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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109304/traditional-use-and-perception-of-snakes-by-the-nahuas-from-cuetzalan-del-progreso-puebla-mexico
#1
Romina García-López, Alejandro Villegas, Noé Pacheco-Coronel, Graciela Gómez-Álvarez
BACKGROUND: Indigenous cultures are the result of their adaptation to the natural surroundings, in such a way that, amongst their main features is a set of knowledge, technologies and strategies for the appropriation of nature. In Cuetzalan del Progreso, Puebla, Mexico snakes represent 71.1% of the total local herpetofauna; and in addition to this, different groups of Nahuas have shown to have information of their use of various snake species in many ways. This study was conducted to investigate the traditional uses of snakes in this cultural group...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103732/evaluation-of-antivenom-therapy-for-vipera-palaestinae-bites-in-children-experience-of-two-large-tertiary-care-pediatric-hospitals
#2
Dikla Pivko-Levy, Itamar Munchnak, Ayelet Rimon, Uri Balla, Dennis Scolnik, Christopher Hoyte, Yair Voliovitch, Miguel Glatstein
BACKGROUND: Antivenom has been successfully used to treat systemic and progressive, local manifestations of envenomation inflicted by Vipera (V.) palaestinae, the most common venomous snake in Israel. The objective of this study was to evaluate the fixed dose V. palaestinae monovalent (equine) immunoglobulin G antivenom used in two pediatric emergency departments. In particular, we wanted to assess the need for repeated antivenom administration and the rate of adverse antivenom effects in children...
January 20, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102287/crotalus-atrox-venom-preconditioning-increases-plasma-fibrinogen-and-reduces-perioperative-hemorrhage-in-a-rat-model-of-surgical-brain-injury
#3
Cherine H Kim, Devin W McBride, Ronak Raval, Prativa Sherchan, Karen L Hay, Eric C K Gren, Wayne Kelln, Tim Lekic, William K Hayes, Brian S Bull, Richard Applegate, Jiping Tang, John H Zhang
Perioperative bleeding is a potentially devastating complication in neurosurgical patients, and plasma fibrinogen concentration has been identified as a potential modifiable risk factor for perioperative bleeding. The aim of this study was to evaluate preconditioning with Crotalus atrox venom (Cv-PC) as potential preventive therapy for reducing perioperative hemorrhage in the rodent model of surgical brain injury (SBI). C. atrox venom contains snake venom metalloproteinases that cleave fibrinogen into fibrin split products without inducing clotting...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101121/embryology-of-the-vno-and-associated-structures-in-the-grass-snake-natrix-natrix-squamata-naticinae-a-3d-perspective
#4
Paweł Kaczmarek, Mateusz Hermyt, Weronika Rupik
BACKGROUND: Snakes are considered to be vomerolfaction specialists. They are members of one of the most diverse groups of vertebrates, Squamata. The vomeronasal organ and the associated structures (such as the lacrimal duct, choanal groove, lamina transversalis anterior and cupola Jacobsoni) of adult lizards and snakes have received much anatomical, histological, physiological and behavioural attention. However, only limited embryological investigation into these structures, constrained to some anatomical or cellular studies and brief surveys, has been carried out thus far...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099952/zebrin-ii-is-expressed-in-sagittal-stripes-in-the-cerebellum-of-dragon-lizards-ctenophorus-sp
#5
Douglas R Wylie, Daniel Hoops, Joel W Aspden, Andrew N Iwaniuk
Aldolase C, also known as zebrin II (ZII), is a glycolytic enzyme that is expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cells of the vertebrate cerebellum. In both mammals and birds, ZII is expressed heterogeneously, such that there are sagittal stripes of Purkinje cells with high ZII expression (ZII+) alternating with stripes of Purkinje cells with little or no expression (ZII-). In contrast, in snakes and turtles, ZII is not expressed heterogeneously; rather all Purkinje cells are ZII+. Here, we examined the expression of ZII in the cerebellum of lizards to elucidate the evolutionary origins of ZII stripes in Sauropsida...
