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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637301/eden-evolutionary-dynamics-within-environments
#1
Philipp C Münch, Bärbel Stecher, Alice C McHardy
Summary: Metagenomics revolutionized the field of microbial ecology, giving access to Gb-sized datasets of microbial communities under natural conditions. This enables fine-grained analyses of the functions of community members, studies of their association with phenotypes and environments, as well as of their microevolution and adaptation to changing environmental conditions. However, phylogenetic methods for studying adaptation and evolutionary dynamics are not able to cope with big data...
June 16, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635982/research-ethics-in-big-data
#2
Marilyn J Hammer
The ethical conduct of research includes, in part, patient agreement to participate in studies and the protection of health information. In the evolving world of data science and the accessibility of large quantities of web-based data created by millions of individuals, novel methodologic approaches to answering research questions are emerging. This article explores research ethics in the context of big data.
May 1, 2017: Oncology Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632968/perspective-on-precision-medicine-in-oncology
#3
Tali M Johnson
The topic of precision medicine is increasingly more prevalent in the general medical literature with oncology research leading the way. Many factors, such as, availability of targeted drugs, advances in laboratory science, and improved information systems, converged to make precision medicine research possible on a large scale at the National Cancer Institute. The resultant big data will spur new kinds of research in the decades to come, but until then, all clinicians are challenged to make sense of an overabundance of information when managing individual patients...
June 20, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632444/the-structural-consequences-of-big-data-driven-education
#4
Elana Zeide
Educators and commenters who evaluate big data-driven learning environments focus on specific questions: whether automated education platforms improve learning outcomes, invade student privacy, and promote equality. This article puts aside separate unresolved-and perhaps unresolvable-issues regarding the concrete effects of specific technologies. It instead examines how big data-driven tools alter the structure of schools' pedagogical decision-making, and, in doing so, change fundamental aspects of America's education enterprise...
June 2017: Big Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632443/diversity-in-big-data-a-review
#5
Marina Drosou, H V Jagadish, Evaggelia Pitoura, Julia Stoyanovich
Big data technology offers unprecedented opportunities to society as a whole and also to its individual members. At the same time, this technology poses significant risks to those it overlooks. In this article, we give an overview of recent technical work on diversity, particularly in selection tasks, discuss connections between diversity and fairness, and identify promising directions for future work that will position diversity as an important component of a data-responsible society. We argue that diversity should come to the forefront of our discourse, for reasons that are both ethical-to mitigate the risks of exclusion-and utilitarian, to enable more powerful, accurate, and engaging data analysis and use...
June 2017: Big Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632441/research-dilemmas-with-behavioral-big-data
#6
Galit Shmueli
Behavioral big data (BBD) refers to very large and rich multidimensional data sets on human and social behaviors, actions, and interactions, which have become available to companies, governments, and researchers. A growing number of researchers in social science and management fields acquire and analyze BBD for the purpose of extracting knowledge and scientific discoveries. However, the relationships between the researcher, data, subjects, and research questions differ in the BBD context compared to traditional behavioral data...
June 2017: Big Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632439/call-for-papers-special-issue-on-computational-propaganda-and-political-big-data
#7
Philip N Howard, Gillian Bolsover
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Big Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632437/conscientious-classification-a-data-scientist-s-guide-to-discrimination-aware-classification
#8
Brian d'Alessandro, Cathy O'Neil, Tom LaGatta
Recent research has helped to cultivate growing awareness that machine-learning systems fueled by big data can create or exacerbate troubling disparities in society. Much of this research comes from outside of the practicing data science community, leaving its members with little concrete guidance to proactively address these concerns. This article introduces issues of discrimination to the data science community on its own terms. In it, we tour the familiar data-mining process while providing a taxonomy of common practices that have the potential to produce unintended discrimination...
June 2017: Big Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629312/editorial-advanced-big-data-analysis-methods-and-tools-for-high-throughput-omics-technologies
#9
EDITORIAL
Tao Huang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627386/big-data-analysis-of-global-advances-in-pharmaceutics-and-drug-delivery-1980-2014
#10
REVIEW
Weixiang Zhang, Qianqian Zhao, Junling Deng, Yuanjia Hu, Yitao Wang, Defang Ouyang
The past three decades have witnessed an upsurge of publications in pharmaceutics and the drug delivery field. This review provides a landscape of global research advances in pharmaceutics in the period 1980-2014 from publications, countries and institutions, and their collaborations. The scientific knowledge mapping analysis showed that the research frontier shifted from conventional pharmaceutical techniques (1980-1992) to advanced drug delivery systems (1993-2014). The history of drug delivery for this period is summarized and future prospects of pharmaceutical research are discussed...
June 13, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625431/fishing-for-answers-in-an-ocean-of-data-the-potential-for-big-data-analytics-to-enhance-our-knowledge-of-the-complex-regional-pain-syndromes
#11
EDITORIAL
Frederick Burgess, Keith Fragoza
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624589/dependency-distance-a-new-perspective-on-syntactic-patterns-in-natural-languages
#12
REVIEW
Haitao Liu, Chunshan Xu, Junying Liang
Dependency distance, measured by the linear distance between two syntactically related words in a sentence, is generally held as an important index of memory burden and an indicator of syntactic difficulty. Since this constraint of memory is common for all human beings, there may well be a universal preference for dependency distance minimization (DDM) for the sake of reducing memory burden. This human-driven language universal is supported by big data analyses of various corpora that consistently report shorter overall dependency distance in natural languages than in artificial random languages and long-tailed distributions featuring a majority of short dependencies and a minority of long ones...
