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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545100/intranasal-delivery-of-a-bivalent-norovirus-vaccine-formulated-in-an-in-situ-gelling-dry-powder
#1
Jordan P Ball, Michael J Springer, Yawei Ni, Isaac Finger-Baker, Juan Martinez, Jessica Hahn, John F Suber, Ashley V DiMarco, James D Talton, Ronald R Cobb
The global health community is beginning to understand the burden of norovirus-associated disease, which has a significant impact in both developed and developing countries. Norovirus virus like particle (VLP)-based vaccines are currently under development and have been shown to elicit systemic and mucosal immune responses when delivered intranasally. In the present study, we describe the use of a dry powder formulation (GelVac™) with an in situ gelling polysaccharide (GelSite™) extracted from Aloe vera for nasal delivery of a bivalent vaccine formulation containing both GI and GII...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544973/pegylation-of-a-tlr2-agonist-based-vaccine-delivery-system-improves-antigen-trafficking-and-the-magnitude-of-ensuing-antibody-and-cd8-t-cell-responses
#2
Toshiki Sekiya, Junya Yamagishi, John Henry V Gray, Paul G Whitney, Axel Martinelli, Weiguang Zeng, Chinn Yi Wong, Chihiro Sugimoto, David C Jackson, Brendon Y Chua
The lipopeptide R4Pam2Cys is an agonist for toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2), a key pathogen-associated molecular pattern receptor expressed on many antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells (DCs). Electrostatic association of R4Pam2Cys with soluble protein antigens significantly enhances their immunogenicity and there is evidence to suggest that reducing the size of suitably adjuvanted-antigen complexes in solution may further improve their immunostimulatory capabilities. In this study, we investigated how incorporation of polyethylene glycol (PEG) into R4Pam2Cys affects the size, activity and efficacy of formed antigen-lipopeptide complexes...
May 11, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544960/anti-biofilm-effect-of-dihydromyricetin-loaded-nanocapsules-on-urinary-catheter-infected-by-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#3
A J F Dalcin, C G Santos, S S Gündel, I Roggia, R P Raffin, A F Ourique, R C V Santos, P Gomes
Nosocomial infections associated with biofilm formation on urinary catheters are among the leading causes of complications due to biofilm characteristics and high antimicrobial resistance. An interesting alternative are natural products, such as Dihydromyricetin (DMY), a flavonoid which presents several pharmacological properties, including strong antimicrobial activity against various microorganisms. However, DMY, has low aqueous solubility and consequently low bioavailability. Nanoencapsulation can contribute to the improvement of characteristics of some drugs, by increasing the apparent solubility and sustained release has been reported among other advantages...
May 15, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544957/zebrafish-as-a-visual-and-dynamic-model-to-study-the-transport-of-nanosized-drug-delivery-systems-across-the-biological-barriers
#4
Ye Li, Xiaoqing Miao, Tongkai Chen, Xiang Yi, Ruibing Wang, Haitao Zhao, Simon Ming-Yuen Lee, Xueqing Wang, Ying Zheng
With the wide application of nanotechnology to drug delivery systems, a simple, dynamic and visual in vivo model for high-throughput screening of novel formulations with fluorescence markers across biological barriers is desperately needed. In vitro cell culture models have been widely used, although they are far from a complimentary in vivo system. Mammalian animal models are common predictive models to study transport, but they are costly and time consuming. Zebrafish (Danio rerio), a small vertebrate model, have the potential to be developed as an "intermediate" model for quick evaluations...
May 10, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544943/prevalence-of-nonsuicidal-self-injury-and-its-risk-and-protective-factors-among-adolescents-in-taiwan
#5
Min-Pei Lin, Jianing You, Yaxuan Ren, Jo Yung-Wei Wu, Wei-Hsuan Hu, Cheng-Fang Yen, Xu Zhang
The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in a large representative sample of secondary school students and identified the psychosocial risk and protective factors. Using a cross-sectional design, 2170 participants were recruited from senior high schools throughout Taiwan using both stratified and cluster sampling. The one-year prevalence of NSSI was found to be 20.1%. Results suggested that compared to non-injurers, episodic self-injurers reported higher levels of neuroticism and openness, while repetitive self-injurers reported higher levels of neuroticism, openness, avoidance/emotion-focused coping, and virtual social support, and lower levels of self-esteem and cognitive reconstruction/problem-focused coping...
