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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644721/small-gtpases-in-plant-biotic-interactions
#1
Claudio Rivero, Soledad Traubenik, María Eugenia Zanetti, Flavio Antonio Blanco
The superfamily of small monomeric GTPases originated in a common ancestor of eukaryotic multicellular organisms and, since then, it has evolved independently in each lineage to cope with the environmental challenges imposed by their different life styles. Members of the small GTPase family function in the control of vesicle trafficking, cytoskeleton rearrangements and signaling during crucial biological processes, such as cell growth and responses to environmental cues. In this review, we discuss the emerging roles of these small GTPases in the pathogenic and symbiotic interactions established by plants with microorganisms present in their nearest environment, in which membrane trafficking is crucial along the different steps of the interaction, from recognition and signal transduction to nutrient exchange...
June 23, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644359/commercial-probiotic-products-a-call-for-improved-quality-control-a-position-paper-by-the-espghan-working-group-for-probiotics-and-prebiotics
#2
Sanja Kolaček, Iva Hojsak, Roberto Berni Canani, Alfredo Guarino, Flavia Indrio, Rok Orel, Bruno Pot, Raanan Shamir, Hania Szajewska, Yvan Vandenplas, Johannes van Goudoever, Zvi Weizman
Probiotics have been proposed for a number of indications ranging from the hypothetical long-term immunomodulatory effects to proven benefits in the management of different clinical conditions.An increasing number of commercial products containing probiotics are available. In those products, irrespective if it is food, food supplement, medical food, or drug, the probiotic microorganisms have to be present in a sufficient number by the end of the shelf-life, to pass through the gastrointestinal tract resisting acid and bile, to colonize the gut, and to retain functional properties required to obtain the suggested beneficial effect...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643880/effects-of-discrete-bioactive-microbial-volatiles-on-plants-and-fungi
#3
REVIEW
Birgit Piechulla, Marie-Chantal Lemfack, Marco Kai
Plants live in association with microorganisms, which are well known as a rich source of specialized metabolits, including volatile compounds. The increasing numbers of described plant microbiomes allowed manifold phylogenetic tree deductions, but less emphasis is presently put on the metabolic capacities of plant-associated microorganisms. With the focus on small volatile metabolites we summarize i) the knowledge of prominent bacteria of plant microbiomes, ii) present the state-of-the-art of individual (discrete) microbial organic and inorganic volatiles affecting plants and fungi, and iii) emphasize the high potential of microbial volatiles in mediating microbe-plant interactions...
June 23, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643679/clinical-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-findings-contribute-to-the-early-differentiation-between-infectious-and-noninfectious-encephalitis
#4
Miguel Wilken, Lucía Ameghino, Ángel Cammarota, Martín A Nogués, Marcelo Del Castillo, Mauricio F Farez
Early recognition and prompt specific treatment are crucial factors influencing the outcome of patients with acute encephalitis. The aim of this study was to determine the main causes of acute encephalitis in our population and to find predictors that may lead to specific diagnosis. Adult patients admitted to our hospital with suspected diagnosis of encephalitis in the period 2006-2013 were included. One hundred and five medical records were analyzed. Eighty-two patients with infectious encephalitis were identified (78% of total cases), 53 (65%) men and 29 (35%) women, mean age 47...
2017: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643627/bifidobacteria-and-their-health-promoting-effects
#5
Claudio Hidalgo-Cantabrana, Susana Delgado, Lorena Ruiz, Patricia Ruas-Madiedo, Borja Sánchez, Abelardo Margolles
Bifidobacteria are members of the intestinal microbiota of mammals and other animals, and some strains are able to exert health-promoting effects. The genus Bifidobacterium belongs to the Actinobacteria phylum. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria constitute the most abundant phyla in the human intestinal microbiota, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes being predominant in adults, and Actinobacteria in breast-fed infants, where bifidobacteria can reach levels higher than 90% of the total bacterial population...
