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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918605/food-or-threat-wild-capuchin-monkeys-sapajus-libidinosus-as-both-predators-and-prey-of-snakes
#1
Tiago Falótico, Michele P Verderane, Olívia Mendonça-Furtado, Noemi Spagnoletti, Eduardo B Ottoni, Elisabetta Visalberghi, Patrícia Izar
Snakes present a hazard to primates, both as active predators and by defensive envenomation. This risk might have been a selective pressure on the evolution of primate visual and cognitive systems, leading to several behavioral traits present in human and non-human primates, such as the ability to quickly learn to fear snakes. Primates seldom prey on snakes, and humans are one of the few primate species that do. We report here another case, the wild capuchin monkey (Sapajus libidinosus), which preys on snakes...
September 16, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916286/toxicology-studies-of-primycin-sulphate-using-a-three-dimensional-3d-in-vitro-human-liver-aggregate-model
#2
Ágota Pénzes, Elhusseiny Mohamed Mahmud Abdelwahab, Judit Rapp, Zsanett A Péteri, Judit Bovári-Biri, Csaba Fekete, György Miskei, Krisztián Kvell, Judit E Pongrácz
Primycin-sulphate is a highly effective compound against Gram (G) positive bacteria. It has a potentially synergistic effect with vancomycin and statins which makes primycin-sulphate a potentially very effective preparation. Primycin-sulphate is currently used exclusively in topical preparations such as in in vitro animal hepatocyte and neuromuscular junction studies (in mice, rats, snakes, frogs) as well as in in vitro human red blood cell experiments. During these studies, the use of primycin-sulphate resulted in reduced cellular membrane integrity and modified ion channel activity...
September 12, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914463/burrowing-with-a-kinetic-snout-in-a-snake-elapidae-aspidelaps-scutatus
#3
Alexandra Deufel
Of the few elongate, fossorial vertebrates that have been examined for their burrowing mechanics, all were found to use an akinetic, reinforced skull to push into the soil, powered mostly by trunk muscles. Reinforced skulls were considered essential for head-first burrowing. In contrast, I found that the skull of the fossorial shield-nosed cobra (Aspidelaps scutatus) is not reinforced and retains the kinetic potential typical of many non-fossorial snakes. Aspidelaps scutatus burrows using a greatly enlarged rostral scale that is attached to a kinetic snout that is independently mobile with respect to the rest of the skull...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913414/diversity-of-aerobic-bacteria-isolated-from-oral-and-cloacal-cavities-from-free-living-snakes-species-in-costa-rica-rainforest
#4
Allan Artavia-León, Ariel Romero-Guerrero, Carolina Sancho-Blanco, Norman Rojas, Rodolfo Umaña-Castro
Costa Rica has a significant number of snakebites per year and bacterial infections are often complications in these animal bites. Hereby, this study aims to identify, characterize, and report the diversity of the bacterial community in the oral and cloacal cavities of venomous and nonvenomous snakes found in wildlife in Costa Rica. The snakes where captured by casual encounter search between August and November of 2014 in the Quebrada González sector, in Braulio Carrillo National Park. A total of 120 swabs, oral and cloacal, were taken from 16 individuals of the Viperidae and Colubridae families...
2017: International Scholarly Research Notices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911659/the-detoxifying-effects-of-structural-elements-of%C3%A2-persimmon-tannin-on-chinese-cobra-phospholipase-a2-correlated-with-their-structural-disturbing-effects-well
#5
Ying Zhang, Chun-Mei Li
The effects of persimmon tannin (PT) characteristic structural elements on Naja atra phospholipase A2 (PLA2)-induced lethality, myotoxicity, and hemolysis in mice models were determined. In addition, methods including surface plasmon resonance, dynamic light scattering, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were explored to uncover the possible detoxifying mechanisms of PT on snake venom PLA2. Our results revealed that PT characteristic elements (EGCG, ECG, A-type EGCG dimer, and A-type ECG dimer) could neutralize the lethality, myotoxicity, and hemolysis of PLA2...
