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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334123/cancer-associated-fibroblasts-tailored-tumor-microenvironment-of-therapy-resistance-in-gastrointestinal-cancers
#1
REVIEW
Yeqi Sun, Ruifen Wang, Meng Qiao, Yanchun Xu, Wenbin Guan, Lifeng Wang
Gastrointestinal cancers (GI) are a group of highly aggressive malignancies with heavy cancer-related mortalities. Even if continued development of therapy methods, therapy resistance has been a great obstruction for cancer treatment and thereby inevitably leads to depressed final mortality. Peritumoral cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs), a versatile population assisting cancer cells to build a facilitated tumor microenvironment (TME), has been demonstrated exerting a promotion influence on cancer proliferation, migration, invasion, metastasis and also therapy resistance...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333661/nanocage-therapeutics-prevailing-phagocytosis-and-immunogenic-cell-death-awakens-immunity-against-cancer
#2
Eun Jung Lee, Gi-Hoon Nam, Na Kyeong Lee, Minwoo Kih, Eunee Koh, Yoon Kyoung Kim, Yeonsun Hong, Soyoun Kim, Seung-Yoon Park, Cherlhyun Jeong, Yoosoo Yang, In-San Kim
A growing appreciation of the relationship between the immune system and the tumorigenesis has led to the development of strategies aimed at "re-editing" the immune system to kill tumors. Here, a novel tactic is reported for overcoming the activation-energy threshold of the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment and mediating the delivery and presentation of tumor neoantigens to the host's immune system. This nature-derived nanocage not only efficiently presents ligands that enhance cancer cell phagocytosis, but also delivers drugs that induce immunogenic cancer cell death...
January 15, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322625/variations-in-dosimetric-distribution-and-plan-complexity-with-collimator-angles-in-hypofractionated-volumetric-arc-radiotherapy-for-treating-prostate-cancer
#3
Ming-Hsien Li, Sheng-Fang Huang, Chih-Chieh Chang, Jang-Chun Lin, Jo-Ting Tsai
PURPOSE: Hypofractionated radiotherapy can reduce treatment durations and produce effects identical to those of conventionally fractionated radiotherapy for treating prostate cancer. Volumetric arc radiotherapy (VMAT) can decrease the treatment machine monitor units (MUs). Previous studies have shown that VMAT with multileaf collimator (MLC) rotation exhibits better target dose distribution. Thus, VMAT with MLC rotation warrants further investigation. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Ten patients with prostate cancer were included in this study...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322269/prognostic-value-of-simultaneous-18f-fdg-pet-mri-using-a-combination-of-metabolo-volumetric-parameters-and-apparent-diffusion-coefficient-in-treated-head-and-neck-cancer
#4
Yong-Il Kim, Gi Jeong Cheon, Seo Young Kang, Jin Chul Paeng, Keon Wook Kang, Dong Soo Lee, June-Key Chung
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of combined positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameters provided by simultaneous 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/MRI for the prediction of treatment failure in surgically resected head and neck cancer. We hypothesized that PET parameters corrected by tumor cellularity (combined PET/MRI parameters) could predict the prognosis. On regional PET, maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was measured as metabolic parameters...
January 10, 2018: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317252/flavonoids-and-the-gastrointestinal-tract-local-and-systemic-effects
#5
REVIEW
P I Oteiza, C G Fraga, D A Mills, D H Taft
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract plays a central role in the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of flavonoids, which ultimately define the health effects of these bioactives. These aspects are modulated by the interactions of flavonoids with other dietary components, environmental factors, the host, and the GI microbiota. Flavonoid can target molecules in the luminal content, the different GI tract cell types, and the microbiota. Importantly, flavonoid actions at the GI tract can have an impact systemically, e...
