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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916955/multicenter-randomized-single-port-versus-multiport-laparoscopic-surgery-simple-trial-in-colon-cancer-an-interim-analysis
#1
Byung Mo Kang, Hyung Jin Kim, Bong-Hyeon Kye, Sang Chul Lee, Kil Yeon Lee, Sun Jin Park, Suk-Hwan Lee, Sang Woo Lim, Yoon Suk Lee, Ji Hoon Kim, Jinkwon Lee, Min Ki Kim, Jun-Gi Kim
BACKGROUND: Single-port laparoscopic surgery (SPLS) was recently introduced as an innovative minimally invasive surgery method. Retrospective studies have revealed the safety and feasibility of SPLS for colon cancer treatment. However, no prospective randomized trials have been performed. The multicenter, randomized SIMPLE (single-port versus multiport laparoscopic surgery) trial aimed to investigate short-term perioperative outcomes of SPLS for colon cancer treatment, compared with multiport laparoscopic surgery (MPLS)...
September 15, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916815/programmed-death-ligand-1-pd-l1-expression-in-tumour-cell-and-tumour-infiltrating-lymphocytes-of-her2-positive-breast-cancer-and-its-prognostic-value
#2
Ahrong Kim, So Jeong Lee, Young Keum Kim, Won Young Park, Do Youn Park, Jee Yeon Kim, Chang Hun Lee, Gyungyub Gong, Gi Yeong Huh, Kyung Un Choi
Immunotherapy targeting PD-1/PD-L1 axis showed benefits in cancer. Prognostic significance of tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) has been determined. We evaluated PD-L1 protein expression in tumour cells and TILs, PD-L1 mRNA level and various histopathologic factors including TILs using 167 formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissues and 39 fresh tissue of HER2-positive breast cancer. TILs level and PD-L1 expression in tumour cells and TILs were significantly correlated one another. PD-L1 positivity in tumour cells was associated with high histologic grade and high TILs level (p < 0...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916678/gucy2c-signaling-opposes-the-acute-radiation-induced-gi-syndrome
#3
Peng Li, Evan Wuthrick, Jeff A Rappaport, Crystal Kraft, Jieru E Lin, Glen Marszalowicz, Adam E Snook, Tingting Zhan, Terry M Hyslop, Scott A Waldman
High doses of ionizing radiation induce acute damage to epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, mediating toxicities restricting the therapeutic efficacy of radiation in cancer and morbidity and mortality in nuclear disasters. No approved prophylaxis or therapy exists for these toxicities, in part reflecting an incomplete understanding of mechanisms contributing to the acute radiation-induced GI syndrome (RIGS). Guanylate cyclase C (GUCY2C) and its hormones guanylin and uroguanylin have recently emerged as one paracrine axis defending intestinal mucosal integrity against mutational, chemical, and inflammatory injury...
September 15, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911663/recent-advances-in-oral-delivery-of-drugs-and-bioactive-natural-products-using-solid-lipid-nanoparticles-as-the-carriers
#4
REVIEW
Chih-Hung Lin, Chun-Han Chen, Zih-Chan Lin, Jia-You Fang
Chemical and enzymatic barriers in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract hamper the oral delivery of many labile drugs. The GI epithelium also contributes to poor permeability for numerous drugs. Drugs with poor aqueous solubility have difficulty dissolving in the GI tract, resulting in low bioavailability. Nanomedicine provides an opportunity to improve the delivery efficiency of orally administered drugs. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) are categorized as a new generation of lipid nanoparticles consisting of a complete solid lipid matrix...
