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Willamis José Araújo, Evelyn Maria Braga Quirino, Clarissa Mourão Pinho, Maria Sandra Andrade
OBJECTIVE: Learn about the perception of health professionals who perform rapid tests in Health Centers (HCs). METHOD: This is a descriptive and qualitative study conducted in nine HCs in Recife. Data were collected through individual interviews and evaluated using Bardin's content analysis, in its thematic category. RESULTS: Challenges were observed in rapid tests related to the supply of products, physical structure, training for pre- and post-test counseling, and the need for improvements in permanent education actions...
2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Vanessa da Frota Santos, Samyla Citó Pedrosa, Priscila de Souza Aquino, Ivana Cristina Vieira de Lima, Gilmara Holanda da Cunha, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz Galvão
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the social support of people with HIV/AIDS from the perspective of the Social Determinants of Health Model. METHOD: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 2015 in an infectious disease outpatient clinic. The sample was made up of 116 people with HIV/AIDS. The data was collected through interviews, using a sociodemographic form and a social support scale. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, and Student's t-tests and Mann-Whitney tests were performed to determine the association between social support and the social determinants of health...
2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Claúdia Mendes da Silva, Regina de Souza Alves, Tâmyssa Simões Dos Santos, Gabriela Rodrigues Bragagnollo, Clodis Maria Tavares, Amuzza Aylla Pereira Dos Santos
OBJECTIVE: To learn the epidemiological characteristics of HIV infection in pregnant women. METHOD: Descriptive study with quantitative approach. The study population was composed of pregnant women with HIV/AIDS residing in the state of Alagoas. Data were organized into variables and analyzed according to the measures of dispersion parameter relevant to the arithmetic mean and standard deviation (X ± S). RESULTS: Between 2007 and 2015, 773 cases of HIV/AIDS were recorded in pregnant women in Alagoas...
2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Juliano de Souza Caliari, Lilian Andreia Fleck Reinato, Daiana Patrícia Marchetti Pio, Letícia Pimenta Lopes, Renata Karina Reis, Elucir Gir
OBJECTIVE: To analyze factors related to the quality of life of elderly people living with HIV/AIDS. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was carried out with people aged 50 years or more in a specialized outpatient clinic. The data collection was by means of an interview. For the analysis of data and characterization of the sample, descriptive statistics and comparison tests were used. The project met the ethical requirements. RESULTS: Participants were 81 users aged 50 to 75 years, mean age was 57...
2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Carlos Arturo Alvarez-Moreno, Jorge Alberto Cortes, David W Denning
Data with respect to the epidemiological situation of fungal diseases in Colombia is scarce. Thus, the aim of this study is to estimate the burden of fungal infections. A population projection for 2017 from the Colombian Department for National Statistics was used, as well as official information from the Ministry of Health and National Institute of Health. A bibliographical search for Colombian data on mycotic diseases and population at risk (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, HIV infection/AIDS, cancer, and transplant patients) was done...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Johannes Eimer, Jan Vesterbacka, Irina Savitcheva, Rayomand Press, Homayoun Roshanisefat, Piotr Nowak
RATIONALE: Cognitive dysfunction is a common presenting symptom in patients with HIV/AIDS. It is usually directly associated with HIV infection or due to opportunistic infection. Rapidly progressive dementia, however, is rarely observed in acute HIV infection or during immune reconstitution. Recently, a case of Creutzfeld-Jakob disease (CJD) has been reported in a patient with chronic HIV infection. The incidence of CJD is not known to be increased among immunocompromised patients. PATIENT CONCERNS: We here report the case of a 59-year-old male patient with a recent diagnosis of HIV/AIDS and Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia presenting with secondary behavioral changes and disorientation...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
V Capo-Chichi, E Ouendo, F Champagne
As part of the fight against HIV-AIDS, an effort was made at the ethical component, namely that there are legal texts, institutional and ethical. There are ethics committees (three) that give reasoned opinions on study protocols and are endeavoring to raise awareness of the actors. But we note that there is not yet a real ownership and adoption of ethical practice by them. This study targeted research projects on HIV-AIDS and centers supported PLHIV in order to analyze ethical issues : 1) the method of recruitment of participants and beneficiaries ; 2) obtaining informed consent from them ; 2) measures of confidentiality and anonymity ; 3) the integrity of staff of these projects and centers and conflicts of interest...