January 6, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307454/increased-variance-in-oral-and-gastric-microbiome-correlates-with-esophagectomy-anastomotic-leak
#6
Rishindra M Reddy, William B Weir, Shari Barnett, Brendan T Heiden, Mark B Orringer, Jules Lin, Andrew C Chang, Philip W Carrott, William R Lynch, David G Beer, J Christopher Fenno, Yvonne Kapila
BACKGROUND: Anastomotic leak after esophagectomy remains a significant source of morbidity and mortality. The gastrointestinal (GI) microbiome has been found to play a significant role in tumor oncogenesis and postoperative bowel anastomotic leak. We hypothesized that the GI microbiome could differentiate between esophageal cancer histologies and predict postoperative anastomotic leak. METHODS: A prospective study of esophagectomy patients was performed from May 2013 to August 2014, with the collection of oral saliva, intraoperative esophageal and gastric mucosa, and samples of postoperative infections (neck swab or sputum)...
January 4, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306867/efficacy-of-endoscopic-screening-for-esophageal-cancer-in-china-esecc-design-and-preliminary-results-of-a-population-based-randomised-controlled-trial
#7
Zhonghu He, Zhen Liu, Mengfei Liu, Chuanhai Guo, Ruiping Xu, Fenglei Li, Anxiang Liu, Haijun Yang, Lin Shen, Qi Wu, Liping Duan, Xiang Li, Chaoting Zhang, Yaqi Pan, Hong Cai, Yang Ke
OBJECTIVE: Description of the design and preliminary results of baseline recruitment and screening in the endoscopic screening for esophageal cancer in China (ESECC), the first randomised controlled trial (RCT) assessing efficacy and cost-effectiveness of endoscopic screening for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). DESIGN: ESECC trial is a cluster RCT, and 668 villages in rural Hua County, Henan Province, a high-incidence area of ESCC in China, were randomised into two arms at a ratio of 1:1...
January 6, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303995/local-acetaldehyde-an-essential-role-in-alcohol-related-upper-gastrointestinal-tract-carcinogenesis
#8
REVIEW
Mikko T Nieminen, Mikko Salaspuro
The resident microbiome plays a key role in exposure of the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract mucosa to acetaldehyde (ACH), a carcinogenic metabolite of ethanol. Poor oral health is a significant risk factor for oral and esophageal carcinogenesis and is characterized by a dysbiotic microbiome. Dysbiosis leads to increased growth of opportunistic pathogens (such as Candida yeasts) and may cause an up to 100% increase in the local ACH production, which is further modified by organ-specific expression and gene polymorphisms of ethanol-metabolizing and ACH-metabolizing enzymes...
January 5, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301352/stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-in-the-management-of-upper-gi-malignancies
#9
REVIEW
Leila Tchelebi, Nicholas Zaorsky, Heath Mackley
The role of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) in the management of upper gastrointestinal malignancies is constantly evolving. As radiation therapy techniques improve and are able to deliver more ablative doses of radiotherapy while sparing healthy tissue, radiation can be applied to a wider range of clinical scenarios. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) allows a high dose of radiation to be delivered to a highly conformal treatment volume in a short amount of time. Another potential advantage of SBRT is its ability to increase tumor immunogenicity, while also having less of an immunosuppressive effect on the patient, as compared to conventionally fractionated radiation therapy...
January 3, 2018: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296861/redefining-the-role-of-etoposide-in-first-line-treatment-of-peripheral-t-cell-lymphoma
#10
Young Ae Kim, Ja Min Byun, Keeho Park, Gi Hwan Bae, Dukhyoung Lee, Dong Sook Kim, Sung-Soo Yoon, Youngil Koh
Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs) have an aggressive biological course and poor clinical outcomes. Despite producing somewhat less-than-satisfactory results, the combination of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) remains the de facto standard in PTCL treatment. Addition of etoposide to CHOP backbone to overcome such unsatisfactory results has yielded contradictory information. We aimed to thoroughly analyze the impact of incorporating etoposide into first-line treatment. Using merged data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service and National Cancer Registry, a total of 1933 patients (median age, 58 years) were evaluated for clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes...