June 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643413/effects-of-sodium-chloride-on-heat-resistance-oxidative-susceptibility-motility-biofilm-and-plaque-formation-of-burkholderia-pseudomallei
#6
Pornpan Pumirat, Muthita Vanaporn, Usa Boonyuen, Nitaya Indrawattana, Amporn Rungruengkitkun, Narisara Chantratita
Burkholderia pseudomallei is an environmental saprophyte and the causative agent of melioidosis, a severe infectious disease prevalent in tropical areas, including southeast Asia and northern Australia. In Thailand, the highest incidence of melioidosis is in the northeast region, where saline soil and water are abundant. We hypothesized that B. pseudomallei develops an ability to thrive in saline conditions and gains a selective ecological advantage over other soil-dwelling microorganisms. However, little is known about how an elevated NaCl concentration affects survival and adaptive changes in this pathogen...
June 23, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642992/plasmid-mediated-quinolone-resistance-pmqr-genes-and-class-1-integrons-in-quinolone-resistant-marine-bacteria-and-clinical-isolates-of-escherichia-coli-from-an-aquacultural-area
#7
Alexandra Tomova, Larisa Ivanova, Alejandro H Buschmann, Henry P Godfrey, Felipe C Cabello
Antimicrobial usage in aquaculture selects for antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms in the marine environment. The relevance of this selection to terrestrial animal and human health is unclear. Quinolone-resistance genes qnrA, qnrB, and qnrS were chromosomally located in four randomly chosen quinolone-resistant marine bacteria isolated from an aquacultural area with heavy quinolone usage. In quinolone-resistant uropathogenic clinical isolates of Escherichia coli from a coastal area bordering the same aquacultural region, qnrA was chromosomally located in two E...
June 23, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642968/enhancing-the-enzymatic-saccharification-of-bamboo-shoot-shell-by-sequential-biological-pretreatment-with-galactomyces-sp-cczu11-1-and-deep-eutectic-solvent-extraction
#8
Yong Dai, Hai-Sheng Zhang, Bin Huan, Yucai He
In this study, sequential biological pretreatment (BP) with Galactomyces sp. CCZU11-1 at 30 °C for 3 days and deep eutectic solvent (DES) choline chloride: oxalic acid (ChCl:OA, 1 mol/2 mol) extraction at 120 °C for 1.5 h was used for pretreating BSS. It was found that combination pretreatment could effectively remove xylan and lignin for enhancing enzymatic saccharification. The reducing sugars and glucose from the hydrolysis of 100 g/L pretreated BSS with complexed cellulases of Galactomyces sp. CCZU11-1 were obtained in the yields of 81...
June 22, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642934/evaluation-of-the-antibacterial-and-antifungal-properties-of-phragmanthera-capitata-sprengel-balle-loranthaceae-a-mistletoe-growing-on-rubber-tree-using-the-dilution-techniques
#9
Franklin Uangbaoje Ohikhena, Olubunmi Abosede Wintola, Anthony Jide Afolayan
The alarming increase in multidrug resistance of pathogenic microorganisms to conventional drugs in recent years has prompted the search for new leads in alternative remedies in natural products. Hence, this study was aimed at evaluating the antimicrobial properties of Phragmanthera capitata, a parasitic mistletoe growing on rubber trees. The in vitro antimicrobial activities of the acetone, methanol, ethanol, and aqueous extracts were investigated using five gram-negative and five gram-positive bacteria and four fungi...
