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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830096/using-murine-colitis-models-to-analyze-probiotics-host-interactions
#1
Rebeca Martín, Florian Chain, Sylvie Miquel, Jean-Paul Motta, Nathalie Vergnolle, Harry Sokol, Philippe Langella
Probiotics are defined as 'live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host'. So, to consider a microorganism as a probiotic, a demonstrable beneficial effect on the health host should be shown as well as an adequate defined safety status and the capacity to survive transit through the gastrointestinal tract and to storage conditions. In this review, we present an overview of the murine colitis models currently employed to test the beneficial effect of the probiotic strains as well as an overview of the probiotics already tested...
August 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830087/polysaccharide-production-by-lactic-acid-bacteria-from-genes-to-industrial-applications
#2
Ahmad A Zeidan, Vera Kuzina Poulsen, Thomas Janzen, Patrizia Buldo, Patrick M F Derkx, Gunnar Øregaard, Ana Rute Neves
The ability to produce polysaccharides with diverse biological functions is widespread in bacteria. In lactic acid bacteria (LAB), production of polysaccharides has long been associated with the technological, functional and health-promoting benefits of these microorganisms. In particular, the capsular polysaccharides and exopolysaccharides have been implicated in modulation of the rheological properties of fermented products. For this reason, screening and selection of exocellular polysaccharide-producing LAB has been extensively carried out by academia and industry...
August 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830047/microbiological-and-environmental-significance-of-metal-dependent-anaerobic-oxidation-of-methane
#3
REVIEW
Zhanfei He, Qingying Zhang, Yudong Feng, Hongwei Luo, Xiangliang Pan, Geoffrey Michael Gadd
Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) can be coupled to the reduction of sulfate, nitrate and nitrite, which effectively reduces methane emission into the atmosphere. Recently, metal-dependent AOM (metal-AOM, AOM coupled to metal reduction) was demonstrated to occur in both environmental samples and enrichment cultures. Anaerobic methanotrophs are capable of respiration using Fe(III) or Mn(IV), whether they are in the form of soluble metal species or insoluble minerals. Given the wide distribution of Fe(III)/Mn(IV)-bearing minerals in aquatic methane-rich environments, metal-AOM is considered to be globally important, although it has generally been overlooked in previous studies...
August 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829385/extracellular-microbial-metabolomics-the-state-of-the-art
#4
REVIEW
Farhana R Pinu, Silas G Villas-Boas
Microorganisms produce and secrete many primary and secondary metabolites to the surrounding environment during their growth. Therefore, extracellular metabolites provide important information about the changes in microbial metabolism due to different environmental cues. The determination of these metabolites is also comparatively easier than the extraction and analysis of intracellular metabolites as there is no need for cell rupture. Many analytical methods are already available and have been used for the analysis of extracellular metabolites from microorganisms over the last two decades...
August 22, 2017: Metabolites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828984/the-efficacy-and-potential-mechanisms-of-chinese-herbal-medicine-on-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#5
Zijuan Bi, Yu Zheng, Jianye Yuan, Zhaoxiang Bian
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common functional bowel disorders (FBD), which is characterized by recurrent abdominal pain, abdominal bloating/distention associated with defecation or changed bowel habits. Currently, there is no evidence of obvious anatomic or physiologic abnormalities on the routine diagnostic examinations. There are multiple pathological factors involved in IBS responsible for its heterogeneous nature, although the exact etiology and pathology of IBS are not well known and it is disappointed to develop biomarkers for this disorder...
August 21, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828756/diversity-of-microbiota-associated-with-symptomatic-and-non-symptomatic-bacterial-wilt-diseased-banana-plants-determined-using-16s-rrna-metagenome-sequencing
#6
Nurul Shamsinah Mohd Suhaimi, Share-Yuan Goh, Noni Ajam, Rofina Yasmin Othman, Kok-Gan Chan, Kwai Lin Thong
Banana is one of the most important fruits cultivated in Malaysia, and it provides many health benefits. However, bacterial wilt disease, which attacks bananas, inflicts major losses on the banana industry in Malaysia. To understand the complex interactions of the microbiota of bacterial wilt-diseased banana plants, we first determined the bacterial communities residing in the pseudostems of infected (symptomatic) and diseased-free (non-symptomatic) banana plants. We characterized the associated microorganisms using the targeted 16S rRNA metagenomics sequencing on the Illumina MiSeq platform...
