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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050443/microbial-endocrinology-why-the-intersection-of-microbiology-and-neurobiology-matters-to-poultry-health
#1
Daniel N Villageliu, Mark Lyte
The union of microbiology and neurobiology has led to a revolution in the way we view the microbiome. Now recognized as important symbionts, the microorganisms which inhabit multiple niches in mammalian and avian (chicken) hosts, such as the intestinal tract and skin, serve and influence many important physiological functions. The realization that the gut microbiome serves as a kind of "microbial organ" has important implications for many areas of biology. In this paper advances in the field of microbial endocrinology which may hold relevance for the poultry industry are examined...
August 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050022/assessment-of-root-caries-lesion-activity-and-its-histopathological-features
#2
Thiago Saads Carvalho, Adrian Lussi
Despite certain similarities in the etiology of root caries (RC) and coronal caries, there are notable differences in their histology, namely with regard to the demineralization process, which should be taken into consideration when assessing lesion activity. In this chapter, we present the histological changes to the dentin and pulp, occurring physiologically or in response to caries lesions. We focus on the histological features specific to RC lesions, discussing the assessment of lesion activity. The physiological changes occurring to the dentin and pulp are the formation of secondary dentin and the sclerosis of dentin tubules, while tertiary dentin is formed during pathologic stimuli from caries lesions...
2017: Monographs in Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049956/adsorption-and-biodegradation-of-dye-in-wastewater-with-fe3o4-mil-100-fe-core-shell-bio-nanocomposites
#3
Jixiang Fan, Dongyun Chen, Najun Li, Qingfeng Xu, Hua Li, Jinghui He, Jianmei Lu
Adsorption and improved biodegradation of dyes in wastewater was achieved with Fe3O4@MIL-100 core-shell bio-nanocomposites, which were prepared by a step-by-step strategy and attached to the surface of bacteria via zero-length carbodiimide chemistry. The Fe3O4@MIL-100 (Fe) nano-composite showed excellent dye adsorption properties and the overall dye removal process followed second-order kinetics. The dye AO10 was completely eliminated from solution by the combined effects of adsorption and biodegradation within 15 and 25 h from initial dye concentrations of 25 and 50 mg/L, respectively...
October 10, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049939/water-assessment-using-ultra-weak-bioluminescence
#4
A C Cordeiro, J L Fabris, G H Couto, H J Kalinowski, E Bertogna
In this paper a method to evaluate the presence of microorganisms of the coliform group in water samples using the ultra-weak bioluminescence (UWB) is proposed. A series of UWB measurements and optical density measurements from cultures of both a set of standard E. coli strain samples, and a set of water samples from a river near Curitiba City in Brazil were performed. All samples were previously incubated at 37°C for 11h in nutritive medium before the temporal UWB emission profiles data were acquired for a period of 24h inside a dark chamber of an especially implemented instrumentation capable of doing photon counting measurements...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049350/an-integrative-in-silico-approach-for-therapeutic-target-identification-in-the-human-pathogen-corynebacterium-diphtheriae
#5
Syed Babar Jamal, Syed Shah Hassan, Sandeep Tiwari, Marcus V Viana, Leandro de Jesus Benevides, Asad Ullah, Adrián G Turjanski, Debmalya Barh, Preetam Ghosh, Daniela Arruda Costa, Artur Silva, Richard Röttger, Jan Baumbach, Vasco A C Azevedo
Corynebacterium diphtheriae (Cd) is a Gram-positive human pathogen responsible for diphtheria infection and once regarded for high mortalities worldwide. The fatality gradually decreased with improved living standards and further alleviated when many immunization programs were introduced. However, numerous drug-resistant strains emerged recently that consequently decreased the efficacy of current therapeutics and vaccines, thereby obliging the scientific community to start investigating new therapeutic targets in pathogenic microorganisms...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049058/the-neonatal-microbiome-implications-for-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-nurses
#6
Jeannie Rodriguez, Sheila Jordan, Abby Mutic, Taylor Thul
Nursing care of the neonate in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is complex, due in large part to various physiological challenges. A newer and less well-known physiological consideration is the neonatal microbiome, the community of microorganisms, both helpful and harmful, that inhabit the human body. The neonatal microbiome is influenced by the maternal microbiome, mode of infant birth, and various aspects of NICU care such as feeding choice and use of antibiotics. The composition and diversity of the microbiome is thought to influence key health outcomes including development of necrotizing enterocolitis, late-onset sepsis, altered physical growth, and poor neurodevelopment...
