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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475161/house-hold-unit-for-the-treatment-of-fluoride-iron-arsenic-and-microorganism-contaminated-drinking-water
#1
Vijaykumar L Dhadge, Chitta Ranjan Medhi, Murchana Changmai, Mihir Kumar Purkait
A first of its kind hybrid electrocoagulation-filtration prototype unit was fabricated for the removal of fluoride, iron, arsenic and microorganisms contaminated drinking water. The unit comprised of 3 chambers, chamber A consisting of an inlet for the water to be treated and an outlet for the treated water along with one block of aluminum electrodes. Chamber B consisted of ceramic membrane filtration assembly at the bottom over a metallic support which filters the flocs so produced in chamber A and chamber C consisting of space to collect the treated water...
February 16, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475108/intriguing-changes-in-molecular-size-and-composition-of-dissolved-organic-matter-induced-by-microbial-degradation-and-self-assembly
#2
Huacheng Xu, Laodong Guo
Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is ubiquitous and plays an important role in regulating water quality, ecological function, and the fate and transport of trace elements and pollutants in aquatic environments. Both the colloidal precursors (i.e. <1 kDa) and bulk DOM collected from a freshwater estuary were incubated in the dark for 21 days to examine dynamic changes in molecular size and composition induced by microbial degradation and self-assembly. Results showed that the concentrations of total organic carbon, carbohydrates, and protein-like substances decreased by 11-30% during incubation, while those of humic- and fulvic-like substances remained relatively constant, indicating humic substances are more resistant to microbial utilization compared to carbohydrates and protein-like DOM...
February 7, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475049/three-newly-identified-galectin-homologues-from-triangle-sail-mussel-hyriopsis-cumingii-function-as-potential-pattern-recognition-receptors
#3
Ling-Ling Zhao, Kaimin Hui, Yue Wang, Hui Wang, Qian Ren, Xin-Cang Li
Galactoside-binding lectins, also known as galectins, play crucial roles in innate immune response in invertebrates. In this study, three cDNA sequences from Hyriopsis cumingii were identified and collectively called HcGalec genes. Each of the three deduced HcGalec proteins contained a galactose-binding lectin domain or a GLECT domain. All the three HcGalec genes are mainly present in the hepatopancreas and gills, and their expression is induced by bacterial challenge. Three recombinant HcGalec proteins can bind and agglutinate (Ca2+ -dependent) various microorganisms, including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria...
February 20, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475033/morphophysiological-and-transcriptome-analysis-reveals-a-multiline-defense-system-enabling-cyanobacterium-leptolyngbya-strain-jsc-1-to-withstand-iron-induced-oxidative-stress
#4
Sikandar Khan, Jing Lv, Arshad Iqbal, Pengcheng Fu
Iron intoxications induce severe oxidative stress by producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cyanobacteria, leading to membrane lipid peroxidation, altered morphology, impaired photosynthesis and other oxidative stress injuries. Given these stresses, mitigation of ROS is a prerequisite for all aerobic organisms. Study of siderophilic cyanobacterium Leptolyngbya strain JSC-1 inhabiting iron-rich hot springs may provide insight into the mechanism of iron homeostasis and alleviation of oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the morphophysiological and molecular mechanisms enabling this cyanobacterium to cope with iron-induced oxidative stress...
February 19, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474988/changes-of-total-and-freely-dissolved-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-and-toxicity-of-biochars-treated-with-various-aging-processes
#5
Patryk Oleszczuk, Michał Kołtowski
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of biochar aging on the content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (the total content - Ctot , and the freely dissolved - Cfree ) in biochar and its ecotoxicity. Two biochars (BCS and BCM) with varying properties were aged for 420 days at different temperatures (-20 °C, 4 °C, 20 °C, 70 °C), at a variable temperature (-20/20 °C), in the presence of nutrients, and in the presence of inoculum and nutrients. After the aging process, Ctot and Cfree PAHs were determined in samples obtained and an ecotoxicological analysis was performed, which involved tests with bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), invertebrates (Folsomia candida) and plants (Lepidium sativum)...
