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Autistic spectrum disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436341/insular-pathology-in-young-people-with-high-functioning-autism-and-first-episode-psychosis
#1
M Parellada, L Pina-Camacho, C Moreno, Y Aleman, M-O Krebs, M Desco, J Merchán-Naranjo, A Del Rey-Mejías, L Boada, C Llorente, D Moreno, C Arango, J Janssen
BACKGROUND: Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and psychosis share deficits in social cognition. The insular region has been associated with awareness of self and reality, which may be basic for proper social interactions. METHODS: Total and regional insular volume and thickness measurements were obtained from a sample of 30 children and adolescents with ASD, 29 with early onset first-episode psychosis (FEP), and 26 healthy controls (HC). Total, regional, and voxel-level volume and thickness measurements were compared between groups (with correction for multiple comparisons), and the relationship between these measurements and symptom severity was explored...
April 24, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435649/improvement-in-excoriation-skin-picking-with-use-of-risperidone-in-a-patient-with-developmental-disability
#2
Cody Roi, Alessandra Bazzano
Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder present with a heterogeneous mix of features beyond the core symptoms of the disorder. These features can be emotional, cognitive or behavioral. Behavioral symptoms often include self-injury, and this may take the form of repetitive skin-picking. The prevalence of skin-picking disorder in Autism is unknown. Skin-picking may lead to significant medical and psychosocial complications. Recent data suggest that behavioral interventions may be more effective than medications at reducing skin-picking in neurotypical patients...
March 22, 2017: Pediatric Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429189/using-time-perception-to-explore-implicit-sensitivity-to-emotional-stimuli-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#3
Catherine R G Jones, Anna Lambrechts, Sebastian B Gaigg
Establishing whether implicit responses to emotional cues are intact in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is fundamental to ascertaining why their emotional understanding is compromised. We used a temporal bisection task to assess for responsiveness to face and wildlife images that varied in emotional salience. There were no significant differences between an adult ASD and comparison group, with both showing implicit overestimation of emotional stimuli. Further, there was no correlation between overestimation of emotional stimuli and autistic traits in undergraduate students...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426389/melatonin-and-circadian-rhythms-in-autism-case-report
#4
Gabriela Melloni Zuculo, Bruno S B Gonçalves, Clay Brittes, Luiz Menna-Barreto, Luciana Pinato
Among the most co-occurring conditions in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), there are sleep disorders which may exacerbate associated behavioral disorders and lead to intensification of existing autistic symptoms. Several studies investigating the use of melatonin in the treatment of sleep disorders in ASD have shown comparative efficiency in sleep with little or no side effects. Here we report a case of ASD with non-24-hour rhythm and the effect of melatonin in circadian parameters by actigraphy. Visual analysis of the first 10 days recorded and the periodogram suggest that this patient showed a non-24-hour rhythm...
2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425021/is-the-autism-spectrum-quotient-a-valid-measure-of-traits-associated-with-the-autism-spectrum-a-rasch-validation-in-adults-with-and-without-autism-spectrum-disorders
#5
Lars-Olov Lundqvist, Helen Lindner
The Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) is among the most widely used scales assessing autistic traits in the general population. However, some aspects of the AQ are questionable. To test its scale properties, the AQ was translated into Swedish, and data were collected from 349 adults, 130 with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 219 without ASD, and analysed with Rasch. Several scale properties of the AQ were satisfactory but it did not meet the criterion of a unidimensional measure of autistic traits. The Rasch analysis showed that the 50-item AQ could be reduced to a 12-item subset with little loss of explanatory power, with the potential to efficiently measure the degree to which adults with and without ASD show autistic traits...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418399/restoring-effects-of-oxytocin-on-the-attentional-preference-for-faces-in-autism
#6
M Kanat, I Spenthof, A Riedel, L T van Elst, M Heinrichs, G Domes
Reduced attentional preference for faces and symptoms of social anxiety are common in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The neuropeptide oxytocin triggers anxiolytic functions and enhances eye gaze, facial emotion recognition and neural correlates of face processing in ASD. Here we investigated whether a single dose of oxytocin increases attention to faces in ASD. As a secondary question, we explored the influence of social anxiety on these effects. We tested for oxytocin's effects on attention to neutral faces as compared to houses in a sample of 29 autistic individuals and 30 control participants using a dot-probe paradigm with two different presentation times (100 or 500 ms)...
April 18, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417950/differential-gender-effects-in-the-relationship-between-perceived-immune-functioning-and-autistic-traits
#7
Marlou Mackus, Deborah de Kruijff, Leila S Otten, Aletta D Kraneveld, Johan Garssen, Joris C Verster
Altered immune functioning has been demonstrated in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The current study explores the relationship between perceived immune functioning and experiencing ASD traits in healthy young adults. N = 410 students from Utrecht University completed a survey on immune functioning and autistic traits. In addition to a 1-item perceived immune functioning rating, the Immune Function Questionnaire (IFQ) was completed to assess perceived immune functioning. The Dutch translation of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) was completed to examine variation in autistic traits, including the domains "social insights and behavior", "difficulties with change", "communication", "phantasy and imagination", and "detail orientation"...