November 2017: MCN. the American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049057/the-postpartum-maternal-and-newborn-microbiomes
#7
Abby D Mutic, Sheila Jordan, Sara M Edwards, Erin P Ferranti, Taylor A Thul, Irene Yang
Biological and environmental changes to maternal and newborn microbiomes in the postnatal period can affect health outcomes for the mother-baby dyad. Postpartum sleep deprivation and unmet dietary needs can alter commensal bacteria within the body and disrupt gut-brain communication. Perineal injury and breast infections also change microbial community composition, potentiating an environment favoring pathogen growth. The gut microbiome refers to the collection of microorganisms working in harmony. Disruptions within the gut microbiome and gut-brain communication may lead to postpartum depression, a potentially devastating sequela...
November 2017: MCN. the American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048529/the-rhizome-of-lokiarchaeota-illustrates-the-mosaicity-of-archaeal-genomes
#8
Anthony Levasseur, Vicky Merhej, Emeline Baptiste, Vikas Sharma, Pierre Pontarotti, Didier Raoult
Genome remodeling and exchange of sequences are widespread in the prokaryotic world and mosaic genomes challenge the classification of prokaryotes, which cannot be properly achieved in terms of a single gene or group of genes. Here, we studied individually the gene collection of the archaic microorganism Lokiarchaeum sp., suggested as an archaeal host close to the emergence of the eukaryotes. The network or rhizome of all Lokiarchaeum sp. genes revealed that the genomic repertoire is mainly composed of genes from archaeal (∼36%) and bacterial origin (∼28%), distantly followed by components of eukaryotic origin (∼2%)...
October 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048452/development-of-the-laboratory-prototype-cavypool-for-assessing-treatments-and-materials-for-swimming-pools
#9
F Valeriani, G Gianfranceschi, M Vitali, C Protano, V Romano Spica
BACKGROUND: Hygiene and surveillance in swimming pools are established by WHO Guidelines and national laws. Progress in water management and pool construction is revolutionizing the field, introducing new materials, systems, disinfection procedures or monitoring markers. Innovation advances challenge the upgrading of safety and quality in pools and the appropriate implementation of guidelines. STUDY DESIGN: In order to provide a device for laboratory test, a prototype was realized and applied to study and compare swimming pool materials and treatments...
November 2017: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048299/blood-culture-negative-endocarditis-morocco
#10
Najma Boudebouch, M'hammed Sarih, Abdelfattah Chakib, Salma Fadili, Drissi Boumzebra, Zahira Zouizra, Badie Azamane Mahadji, Hamid Amarouch, Didier Raoult, Pierre-Edouard Fournier
We investigated the microorganisms causing blood culture-negative endocarditis (BCNE) in Morocco. We tested 19 patients with BCNE by serologic methods, molecular methods, or both and identified Bartonella quintana, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus equi, and Streptococcus oralis in 4 patients. These results highlight the role of these zoonotic agents in BCNE in Morocco.
November 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048284/bartonella-quintana-and-typhus-group-rickettsiae-exposure-among-homeless-persons-bogot%C3%A3-colombia
#11
Álvaro A Faccini-Martínez, Andrea C Márquez, Diana M Bravo-Estupiñan, Omar-Javier Calixto, Christian A López-Castillo, Carlos A Botero-García, Marylin Hidalgo, Claudia Cuervo
In 2015, we investigated Bartonella quintana and typhus group rickettsiae in body lice from homeless persons in Bogotá, Colombia. We found B. quintana-infected body lice and seroprevalence of this microorganism in 19% of homeless persons and typhus group rickettsiae in 56%. Public health professionals should start preemptive measures and active vector control.
November 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047560/optical-function-of-the-finite-thickness-corrugated-pellicle-of-euglenoids
#12
Marina E Inchaussandague, Diana C Skigin, Andrés E Dolinko
We explore the electromagnetic response of the pellicle of selected species of euglenoids. These microorganisms are bounded by a typical surface pellicle formed by S-shaped overlapping bands that resemble a corrugated film. We investigate the role played by this structure in the protection of the cell against UV radiation. By considering the pellicle as a periodically corrugated film of finite thickness, we applied the C-method to compute the reflectance spectra. The far-field results revealed reflectance peaks with a Q-factor larger than 10(3) in the UV region for all the illumination conditions investigated...
June 20, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047333/electrochemical-performance-and-microbial-community-profiles-in-microbial-fuel-cells-in-relation-to-electron-transfer-mechanisms
#13
Naroa Uria, Isabel Ferrera, Jordi Mas
BACKGROUND: Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) operating with complex microbial communities have been extensively reported in the past, and are commonly used in applications such as wastewater treatment, bioremediation or in-situ powering of environmental sensors. However, our knowledge on how the composition of the microbial community and the different types of electron transfer to the anode affect the performance of these bioelectrochemical systems is far from complete. To fill this gap of knowledge, we designed a set of three MFCs with different constrains limiting direct and mediated electron transfer to the anode...
