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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783635/glycosaminoglycans-from-a-sea-snake-lapemis-curtus-extraction-structural-characterization-and-antioxidant-activity
#1
Mingyue Bai, Wenwei Han, Xia Zhao, Qingchi Wang, Yanyun Gao, Shiming Deng
Sea snakes have wide application prospects in medicine, health food and other fields. Several novel polysaccharides were successfully obtained from the skin and the meat of a sea snake ( Lapemis curtus ). The structures of polysaccharides LSP3 and LMP3, which were extracted and purified from Lapemis curtus , were determined to be new and highly heterogenic glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) by means of FT-IR, ESI-MS/MS and NMR. LSP3 is a hybrid dermatan sulfate (DS) and composed of 48% 4-sulfated disaccharides (Di4S), 42% 6-sulfated disaccharides (Di6S) and 5% disulfated disaccharides (Di2,6S), while LMP3 is a hybrid chondroitin sulfate (CS) and composed of 70% Di4S, 20% Di6S, and 8% Di2,6S...
May 18, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780268/filling-the-bins-of-life-report-of-an-amphibian-and-reptile-survey-of-the-tanintharyi-tenasserim-region-of-myanmar-with-dna-barcode-data
#2
Daniel G Mulcahy, Justin L Lee, Aryeh H Miller, Mia Chand, Myint Kyaw Thura, George R Zug
Despite threats of species extinctions, taxonomic crises, and technological advances in genomics and natural history database informatics, we are still distant from cataloguing all of the species of life on earth. Amphibians and reptiles are no exceptions; in fact new species are described nearly every day and many species face possible extinction. The number of described species continues to climb as new areas of the world are explored and as species complexes are examined more thoroughly. The use of DNA barcoding provides a mechanism for rapidly estimating the number of species at a given site and has the potential to record all of the species of life on Earth...
2018: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780016/haemogregarine-genetic-diversity-in-captive-african-rock-pythons-from-nigeria-suggests-a-geographical-pattern
#3
Henry Olanrewaju Jegede, Beatriz Tomé, Ana Perera, Temidayo O Omobowale
OBJECTIVE: Understanding the processes that drive parasite diversification, distribution, and abundance is central to disentangle the dynamics and evolution of diseases. In this study, we screened African rock pythons from Nigeria for the presence of blood parasites to assess their distribution, diversity, and phylogenetic relationships. METHODS: A total of 21 captive African rock pythons collected from across 11 locations in Nigeria were sampled between August 2016 and January 2017...
March 2018: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779234/testing-the-role-of-climate-in-speciation-new-methods-and-applications-to-squamate-reptiles-lizards-and-snakes
#4
Tereza Jezkova, John J Wiens
Climate may play important roles in speciation, such as causing the range fragmentation that underlies allopatric speciation (through niche conservatism) or driving divergence of parapatric populations along climatic gradients (through niche divergence). Here, we developed new methods to test the frequency of climate niche conservatism and divergence in speciation, and applied it to species pairs of squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes). We used a large-scale phylogeny to identify 242 sister-species pairs for analysis...
May 19, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776445/community-based-audits-of-snake-envenomations-in-a-resource-challenged-setting-of-cameroon-case-series
#5
Frank-Leonel Tianyi, Valirie Ndip Agbor, Joel Noutakdie Tochie, Benjamin Momo Kadia, Armand Seraphin Nkwescheu
BACKGROUND: Snakebites are a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide with the highest mortality burden in poor rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa. Inadequate surveillance systems result in loss of morbidity and mortality data in these settings. Although rarely reported in these resource-constraint environments, community-based audits are recognised pivotal tools which could help update existing data and indicate key public health interventions to curb snakebite-related mortality...
May 18, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774760/safety-of-nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-in-copperhead-snakebite-patients
#6
Hoang X Pham, Michael E Mullins
INTRODUCTION: Current management guidelines for pit viper envenomations recommend against the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for pain control due to concern for platelet dysfunction and resulting coagulopathy. However, prior research suggests that copperhead snakes generally do not cause coagulopathy and they are responsible for most of the venomous snakebites in the USA. Thus, we compared the occurrences of clinically apparent bleeding and most abnormal laboratory values of coagulation between copperhead envenomation patients who received NSAIDs and those who did not...
May 18, 2018: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772722/ethnobotany-phytochemistry-and-pharmacological-effects-of-plants-in-genus-cynanchum-linn-asclepiadaceae
#7
REVIEW
Lu Han, Xiuping Zhou, Mengmeng Yang, Li Zhou, Xinxin Deng, Shijie Wei, Wenping Wang, Zhizhong Wang, Xue Qiao, Changcai Bai
Genus Cynanchum L. belongs to the family Asclepiadaceae, which comprise more than 200 species distributed worldwide. In Chinese medical practice, numerous drugs (such as tablets and powders) containing different parts of plants of this genus are used to treat snake bites, bruises, osteoblasts, rheumatoid arthritis and tumors. A search for original articles published on the cynanchum genus was performed by using several resources, including Flora of China Official Website and various scientific databases, such as PubMed, SciFinder, the Web of Science, Science Direct, and China Knowledge Resource Integrated (CNKI)...