January 19, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099575/evaluation-of-sperm-quality-snakes-erythrolamprus-poecilogyrus-sublineatus-cope-1860-serpentes-dipsadidae
#6
A C Silva, A S Varela, T F Cardoso, E F Silva, D Loebmann, C D Corcini
Erythrolamprus poecilogyrus sublineatus (Cope, 1860), is a species widely distributed in the Pampa Domain, occurring in Rio Grande do Sul, Argentina and Uruguay, mainlyin the pampa region. In the coastal region of southern Brazil this is serpent is considered one of the most abundant. The purpose of the present study is to describe the techniques of sperm evaluation in vitro for E. poecilogyrus sublineatus in the coastal plain of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. After laparatomy the efferent vases were collected and the semen was diluted in 1ml Beltsville Thawing Solution...
January 12, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093334/in-vitro-antitumor-and-antiangiogenic-effects-of-bothropoidin-a-metalloproteinase-from-bothrops-pauloensis-snake-venom
#7
Denise de Oliveira Guimarães, Daiana Silva Lopes, Fernanda Van Petten Vasconcelos Azevedo, Sarah Natalie Gimenes, Makswell Almeida Silva, David Collares Achê, Mário Sérgio Rocha Gomes, Lara Vecchi, Luiz Ricardo Goulart, Kelly Aparecida Geraldo Yoneyama, Renata Santos Rodrigues, Veridiana de Melo Rodrigues
Breast cancer is a highly malignant carcinoma and remains the second leading cause of mortality among women. The antitumor effects of metalloproteinases and disintegrins from snake venom on various types of cancer cells have been investigated. In this study, we evaluated the antitumor and antiangiogenic effects on MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells and endothelial cells induced by Bothropoidin, a disintegrin-like metalloproteinase isolated from Bothrops pauloensis snake venom. At 24h after treatment at 100μg/mL, Bothropoidin exerted a moderate cytotoxic effect of 30% on MDA-MB-231 versus 10% cytotoxicity against MCF10A (a non-tumorigenic breast cell line), a significant difference that suggests a possible preference by this protein for targets in cancer cells...
January 13, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089603/melatonin-inhibits-snake-venom-and-antivenom-induced-oxidative-stress-and-augments-treatment-efficacy
#8
Rachana D Sharma, Gajanan D Katkar, Mahalingam S Sundaram, Basavarajaiah Swethakumar, Kesturu S Girish, Kempaiah Kemparaju
Snakebite is a neglected health hazard, its patho-physiology had been focused on systemic and local toxicities; but, venom and antivenom induced oxidative stress has been ignored for a long time. Antivenom therapy although neutralizes venom lethality and saves many lives it remains ineffective against oxidative stress. This prompted us to complement antivenom with an antioxidant molecule melatonin that would protect against oxidative stress and increase the efficacy of the existing snakebite therapy. Here we show that D...
January 12, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088478/comparison-of-the-adjuvant-activity-of-emulsions-with-different-physicochemical-properties-on-the-antibody-response-towards-the-venom-of-west-african-carpet-viper-echis-ocellatus
#9
Juan Manuel Valverde, Karina Rodríguez, María Herrera, Álvaro Segura, Mariángela Vargas, Mauren Villalta, Mavis Montero, Jose María Gutiérrez, Guillermo León
Adjuvant emulsions are widely used to enhance the antibody response of the animals used as immunoglobulin source for producing antivenoms. Usually, the adjuvant activity of emulsions is attributed both to their ability to trigger "danger" signals from cells in which they induce death, and to form depots from which immunogens are slowly released. However, there is contradictory evidence suggesting that adjuvant activity of emulsions is independent of the dispersion type and the rate of immunogen release. In order to test how physical properties of emulsions, composed of mineral oil and water, affect their ability to enhance the antibody response towards snake venoms, we compared water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions prepared at volume ratios of 70/30, 50/50 or 30/70, a 50/50 oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion, and a water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) multiple emulsion...