August 21, 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828284/influence-of-cntrene-%C3%A2-c100lm-carbon-nanotube-material-on-the-growth-and-regulation-of-escherichia-coli
#7
Brittany Twibell, Kalie Somerville, Geoffrey Manani, Molly Duszynski, Adam Wanekaya, Paul Schweiger
The growing use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in industrial and consumer products raises important questions about their environmental fate and impact on prokaryotes. In the environment, CNTs are exposed to a variety of conditions (e.g., UV light) that could lead to decomposition and changes in their chemical properties. Therefore, the potential cytotoxic effect of both pristine and artificially aged carboxyl functionalized CNTRENE(®) C100LM CNTmaterial at neutral and acidic conditions on Escherichia coli K12 was analyzed using a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay, which also allowed monitoring of non-lethal growth effects...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828247/taxonomic-and-chemical-assessment-of-exceptionally-abundant-rock-mine-biofilm
#8
Karolina Tomczyk-Żak, Paweł Szczesny, Robert Gromadka, Urszula Zielenkiewicz
BACKGROUND: An exceptionally thick biofilm covers walls of ancient gold and arsenic Złoty Stok mine (Poland) in the apparent absence of organic sources of energy. METHODS AND RESULTS: We have characterized this microbial community using culture-dependent and independent methods. We sequenced amplicons of the 16S rRNA gene obtained using generic primers and additional primers targeted at Archaea and Actinobacteria separately. Also, we have cultured numerous isolates from the biofilm on different media under aerobic and anaerobic conditions...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827999/high-carotenoid-production-by-a-halotolerant-bacterium-kocuria-sp-strain-qwt-12-and-anticancer-activity-of-its-carotenoid
#9
Sajad Sarvari, Faezeh Moakedi
Halophilic prokaryotes are extremophile microorganisms that grow optimally in media containing salts and almost appeared pigmented. Many of them contain high concentrations of carotenoids. Amongst 15 strains of halophilic prokaryotes isolated from industrial tannery wastewater in Qom, a Gram-stain-positive coccoid, aerobic, non-endospore-forming, halotolerant bacterium designated as strain QWT-12 showed high capacity in the production of carotenoids in a wide range of culture medium factors. 16S rRNA gene analysis showed that this strain belongs to the genus Kocuria...
2017: EXCLI journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827963/investigation-of-effect-of-1-8-cineole-on-antimicrobial-activity-of-chlorhexidine-gluconate
#10
Merih Şimşek, Reşat Duman
BACKGROUND: Chlorhexidine belongs to a group of medicines called antiseptic antibacterial agents. Chlorhexidine is commonly used for the care and clean off the skin, hands, and wounds. In recent years, medicinal and aromatic plants have been used for prevention of disease, maintaining health, and improving disease in traditional and modern medicine as a medicament. According to recent research, cineole is the isolated active agent of eucalyptus oil and possesses antimicrobial activity...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827706/soil-c-and-n-statuses-determine-the-effect-of-maize-inoculation-by-plant-growth-promoting-rhizobacteria-on-nitrifying-and-denitrifying-communities
#11
Alessandro Florio, Thomas Pommier, Jonathan Gervaix, Annette Bérard, Xavier Le Roux
Maize inoculation by Azospirillum stimulates root growth, along with soil nitrogen (N) uptake and root carbon (C) exudation, thus increasing N use efficiency. However, inoculation effects on soil N-cycling microbial communities have been overlooked. We hypothesized that inoculation would (i) increase roots-nitrifiers competition for ammonium, and thus decrease nitrifier abundance; and (ii) increase roots-denitrifiers competition for nitrate and C supply to denitrifiers by root exudation, and thus limit or benefit denitrifiers depending on the resource (N or C) mostly limiting these microorganisms...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826816/new-nucleoside-hydrolase-with-transribosylation-activity-from-agromyces-sp-mm-1-and-its-application-for-enzymatic-synthesis-of-2-o-methylribonucleosides
#12