April 12, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417440/developmental-neurotoxicity-of-traffic-related-air-pollution-focus-on-autism
#8
REVIEW
Lucio G Costa, Yu-Chi Chang, Toby B Cole
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Epidemiological and animal studies suggest that air pollution may negatively affect the central nervous system (CNS) and contribute to CNS diseases. Traffic-related air pollution is a major contributor to global air pollution, and diesel exhaust (DE) is its most important component. RECENT FINDINGS: Several studies suggest that young individuals may be particularly susceptible to air pollution-induced neurotoxicity and that perinatal exposure may cause or contribute to developmental disabilities and behavioral abnormalities...
April 17, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414133/complexity-of-weighted-graph-a-new-technique-to-investigate-structural-complexity-of-brain-activities-with-applications-to-aging-and-autism
#9
Mehran Ahmadlou, Hojjat Adeli
In recent years complexity of the brain structure in healthy and disordered subjects has been studied increasingly. But to the best of the authors' knowledge, researchers so far have investigated the structural complexity only in the context of two restricted networks known as Small-World and Scale-free networks; whereas other aspects of the structural complexity of brain activities may be affected by aging and neurodegenerative disorders such as the Alzheimer's disease and autism spectrum disorder. In this study, two general complexity metrics of graphs, Graph Index Complexity and Offdiagonal Complexity are proposed as general measures of complexity, not restricted to SWN only...
April 13, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407444/familial-18q12-2-deletion-supports-the-role-of-rna-binding-protein-celf4-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#10
Rita Barone, Marco Fichera, Mariaclara De Grandi, Marta Battaglia, Valeria Lo Faro, Teresa Mattina, Renata Rizzo
Deletion of 18q12.2 is an increasingly recognized condition with a distinct neuropsychiatric phenotype. Twenty-two patients have been described with overlapping neurobehavioral disturbances including developmental delay, intellectual disability of variable degree, seizures, motor coordination disorder, behavioral/emotional disturbances, and autism spectrum disorders. The CUGBP Elav-like family member 4 (CELF4) gene at 18q12.2 encodes a RNA-binding protein that links to RNA subsets involved in pre- and postsynaptic neurotransmission including almost 30% of potential autism-related genes...
April 13, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406773/cluster-of-differentiation-5-cd5-levels-in-the-plasma-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-asd
#11
Dost Muhammad Halepoto, Abdulrahman Mohammed Alhowikan, Laila Al- Ayadhi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cluster of differentiation 5 (CD5) plasma levels and their association with childhood autism rating scale (CARS) in subjects with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to age and gender matched healthy controls, and to explore the link between CD5, severity, and autoimmunity in autism. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Autism Research and Treatment Center, Al-Amodi Autism Research Chair, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from October 2014 to May 2015...
March 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406584/thick-corpus-callosum-in-children
#12
Aviv Schupper, Osnat Konen, Ayelet Halevy, Rony Cohen, Sharon Aharoni, Avinoam Shuper
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A thick corpus callosum (TCC) can be associated with a very grave outcome in fetuses, but its clinical presentation in older children seems to be markedly different. METHODS: The corpus callosum (CC) was defined as thick based on observations and impressions. We reviewed cases of children who were diagnosed as TCC based on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. The pertinent clinical data of these children were collected, and their CCs were measured...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402856/chd8-mutation-leads-to-autistic-like-behaviors-and-impaired-striatal-circuits
#13
Randall J Platt, Yang Zhou, Ian M Slaymaker, Ashwin S Shetty, Niels R Weisbach, Jin-Ah Kim, Jitendra Sharma, Mitul Desai, Sabina Sood, Hannah R Kempton, Gerald R Crabtree, Guoping Feng, Feng Zhang
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous disease, but genetically defined models can provide an entry point to studying the molecular underpinnings of this disorder. We generated germline mutant mice with loss-of-function mutations in Chd8, a de novo mutation strongly associated with ASD, and demonstrate that these mice display hallmark ASD behaviors, macrocephaly, and craniofacial abnormalities similar to patient phenotypes. Chd8(+/-) mice display a broad, brain-region-specific dysregulation of major regulatory and cellular processes, most notably histone and chromatin modification, mRNA and protein processing, Wnt signaling, and cell-cycle regulation...
April 11, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399932/guideline-recommendations-for-diagnosis-and-clinical-management-of-ring14-syndrome-first-report-of-an-ad-hoc-task-force
#14
REVIEW
Berardo Rinaldi, Alessandro Vaisfeld, Sergio Amarri, Chiara Baldo, Giuseppe Gobbi, Pamela Magini, Erto Melli, Giovanni Neri, Francesca Novara, Tommaso Pippucci, Romana Rizzi, Annarosa Soresina, Laura Zampini, Orsetta Zuffardi, Marco Crimi
BACKGROUND: Ring chromosome 14 syndrome is a rare chromosomal disorder characterized by early onset refractory epilepsy, intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder and a number of diverse health issues. RESULTS: The aim of this work is to provide recommendations for the diagnosis and management of persons affected by ring chromosome 14 syndrome based on evidence from literature and experience of health professionals from different medical backgrounds who have followed for several years subjects affected by ring chromosome 14 syndrome...