February 20, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474889/human-gut-microbiota-and-gastrointestinal-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Changting Meng, Chunmei Bai, Thomas D Brown, Leroy Hood, Qiang Tian
Human gut microbiota play an essential role in both healthy and diseased states of humans. In the past decade, the interactions between microorganisms and tumors have attracted much attention in the efforts understanding various features of the complex microbial communities, as well as the possible mechanisms through which the microbiota are involved in cancer prevention, carcinogenesis, and anti-cancer therapy. A large number of studies have indicated that microbial dysbiosis contributes to cancer susceptibility via multiple pathways...
February 20, 2018: Genomics, Proteomics & Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474552/study-of-a-new-biological-control-method-combining-an-enteropathogen-and-a-chemical-insecticide-against-solenopsis-invicta-hymenoptera-formicidae
#7
Jun Li, Lu Jiang, Yanwu Zhang, Qiang Guo, Shichou Han
Solenopsis invicta (Buren; Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is a species that has invaded China in recent years. Currently, S. invicta is mainly controlled by chemical treatment, though long-term use of chemical pesticides can cause serious environmental pollution. In this study, a microbial insecticide formulated for the control of S. invicta was screened for laboratory toxicity and field efficacy. The co-toxicity coefficients (CTCs) of the combination of Beauveria bassiana and thiacloprid at various mass ratios were 356...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474542/lack-of-correlation-of-desiccation-and-radiation-tolerance-in-microorganisms-from-diverse-extreme-environments-tested-under-anoxic-conditions
#8
Kristina Beblo-Vranesevic, Maria Bohmeier, Alexandra K Perras, Petra Schwendner, Elke Rabbow, Christine Moissl-Eichinger, Charles S Cockell, Pauline Vannier, Viggo T Marteinsson, Euan P Monaghan, Pascale Ehrenfreund, Laura Garcia-Descalzo, Felipe Gómez, Moustafa Malki, Ricardo Amils, Frédéric Gaboyer, Frances Westall, Patricia Cabezas, Nicolas Walter, Petra Rettberg
Four facultative anaerobic and two obligate anaerobic bacteria were isolated from extreme environments (deep subsurface halite mine, sulfidic anoxic spring, mineral-rich river) in the frame MASE (Mars Analogues for Space Exploration) project. The isolates were investigated under anoxic conditions for their survivability after desiccation up to six months and their tolerance to ionizing radiation up to 3000 Gy. The results indicated that tolerances to both stresses are strain-specific features. Yersinia intermedia MASE-LG-1 showed a high desiccation tolerance but its radiation tolerance was very low...
February 21, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474495/in-silico-and-in-vitro-studies-of-the-reduction-of-unsaturated-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-bonds-of-trans-2-hexenedioic-acid-and-6-amino-trans-2-hexenoic-acid-important-steps-towards-biobased-production-of-adipic-acid
#9
Emma Karlsson, Jae Ho Shin, Gunnar Westman, Leif A Eriksson, Lisbeth Olsson, Valeria Mapelli
The biobased production of adipic acid, a precursor in the production of nylon, is of great interest in order to replace the current petrochemical production route. Glucose-rich lignocellulosic raw materials have high potential to replace the petrochemical raw material. A number of metabolic pathways have been proposed for the microbial conversion of glucose to adipic acid, but achieved yields and titers remain to be improved before industrial applications are feasible. One proposed pathway starts with lysine, an essential metabolite industrially produced from glucose by microorganisms...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473955/growth-capacity-of-a-novel-potential-probiotic-lactobacillus-paracasei-k5-strain-incorporated-in-industrial-white-brined-cheese-as-an-adjunct-culture
#10
Antonia Terpou, Loulouda Bosnea, Maria Kanellaki, Stavros Plessas, Argyro Bekatorou, Eugenia Bezirtzoglou, Athanasios A Koutinas