May 16, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764824/achieving-full-neurological-recovery-in-snakebite-using-best-supportive-care
#8
Sally Wright, Genevieve Haddock
A 29-year-old woman presented to a community hospital in Sierra Leone 2 hours after being bitten by an unknown snake. On arrival, she was agitated though alert, however deteriorated into respiratory arrest. There was no local availability of antivenom. The patient remained in respiratory arrest undergoing best supportive care in a low-resource setting for 2 hours 55 minutes before returning to spontaneous ventilation. She went on to make a full neurological recovery. Though spontaneous recovery following snakebite envenoming is rare, this case showcases that good communication and basic manoeuvres can have a hugely positive impact on patient outcome...
May 14, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764144/from-intermediate-anisotropic-to-isotropic-friction-at-large-strain-rates-to-account-for-viscosity-thickening-in-polymer-solutions
#9
Pavlos S Stephanou, Martin Kröger
The steady-state extensional viscosity of dense polymeric liquids in elongational flows is known to be peculiar in the sense that for entangled polymer melts it monotonically decreases-whereas for concentrated polymer solutions it increases-with increasing strain rate beyond the inverse Rouse time. To shed light on this issue, we solve the kinetic theory model for concentrated polymer solutions and entangled melts proposed by Curtiss and Bird, also known as the tumbling-snake model, supplemented by a variable link tension coefficient that we relate to the uniaxial nematic order parameter of the polymer...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763628/whole-snake-venoms-cytotoxic-anti-metastatic-and-antiangiogenic-properties
#10
Harald Kerkkamp, Christoph Bagowski, Jeroen Kool, Babette van Soolingen, Freek Vonk, Daniëlle Vlecken
Currently, biological and organic substances are screened in order to find a new generation of therapeutics active against cancer. Previous research has identified promising candidate peptides in snake venom. In this study, venoms from different snake species (Naja annulifera, Naja kaouthia, Ophiophagus hannah and Echis carinatus) were screened for potential anti-cancer properties using pancreatic tumour cells as the assay system. The cells were incubated with venom and then subjected to the following analyses: (i) in vitro cell death (ii) in vitro migration (iii) in vivo dissemination and (iv) in vivo angiogenesis...
May 12, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761254/catroxmp-ii-a-heme-modulated-fibrinogenolytic-metalloproteinase-isolated-from-crotalus-atrox-venom
#11
Montamas Suntravat, Paul R Langlais, Elda E Sánchez, Vance G Nielsen
It has been recently demonstrated that the hemotoxic venom activity of several species of snakes can be inhibited by carbon monoxide (CO) or a metheme forming agent. These and other data suggest that the biometal, heme, may be attached to venom enzymes and may be modulated by CO. A novel fibrinogenolytic metalloproteinase, named CatroxMP-II, was isolated and purified from the venom of a Crotalus atrox viper, and subjected to proteolysis and mass spectroscopy. An ion similar to the predicted singly charged m/z of heme at 617...
May 14, 2018: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761056/pelagic-larval-duration-growth-rate-and-population-genetic-structure-of-the-tidepool-snake-moray-uropterygius-micropterus-around-the-southern-ryukyu-islands-taiwan-and-the-central-philippines
#12
Wen-Chien Huang, Jui-Tsung Chang, Chun Liao, Atsushi Tawa, Yoshiyuki Iizuka, Te-Yu Liao, Jen-Chieh Shiao
The relationships between pelagic larval duration (PLD) and geographic distribution patterns or population genetic structures of fishes remain obscure and highly variable among species. To further understand the early life history of the tidepool snake moray Uropterygius micropterus and the potential relationship between PLD and population genetic structure of this species, otolith microstructure and population genetics based on concatenated mtDNA sequence (cytochrome b and cytochrome oxidase subunit I, 1,336 bp) were analyzed for 195 specimens collected from eight locations around the southern Ryukyu Islands, Taiwan, and the central Philippines...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758631/bifurcation-structure-of-localized-states-in-the-lugiato-lefever-equation-with-anomalous-dispersion
#13
P Parra-Rivas, D Gomila, L Gelens, E Knobloch
The origin, stability, and bifurcation structure of different types of bright localized structures described by the Lugiato-Lefever equation are studied. This mean field model describes the nonlinear dynamics of light circulating in fiber cavities and microresonators. In the case of anomalous group velocity dispersion and low values of the intracavity phase detuning these bright states are organized in a homoclinic snaking bifurcation structure. We describe how this bifurcation structure is destroyed when the detuning is increased across a critical value, and determine how a bifurcation structure known as foliated snaking emerges...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758383/does-size-matter-venom-proteomic-and-functional-comparison-between-night-adder-species-viperidae-causus-with-short-and-long-venom-glands
#14
Francisco C P Coimbra, James Dobson, Christina N Zdenek, Bianca Op den Brouw, Brett Hamilton, Jordan Debono, Paul Masci, Nathaniel Frank, Lilin Ge, Hang Fai Kwok, Bryan G Fry
Night adders (Causus species within the Viperidae family) are amphibian specialists and a common source of snakebite in Africa. Some species are unique in that they have the longest venom glands of any viper, extending approximately 10% of the body length. Despite their potential medical importance and evolutionary novelty, their venom has received almost no research attention. In this study, venoms from a short-glanded species (C. lichtensteinii) and from a long-glanded species (C. rhombeatus) were compared using a series of proteomic and bioactivity testing techniques to investigate and compare the toxin composition and functioning of the venoms of these two species...