May 17, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544850/pcpp-adjuvanted-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-sf-subunit-vaccine-self-assembled-supramolecular-complexes-enable-enhanced-immunogenicity-and-protection
#6
Corinne Cayatte, Alexander Marin, Gaurav Manohar Rajani, Kirsten Schneider-Ohrum, Angie Snell Bennett, Jason D Marshall, Alexander K Andrianov
PCPP, a well-defined polyphosphazene macromolecule, has been studied as an immunoadjuvant for a soluble form of the post-fusion glycoprotein (RSV sF) of RSV, which is an attractive vaccine candidate for inducing RSV-specific immunity in mice and humans. We demonstrate that RSV sF-PCPP formulations induce high neutralization titers to RSV comparable to Alum formulations even at a low PCPP dose and protect animals against viral challenge both in the lung and upper respiratory tract. PCPP formulations were also characterized by Th1-biased responses, compared to Th2-biased responses that are more typical for RSV sF alone or RSV sF-Alum formulations, suggesting an inherent immunostimulating activity of the polyphosphazene adjuvant...
May 25, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544814/optimization-of-liposomal-topotecan-for-use-in-treating-neuroblastoma
#7
Lina Chernov, Rebecca J Deyell, Malathi Anantha, Nancy Dos Santos, Roger Gilabert-Oriol, Marcel B Bally
The purpose of this work was to develop an optimized liposomal formulation of topotecan for use in the treatment of patients with neuroblastoma. Drug exposure time studies were used to determine that topotecan (Hycamtin) exhibited great cytotoxic activity against SK-N-SH, IMR-32 and LAN-1 neuroblastoma human cell lines. Sphingomyelin (SM)/cholesterol (Chol) and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC)/Chol liposomes were prepared using extrusion methods and then loaded with topotecan by pH gradient and copper-drug complexation...
May 23, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544810/the-best-models-of-metabolism
#8
REVIEW
Eberhard O Voit
Biochemical systems are among of the oldest application areas of mathematical modeling. Spanning a time period of over one hundred years, the repertoire of options for structuring a model and for formulating reactions has been constantly growing, and yet, it is still unclear whether or to what degree some models are better than others and how the modeler is to choose among them. In fact, the variety of options has become overwhelming and difficult to maneuver for novices and experts alike. This review outlines the metabolic model design process and discusses the numerous choices for modeling frameworks and mathematical representations...
May 19, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544701/intradiscal-application-of-a-pcla-peg-pcla-hydrogel-loaded-with-celecoxib-for-the-treatment-of-back-pain-in-canines-what-s-in-it-for-humans
#9
Anna R Tellegen, Nicole Willems, Martijn Beukers, Guy C M Grinwis, Saskia G M Plomp, Clemens Bos, Maarten van Dijk, Mike de Leeuw, Laura B Creemers, Marianna A Tryfonidou, Björn P Meij
Chronic low back pain is a common clinical problem in both the human and canine population. Current pharmaceutical treatment often consists of oral anti-inflammatory drugs to alleviate pain. Novel treatments for degenerative disc diseases focus on local application of sustained released drug formulations. The aim of this study was to determine safety and feasibility of intradiscal application of a PCLA-PEG-PCLA hydrogel releasing celecoxib, a COX-2 inhibitor. Biocompatibility was evaluated after subcutaneous injection in mice and safety of intradiscal injection of the hydrogel was evaluated in experimental dogs with early spontaneous intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544585/effects-of-ophthalmologic-solutions-on-sinonasal-ciliated-epithelium
#10
Alan D Workman, Ryan M Carey, Michael A Kohanski, Nithin D Adappa, James N Palmer, Noam A Cohen
BACKGROUND: Off-label use of topical ophthalmologic formulations for treatment of rhinologic disease is cited in recent literature and is anecdotally prevalent among practicing otolaryngologists. Steroids, antibiotics, and other drugs designed for ocular use have subjective clinical efficacy in the nose and sinuses, but their specific effects on the ciliated epithelium are less well defined. This study examines 9 commercially available ophthalmologic drug formulations for effects on ciliary motility in sinonasal cultures, in an effort to characterize their utility as topical therapies for sinonasal diseases...