July 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906474/non-clinical-studies-for-evaluation-of-8-c-rhamnosyl-apigenin-purified-from-peperomia-obtusifolia-against-acute-edema
#6
Cinthia I Tamayose, Paulete Romoff, Daniela O Toyama, Henrique H Gaeta, Caroline R C Costa, Mariana N Belchor, Bruna D Ortolan, Leosvaldo S M Velozo, Maria A C Kaplan, Marcelo J P Ferreira, Marcos H Toyama
Compound 8-C-rhamnosyl apigenin (8CR) induced a moderate reduction in the enzymatic activity of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) from Crotalus durissus terrificus and cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), but the compound also significantly inhibited the enzymatic activity of the enzyme cyclooxygenase. In vitro assays showed that the compound induced a slight change in the secondary structure of sPLA2 from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom. In vivo assays were divided into two steps. In the first step, the 8CR compound was administered by intraperitoneal injections 30 min prior to administration of sPLA2...
September 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906404/ticagrelor-induced-life-threatening-bleeding-via-the-cyclosporine-mediated-drug-interaction-a-case-report
#7
Chi Zhang, Long Shen, Min Cui, Xiaoyan Liu, Zhichun Gu
RATIONALE: Ticagrelor has become one of the first-line antiplatelet agents in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients recommend by the guideline due to its more potent and predictable antiplatelet effect. However, bleeding is still a severe drug adverse reaction of ticagrelor therapy. We report a first case on ticagrelor-induced life-threatening bleeding via the cyclosporine-mediated drug interaction. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 58-year-old Chinese male who received cyclosporine 200 mg daily 5 years after renal transplantation...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905944/snakebite-envenoming
#8
REVIEW
José María Gutiérrez, Juan J Calvete, Abdulrazaq G Habib, Robert A Harrison, David J Williams, David A Warrell
Snakebite envenoming is a neglected tropical disease that kills >100,000 people and maims >400,000 people every year. Impoverished populations living in the rural tropics are particularly vulnerable; snakebite envenoming perpetuates the cycle of poverty. Snake venoms are complex mixtures of proteins that exert a wide range of toxic actions. The high variability in snake venom composition is responsible for the various clinical manifestations in envenomings, ranging from local tissue damage to potentially life-threatening systemic effects...
September 14, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904556/medicinal-plants-for-the-treatment-of-local-tissue-damage-induced-by-snake-venoms-an-overview-from-traditional-use-to-pharmacological-evidence
#9
REVIEW
Juliana Félix-Silva, Arnóbio Antônio Silva-Junior, Silvana Maria Zucolotto, Matheus de Freitas Fernandes-Pedrosa
Snakebites are a serious problem in public health due to their high morbimortality. Most of snake venoms produce intense local tissue damage, which could lead to temporary or permanent disability in victims. The available specific treatment is the antivenom serum therapy, whose effectiveness is reduced against these effects. Thus, the search for complementary alternatives for snakebite treatment is relevant. There are several reports of the popular use of medicinal plants against snakebites worldwide. In recent years, many studies have been published giving pharmacological evidence of benefits of several vegetal species against local effects induced by a broad range of snake venoms, including inhibitory potential against hyaluronidase, phospholipase, proteolytic, hemorrhagic, myotoxic, and edematogenic activities...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904179/phylogenomic-analyses-of-more-than-4000-nuclear-loci-resolve-the-origin-of-snakes-among-lizard-families
#10
Jeffrey W Streicher, John J Wiens
Squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes) are the most diverse group of terrestrial vertebrates, with more than 10 000 species. Despite considerable effort to resolve relationships among major squamates clades, some branches have remained difficult. Among the most vexing has been the placement of snakes among lizard families, with most studies yielding only weak support for the position of snakes. Furthermore, the placement of iguanian lizards has remained controversial. Here we used targeted sequence capture to obtain data from 4178 nuclear loci from ultraconserved elements from 32 squamate taxa (and five outgroups) including representatives of all major squamate groups...