November 14, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295650/amifostine-reduces-gastro-intestinal-toxicity-after-autologous-transplantation-for-multiple-myeloma
#11
Ehsan Malek, Vinita Gupta, Richard Creger, Paolo Caimi, Anant Vatsayan, Fahrettin Covut, Qaiser Bashir, Richard Champlin, Ruby Delgado, Gabriela Rondon, Brenda Cooper, Marcos de Lima, Hillard M Lazarus, Muzaffar Qazilbash
High-dose melphalan (HDM) followed by autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (auto-HCT) remains the standard-of-care therapy for multiple myeloma (MM) even with the availability of proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulatory drugs. Gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity is the main cause of morbidity after HDM. Amifostine, a cytoprotective agent, may reduce HDM-associated GI toxicity. We conducted a case control study comparing HDM + auto-HCT with or without amifostine for MM patients. One hundred and seven patients treated at University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center who received pre-transplant amifostine were compared to 114 patients treated at MD Anderson Cancer Center without use of this agent...
January 2, 2018: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294595/should-asymptomatic-young-men-with-iron-deficiency-anemia-necessarily-undergo-endoscopy
#12
Nam Hee Kim, Jung Ho Park, Dong Il Park, Chong Il Sohn, Kyuyong Choi, Yoon Suk Jung
Background/Aims: There has been no evidence for the necessity of endoscopy in asymptomatic young men with iron deficiency anemia (IDA). To determine whether endoscopy should be recommended in asymptomatic young men with IDA, we compared the prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) lesions between young men (< 50 years) with IDA and those without IDA. Methods: We conducted a case-control study on asymptomatic young men aged < 50 years who underwent both esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and colonoscopy as part of a health checkup between 2010 and 2014...
January 5, 2018: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290980/up-regulation-of-5-lipoxygenase-by-inhibition-of-cathepsin-g-enhances-trail-induced-apoptosis-through-down-regulation-of-survivin
#13
Seon Min Woo, Kyoung-Jin Min, Seung Un Seo, Shin Kim, Jong-Wook Park, Dae Kyu Song, Hyun-Shik Lee, Sang Hyun Kim, Taeg Kyu Kwon
Cathepsin G is a serine protease secreted from activated neutrophils, it has important roles in inflammation and immune response. Moreover, cathepsin G promotes tumor cell-cell adhesion and migration in cancer cells. In this study, we investigated whether inhibition of cathepsin G could sensitize TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in cancer cells. An inhibitor of cathepsin G [Cathepsin G inhibitor I (Cat GI); CAS 429676-93-7] markedly induced TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in human renal carcinoma (Caki, ACHN, and A498), lung cancer (A549) and cervical cancer (Hela) cells...
December 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290788/investigating-esophageal-stent-placement-outcomes-in-patients-with-inoperable-non-cervical-esophageal-cancer
#14
Mojgan Forootan, Morteza Tabatabaeefar, Nariman Mosaffa, Hormat Rahimzadeh Ashkalak, Mohammad Darvishi
Background: Esophageal stent insertion in patients with inoperable esophageal cancer is usually accompanied with relatively high adverse symptoms and even mortality. The current study aims at investigating the outcomes of esophageal stenting in patients with inoperable non-cervical esophageal cancer. Materials and Methods: The current descriptive-analytical research evaluates 25 patients with esophageal cancer. The stent was placed in esophagus based upon endoscopy analysis with or without fluoroscopy and then the stent position and its opening was investigated by making use of CXRand Gastrografin studies...
2018: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290572/phase-1-2-study-of-hypofractionated-intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy-for-prostate-cancer-including-simultaneously-integrated-boost
#15
Michael G Chang, Nitai Mukhopadhyay, Diane Holdford, Vicki Skinner, Siddharth Saraiya, Drew Moghanaki, Mitchell S Anscher
PURPOSE: This study evaluates the safety and efficacy of moderately hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) with simultaneous integrated boost (HSIB) intensity modulated RT (IMRT) that includes coverage of the seminal vesicles (SVs) and pelvic lymph nodes (LNs). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Men with localized prostate cancer were prospectively enrolled in a phase 1/2 trial to receive HSIB-IMRT to the prostate, ± SV, ± pelvic LN using a risk-based method. Low-risk patients received 69...