May 23, 2017: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544581/a-comparison-of-the-pharmacokinetics-of-methylphenidate-extended-release-orally-disintegrating-tablets-with-a-reference-extended-release-formulation-of-methylphenidate-in-healthy-adults
#11
Ann Childress, Jeffrey G Stark, Russ McMahen, Dorothy Engelking, Carolyn Sikes
Extended-release (ER) methylphenidate (MPH) is a first-line treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. A methylphenidate extended-release orally disintegrating tablet (MPH XR-ODT) has recently been developed. This was a randomized, open-label, 3-period, 3-treatment study comparing the bioavailability and absorption of 2 MPH XR-ODT formulations with an MPH ER reference medication. Here we report the 2 treatments comparing the commercial MPH XR-ODT formulation and reference medication. Following a ≥10-hour fast, 42 healthy adults received 60 mg of reference medication or MPH XR-ODT (2 × 30 mg)...
May 25, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544371/high-loading-crystals-of-tetraaryladamantanes-and-the-uptake-and-release-of-aromatic-hydrocarbons-from-the-gas-phase
#12
Clemens Richert, Pierre-Emmanuel Alexandre, Alexander Schwenger, Wolfgang Frey
Recently, a tetraphenyladamantane octamethylether was shown to encapsulate a wide range of small molecules in its crystals. Uptake and release from the liquid phase were demonstrated, and crystalline inclusion complexes were prepared that act as formulation for obnoxious reagents. Less than two equivalents of guest molecules were found in the crystal structures, though. Here we report the synthesis of 1,3,5,7-tetrakis(2,4-diethoxyphenyl)-adamantane (TEO) and twelve X-ray crystal structures that contain up to 3...
May 23, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544344/fed-and-fasted-administration-of-a-novel-extended-release-methylphenidate-orally-disintegrating-tablet-formulation-for-the-treatment-of-adhd
#13
Richard H Weisler, Jeffrey G Stark, Carolyn Sikes
Extended-release methylphenidate is a first-line treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. A methylphenidate extended-release orally disintegrating tablet (MPH XR-ODT) has recently been developed. Here we report an open-label, randomized, 2-period, 2-treatment crossover study to determine the effect of food on the bioavailability of a single 60-mg dose of MPH XR-ODT in healthy adults. Blood samples were collected predose through 36 hours postdose. Maximum plasma concentration (Cmax ), time to maximum plasma concentration (Tmax ), terminal elimination half-life (T1/2 ), overall systemic exposure (AUClast and AUCinf ), and partial areas under the concentration curve (AUC0-3 , AUC3-7 , and AUC7-12 ) were calculated...
May 25, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544184/did-some-red-alga-derived-plastids-evolve-via-kleptoplastidy-a-hypothesis
#14
Andrzej Bodył
The evolution of plastids has a complex and still unresolved history. These organelles originated from a cyanobacterium via primary endosymbiosis, resulting in three eukaryotic lineages: glaucophytes, red algae, and green plants. The red and green algal plastids then spread via eukaryote-eukaryote endosymbioses, known as secondary and tertiary symbioses, to numerous heterotrophic protist lineages. The number of these horizontal plastid transfers, especially in the case of red alga-derived plastids, remains controversial...
