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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550000/reversal-of-%C3%AE-oxidative-pathways-for-the-microbial-production-of-chemicals-and-polymer-building-blocks
#1
REVIEW
Nicolai Kallscheuer, Tino Polen, Michael Bott, Jan Marienhagen
β-Oxidation is the ubiquitous metabolic strategy to break down fatty acids. In the course of this four-step process, two carbon atoms are liberated per cycle from the fatty acid chain in the form of acetyl-CoA. However, typical β-oxidative strategies are not restricted to monocarboxylic (fatty) acid degradation only, but can also be involved in the utilization of aromatic compounds, amino acids and dicarboxylic acids. Each enzymatic step of a typical β-oxidation cycle is reversible, offering the possibility to also take advantage of reversed metabolic pathways for applied purposes...
May 23, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549813/mining-terpenoids-production-and-biosynthetic-pathway-in-thraustochytrids
#2
REVIEW
Yunxuan Xie, Biswarup Sen, Guangyi Wang
Terpenoids are major bioactive compounds produced by microalgae and other eukaryotic microorganisms. Mining metabolic potential of marine microalgae for commercial production of terpenoids suggest thraustochytrids as one of the promising cell factories. The identification of potential thraustochytrid strains and relevant laboratory scale bioprocesses has been pursued largely. Further investigations in the improvement of terpenoids biosynthesis expect relevant molecular mechanisms to be understood directing metabolic engineering of the pathways...
May 4, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549808/volatile-fatty-acid-recovery-by-anaerobic-fermentation-from-blue-green-algae-effect-of-pretreatment
#3
Hyun Uk Cho, Hye Gyeong Kim, Young Mo Kim, Jong Moon Park
The aims of this study were to quantify how pretreatment affects production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from cyanobacterial biomass and production of subsequent microbial lipid by an oleaginous microorganism that uses the VFAs as carbon sources. The highest biomass solubilization was obtained using thermal-alkaline (th-alkaline) pretreatment (33.1%), followed by alkaline pretreatment (29.1%), and thermal pretreatment (7.2%), but the highest VFA yield was obtained using alkaline pretreatment (0.54±0.02g/gVS), followed by the untreated condition (0...
May 17, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549804/the-efficient-clade-lactic-acid-bacteria-for-industrial-chemical-production
#4
REVIEW
Michael Sauer, Hannes Russmayer, Reingard Grabherr, Clemens K Peterbauer, Hans Marx
Lactic acid bacteria are well known to be beneficial for food production and, as probiotics, they are relevant for many aspects of health. However, their potential as cell factories for the chemical industry is only emerging. Many physiological traits of these microorganisms, evolved for optimal growth in their niche, are also valuable in an industrial context. Here, we illuminate these features and describe why the distinctive adaptation of lactic acid bacteria is particularly useful when developing a microbial process for chemical production from renewable resources...
May 23, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549374/metabolic-engineering-of-escherichia-coli-to-high-efficient-synthesis-phenylacetic-acid-from-phenylalanine
#5
Lihua Zhang, Qian Liu, Hong Pan, Xun Li, Daoyi Guo
Phenylacetic acid (PAA) is a fine chemical with a high industrial demand for its widespread uses. Whereas, microorganic synthesis of PAA is impeded by the formation of by-product phenethyl alcohol due to quick, endogenous, and superfluous conversion of aldehydes to their corresponding alcohols, which resulted in less conversation of PAA from aldehydes. In this study, an Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 strain with reduced aromatic aldehyde reduction (RARE) that does duty for a platform for aromatic aldehyde biosynthesis was used to prompt more PAA biosynthesis...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549299/the-effect-of-feed-supplementation-with-effective-microorganisms-em-on-pro-and-anti-inflammatory-cytokine-concentrations-in-pigs
#6
Ewa Laskowska, Łukasz Jarosz, Zbigniew Grądzki
Effective microorganisms (EM) are used in numerous fields associated with agriculture. The beneficial effects of EM on the general health of pigs and on production parameters are also determined by the influence of these microbes on immunity. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of feed supplementation with EM on the concentration of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the serum and in a culture of PBMCs with and without ConA stimulation in pigs. ELISA kits were used to determine the cytokine levels in the porcine serum and the PBMC culture supernatants...
April 14, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549251/enhanced-methane-production-and-its-kinetics-model-of-thermally-pretreated-lignocellulose-waste-material
#7
C Veluchamy, Ajay S Kalamdhad
The objective of the study was to assess the effect of substrate concentration by specific methanogenic activity (SMA) of thermally pretreated pulp and paper mill sludge. Different substrate concentration through food to microorganism ratio varied from 1.0 to 3.0 was carried out in a mesophilic condition as biochemical methane potential assay. Experimental results offered that cellulose removal rate spikes up to 60.2%. The specific methane gas production and biodegradability were increased up to 303mL of CH4/g VS and 73% respectively...