September 18, 2017: Practical Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284671/dietary-energy-density-glycemic-load-glycemic-index-and-risk-for-endometrial-cancer-in-the-cps-ii-nutrition-cohort
#16
Terryl J Hartman, Marjorie L McCullough, James M Hodge, Mia M Gaudet, Ying Wang, Susan M Gapstur
Background: The glycemic potential and energy density (ED) of diet may influence endometrial cancer risk. Although glycemic load (GL) is considered a probable risk factor for endometrial cancer, no studies have evaluated the association of total dietary ED with risk.Methods: We evaluated associations of ED, GL, and glycemic index (GI) with postmenopausal endometrial cancer incidence. Analyses included 30,997 postmenopausal women from the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort with no previous history of cancer or diabetes, who provided information on diet, lifestyle, and medical history in 1999 and were followed for cancer incidence through June 2013...
December 28, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282515/impact-of-the-weekday-of-surgery-on-outcome-in-gastric-cancer-patients-who-underwent-d2-gastrectomy
#17
Felix Berlth, K Messerle, P S Plum, S-H Chon, J von Ambüren, A Hohn, M Dübbers, C J Bruns, S P Mönig, E Bollschweiler, A H Hölscher, H Alakus
BACKGROUND: The impact of the weekday of surgery in major elective cases of the upper-GI has been discussed controversially. The objective of this study was to assess whether weekday of surgery influences outcome in patients undergoing D2-gastrectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients who underwent D2-gastrectomy for gastric adenocarcinoma between 1996 and 2016 were included. Weekday of surgery was recognized, and subgroups were analyzed regarding clinical and histopathological differences...
December 28, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280452/conventional-versus-hypofractionated-radiation-therapy-for-localized-or-locally-advanced-prostate-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-along-with-therapeutic-implications
#18
REVIEW
Niloy R Datta, Emanuel Stutz, Susanne Rogers, Stephan Bodis
PURPOSE: A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to evaluate the therapeutic outcomes of conventional radiation therapy (CRT) and hypofractionated radiation therapy (HRT) for localized or locally advanced prostate cancer (LLPCa). METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 599 abstracts were extracted from 5 databases and screened in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Only phase III trials randomized between CRT and HRT in LLPCa with a minimum of 5 years of follow-up data were considered...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279348/international-union-of-basic-and-clinical-pharmacology-ciii-chemerin-receptors-cmklr1-chemerin1-and-gpr1-chemerin2-nomenclature-pharmacology-and-function
#19
Amanda J Kennedy, Anthony P Davenport
Chemerin, a chemoattractant protein and adipokine, has been identified as the endogenous ligand for a G protein-coupled receptor encoded by the gene CMKLR1 (also known as ChemR23), and as a consequence the receptor protein was renamed the chemerin receptor in 2013. Since then, chemerin has been identified as the endogenous ligand for a second G protein-coupled receptor, encoded by the gene GPR1 Therefore, the International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology Committee on Receptor Nomenclature and Drug Classification recommends that the official name of the receptor protein for chemokine-like receptor 1 (CMKLR1) is chemerin receptor 1, and G protein-coupled receptor 1 is chemerin receptor 2 to follow the convention of naming the receptor protein after the endogenous ligand...
January 2018: Pharmacological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278509/gut-microbiota-and-obesity-implications-for-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-therapy
#20
REVIEW
Yongbo Kang, Yue Cai
Obesity is a major public health issue as it is causally associated with several chronic disorders, including type-2 diabetes, cerebrovascular disease (CVD), and cancer. In the United States and other countries worldwide, the obesity epidemic has drastically impacted the status of health of millions as well as healthcare costs. Aside from poor diet, hygiene, and genetics, there are many other factors thought to play an important role in the emergence of obesity. Nowadays, accumulating evidence is elucidating the relation of dysbiosis of intestinal bacteria with obesity and metabolic disorders...
July 2017: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
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