2017: TheScientificWorldJournal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642876/magnetic-separation-methods-for-the-detection-of-mycobacterium-avium-subsp-paratuberculosis-in-various-types-of-matrices-a-review
#10
REVIEW
Marketa Husakova, Radka Dziedzinska, Iva Slana
The main reasons to improve the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) are animal health and monitoring of MAP entering the food chain via meat, milk, and/or dairy products. Different approaches can be used for the detection of MAP, but the use of magnetic separation especially in conjunction with PCR as an end-point detection method has risen in past years. However, the extraction of DNA which is a crucial step prior to PCR detection can be complicated due to the presence of inhibitory substances...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642842/the-tick-microbiome-why-non-pathogenic-microorganisms-matter-in-tick-biology-and-pathogen-transmission
#11
REVIEW
Sarah I Bonnet, Florian Binetruy, Angelica M Hernández-Jarguín, Olivier Duron
Ticks are among the most important vectors of pathogens affecting humans and other animals worldwide. They do not only carry pathogens however, as a diverse group of commensal and symbiotic microorganisms are also present in ticks. Unlike pathogens, their biology and their effect on ticks remain largely unexplored, and are in fact often neglected. Nonetheless, they can confer multiple detrimental, neutral, or beneficial effects to their tick hosts, and can play various roles in fitness, nutritional adaptation, development, reproduction, defense against environmental stress, and immunity...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642764/xylella-fastidiosa-host-range-and-advance-in-molecular-identification-techniques
#12
REVIEW
Paolo Baldi, Nicola La Porta
In the never ending struggle against plant pathogenic bacteria, a major goal is the early identification and classification of infecting microorganisms. Xylella fastidiosa, a Gram-negative bacterium belonging to the family Xanthmonadaceae, is no exception as this pathogen showed a broad range of vectors and host plants, many of which may carry the pathogen for a long time without showing any symptom. Till the last years, most of the diseases caused by X. fastidiosa have been reported from North and South America, but recently a widespread infection of olive quick decline syndrome caused by this fastidious pathogen appeared in Apulia (south-eastern Italy), and several cases of X...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642751/in-vitro-antimicrobial-activity-of-chlorquinaldol-against-microorganisms-responsible-for-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-comparative-evaluation-with-gentamicin-and-fusidic-acid
#13
Monica Bortolin, Alessandro Bidossi, Elena De Vecchi, Maura Avveniente, Lorenzo Drago
Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are a major therapeutic challenge for clinicians. The emergence of pathogens with decreased susceptibility to available therapies has become an emerging problem often associated with treatment failure. Hence, there is an urgent need for novel broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of chlorquinaldol as an alternative approach to currently used topical antibiotics for the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642365/phenotypic-diagnosis-of-lineage-and-differentiation-during-sake-yeast-breeding
#14
Shinsuke Ohnuki, Hiroki Okada, Anne Friedrich, Yoichiro Kanno, Tetsuya Goshima, Hirokazu Hasuda, Masaaki Inahashi, Naoto Okazaki, Hiroyasu Tamura, Ryo Nakamura, Dai Hirata, Hisashi Fukuda, Hitoshi Shimoi, Katsuhiko Kitamoto, Daisuke Watanabe, Joseph Schacherer, Takeshi Akao, Yoshikazu Ohya
Sake yeast was developed exclusively in Japan. Its diversification during breeding remains largely uncharacterized. To evaluate the breeding processes of the sake lineage, we thoroughly investigated the phenotypes and differentiation of 27 sake yeast strains using high-dimensional, single-cell morphological phenotyping. Although the genetic diversity of the sake yeast lineage is relatively low, its morphological diversity has expanded substantially compared to that of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae species as a whole...
June 22, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642076/the-effect-of-initial-organic-load-of-the-kitchen-waste-on-the-production-of-vfa-and-h2-in-dark-fermentation
#15
Radoslaw Slezak, Justyna Grzelak, Liliana Krzystek, Stanislaw Ledakowicz
Dark fermentation of kitchen wastes was studied in batch bioreactors, with no pH adjustment, to evaluate the effect of the initial organic load on the process performance in terms of volatile fatty acids and H2 production. Initial organic load of the kitchen wastes ranged from 4.1 to 48.2gVS/L. Acetic and butyric acids were produced in the largest amount. At the initial organic load of 48.2KWgVS/L the highest concentration of volatile fatty acids was 9.81g/L. The maximum production yield of H2 (76.1mL/gVS) was found for the initial organic load of kitchen wastes at 14...