January 11, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088326/acute-kidney-injury-due-to-tropical-infectious-diseases-and-animal-venoms-a-tale-of-2-continents
#10
REVIEW
Emmanuel A Burdmann, Vivekanand Jha
South and Southeast Asia and Latin American together comprise 46 countries and are home to approximately 40% of the world population. The sociopolitical and economic heterogeneity, tropical climate, and malady transitions characteristic of the region strongly influence disease behavior and health care delivery. Acute kidney injury epidemiology mirrors these inequalities. In addition to hospital-acquired acute kidney injury in tertiary care centers, these countries face a large preventable burden of community-acquired acute kidney injury secondary to tropical infectious diseases or animal venoms, affecting previously healthy young individuals...
January 11, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087655/hagfish-houdinis-biomechanics-and-behavior-of-squeezing-through-small-openings
#11
Calli R Freedman, Douglas S Fudge
Hagfishes are able to squeeze through small openings to gain entry to crevices, burrows, hagfish traps, and carcasses, but little is known about how they do this, or what the limits of this ability are. The purpose of this study was to describe this ability, and to investigate possible mechanisms by which it is accomplished. We investigated the hypothesis that the passive movement of blood within a hagfish's flaccid subcutaneous sinus allows it to squeeze through narrow apertures that it would not be able to if it were turgid...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087312/immunisation-choice-of-host-adjuvants-and-boosting-schedules-with-emphasis-on-polyclonal-antibody-production
#12
REVIEW
Philippe Delahaut
Polyclonal antibodies are frequently used as immunodiagnostic tools in fundamental research. They are also used for routine diagnostic purposes in human and veterinary medicine and for quality control procedures in the food-processing industry. The antibody is a major component of the detection system. It binds with the molecule to be identified. This conjugate is subsequently revealed by means of binding the antibody with a radio-isotope, a fluorescent substance, an enzyme inducing a color change, or a biosensor based analytical system...
January 10, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080983/snake-fungal-disease-an-emerging-threat-to-wild-snakes
#13
REVIEW
Jeffrey M Lorch, Susan Knowles, Julia S Lankton, Kathy Michell, Jaime L Edwards, Joshua M Kapfer, Richard A Staffen, Erik R Wild, Katie Z Schmidt, Anne E Ballmann, Doug Blodgett, Terence M Farrell, Brad M Glorioso, Lisa A Last, Steven J Price, Krysten L Schuler, Christopher E Smith, James F X Wellehan, David S Blehert
Since 2006, there has been a marked increase in the number of reports of severe and often fatal fungal skin infections in wild snakes in the eastern USA. The emerging condition, referred to as snake fungal disease (SFD), was initially documented in rattlesnakes, where the infections were believed to pose a risk to the viability of affected populations. The disease is caused by Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola, a fungus recently split from a complex of fungi long referred to as the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii (CANV)...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080899/health-and-nutritional-assessment-of-free-ranging-eastern-indigo-snakes-drymarchon-couperi-in-georgia-united-states
#14
S Emmanuelle Knafo, Terry M Norton, Mark Mitchell, Dirk J Stevenson, Natalie Hyslop, Robert Poppenga, Marcie Oliva, Tai Chen, Carolyn Cray, Samantha E J Gibbs, Lance Durden, Nancy Stedman, Stephen Divers, Ellen Dierenfeld
Clinical pathology and nutritional parameters are useful in evaluating and monitoring threatened and endangered wildlife populations, but reference ranges for most snake species are lacking. From 2001 to 2005, health assessments were performed on 58 eastern indigo snakes (EIS) (Drymarchon couperi) captured in the wild in southeastern Georgia, United States. Health and nutritional assessments performed included hematology, serum biochemistry, fat-soluble vitamins, heavy metals, pesticide contaminants, parasitology, and surveys of other pathogens...