October 18, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047205/experimental-precipitation-of-apatite-pseudofossils-resembling-fossil-embryos
#14
C H Crosby, J V Bailey
Certain phosphatic grains preserved in the rock record are interpreted as microfossils representing a diversity of microorganisms from bacteria to fossil embryos. In addition to bona fide primary biological features, phosphatic microfossils and fossil embryos commonly exhibit features that result from abiotic precipitation or diagenetic alteration. Distinguishing between abiotic and primary biological features can be difficult, and some features thought to represent biological tissue could instead be artifacts that are unrelated to the original morphology of a preserved organism...
October 19, 2017: Geobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046782/assessment-of-the-potential-for-resistance-to-antimicrobial-violet-blue-light-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#15
Rachael M Tomb, Michelle Maclean, John E Coia, Scott J MacGregor, John G Anderson
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial violet-blue light in the region of 405 nm is emerging as an alternative technology for hospital decontamination and clinical treatment. The mechanism of action is the excitation of endogenous porphyrins within exposed microorganisms, resulting in ROS generation, oxidative damage and cell death. Although resistance to 405 nm light is not thought likely, little evidence has been published to support this. This study was designed to establish if there is potential for tolerance development, using the nosocomial pathogen Staphylococcus aureus as the model organism...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046721/engineering-bacillus-licheniformis-as-a-thermophilic-platform-for-the-production-of-l-lactic-acid-from-lignocellulose-derived-sugars
#16
Chao Li, Zhongchao Gai, Kai Wang, Liping Jin
BACKGROUND: Bacillus licheniformis MW3 as a GRAS and thermophilic strain is a promising microorganism for chemical and biofuel production. However, its capacity to co-utilize glucose and xylose, the major sugars found in lignocellulosic biomass, is severely impaired by glucose-mediated carbon catabolite repression (CCR). In this study, a "dual-channel" process was implemented to engineer strain MW3 for simultaneous utilization of glucose and xylose, using l-lactic acid as a target product...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046031/-innate-lymphoid-cells-and-their-role-in-immune-response-regulation
#17
Bibiana Patricia Ruiz-Sánchez, David Cruz-Zárate, Iris Estrada-García, Isabel Wong-Baeza
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are lymphocytes lacking antigen recognition receptors and become activated in response to cytokines and through microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) receptors. ILCs are found mainly in mucosal tissues and participate in the immune response against infections and in chronic inflammatory conditions. ILCs are divided in ILC-1, ILC-2 and ILC-3, and these cells have analogue functions to those of immune adaptive response lymphocytes Th1, Th2 and Th17. ILC-1 express T-bet, produce IFNγ, protect against infections with intracellular microorganisms and are related to inflammatory bowel disease immunopathology...
July 2017: Revista Alergia Mexico: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Mexicana de Alergia e Inmunología, A.C
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045923/harvesting-and-contamination-control-of-microalgae-chlorella-ellipsoidea-using-the-bio-polymeric-flocculant-%C3%AE-poly-l-lysine
#18
Won Noh, Jungmin Kim, Sang-Jun Lee, Byung-Gon Ryu, Chang-Min Kang
Microalgae have been extensively studied for the production of various products. However, to date, microalgal biomass has not become economically feasible, mainly due to different issues such as contamination from various sources that occurs during downstream processes, and which leads to low quality biomass with limited application. In this study, to overcome contamination by flocculants and other microorganisms, the cationic biopolymer α-Poly-l-lysine (α-PLL) was applied. The cationic amine moiety and polymeric chain of α-PLL rendered microalgal harvesting efficient...
September 23, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045884/effect-of-phosphate-ion-on-the-structure-of-lumazine-synthase-an-antigen-presentation-system-from-bacillus-anthracis
#19
Yangjie Wei, Newton Wahome, Prashant Kumar, Neal Whitaker, Wendy L Picking, C Russell Middaugh
Lumazine synthase (LS) is an oligomeric enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of riboflavin in microorganisms, fungi and plants. LS has become of significant interest to biomedical science because of its critical biological role and attractive structural properties for antigen presentation in vaccines. LS derived from Bacillus anthracis (BaLS) consists of 60 identical subunits forming an icosahedron. Its crystal structure has been solved, but its dynamic conformational properties have not yet been studied. We investigated the conformation of BaLS in response to different stress conditions (e...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044950/biochemical-characterization-of-argininosuccinate-lyase-from-m-tuberculosis-significance-of-a-c-terminal-cysteine-in-catalysis-and-thermal-stability
#20
Archita Mishra, Avadhesha Surolia
Arginine biosynthesis pathway is crucial to the survival and pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Arginine is a critical amino acid that contributes to the inflection of cellular immune responses during pathogenesis. Argininosuccinate lyase from Mtb (MtArgH), the last enzyme in the pathway, catalyzes the production of arginine from argininosuccinic acid. MtArgH is an essential enzyme for the growth and survival of M. tuberculosis. We biochemically characterized MtArgH and deciphered the role of a previously unexplored cysteine (Cys(441) ) residue at the C-terminal region of the protein...
October 16, 2017: IUBMB Life
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