April 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902534/phase-iii-randomized-placebo-controlled-double-blind-trial-of-motesanib-amg-706-in-combination-with-paclitaxel-and-carboplatin-in-east-asian-patients-with-advanced-nonsquamous-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#5
Kaoru Kubota, Hiroshige Yoshioka, Fumihiro Oshita, Toyoaki Hida, Kiyotaka Yoh, Hidetoshi Hayashi, Terufumi Kato, Hiroyasu Kaneda, Kazuhiko Yamada, Hiroshi Tanaka, Yukito Ichinose, Keunchil Park, Eun Kyung Cho, Kyung-Hee Lee, Chih-Bin Lin, James Chih-Hsin Yang, Kaori Hara, Takayuki Asato, Kazuhiko Nakagawa
Purpose This phase III, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study determined whether motesanib improved progression-free survival (PFS) compared with placebo in combination with paclitaxel and carboplatin (P/C) in East Asian patients with stage IV/recurrent nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer. Patients and Methods Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive oral motesanib 125 mg or placebo once daily plus paclitaxel 200 mg/m(2) IV and carboplatin area under the concentration-time curve 6 mg/mL ⋅ min IV for up to six 3-week cycles...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902489/oral-sirna-delivery-to-treat-colorectal-liver-metastases
#6
Sung Hun Kang, Vishnu Revuri, Sang-Joon Lee, Sungpil Cho, In-Kyu Park, Kwang Jae Cho, Woo Kyun Bae, Yong-Kyu Lee
Convenient multiple dosing makes oral administration an ideal route for delivery of therapeutic siRNA. However, hostile GI environments and non-specific biological trafficking prevent from achieving appropriate bioavailability of siRNA. Here, an orally administered AuNP-siRNA-glycol chitosan-taurocholic acid nanoparticle (AR-GT NPs), was developed to selectively deliver Akt2 siRNA and treat colorectal liver metastases (CLM). AR-GT NPs are dual padlocked non-viral vectors in which the initially formed AuNP-siRNA (AR) conjugates are further encompassed by bifunctional glycol chitosan-taurocholic acid (GT) conjugates...
September 13, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900478/esophageal-cancer-in-israel-has-unique-clinico-pathological-features-a-retrospective-study
#7
Michal Sarfaty, Esty Lankry, Assaf Moore, Noga Kurman, Ofer Purim, Yulia Kundel, Irit Ben-Aharon, Gali Perl, Olga Ulitsky, Noa Gordon, Aaron Sulkes, Nikolai Menasherov, Hanoch Kashtan, Baruch Brenner
Introduction: Data regarding esophageal cancer (EC) in Israel are limited. The aim of this study was hence to characterize this entity in the Israeli population and to compare it to the literature. Patients/Methods: This is a retrospective study of all consecutive EC patients treated at our institution between 1997-2013. Data were retrieved from patients' medical files. Results: Two hundred patients were included. The median age at diagnosis was 70.5 years; 63.5% were males; 63% were Ashkenazi Jews, 29% were Sephardic Jews, and 0...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892252/clinical-decision-making-in-managing-changes-in-gastrointestinal-function-following-cancer-therapies-is-experience-enough
#8
A C Muls, K Klimova, H J N Andreyev
In patients with gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, identical symptoms may occur for many different reasons. This prospective study assessed whether experienced clinicians can predict accurately the underlying diagnosis or diagnoses contributing to specific symptoms based on the history and physical examination. Three clinicians assessed 47 patients referred for management of troublesome GI symptoms identified after treatment for cancer. Investigations were requested following our comprehensive, peer-reviewed algorithm...
September 11, 2017: European Journal of Cancer Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891960/alterations-in-pharmacokinetics-of-gemcitabine-and-erlotinib-by-concurrent-administration-of-hyangsayukgunja-tang-a-gastroprotective-herbal-medicine
#9
Tae Hwan Kim, Soyoung Shin, Sarah Kim, Jürgen B Bulitta, Kwon-Yeon Weon, Sang Hoon Joo, Eunsook Ma, Sun Dong Yoo, Gi-Young Park, Dong Rak Kwon, Seok Won Jeong, Da Young Lee, Beom Soo Shin
Gemcitabine and erlotinib are the chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of various cancers and their combination is being accepted as a first-line treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer. Hyangsayukgunja-tang (HYT) is a traditional oriental medicine used in various digestive disorders and potentially helpful to treat gastrointestinal adverse effects related to chemotherapy. The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of HYT on the pharmacokinetics of gemcitabine and erlotinib given simultaneously in rats...