March 27, 2017: Physics of Life Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623182/mygenefriends-a-social-network-linking-genes-genetic-diseases-and-researchers
#13
Alexis Allot, Kirsley Chennen, Yannis Nevers, Laetitia Poidevin, Arnaud Kress, Raymond Ripp, Julie Dawn Thompson, Olivier Poch, Odile Lecompte
BACKGROUND: The constant and massive increase of biological data offers unprecedented opportunities to decipher the function and evolution of genes and their roles in human diseases. However, the multiplicity of sources and flow of data mean that efficient access to useful information and knowledge production has become a major challenge. This challenge can be addressed by taking inspiration from Web 2.0 and particularly social networks, which are at the forefront of big data exploration and human-data interaction...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622323/uk-ophthalmology-electronic-medical-records-databases-big-data-and-robert-l-johnston
#14
EDITORIAL
W M Amoaku
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 16, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622186/a-90-day-bundled-payment-for-primary-single-level-lumbar-discectomy-decompression-what-does-big-data-say
#15
Nikhil Jain, Sohrab S Virk, Frank M Phillips, Elizabeth Yu, Safdar N Khan
Episode-based bundling may become the major form of reimbursement for many elective spine procedures. As the amount for a 90-day episode of care is not known for a lumbar discectomy, we analyzed the previous reimbursements from Commercial payers (2007-Q2 2015), Medicare Advantage (2007-Q2 2015), and Medicare (2005-2012) for a primary single-level lumbar discectomy/decompression. Distribution of payments among various service providers was studied and a 90-day bundle was simulated. Depending on the payer type, the average facility costs constituted 59...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619774/protocol-for-a-multicentre-multistage-prospective-study-in-china-using-system-based-approaches-for-consistent-improvement-in-surgical-safety
#16
Xiaochu Yu, Jingmei Jiang, Changwei Liu, Keng Shen, Zixing Wang, Wei Han, Xingrong Liu, Guole Lin, Ye Zhang, Ying Zhang, Yufen Ma, Haixin Bo, Yupei Zhao
INTRODUCTION: Surgical safety has emerged as a crucial global health issue in the past two decades. Although several safety-enhancing tools are available, the pace of large-scale improvement remains slow, especially in developing countries such as China. The present project (Modern Surgery and Anesthesia Safety Management System Construction and Promotion) aims to develop and validate system-based integrated approaches for reducing perioperative deaths and complications using a multicentre, multistage design...
June 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619700/integrated-detection-and-prediction-of-influenza-activity-for-real-time-surveillance-algorithm-design
#17
Armin Spreco, Olle Eriksson, Örjan Dahlström, Benjamin John Cowling, Toomas Timpka
BACKGROUND: Influenza is a viral respiratory disease capable of causing epidemics that represent a threat to communities worldwide. The rapidly growing availability of electronic "big data" from diagnostic and prediagnostic sources in health care and public health settings permits advance of a new generation of methods for local detection and prediction of winter influenza seasons and influenza pandemics. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to present a method for integrated detection and prediction of influenza virus activity in local settings using electronically available surveillance data and to evaluate its performance by retrospective application on authentic data from a Swedish county...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616866/vocal-palsy-increases-the-risk-of-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-in-low-risk-low-morbidity-patients-undergoing-thyroidectomy-for-benign-disease-a-big-data-analysis
#18
S A R Nouraei, J Allen, H Kaddour, S E Middleton, P Aylin, A Darzi, N S Tolley
OBJECTIVES: Thyroidectomy is the commonest and most rapidly-growing operation which places normally-functioning laryngeal nerves at risk of injury. Laryngeal palsy is a major risk-factor for dysphonia, dysphagia, and less commonly, airway obstruction. We investigated the association between post-thyroidectomy vocal palsy and long-term risks of pneumonia and laryngeal failure. DESIGN: An N=near-all analysis of the English administrative dataset using a previously-validated informatics algorithm to identify young and otherwise low-risk patients undergoing thyroidectomy for benign disease...
June 14, 2017: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615950/utilizing-big-data-and-twitter-to-discover-emergent-online-communities-of-cannabis-users
#19
Peter Baumgartner, Nicholas Peiper
Large shifts in medical, recreational, and illicit cannabis consumption in the United States have implications for personalizing treatment and prevention programs to a wide variety of populations. As such, considerable research has investigated clinical presentations of cannabis users in clinical and population-based samples. Studies leveraging big data, social media, and social network analysis have emerged as a promising mechanism to generate timely insights that can inform treatment and prevention research...
2017: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615732/managing-rheumatic-and-musculoskeletal-diseases-past-present-and-future
#20
REVIEW
Gerd R Burmester, Johannes W J Bijlsma, Maurizio Cutolo, Iain B McInnes
Progress in rheumatology has been remarkable in the past 70 years, favourably affecting quality of life for people with rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases. Therapeutics have advanced considerably in this period, from early developments such as the introduction of glucocorticoid therapy to the general use of methotrexate and other disease-modifying agents, followed by the advent of biologic DMARDs and, most recently, small-molecule signalling inhibitors. Novel strategies for the use of such agents have also transformed outcomes, as have multidisciplinary nonpharmacological approaches to the management of rheumatic musculoskeletal disease including surgery, physical therapy and occupational therapy...
June 15, 2017: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
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