May 22, 2017: Journal International de Bioéthique et D'éthique des Sciences
Thomas D'huys, Sandra Claes, Tom Van Loy, Dominique Schols
Chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 are considered the main coreceptors for initial HIV infection, replication and transmission, and subsequent AIDS progression. Over the years, other chemokine receptors, belonging to the family of G protein-coupled receptors, have also been identified as candidate coreceptors for HIV entry into human host cells. Amongst them, CXCR7, also known as atypical chemokine receptor 3 (ACKR3), was suggested as a coreceptor candidate capable of facilitating both HIV-1 and HIV-2 entry in vitro ...
March 2018: Heliyon
Mostafa Shanbehzadeh, Maryam Ahmadi
Background: The main focus of the surveillance system of AIDS in Iran is on direct clinical care for HIV, and other supportive facilities and secondary programmes have been somewhat neglected. Creating templates for reporting AIDS in Iran that can fulfil the needs of all information stakeholders, is a necessity for the Public Health Information Exchange (PHIE) system. Objective: The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive reporting template of the PHIE system for HIV/AIDS in Iran...
December 2017: Electronic Physician
Shweta Gupta Rathi, Anasua Ganguly Kapoor, Swathi Kaliki
Ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) refers to a spectrum of conjunctival and corneal epithelial tumors including dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, and invasive carcinoma. In this article, we discuss the current perspectives of OSSN associated with HIV infection, focusing mainly on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of these tumors in patients with HIV. Upsurge in the incidence of OSSN with the HIV pandemic most severely affected sub-Saharan Africa, due to associated risk factors, such as human papilloma virus and solar ultraviolet exposure...
2018: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Eugenia Bruzzese, Andrea Lo Vecchio, Andrea Smarrazzo, Orsola Tambaro, Giulia Palmiero, Giovanni Bonadies, Alfredo Guarino
BACKGROUND: Treatment of HIV infection in adolescents is challenging due to long duration of therapy and poor adherence. Recently, the integrase strand transfer inhibitor dolutegravir (DTG) has been approved for the use in adolescents with HIV, but evidence in clinical practice is very limited. METHODS: We describe six cases of HIV-infected children/adolescents successfully treated with DTG-based regimen. Data relative to children/adolescents managed at the Referral Center for Pediatric HIV/AIDS of the University of Naples were reviewed...
March 20, 2018: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Nabab Khan, Gaurav Datta, Jonathan D Geiger, Xuesong Chen
BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is the major carrier protein that mediates the transport and delivery of cholesterol and other lipids in the brain. Three isoforms of ApoE (ApoE2, ApoE3, ApoE4) exist in humans, and their relative expression levels impact HIV-1 infection, HIV-1/AIDS disease progression, and cognitive decline associated with HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorder. Because HIV-1 Tat, a viral protein essential for HIV-1 replication, can bind to low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) that controls ApoE uptake in the brain, we determined the extent to which different isoforms of ApoE affected Tat-mediated HIV-1 LTR transactivation...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Nuria González, Krisha McKee, Rebecca M Lynch, Ivelin S Georgiev, Laura Jimenez, Eulalia Grau, Eloísa Yuste, Peter D Kwong, John R Mascola, José Alcamí
BACKGROUND: Only a small fraction of HIV-1-infected patients develop broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs), a process generally associated to chronic antigen stimulation. It has been described that rare aviremic HIV-1-infected patients can generate bNAbs but this issue remains controversial. To address this matter we have assessed bNAb responses in a large cohort of long-term non-progressors (LTNPs) with low or undetectable viremia. METHODS: Samples from the LTNP cohort of the Spanish AIDS Research Network (87 elite and 42 viremic controllers) and a control population of 176 viremic typical-progressors (TPs) were screened for bNAbs using Env-recombinant viruses...
2018: PloS One
Sean M Murphy, Jared A Leff, Benjamin P Linas, Jake R Morgan, Kathryn McCollister, Bruce R Schackman
BACKGROUND: Health economic evaluation findings assist stakeholders in improving the quality, availability, scalability, and sustainability of evidence-based services, and in maximizing the efficiency of service delivery. The Center for Health Economics of Treatment Interventions for Substance Use Disorders, HCV, and HIV (CHERISH) is a NIDA-funded multi-institutional center of excellence whose mission is to develop and disseminate health-economic research on healthcare utilization, health outcomes, and health-related behaviors that informs substance use disorder treatment policy, and HCV and HIV care of people who use substances...