Yuuki Mitsukawa, Makoto Hibi, Narihiro Matsutani, Nobuyuki Horinouchi, Satomi Takahashi, Jun Ogawa
Microorganisms were screened for transribosylation activity between 2'-O-methyluridine (2'-OMe-UR) and nucleobases, for the purpose of developing a biotransformation process to synthesize 2'-O-methylribonucleosides (2'-OMe-NRs), which are raw materials for nucleic acid drugs. An actinomycete, Agromyces sp. MM-1 was found to produce 2'-O-methyladenosine (2'-OMe-AR) when whole cells were used in a reaction mixture containing 2'-OMe-UR and adenine. The enzyme responsible for the transribosylation was partially purified from Agromyces sp...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826728/cryopreserved-arterial-allografts-for-in-situ-reconstruction-of-abdominal-aortic-native-or-secondary-graft-infection
#13
Sabrina Ben Ahmed, Adrien Louvancourt, Guillaume Daniel, Pierre Combe, Ambroise Duprey, Jean-Noël Albertini, Jean-Pierre Favre, Eugenio Rosset
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the early and long-term outcome of cryopreserved arterial allografts (CAAs) used for in situ reconstruction of abdominal aortic native or secondary graft infection and to identify predictors of mortality. METHODS: We retrospectively included 71 patients (mean age, 65.2 years [range, 41-84 years]; men, 91.5%) treated for abdominal aortic native or secondary graft infection (65 prosthetic graft infections; 16 of them had secondary aortoenteric fistula, 2 venous graft infections, and 4 mycotic aneurysms) by in situ reconstruction with CAA in the university hospitals of Clermont-Ferrand and Saint-Etienne from 2000 to 2016...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826642/archaea-are-interactive-components-of-complex-microbiomes
#14
REVIEW
Christine Moissl-Eichinger, Manuela Pausan, Julian Taffner, Gabriele Berg, Corinna Bang, Ruth A Schmitz
Recent findings have shaken our picture of the biology of the archaea and revealed novel traits beyond archaeal extremophily and supposed 'primitiveness'. The archaea constitute a considerable fraction of the Earth's ecosystems, and their potential to shape their surroundings by a profound interaction with their biotic and abiotic environment has been recognized. Moreover, archaea have been identified as a substantial component, or even as keystone species, in complex microbiomes - in the environment or accompanying a holobiont...
August 18, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826586/16s-rrna-gene-sequencing-reveals-site-specific-signatures-of-the-upper-and-lower-airways-of-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#15
Sarah K Lucas, Robert Yang, Jordan M Dunitz, Holly C Boyer, Ryan C Hunter
BACKGROUND: Metastasis of upper airway microbiota may have significant implications in the development of chronic lung disease. Here, we compare bacterial communities of matched sinus and lung mucus samples from cystic fibrosis (CF) subjects undergoing endoscopic surgery for treatment of chronic sinusitis. METHODS: Mucus from one maxillary sinus and expectorated sputum were collected from twelve patients. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was then performed on sample pairs to compare the structure and function of CF airway microbiota...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826248/silver-nanoparticles-synthesized-with-rumex-hymenosepalus-extracts-effective-broad-spectrum-microbicidal-agents-and-cytotoxicity-study
#16
Ericka Rodríguez-León, Ramón A Íñiguez-Palomares, Rosa Elena Navarro, César Rodríguez-Beas, Eduardo Larios-Rodríguez, Francisco J Alvarez-Cirerol, Claudia Íñiguez-Palomares, Maricela Ramírez-Saldaña, Javier Hernández Martínez, Aarón Martínez-Higuera, José Manuel Galván-Moroyoqui, Juan Manuel Martínez-Soto
We synthesized silver nanoparticles using Rumex hymenosepalus root extract (Rh). Nanoparticles were subjected to a purification process and final product is a composite of Rh and silver nanoparticles (AgNPsC). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to perform a microstructure study. Additionally, two fractions (RhA and RhB) were obtained from the original extract by filtration with tetrahydrofuran (THF); both fractions were analyzed using UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH); total polyphenol content was also determined...