May 15, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548940/microbiota-gut-brain-axis-and-the-central-nervous-system
#8
REVIEW
Xiqun Zhu, Yong Han, Jing Du, Renzhong Liu, Ketao Jin, Wei Yi
The gut and brain form the gut-brain axis through bidirectional nervous, endocrine, and immune communications. Changes in one of the organs will affect the other organs. Disorders in the composition and quantity of gut microorganisms can affect both the enteric nervous system and the central nervous system (CNS), thereby indicating the existence of a microbiota-gut-brain axis. Due to the intricate interactions between the gut and the brain, gut symbiotic microorganisms are closely associated with various CNS diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and multiple sclerosis...
May 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548658/distinctive-microbiomes-and-metabolites-linked-with-weight-loss-after-gastric-bypass-but-not-gastric-banding
#9
Zehra Esra Ilhan, John K DiBaise, Nancy G Isern, David W Hoyt, Andrew K Marcus, Dae-Wook Kang, Michael D Crowell, Bruce E Rittmann, Rosa Krajmalnik-Brown
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) are anatomically different bariatric operations. RYGB achieves greater weight loss compared with LAGB. Changes in the gut microbiome have been documented after RYGB, but not LAGB, and the microbial contribution to sustainable surgical weight loss warrants further evaluation. We hypothesized that RYGB imposes greater changes on the microbiota and its metabolism than LAGB, and that the altered microbiota may contribute to greater weight loss...
May 26, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548370/current-state-of-a-dual-behavior-of-antimicrobial-peptides-therapeutic-agents-and-promising-delivery-vectors
#10
REVIEW
Urszula Piotrowska, Marcin Sobczak, Ewa Oledzka
Microorganism resistance is an important challenge in modern medicine due to the global uncontrolled use of antibiotics. Natural and synthetic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) symbolize a new family of antibiotics, which have stimulated research and clinical interest as new therapeutic options for infections. They represent one of the most promising antimicrobial substances, due to their broad spectrum of biological activity, against bacteria, fungi, protozoa, viruses, yeast and even tumour cells. Besides, being antimicrobial, AMPs have been shown to bind and neutralize bacterial endotoxins, as well as possess immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, wound-healing, angiogenic and antitumour properties...
May 26, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547568/biofertilizers-and-sustainable-agriculture-exploring-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi
#11
REVIEW
Nicholas O Igiehon, Olubukola O Babalola
Worldwide agricultural food production has to double in 2050 so as to feed the global increasing population while reducing dependency on conventional chemical fertilizers plus pesticides. To accomplish this objective, there is the need to explore the several mutualistic interactions between plant roots and rhizosphere microbiome. Biofertilization is the process of boosting the abundance of microorganisms such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the natural plant rhizosphere which depicts a beneficial alternative to chemical fertilization practices...
May 25, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547381/purinergic-signalling-links-mechanical-breath-profile-and-alveolar-mechanics-with-the-pro-inflammatory-innate-immune-response-causing-ventilation-induced-lung-injury
#12
REVIEW
Djo Hasan, Paul Blankman, Gary F Nieman
Severe pulmonary infection or vigorous cyclic deformation of the alveolar epithelial type I (AT I) cells by mechanical ventilation leads to massive extracellular ATP release. High levels of extracellular ATP saturate the ATP hydrolysis enzymes CD39 and CD73 resulting in persistent high ATP levels despite the conversion to adenosine. Above a certain level, extracellular ATP molecules act as danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and activate the pro-inflammatory response of the innate immunity through purinergic receptors on the surface of the immune cells...
May 26, 2017: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547323/a-shortened-two-enzyme-pathway-for-2-3-butanediol-production-in-escherichia-coli
#13
Shamlan M S Reshamwala, Shalini S Deb, Arvind M Lali
The platform chemical 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BDO) is produced by a number of microorganisms via a three-enzyme pathway starting from pyruvate. Here, we report production of 2,3-BDO via a shortened, two-enzyme pathway in Escherichia coli. A synthetic operon consisting of the acetolactate synthase (ALS) and acetoin reductase (AR) genes from Enterobacter under control of the T7 promoter was cloned in an episomal plasmid. E. coli transformed with this plasmid produced 2,3-BDO and the pathway intermediate acetoin, demonstrating that the shortened pathway was functional...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546954/pleiotropic-cytotoxicity-of-vaca-toxin-in-host-cells-and-its-impact-on-immunotherapy
#14
REVIEW
Farnaz Fahimi, Mohammad Reza Tohidkia, Mehdi Fouladi, Reza Aghabeygi, Naser Samadi, Yadollah Omidi
Introduction: In the recent decades, a number of studies have highlighted the importance of Helicobacter pylori in the initiation and development of peptic ulcer and gastric cancer. Some potential virulence factors (e.g., urease, CagA, VacA, BabA) are exploited by this microorganism, facilitating its persistence through evading human defense mechanisms. Among these toxins and enzymes, vacuolating toxin A (VacA) is of a great importance in the pathogenesis of H. pylori. VacA toxin shows different pattern of cytotoxicity through binding to different cell surface receptors in various cells...