September 10, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888984/cannabidiol-a-novel-inverse-agonist-for-gpr12
#10
Kevin J Brown, Alyssa S Laun, Zhao-Hui Song
GPR12 is a constitutively active, Gs protein-coupled receptor that currently has no confirmed endogenous ligands. GPR12 may be involved in physiological processes such as maintenance of oocyte meiotic arrest and brain development, as well as pathological conditions such as metastatic cancer. In this study, the potential effects of various classes of cannabinoids on GPR12 were tested using a cAMP accumulation assay. Our data demonstrate that cannabidiol (CBD), a major non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid, acted as an inverse agonist to inhibit cAMP accumulation stimulated by the constitutively active GPR12...
September 6, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888976/simple-nanophotosensitizer-fabrication-using-water-soluble-chitosan-for-photodynamic-therapy-in-gastrointestinal-cancer-cells
#11
Young-Il Jeong, Byungyoul Cha, Hye Lim Lee, Yeon Hui Song, Yun Hye Jung, Tae Won Kwak, Changyong Choi, Gyeong-Won Jeong, Jae Woon Nah, Dae Hwan Kang
The polysaccharide chitosan has abundant cationic amine groups, and can form ion-complexes with anionic molecules such as the strong photosensitizer chlorin e6 (Ce6). In this study, water-soluble chitosan (WSC) was used to fabricate Ce6-incorporated nanophotosensitizers (Abbreviated as ChitoCe6 nanophotosensitizer) via a self-assembling process. This was accomplished by dissolving WSC in pure water and then directly mixing the solution with solid Ce6 causing ion complex formation between WSC and Ce6. The resulting nanophotosensitizer was spherical in shape and had a particle size of less than 300nm...
September 6, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888753/the-role-of-gut-microbiome-in-the-pathogenesis-of-prostate-cancer-a-prospective-pilot-study
#12
David M Golombos, Abimbola Ayangbesan, Padraic O'Malley, Patrick Lewicki, LaMont Barlow, Christopher E Barbieri, Chrystal Chan, Casey DuLong, Galeb Abu-Ali, Curtis Huttenhower, Douglas S Scherr
OBJECTIVE: To elucidate potential biomarkers or mechanistic principles involved with the gut microbiota and its impact on prostate cancer pathogenesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective case-control pilot study evaluating the gut microbiome of 20 men with either benign prostatic conditions (n = 8) or intermediate/high risk clinically localized prostate cancer (Gleason ≥4+3 cN0M0) (n = 12) undergoing care at tertiary referral center from 9/1/2015 - 3/1/2016...
September 6, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885903/a-minimally-invasive-treatment-for-early-gi-cancers
#13
REVIEW
Lady Katherine Mejía-Pérez, Seiichiro Abe, Tyler Stevens, Mansour A Parsi, Sunguk N Jang, Ichiro Oda, John J Vargo, Yutaka Saito, Amit Bhatt
Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) allows curative resection of early malignant gastrointestinal (GI) lesions, potentially avoiding open surgery. Unfortunately, awareness of this technique is low, and many patients undergo surgery without consideration of ESD. This article reviews the indications for ESD and its advantages and limitations, and guides internists in their approach to patients with early GI cancer.
September 2017: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885095/spatial-rectal-dose-volume-metrics-predict-patient-reported-gastro-intestinal-symptoms-after-radiotherapy-for-prostate-cancer
#14
Oscar Casares-Magaz, Ludvig Paul Muren, Vitali Moiseenko, Stine E Petersen, Niclas Johan Pettersson, Morten Høyer, Joseph O Deasy, Maria Thor
BACKGROUND: Gastro-intestinal (GI) toxicity after radiotherapy (RT) for prostate cancer reduces patient's quality of life. In this study, we explored associations between spatial rectal dose/volume metrics and patient-reported GI symptoms after RT for localized prostate cancer, and compared these with those of dose-surface/volume histogram (DSH/DVH) metrics. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Dose distributions and six GI symptoms (defecation urgency/emptying difficulties/fecal leakage, ≥Grade 2, median follow-up: 3...