August 21, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822940/effects-of-airborne-ammonium-and-nitrate-pollution-strongly-differ-in-peat-bogs-but-symbiotic-nitrogen-fixation-remains-unaffected
#17
Eva van den Elzen, Leon J L van den Berg, Bas van der Weijden, Christian Fritz, Lucy J Sheppard, Leon P M Lamers
Pristine bogs, peatlands in which vegetation is exclusively fed by rainwater (ombrotrophic), typically have a low atmospheric deposition of reactive nitrogen (N) (<0.5kgha(-1)y(-1)). An important additional N source is N2 fixation by symbiotic microorganisms (diazotrophs) in peat and mosses. Although the effects of increased total airborne N by anthropogenic emissions on bog vegetation are well documented, the important question remains how different N forms (ammonium, NH4(+), versus nitrate, NO3(-)) affect N cycling, as their relative contribution to the total load strongly varies among regions globally...
August 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822848/tetracarboxy-phthalocyanines-from-excited-state-dynamics-to-photodynamic-inactivation-against-bovine-herpesvirus-type-1
#18
Leandro H Z Cocca, Taise M A Oliveira, Fernando Gotardo, Amanda V Teles, Ricardo Menegatti, Jonathas P Siqueira, Cleber R Mendonça, Luiz A M Bataus, Anderson O Ribeiro, Thalita F M Souza, Guilherme R L Souza, Pablo J Gonçalves, Leonardo De Boni
Herein we present the excited state dynamic of zinc and aluminum tetracarboxy-phthalocyanines (ZnPc and AlPc) and its application in the photodynamic inactivation (PDI) of Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) in vitro. The excited state dynamic provides valuable data to describe the excited state properties of potential optical limiters and/or photosensitizers (PSs), such as: the excited state cross-sections, fluorescence lifetime and triplet state quantum yield. The excited state characterization was performed using three different Z-scan techniques: Single Pulse, White Light Continuum and Pulse Train...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822617/microbiota-dysbiosis-in-select-human-cancers-evidence-of-association-and-causality
#19
REVIEW
Jie Chen, Jada C Domingue, Cynthia L Sears
The human microbiota is a complex ecosystem of diverse microorganisms consisting of bacteria, viruses, and fungi residing predominantly in epidermal and mucosal habitats across the body, such as skin, oral cavity, lung, intestine and vagina. These symbiotic communities in health, or dysbiotic communities in disease, display tremendous interaction with the local environment and systemic responses, playing a critical role in the host's nutrition, immunity, metabolism and diseases including cancers. While the profiling of normal microbiota in healthy populations is useful and necessary, more recent studies have focused on the microbiota associated with disease, particularly cancers...
August 16, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822595/microbiological-assessment-of-honey-in-m%C3%A3-xico
#20
Carlos Ramón Vázquez-Quiñones, Rúben Moreno-Terrazas, Iván Natividad-Bonifacio, Elsa Irma Quiñones-Ramírez, Carlos Vázquez-Salinas
Honey is a product used as a natural sweetener and in several regions of Mexico and other countries it is also used as a therapeutic agent. Microbiological contamination of honey can occur during its extraction and handling. Due to the use and consumption of honey we highlighted here the importance of the assessment of its microbiological quality. One thousand nine hundred twenty samples obtained from 8 honey-producing states from Mexico were analyzed. From these samples, 40.5% (777/1920) did not comply with the NMX-036-NORMEX-2006 specification...
August 16, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
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