September 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901292/control-of-gliding-in-a-flying-snake-inspired-n-chain-model
#11
Farid Jafari, Sevak Tahmasian, Shane Ross, Jake Socha
Flying snakes of genus Chrysopelea possess a highly dynamic gliding behavior, which is dominated by an undulation in the form of lateral waves sent posteriorly down the body. The resulting high-amplitude periodic variations in the distribution of mass and aerodynamic forces have been hypothesized to contribute to the stability of the snake's gliding trajectory. However, a previous two-dimensional analysis in the longitudinal plane failed to reveal a significant effect of undulation on the stability in the pitch direction...
September 13, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901023/mosasaurs-and-snakes-have-a-periodontal-ligament-timing-and-extent-of-calcification-not-tissue-complexity-determines-tooth-attachment-mode-in%C3%A2-reptiles
#12
Aaron R H LeBlanc, Denis O Lamoureux, Michael W Caldwell
Squamates present a unique challenge to our understanding of dental evolution in amniotes because they are the only extant tooth-bearing group for which a ligamentous tooth attachment is considered to be absent. This has led to the assumption that mammals and crocodilians have convergently evolved a ligamentous tooth attachment, composed of root cementum, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone, whereas squamates are thought to possess a single bone of attachment tissue that fuses teeth to the jaws. The identity and homology of tooth attachment tissues between squamates, crocodilians, and mammals have thus been a focal point of debate for decades...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900296/the-causes-and-ecological-correlates-of-head-scale-asymmetry-and-fragmentation-in-a-tropical-snake
#13
Gregory P Brown, Thomas Madsen, Sylvain Dubey, Rick Shine
The challenge of identifying the proximate causes and ecological consequences of phenotypic variation can be facilitated by studying traits that are usually but not always bilaterally symmetrical; deviations from symmetry likely reflect disrupted embryogenesis. Based on a 19-year mark-recapture study of >1300 slatey-grey snakes (Stegonotus cucullatus) in tropical Australia, and incubation of >700 eggs, we document developmental and ecological correlates of two morphological traits: asymmetry and fragmentation of head scales...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893666/physiological-and-behavioral-responses-to-salinity-in-coastal-dice-snakes
#14
François Brischoux, Yurii V Kornilev, Harvey B Lillywhite
Secondarily marine tetrapods have evolved adaptations to maintain their osmotic balance in a hyperosmotic environment. During the transition to a marine habitat, the evolution of a euryhaline physiology likely encompassed successive changes in behavior and physiology that released organisms from regular access to fresh water. Deciphering these key steps is a complicated task. In this study, we investigated a species of freshwater natricine snake in which some populations are known to use marine environments...
September 8, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889903/instructed-fear-stimuli-bias-visual-attention
#15
Berre Deltomme, Gaetan Mertens, Helen Tibboel, Senne Braem
We investigated whether stimuli merely instructed to be fear-relevant can bias visual attention, even when the fear relation was never experienced before. Participants performed a dot-probe task with pictures of naturally fear-relevant (snake or spider) or -irrelevant (bird or butterfly) stimuli. Instructions indicated that two pictures (one naturally fear-relevant and one fear-irrelevant) could be followed by an electrical stimulation (i.e., instructed fear). In reality, no stimulation was administered. During the task, two pictures were presented on each side of the screen, after which participants had to determine as fast as possible on which side a black dot appeared...