September 8, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884454/prevalence-of-patient-reported-gastrointestinal-symptoms-and-agreement-with-clinician-toxicity-assessments-in-radiation-therapy-for-anal-cancer
#15
Ashlyn Tom, Antonia V Bennett, Diana Rothenstein, Ethel Law, Karyn A Goodman
PURPOSE: Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms pose a significant burden to patients receiving chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for anal cancer; however, the impact of symptoms from the patient perspective has not been quantified. This retrospective study examined and compared patient and clinician reports of acute GI toxicity during CRT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients treated with definitive RT using intensity-modulated radiation therapy for anal cancer between 9/09 and 11/12 were reviewed...
September 7, 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882973/elevated-serum-aa-epa-ratio-as-a-predictor-of-skeletal-muscle-depletion-in-cachexic-patients-with-advanced-gastro-intestinal-cancers
#16
Moeko Kitagawa, Seiji Haji, Teruyoshi Amagai
BACKGROUND: In recent years, the number of cancer patients has increased. Cancer patients are prone to sarcopenia as a result of the decrease in muscle mass and muscle weakness which occurs in cancer cachexia. Attention has been given on the effects of fatty acid administration on cancer patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart-review study of consecutive patients with unresectable advanced GI cancer (stage IV) (n=46) receiving chemotherapy treatment in an outpatient or in-hospital setting between December 2012 and September 2015 at our Institution...
September 2017: In Vivo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881340/additional-benefits-of-routine-drugs-on-gastrointestinal-cancer-statins-metformin-and-proton-pump-inhibitors
#17
Moon Kyung Joo, Jong-Jae Park, Hoon Jai Chun
BACKGROUND: Commonly used medications including statins, metformin, and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) effectively reduce the risk of esophageal, gastric, and colorectal cancer (CRC). SUMMARY: A number of observational studies and meta-analyses have shown that long-term statin use significantly reduces the incidence of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. Moreover, statin use after GI cancer diagnosis has been significantly associated with better prognosis in large-scale cohort studies...
September 8, 2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879658/long-term-outcomes-in-patients-treated-with-proton-therapy-for-localized-prostate-cancer
#18
Masaru Takagi, Yusuke Demizu, Kazuki Terashima, Osamu Fujii, Dongcun Jin, Yasue Niwa, Takashi Daimon, Masao Murakami, Nobukazu Fuwa, Tomoaki Okimoto
The aim of this retrospective study was to report long-term clinical outcomes in patients treated with proton therapy (PT) for localized prostate cancer. Between 2001 and 2014, 1375 consecutive patients were treated with PT. Patients were classified into prognostic risk groups based on the National Comprehensive Cancer Network criteria. Freedom from biochemical relapse (FFBR), cancer-specific survival (CSS) and incidence of late gastrointestinal (GI)/genitourinary (GU) toxicities were calculated. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify clinical prognostic factors for FFBR and late toxicities...
September 6, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879559/yonsei-experience-of-5000-gasless-transaxillary-robotic-thyroidectomies
#19
Min Jhi Kim, Kee-Hyun Nam, Seul Gi Lee, Jung Bum Choi, Tae Hyung Kim, Cho Rok Lee, Jandee Lee, Sang-Wook Kang, Jong Ju Jeong, Woong Youn Chung
BACKGROUND: Since the use of robot systems in thyroid surgery was introduced in 2007, we have advanced a novel method of robotic thyroidectomy (RT) using a gasless transaxillary approach (TAA). We report our experience with this technique and detail the surgical outcome of 5000 robotic thyroidectomies. METHODS: From October 2007 to May 2016, we successfully performed 5000 robotic thyroidectomies using a gasless TAA at the Department of Surgery, Yonsei University Health System...
September 6, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879211/common-variable-immunodeficiency-with-several-gastrointestinal-manifestations
#20
Catarina Atalaia-Martins, Sandra Barbeiro, Pedro Marcos, Isabel Cotrim, Helena Vasconcelos
Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is an immunodeficiency disorder with a high incidence of gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations and an increased risk of gastric malignancy. We report a case of a CVID with mild anemia presenting with multiple GI manifestations: gastric low-grade dysplasia (LGD), enteropathy with villous atrophy, refractory Giardia infection, nodular lymphoid hyperplasia, and inflammatory bowel-like disease. The differential diagnosis with celiac sprue could be challenging because of CVID enteropathy with villous flattening...
2017: ACG Case Reports Journal
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