In this study, a novel potential probiotic strain Lactobacillus paracasei K5, previously isolated from traditional Greek Feta cheese and kefir grains, was evaluated as an adjunct culture for industrial white brined cheese production. Targeting industrial applications, apart from free cell cultures, a novel ready-to-use freeze-dried immobilized biocatalyst was prepared. The biocatalyst composed of L. paracasei K5 cells immobilized on delignified wheat bran prebiotic carrier and was freeze-dried without cryoprotectants...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473875/core-sulphate-reducing-microorganisms-in-metal-removing-semi-passive-biochemical-reactors-and-the-co-occurrence-of-methanogens
#11
Maryam Rezadehbashi, Susan A Baldwin
Biochemical reactors (BCRs) based on the stimulation of sulphate-reducing microorganisms (SRM) are emerging semi-passive remediation technologies for treatment of mine-influenced water. Their successful removal of metals and sulphate has been proven at the pilot-scale, but little is known about the types of SRM that grow in these systems and whether they are diverse or restricted to particular phylogenetic or taxonomic groups. A phylogenetic study of four established pilot-scale BCRs on three different mine sites compared the diversity of SRM growing in them...
February 23, 2018: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473286/colony-formation-in-the-cyanobacterium-microcystis
#12
Man Xiao, Ming Li, Colin S Reynolds
Morphological evolution from a unicellular to multicellular state provides greater opportunities for organisms to attain larger and more complex living forms. As the most common freshwater cyanobacterial genus, Microcystis is a unicellular microorganism, with high phenotypic plasticity, which forms colonies and blooms in lakes and reservoirs worldwide. We conducted a systematic review of field studies from the 1990s to 2017 where Microcystis was dominant. Microcystis was detected as the dominant genus in waterbodies from temperate to subtropical and tropical zones...
February 22, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472107/are-antimicrobial-stewardship-programs-effective-strategies-for-preventing-antibiotic-resistance-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Leandro G Bertollo, Diego S Lutkemeyer, Anna S Levin
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) have been proposed as a solution for the global burden of antibiotic resistance, despite the lack of evidence on the subject. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the role of ASPs in reducing bacterial resistance to antibiotics in hospital settings. DATA SOURCES: A review in PubMed, Scopus, LILACS, and SciELO databases was performed. The period analyzed was January 1, 2012-January 4, 2017. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Studies that related ASPs to bacterial resistance...
February 19, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471983/current-trends-in-methylotrophy
#14
REVIEW
Ludmila Chistoserdova, Marina G Kalyuzhnaya
Methylotrophy is a field of study dealing with microorganisms capable of utilization of compounds devoid of carbon-carbon bonds (C1 compounds). In this review, we highlight several emerging trends in methylotrophy. First, we discuss the significance of the recent discovery of lanthanide-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases for understanding both the occurrence and the distribution of methylotrophy functions among bacteria, and then we discuss the newly appreciated role of lanthanides in biology. Next, we describe the detection of other methylotrophy pathways across novel bacterial taxa and insights into the evolution of methylotrophy...
February 19, 2018: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471694/assessing-the-microbial-communities-inhabiting-drinking-water-networks-and-nitrifying-enrichments-with-special-respect-on-nitrifying-microorganisms
#15
Zsuzsanna Nagymáté, Katalin Nemes-Barnás, Gergely Krett, Károly Márialigeti
This study provides a comprehensive microbiological survey of three drinking water networks applying different water treatment processes. Variability of microbial communities was assessed by cultivation-based [nitrifying, denitrifying most probable number (MPN) heterotrophic plate count] and sequence-aided terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis. The effect of microbial community composition on nitrifying MPN values was revealed. The non-treated well water samples showed remarkable differences to their corresponding distribution systems regarding low plate count, nitrifying MPN, and the composition of microbial communities, which increased and changed, respectively, in distribution systems...