May 23, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543797/simultaneous-use-of-linear-and-nonlinear-gradients-for-b1-inhomogeneity-correction
#15
Koray Ertan, Ergin Atalar
The simultaneous use of linear spatial encoding magnetic fields (L-SEMs) and nonlinear spatial encoding magnetic fields (N-SEMs) in B1(+) inhomogeneity problems is formulated and demonstrated with both simulations and experiments. Independent excitation k-space variables for N-SEMs are formulated for the simultaneous use of L-SEMs and N-SEMs by assuming a small tip angle. The formulation shows that, when N-SEMs are considered as an independent excitation k-space variable, numerous different k-space trajectories and frequency weightings differing in dimension, length, and energy can be designed for a given target transverse magnetization distribution...
May 25, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543755/comparison-of-two-formulations-of-topical-timolol-for-the-treatment-of-infantile-hemangiomas
#16
Michelle Si Ying Ng, Yong-Kwang Tay, Shanna Shan-Yi Ng, Alice Yee Wah Foong, Mark Jean-Aan Koh
This report compares the efficacy of timolol maleate 0.5% eyedrops (TM) with that of timolol maleate 0.5% ophthalmic gel-forming solution in the treatment of infantile hemangiomas (IHs). Sixty-six patients undergoing treatment with topical timolol were retrospectively reviewed; our results revealed similar therapeutic efficacies for both types of timolol formulations. Early treatment initiation (<3 mos) and superficial lesions correlated with better treatment response. TM eyedrops may be a more cost effective, equally efficacious modality of treatment for IHs...
May 25, 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543444/mechanistic-studies-on-the-peroxyoxalate-chemiluminescence-using-sodium-salicylate-as-base-catalyst
#17
Glalci A Souza, André P Lang, Wilhelm J Baader
Mechanistic studies on the peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence are often conducted with imidazole as base and nucleophilic catalyst. However, it is also known that this compound, at high concentrations, leads to a drastic reduction of the chemiluminescence quantum yields, apparently due the destruction of the high-energy intermediate. Consequently, the search for new catalysts for this transformation is of importance for mechanistic studies as well as analytical application. Therefore, we report here a study on the mechanism of the peroxyoxalate reaction with sodium salicylate as base catalyst; which has already been utilized in this reaction, however, no detailed mechanistic investigation is known...
May 23, 2017: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543048/estimating-demographic-contributions-to-effective-population-size-in-an-age-structured-wild-population-experiencing-environmental-and-demographic-stochasticity
#18
Amanda E Trask, Eric M Bignal, Davy I McCracken, Stuart B Piertney, Jane M Reid
1.A population's effective size (Ne ) is a key parameter that shapes rates of inbreeding and loss of genetic diversity, thereby influencing evolutionary processes and population viability. However estimating Ne , and identifying key demographic mechanisms that underlie the Ne to census population size (N) ratio, remains challenging, especially for small populations with overlapping generations and substantial environmental and demographic stochasticity and hence dynamic age-structure. 2.A sophisticated demographic method of estimating Ne /N, which uses Fisher's reproductive value to account for dynamic age-structure, has been formulated...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543033/cereal-bars-produced-with-banana-peel-flour-evaluation-of-acceptability-and-sensory-profile
#19
Vania Silva Carvalho, Ana Carolina Conti-Silva
BACKGROUND: A Mixture design was used to investigate the effects of banana peel flour, rice flakes and oat flour on sensory acceptability of cereal bars, with subsequent evaluation of sensory profile of products identified as having high acceptability. RESULTS: Regions of greater response for acceptability of the cereal bars, which are dependent on the three investigated components, were found. Although having good acceptability, sensory profiles of cereal bars were different...
May 25, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542871/interpretation-as-freud-s-specific-action-and-bion-s-container-contained
#20
Chris Mawson
This is a paper showing how a concept central to the work of Wilfred Bion, and one of Klein's important recommendations concerning the practice of analysis with adults and small children, can both be seen in the light of Freud's earliest formulation of the origin of anxiety and the mother's first responses to her infant in distress. In the paper I suggest that these clinically influential concepts of Klein and Bion show an underlying consistency and affinity with Freud's early ideas about the management of anxiety in the mother-infant relationship, described in two of his pre-psychoanalytic writings, How Anxiety Originates (1894b), and The Project for a Scientific Psychology (1950 [1895])...
May 25, 2017: International Journal of Psycho-analysis
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