May 11, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758024/hatchling-survival-to-breeding-age-in-northern-pine-snakes-pituophis-melanoleucus-in-the-new-jersey-pine-barrens-human-effects-on-recruitment-from-1986-to-2017
#15
Joanna Burger, Robert T Zappalorti, Michael Gochfeld
To conserve threatened/endangered species, we need to understand the factors contributing to reproductive success and recruitment to reproductive stage. Obtaining this information is difficult for snakes because they are secretive, are not easy to locate at the same stage each year, and are sometimes sparsely distributed. We determined nest fate, hatchling growth and survival to age 5 years, and recruitment to breeding age of Northern Pine Snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus) in New Jersey Pine Barrens from 1986 to 2017...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756840/discriminative-cooperative-networks-for-detecting-phase-transitions
#16
Ye-Hua Liu, Evert P L van Nieuwenburg
The classification of states of matter and their corresponding phase transitions is a special kind of machine-learning task, where physical data allow for the analysis of new algorithms, which have not been considered in the general computer-science setting so far. Here we introduce an unsupervised machine-learning scheme for detecting phase transitions with a pair of discriminative cooperative networks (DCNs). In this scheme, a guesser network and a learner network cooperate to detect phase transitions from fully unlabeled data...
April 27, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753096/description-biology-and-molecular-characterisation-of-serpentirhabdias-moi-n-sp-nematoda-rhabdiasidae-from-chironius-exoletus-serpentes-colubridae-in-brazil
#17
Soraya A Machado, Yuriy Kuzmin, Vasyl V Tkach, Jeannie Nascimento Dos Santos, Evonnildo Costa Gonçalves, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos Melo
A new species of the genus Serpentirhabdias Tkach, Kuzmin et Snyder, 2014, S. moi n. sp., is described from a colubroid snake Chironius exoletus from Caxiuanã National Forest, State of Pará, Brazil. The species is characterised by having a triangular oral opening, absence of the buccal capsule, presence of six minute onchia in the oesophastome, and excretory glands of approximately the same length as the oesophagus. These qualitative morphological characters, as well as some measurements, differentiate the new species from other Neotropical and Nearctic Serpentirhabdias spp...
May 9, 2018: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751894/potential-effects-of-climate-change-on-the-risk-of-accidents-with-poisonous-species-of-the-genus-tityus-scorpiones-buthidae-in-argentina
#18
Pablo Ariel Martinez, Mayane Alves Andrade, Claudio Juan Bidau
The temporal pattern of co-occurrence of human beings and venomous species (scorpions, spiders, snakes) is changing. Thus, the temporal pattern of areas with risk of accidents with such species tends to become dynamic in time. We analyze the areas of occurrence of species of Tityus in Argentina and assess the impact of global climate change on their area of distribution by the construction of risk maps. Using data of occurrence of the species and climatic variables, we constructed models of species distribution (SMDs) under current and future climatic conditions...
June 2018: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751579/did-lizards-follow-unique-pathways-in-sex-chromosome-evolution
#19
REVIEW
Shayer Mahmood Ibney Alam, Stephen D Sarre, Dianne Gleeson, Arthur Georges, Tariq Ezaz
Reptiles show remarkable diversity in modes of reproduction and sex determination, including high variation in the morphology of sex chromosomes, ranging from homomorphic to highly heteromorphic. Additionally, the co-existence of genotypic sex determination (GSD) and temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) within and among sister clades makes this group an attractive model to study and understand the evolution of sex chromosomes. This is particularly so with Lizards (Order Squamata) which, among reptiles, show extraordinary morphological diversity...
May 3, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751071/protective-effects-of-a-natural-herbal-compound-quercetin-against-snake-venom-induced-hepatic-and-renal-toxicities-in-rats
#20
Abdulrahman K Al-Asmari, Haseeb A Khan, Rajamohamed A Manthiri, Ahmad A Al-Khlaiwi, Bayan A Al-Asmari, Khalid E Ibrahim
Echis pyramidum is a highly poisonous viper snake. Previous studies have shown acute phase hepatic and renal toxicities of Echis pyramidum venom (EPV) in rats. This study reports the protective effects of a natural herbal compound quercetin (QRC) on EPV-induced hepatic and renal toxicities in rats. A singly injection of EPV (4.76 mg/kg) caused significant increase in serum biomarkers of liver and kidney function. Pre-treatment of QRC (10 mg/kg) significantly reduced the toxic effects of EPV on functional impairment in liver and kidneys of rats...
May 8, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
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