko Cremone, Barbara Carpita, Andrea Fagiolini, Gabriele Massimetti, Letizia Bossini, Antonio Vita, Stefano Barlati, Claudia Carmassi, Camilla Gesi
BACKGROUND: Despite discrete autism-related dimensions, such as deficits in communication, empathy and mentalizing are likely to affect the development of personality and despite they actually frequently occur in borderline patients, no research has so far investigated the relationship between autistic traits and Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). The objective of this study is to investigate the clinical significance of autistic traits in subjects with BPD. METHODS: The sample included 50 patients with a clinical diagnosis of BPD and 69 healthy controls...
January 5, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Andy Barnes, Richard Ziegler, Neena McConnico, Martin T Stein
Carter is a 12-year-old boy who has been seeing a developmental-behavioral pediatrician since the age of 7 years for problems with behavioral regulation. Around that time, he began to receive special education services after an educational assessment of autism. He has average intellectual abilities, with below-average semantic-pragmatic speech (e.g., conversations are one-sided). His medical diagnoses included attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), combined presentation, and generalized anxiety disorder...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
David G Amaral, Matthew P Anderson, Olaf Ansorge, Steven Chance, Carolyn Hare, Patrick R Hof, Melissa Miller, Ikue Nagakura, Jane Pickett, Cynthia Schumann, Carol Tamminga
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD or autism) is a neurodevelopmental condition that affects over 1% of the population worldwide. Developing effective preventions and treatments for autism will depend on understanding the genetic perturbations and underlying neuropathology of the disorder. While evidence from magnetic resonance imaging and other noninvasive techniques points to altered development and organization of the autistic brain, these tools lack the resolution for identifying the cellular and molecular underpinnings of the disorder...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Tiziana Zalla, Magali Seassau, Fabienne Cazalis, Doriane Gras, Marion Leboyer
In this study, we examined the accuracy and dynamics of visually guided saccades in 20 adults with autism spectrum disorder, as compared to 20 typically developed adults using the Step/Overlap/Gap paradigms. Performances in participants with autistic spectrum disorder were characterized by preserved Gap/Overlap effect, but reduced gain and peak velocity, as well as a greater trial-to-trial variability in task performance, as compared to the control group. While visual orienting and attentional engagement were relatively preserved in individuals with autistic spectrum disorder, overall these findings provide evidence that abnormal oculomotor behavior in autistic spectrum disorder reflects an altered sensorimotor control due to cerebellar abnormalities, rather than a deficit in the volitional control of eye movements...
February 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Michelle Mattison, Coral J Dando, Thomas C Ormerod
The success of witness interviews in the criminal justice system depends on the accuracy of information obtained, which is a function of both amount and quality of information. Attempts to enhance witness retrieval such as mental reinstatement of context have been designed with typically developed adults in mind. In this article, the relative benefits of mental and sketch reinstatement mnemonics are explored with both typically developing children and children with autism. Children watched a crime event video, and their retrieval of event information was examined in free and probed recall phases of a cognitive interview...
February 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
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