March 20, 2018: Substance Abuse
Mariana V Meireles, Ana Roberta P Pascom, Elisabeth C Duarte
OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical, sociodemographic and treatment-related factors associated with early virological response in HIV-infected adults starting antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Brazil in 2014-2015. METHODS: Data from four information systems from the Brazilian AIDS Program were combined to create a historical cohort. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to assess the likelihood of not achieving virological suppression (VLS), defined as having either a viral load count (VL) >200 copies/mL or an aids-related death recorded within 180±90 days after treatment initiation...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Tsegaye Bekele, Jason Globerman, James Watson, Stephen W Hwang, Keith Hambly, Jay Koornstra, Glen Walker, Jean Bacon, Sean B Rourke
We examined social determinants of health associated with all-cause mortality among 602 people living with HIV/AIDS in Ontario, Canada. Mortality status was verified at 1-, 3-, and 5-year follow-up visits with information obtained from proxies (family members, partners, and friends), obituaries, and local AIDS memorial lists. Of the 454 people for whom mortality information was available, 53 individuals died yielding a crude mortality rate of 22.3 deaths per 1000 person-years, a rate substantially higher than the rate in the general population (6...
March 20, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Rachel Sullivan Robinson, Michael Kunnuji, Yusra Ribhi Shawar, Jeremy Shiffman
Mississippi and Nigeria are two socially conservative places unlikely to prioritise sexuality education. Nonetheless, Mississippi passed a bill in 2011 mandating all school districts to offer sexuality education, and Nigeria approved a national sexuality education curriculum in 2001. To identify the factors that drove the process of prioritisation of sexuality education in each context, we conducted more than 70 semi-structured interviews with nongovernmental organisations/nonprofits, donor organisations and federal and state ministries involved in the prioritisation and implementation of sexuality education in Mississippi and Nigeria...
March 20, 2018: Global Public Health
Kimberly Schmitt, Ramesh Akkina
In the current quest for a complete cure for HIV/AIDS, highly sensitive HIV-1 latency detection methods are critical to verify full viral eradication. Until now, the in vitro quantitative viral outgrowth assays (qVOA) have been the gold standard for assessing latent HIV-1 viral burden. However, these assays have been inadequate in detecting the presence of ultralow levels of latent virus in a number of patients who were initially thought to have been cured, but eventually showed viral rebound. In this context, new approaches utilizing in vivo mouse-based VOAs are promising...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
William S Kaufman, Christine S Ahn, William W Huang
Molluscum contagiosum (MC) is a common, self-limited cutaneous infection in immunocompetent individuals. However, in immunocompromised individuals the infection often has an atypical presentation and can be difficult to eradicate, making both the diagnosis and treatment challenging. Due to advancements in the management of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and cancer, there is a growing population of immunosuppressed individuals, signaling the need for dermatologists to recognize and manage related skin diseases...
February 2018: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
Mireille Laforge, Ricardo Silvestre, Vasco Rodrigues, Julie Garibal, Laure Campillo-Gimenez, Shahul Mouhamad, Valérie Monceaux, Marie-Christine Cumont, Henintsoa Rabezanahary, Alain Pruvost, Anabela Cordeiro-da-Silva, Bruno Hurtrel, Guido Silvestri, Anna Senik, Jérôme Estaquier
Apoptosis has been proposed as a key mechanism responsible for CD4+ T cell depletion and immune dysfunction during HIV infection. We demonstrated that Q-VD-OPH, a caspase inhibitor, inhibits spontaneous and activation-induced death of T cells from SIV-infected rhesus macaques (RMs). When administered during the acute phase of infection, Q-VD-OPH was associated with (a) reduced levels of T cell death, (b) preservation of CD4+/CD8+ T cell ratio in lymphoid organs and in the gut, (c) maintenance of memory CD4+ T cells, and (d) increased specific CD4+ T cell response associated with the expression of cytotoxic molecules...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
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