April 11, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393745/correlation-of-reduced-social-communicational-and-interactional-skills-with-regional-grey-matter-volumes-in-schizophrenia-patients
#15
Miho Ota, Junko Matsuo, Noriko Sato, Toshiya Teraishi, Hiroaki Hori, Kotaro Hattori, Yoko Kamio, Hiroshi Kunugi
OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have detected similarities between autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. We investigated structural abnormalities associated with autistic-like traits in patients with schizophrenia by voxel-based morphometry. METHODS: Patients with schizophrenia and healthy subjects were evaluated by the adult version of the social responsiveness scale (SRS-A), which is sensitive to autistic traits and symptoms even under subthreshold conditions, and magnetic resonance imaging...
April 10, 2017: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392323/long-term-beneficial-effect-of-neurotrophic-factors-secreting-mesenchymal-stem-cells-transplantation-in-the-btbr-mouse-model-of-autism
#16
Nisim Perets, Hadar Segal-Gavish, Yael Gothelf, Ran Barzilay, Yael Barhum, Natalie Abramov, Stav Hertz, Darya Morozov, Michael London, Daniel Offen
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are neurodevelopmental disabilities characterized by severe impairment in social communication skills and restricted, repetitive behaviors. We have previously shown that a single transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) into the cerebral lateral ventricles of BTBR autistic-like mice resulted in an improvement across all diagnostic criteria of ASD. We suggested that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a protein which supports the survival and regeneration of neurons secreted by MSC, largely contributed to the beneficial behavioral effect...
April 6, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390077/aberrant-hras-transcript-processing-underlies-a-distinctive-phenotype-within-the-rasopathy-clinical-spectrum
#17
Francesca Pantaleoni, Dorit Lev, Ion C Cirstea, Marialetizia Motta, Francesca Romana Lepri, Lisabianca Bottero, Serena Cecchetti, Ilan Linger, Stefano Paolacci, Elisabetta Flex, Antonio Novelli, Alessandra Carè, Reza Ahmadian, Emilia Stellacci, Marco Tartaglia
RASopathies are a group of rare, clinically related conditions affecting development and growth, and are caused by germline mutations in genes encoding signal transducers and modulators with a role in the RAS signaling network. These disorders share facial dysmorphia, short stature, variable cognitive deficits, skeletal and cardiac defects, and a variable predisposition to malignancies. Here, we report on a de novo 10-nucleotide-long deletion in HRAS (c.481_490delGGGACCCTCT, NM_176795.4; p.Leu163ProfsTer52, NP_789765...
April 8, 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384486/white-matter-microstructure-in-children-with-autistic-traits
#18
Laura M E Blanken, Ryan L Muetzel, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Frank C Verhulst, Aad van der Lugt, Henning Tiemeier, Tonya White
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is thought to arise from aberrant development of connections in the brain. Previous studies have identified differences in white matter microstructure in children with ASD, offering support to such hypotheses. While ASD is thought to represent the severe end of a spectrum of traits, there are no studies evaluating white matter microstructure in relation to autistic traits in children from the general population. In a population-based sample of 604 6-to-10 year-old children, we assessed the relation between a continuous measure of autistic traits and white matter microstructure, using both probabilistic tractography and Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS)...
March 28, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383115/clinical-clues-for-autoimmunity-and-neuroinflammation-in-patients-with-autistic-regression
#19
Ori Scott, Diya Shi, Diana Andriashek, Brenda Clark, Helly R Goez
AIM: Autistic regression is a unique variant within the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), with recent reports raising the possibility of immune aetiology. This study explores clinical clues for an association between autistic regression and autoimmunity. METHOD: Single-centre charts of children diagnosed with ASD in 2014 were reviewed. We compared the rates of: (1) familial autoimmunity in first-degree and second-degree relatives; (2) febrile illness preceding initial parental concern, as a potential precipitant of immune activation; and (3) possible non-immune precipitants such as pregnancy and postnatal complications...
April 6, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371743/atypical-sensory-profiles-as-core-features-of-adult-adhd-irrespective-of-autistic-symptoms
#20
D Bijlenga, J Y M Tjon-Ka-Jie, F Schuijers, J J S Kooij
BACKGROUND: Abnormal sensory sensitivity is a feature of autism-spectrum disorder (ASD), but is also reported in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In many cases, ADHD and ASD are comorbid. This study investigated the prevalence of sensory hyper- and hyposensitivity among adults with ADHD, controlling for autistic symptoms. METHOD: One hundred and sixteen adults diagnosed with ADHD completed the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile-NL (AASP-NL) and the Autism-spectrum Quotient (AQ) questionnaires...
February 21, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
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