2017: BioImpacts: BI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546690/update-on-the-epidemiology-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-ocular-infections
#15
Darlene Miller
PURPOSE: The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the epidemiology and current antibiotic-resistant threats in ophthalmology. METHODS: Trends in frequency and antibiotic-nonsusceptible profiles during an 11 year-period (2005-2015) were evaluated and compared with the 5-year Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring in Ocular Microorganism (ARMOR) study. RESULTS: Trends in the current review confirmed the continued high rates of fluoroquinolone nonsusceptbility circulating among ocular methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus epidermidis, methicillin-resistant S...
January 2017: Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546688/collagen-cross-linking-for-microbial-keratitis
#16
Prashant Garg, Sujata Das, Aravind Roy
Collagen cross-linking is gaining popularity not only for arresting the progression of keratoconus but also other indications including management of corneal infections. In this review article, we analyzed the published literature to understand the level of evidence for its use in corneal ulcer. Photoactivated riboflavin and ultraviolet A light are known to possess antimicrobial properties. The treatment also induces formation of inter- and intra-fibrillar bonds, thereby making the corneal collagen resistant to the action of proteases arresting stromal melt...
January 2017: Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546686/infectious-uveitis-an-enigma
#17
Parthopratim Dutta Majumder, Avirupa Ghosh, Jyotirmay Biswas
Infectious uveitis accounts for majority of the cases of uveitis in developing countries. It also encompasses an array of various microorganisms and their clinical presentations. Some of these infectious uveitic entities are familiar, while others are newly emerging in the global ophthalmic world. Many of these entities are also a major cause of morbidity and mortality, and appropriate, timely management is required to save not the eye, but life of the patient. This review highlights the ocular manifestations of various infectious uveitic entities, relevant to the ophthalmologist...
January 2017: Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546564/roles-of-intestinal-epithelial-cells-in-the-maintenance-of-gut-homeostasis
#18
REVIEW
Ryu Okumura, Kiyoshi Takeda
The intestine is a unique organ inhabited by a tremendous number of microorganisms. Intestinal epithelial cells greatly contribute to the maintenance of the symbiotic relationship between gut microbiota and the host by constructing mucosal barriers, secreting various immunological mediators and delivering bacterial antigens. Mucosal barriers, including physical barriers and chemical barriers, spatially segregate gut microbiota and the host immune system to avoid unnecessary immune responses to gut microbes, leading to the intestinal inflammation...
May 26, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546156/ancestral-alliances-plant-mutualistic-symbioses-with-fungi-and-bacteria
#19
REVIEW
Francis M Martin, Stéphane Uroz, David G Barker
Within the plant microbiota, mutualistic fungal and bacterial symbionts are striking examples of microorganisms playing crucial roles in nutrient acquisition. They have coevolved with their hosts since initial plant adaptation to land. Despite the evolutionary distances that separate mycorrhizal and nitrogen-fixing symbioses, these associations share a number of highly conserved features, including specific plant symbiotic signaling pathways, root colonization strategies that circumvent plant immune responses, functional host-microbe interface formation, and the central role of phytohormones in symbiosis-associated root developmental pathways...
May 26, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546075/antimicrobial-storage-and-antibiotic-knowledge-in-the-community-a-cross-sectional-pilot-study-in-north-western-angola
#20
Joana Cortez, Edite Rosário, João E Pires, João Taborda Lopes, Moisés Francisco, Erika Vlieghe, Miguel Brito
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobials are drugs that were once lifesavers and mainly curative. Nowadays their value is increasingly under pressure because of the fast and worldwide emergence of antimicrobial resistance, which, in low resources settings, frequently occurs in microorganisms that are likely to be transmitted in the community. METHODS: A cross-sectional pilot study including 102 households within the 10th HDSS round in Dande, Bengo Province, Angola. RESULTS: From the total 102 households piloted, 77...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
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