February 23, 2018: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471481/bacterial-fungal-interactions-ecology-mechanisms-and-challenges
#16
A Deveau, G Bonito, J Uehling, M Paoletti, M Becker, S Bindschedler, S Hacquard, V Hervé, J Labbé, O A Lastovetsky, S Mieszkin, L J Millet, B Vajna, P Junier, P Bonfante, B P Krom, S Olsson, J D van Elsas, L Y Wick
Fungi and bacteria are found living together in a wide variety of environments. Their interactions are significant drivers of many ecosystem functions and are important for the health of plants and animals. A large number of fungal and bacterial families are engaged in complex interactions that lead to critical behavioural shifts of the microorganisms ranging from mutualism to pathogenicity. The importance of bacterial-fungal interactions (BFI) in environmental science, medicine and biotechnology has led to the emergence of a dynamic and multidisciplinary research field that combines highly diverse approaches including molecular biology, genomics, geochemistry, chemical and microbial ecology, biophysics and ecological modelling...
February 19, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471265/role-of-rpos-in-stress-resistance-quorum-sensing-and-spoilage-potential-of-pseudomonas-fluorescens
#17
Xiaoxiang Liu, Lei Ji, Xu Wang, Jianrong Li, Junli Zhu, Aihua Sun
Microorganism activities are considered the main cause of most food spoilage, leading to great economic losses. Pseudomonas fluorescens is a Gram-negative bacterium that is widely found in food and has high spoilage activity. RpoS is considered an important global regulator involved in stress survival and virulence in many pathogens. Thus, it is very possible that RpoS plays an important role in spoilage regulation in P. fluorescens. In this study an in-frame deletion mutation of rpoS was constructed to explore its function in P...
February 14, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471231/a-novel-methanotrophic-co-metabolic-system-with-high-soluble-methane-monooxygenase-activity-to-biodegrade-refractory-organics-in-pulping-wastewater
#18
Yancheng Li, Yingmu Wang, Ziyuan Lin, Jiale Wang, Qiang He, Jian Zhou
Pulping wastewater still contains massive refractory organics after biotreatment, with high colority, low biodegradability, and lasting biotoxicity. To eliminate refractory organics in pulping wastewater, a methanotrophic co-metabolic system in a gas cycle Sequencing Batch Biofilm Reactor (gcSBBR) seeded by soil at a ventilation opening of coal mine was quickly built on the 92nd day. The removal rate of COD, colority and TOC was 53.28%, 50.59% and 51.60%, respectively. Analysis of 3D-EEM indicated that glycolated protein-like, melanoidin-like or lignocellulose-like, and humic acid-like decreased by 7...
February 13, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471024/in-situ-antimicrobial-behavior-of-materials-having-copper-based-additives-in-a-hospital-environment
#19
Humberto Palza, Mauricio Nuñez, Roberto Bastías, Katherine Delgado
Copper and its alloys are recognized as effective antimicrobial surface materials at the laboratory scale as well as in clinical trials. Copper has been used in the healthcare setting to reduce environmental contamination and thus prevent healthcare-associated infections, complementing traditional protocols. The addition of copper nanoparticles to polymer/plastic matrices can also produce antimicrobial materials as confirmed under laboratory conditions. However, there is a lack of studies validating the antimicrobial behavior of these nanocomposite materials in clinical trials...
February 19, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470426/surface-plasmon-resonance-and-bending-loss-based-u-shaped-plastic-optical-fiber-biosensors
#20
Ariadny da S Arcas, Fábio da S Dutra, Regina C S B Allil, Marcelo M Werneck
Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) is a large and diverse bacteria group that inhabits the intestinal tract of many mammals. Most E. coli strains are harmless, however some of them are pathogenic, meaning they can make one sick if ingested. By being in the feces of animals and humans, its presence in water and food is used as indicator of fecal contamination. The main method for this microorganism detection is the bacterial culture medium that is time-consuming and requires a laboratory with specialized personnel...
February 22, 2018: Sensors
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