September 7, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889321/effects-of-purified-human-fibrinogen-modified-with-carbon-monoxide-and-iron-on-coagulation-in-rabbits-injected-with-crotalus-atrox-venom
#16
Vance G Nielsen
While snake venom derived enzymes, such as the thrombin-like activity possessing ancrod, have been used to treat thrombotic disease by defibrinogenating patients, the therapeutic potential of fibrinogenolytic snake venom enzymes, such as those derived from Crotalus atrox, have not been fully explored. However, one of the potential risks of administering fibrinogenolytic enzymes to effect defibrinogenation is hemorrhage secondary to hypofibrinogenemia. The present investigation sought to determine if human fibrinogen modified with carbon monoxide (CO) and iron (Fe) could resist degradation by C...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888370/biophysical-and-biological-properties-of-small-linear-peptides-derived-from-crotamine-a-cationic-antimicrobial-antitumoral-toxin-with-cell-penetrating-and-cargo-delivery-abilities
#17
C Dal Mas, D A Pinheiro, J D Campeiro, B Mattei, V Oliveira, E B Oliveira, A Miranda, K R Perez, M A F Hayashi
Crotamine is a natural polypeptide from snake venom which delivers nucleic acid molecules into cells, besides having pronounced affinity for negatively charged membranes and antifungal activity. We previously demonstrated that crotamine derived short linear peptides were not very effective as antifungal, although the non-structured recombinant crotamine was overridingly more potent compared to the native structured crotamine. Aiming to identify the features necessary for the antifungal activity of crotamine, two linear short peptides, each comprising half of the total positively charged amino acid residues of the full-length crotamine were evaluated here to show that these linear peptides keep the ability to interact with lipid membrane model systems with different phospholipid compositions, even after forming complexes with DNA...
September 6, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887121/discovery-of-human-scfvs-that-cross-neutralize-the-toxic-effects-of-b-jararacussu-and-c-d-terrificus-venoms
#18
Luciano C Silva, Manuela B Pucca, Gabriela Pessenda, Lucas B Campos, Edson Z Martinez, Felipe A Cerni, José E Barbosa
Accidents involving venomous snakes are a public health problem worldwide, causing a large number of deaths per year. In Brazil, the majority of accidents are caused by the Bothrops and Crotalus genera, which are responsible for approximately 80% of severe envenoming cases. The cross-neutralization of snake venoms by antibodies is an important issue for development of more effective treatments. Our group has previously reported the construction of human monoclonal antibody fragments towards Bothrops jararacussu and Crotalus durissus terrificus' venoms...
September 5, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887046/effect-of-amino-acids-near-the-rgd-sequence-on-binding-activities-between-%C3%AE-iib%C3%AE-3-integrin-and-fibrinogen-in-the-presence-of-rgd-containing-synthetic-peptides-from-elegantin-and-angustatin
#19
Etsuko Oyama, Hidenobu Takahashi, Kazuyuki Ishii
Elegantin and angustatin, which were isolated from the snake venoms of Protobothrops elegans and Dendroaspis angusticeps, markedly inhibit binding between platelet integrins and fibrinogen via the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) sequence. Angustatin, which is a three-finger toxin containing the RGD sequence, inhibits platelet aggregation almost ten times more strongly than disintegrin isolated from the venoms of Viperidae and Crotalidae. The RGD sequences of both polypeptides are located at the top of hairpin loops, and the composition of the RGD loop is very important for binding to integrin...
September 5, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882517/diagnosis-and-genetic-analysis-of-the-worldwide-distributed-rattus-borne-trypanosoma-herpetosoma-lewisi-and-its-allied-species-in-blood-and-fleas-of-rodents
#20
Paola A Ortiz, Herakles A Garcia, Luciana Lima, Flávia Maia da Silva, Marta Campaner, Carlos L Pereira, Sathaporn Jittapalapong, Luis Neves, Marc Desquesnes, Erney P Camargo, Marta M G Teixeira
Trypanosoma (Herpetosoma) lewisi is a cosmopolitan parasite of rodents strongly linked to the human dispersal of Rattus spp. from Asia to the rest of the world. This species is highly phylogenetically related to trypanosomes from other rodents (T. lewisi-like), and sporadically infects other mammals. T. lewisi may opportunistically infect humans, and has been considered an emergent rat-borne zoonosis associated to poverty. We developed the THeCATL-PCR based on Cathepsin L (CATL) sequences to specifically detect T...
September 4, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
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