June 19, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641870/antibiotic-activity-and-concentrations-in-clinical-samples-from-patients-with-chronic-bacterial-prostatitis
#16
V Heras-Cañas, B Gutiérrez-Soto, H Almonte-Fernández, A Lara-Oya, J M Navarro-Marí, A Garrido-Frenich, F Vázquez-Alonso, J Gutiérrez-Fernández
OBJECTIVES: Chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) is the most common urological disease in patients younger than 50 years, whose long-standing symptoms could be related to an inappropriate therapeutic regimen. The objective was to analyse the sensitivity of microorganisms isolated from patients with CBP and measure the weekly antibiotic concentrations in serum, semen and urine. MATERIAL AND METHODS: For the antibiotic sensitivity study, 60 clinical isolates were included between January 2013 and December 2014 from semen samples from patients with microbiologically confirmed CBP...
June 19, 2017: Actas Urologicas Españolas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641775/is-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-protective-against-multiple-sclerosis-risk
#17
Asli Koskderelioglu, Ilhan Afsar, Bayram Pektas, Muhtesem Gedizlioglu
BACKGROUND: Parasitic infections may play a protective role in neurodegenative diseases. OBJECTıVE: To determine the association between Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection and Multiple Sclerosis (MS). METHODS: One hundred fifteen patients with MS were included in the study. Sixty age and gender-matched healthy subjects were recruited as controls. Subjects were assessed for clinical and demographic parameters. The presence of specific IgG antibodies against T...
July 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641557/cyclic-dipeptides-secondary-metabolites-isolated-from-different-microorganisms-with-diverse-biological-activities
#18
Aurelio Ortiz, Estibaliz Sansinenea
Cyclic dipeptides are the simplest peptide derivatives commonly found in nature. These chiral molecules are easily synthesized from readily available α-amino acids using a simple methodology. They are privileged structures with the ability to bind to a wide range of receptors and have a broad variety of biological and pharmacological activities. We will give a brief overview of their status giving and interesting reference list about the last works.
June 22, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641462/microbiological-control-and-antibacterial-action-of-a-propolis-containing-mouthwash-and-control-of-dental-plaque-in-humans
#19
Karina Basso Santiago, Gilce Maria Piana, Bruno José Conti, Eliza de Oliveira Cardoso, Bruna Fernanda Murbach Teles Andrade, Mirella Rossitto Zanutto, Vera Lúcia Mores Rall, Ary Fernandes, José Maurício Sforcin
Propolis is a bee product with several biological properties. This study aimed at investigating a propolis-containing mouthwash, its organoleptic properties, microbial contamination and its antibacterial action in vitro. This mouthwash was assessed in vivo to control dental plaque in humans. The presence of microorganisms was analyzed and the minimum inhibitory concentration against Streptococcus mutans was determined. A comparative study was done in vivo using propolis, chlorhexidine, and propolis plus chlorhexidine in lower concentrations for 14 days...
June 23, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641403/a-molasses-habitat-derived-fungus-aspergillus-tubingensis-xg21-with-high-%C3%AE-fructofuranosidase-activity-and-its-potential-use-for-fructooligosaccharides-production
#20
Yijia Xie, Huanxia Zhou, Caixia Liu, Jing Zhang, Ning Li, Zhanli Zhao, Guoyong Sun, Yaohua Zhong
The industrial microorganisms used for fructooligosaccharides (FOS) synthesis are generally fermented with sucrose as carbon source to induce the production of β-fructofuranosidase (FFase) having transfructosylation activity. Consequently, isolation of novel FFase producers from a sucrose-enriched biotope would help improve FOS productivity and reduce the process cost. Here, three fungi isolated from a unique sugarcane molasses habitat were found to possess FFase activity and one of them, XG21, exhibited a high capacity to synthesize FOS...
December 2017: AMB Express
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