December 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075231/presumptive-granulocytic-leukemia-in-a-hognose-snake-heterodon-platirhinos
#15
Estelle Rousselet, Terry M Norton, Maxey Wellman, Nicole Kohart, Nicole I Stacy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2017: Veterinary Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071872/mutant-botrocetin-2-inhibits-von-willebrand-factor-induced-platelet-agglutination
#16
T Matsui, A Hori, J Hamako, F Matsushita, Y Ozeki, Y Sakurai, M Hayakawa, M Matsumoto, Y Fujimura
BACKGROUND: Botrocetin-2 (Bot2) is a botrocetin-like protein composed of α and β subunits that have been cloned from the snake Bothrops jararaca. Bot2 binds specifically to von Willebrand factor (VWF), and the complex induces glycoprotein (GP) Ib-dependent platelet agglutination. OBJECTIVES: We exploited Bot2's VWF-binding capacity to try and create a mutant Bot2 that binds to VWF but inhibits platelet agglutination. METHODS AND RESULTS: Several point mutations were introduced into Bot2 cDNA, and the recombinant protein (rBot2) was purified on an anti-botrocetin column...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070289/is-xenodontine-snake-reproduction-shaped-by-ancestry-more-than-by-ecology
#17
Gisela P Bellini, Vanesa Arzamendia, Alejandro R Giraudo
One of the current challenges of evolutionary ecology is to understand the effects of phylogenetic history (PH) and/or ecological factors (EF) on the life-history traits of the species. Here, the effects of environment and phylogeny are tested for the first time on the reproductive biology of South American xenodontine snakes. We studied 60% of the tribes of this endemic and most representative clade in a temperate region of South America. A comparative method (canonical phylogenetic ordination-CPO) was used to find the relative contributions of EF and PH upon life-history aspects of snakes, comparing the reproductive mode, mean fecundity, reproductive potential, and frequency of nearly 1,000 specimens...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069591/vasotocin-receptor-blockade-disrupts-maternal-care-of-offspring-in-a-viviparous-snake-sistrurus-miliarius
#18
Craig M Lind, Nikolette K Birky, Anita M Porth, Terence M Farrell
Parental care is a complex social behavior that is widespread among vertebrates. The neuroendocrine regulation of parent-offspring social behavior has been well-described in mammals, and, to a lesser extent, birds and fish. However, little is known regarding the underlying mechanisms that mediate the expression of care behaviors in squamate reptiles. In mammalian model species and humans, posterior pituitary hormones of the oxytocin and vasopressin families mediate parental care behaviors. To test the hypothesis that the regulatory role of posterior pituitary neuropeptides is conserved in a viviparous squamate reptile, we pharmacologically blocked the vasotocin receptor in postparturient pigmy rattlesnakes, Sistrurus miliarius, and monitored the spatial relationship between mothers and offspring relative to controls...
January 9, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067855/detection-of-naja-atra-cardiotoxin-using-adenosine-based-molecular-beacon
#19
Yi-Jun Shi, Ying-Jung Chen, Wan-Ping Hu, Long-Sen Chang
This study presents an adenosine (A)-based molecular beacon (MB) for selective detection of Naja atra cardiotoxin (CTX) that functions by utilizing the competitive binding between CTX and the poly(A) stem of MB to coralyne. The 5'- and 3'-end of MB were labeled with a reporter fluorophore and a non-fluorescent quencher, respectively. Coralyne induced formation of the stem-loop MB structure through A₂-coralyne-A₂ coordination, causing fluorescence signal turn-off due to fluorescence resonance energy transfer between the fluorophore and quencher...
January 7, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063984/protein-toxins-of-the-echis-coloratus-viper-venom-directly-activate-trpv1
#20
Matan Geron, Rakesh Kumar, Henry Matzner, Adi Lahiani, Galit Gincberg, Gadi Cohen, Philip Lazarovici, Avi Priel
BACKGROUND: Peptide and protein toxins are essential tools to dissect and probe the biology of their target receptors. Venoms target vital physiological processes to evoke pain. Snake venoms contain various factors with the ability to evoke, enhance and sustain pain sensation. While a number of venom-derived toxins were shown to directly target TRPV1 channels expressed on somatosensory nerve terminals to evoke pain response, such toxins were yet to be identified in snake venoms. METHODS: We screened Echis coloratus saw-scaled viper venom's protein fractions isolated by reversed phase HPLC for their ability to activate TRPV1 channels...
January 4, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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