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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805364/laser-direct-writing-of-tree-shaped-hierarchical-cones-on-a-superhydrophobic-film-for-high-efficiency-water-collection
#1
Meng Wang, Qian Liu, Haoran Zhang, Chuang Wang, Lei Wang, Bingxi Xiang, Yongtao Fan, Chuanfei Guo, Shuangchen Ruan
Directional water collection has stimulated a great deal of interests because of its potential applications in the field of microfluidics, liquid transportation, fog harvesting, and so forth. There have been some bio or bioinspired structures for directional water collection, from one-dimensional spider silk to two-dimensional star-like patterns to three-dimensional Nepenthes alata. Here we present a simple way for the accurate design and highly controllable driving of tiny droplets: by laser direct writing of hierarchical patterns with modified wettability and desired geometry on a superhydrophobic film, the patterned film can precisely and directionally drive tiny water droplets, and dramatically improve the efficiency of water collection with a factor of ~36...
August 14, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798711/languages-in-drier-climates-use-fewer-vowels
#2
Caleb Everett
This study offers evidence for an environmental effect on languages while relying on continuous linguistic and continuous ecological variables. Evidence is presented for a positive association between the typical ambient humidity of a language's native locale and that language's degree of reliance on vowels. The vowel-usage rates of over 4000 language varieties were obtained, and several methods were employed to test whether these usage rates are associated with ambient humidity. The results of these methods are generally consistent with the notion that reduced ambient humidity eventually yields a reduced reliance of languages on vowels, when compared to consonants...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798197/corp-measurement-of-lung-function-in-small-animals
#3
Jason H T Bates
The measurement of lung function in mice and rats is crucial for understanding how well small animal models of pulmonary disease recapitulate human clinical pathology, but brings with it the challenge of making accurate measurements in animals as small as a mouse. Overcoming these challenges can be achieved in a number of ways, each based on a model idealization of how the lung works as a mechanical system. Accordingly, it is important to understand the theoretical basis on which an assessment of lung function rests in order to interpret experimental measurements appropriately...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795234/demographic-and-clinical-characteristics-of-patients-with-serum-sickness-like-reaction
#4
Alaaddin Yorulmaz, Fatih Akın, Ahmet Sert, Mehmet Akif Ağır, Rıza Yılmaz, Şükrü Arslan
In this study, we aimed to review the demographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics of patients who were followed up and treated with the diagnosis of serum sickness-like reactions (SSLR) in our pediatric rheumatology clinic retrospectively and emphasize the importance of early diagnosis and treatment. The files of 29 patients who were hospitalized in the pediatric rheumatology clinic between September 2016 and March 2017 with the diagnosis of type 3 hypersensitivity reaction were reviewed retrospectively...
August 9, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790286/-intraoperative-prevention-and-postoperative-treatment-of-air-leakage-in-lung-surgery
#5
Masahito Naito, Yukitoshi Satoh
The intraoperative and postoperative air leakages in lung surgery are caused by factors related to patients as well as the surgical technique employed. Prevention and management of air leakage caused by these varied factors are essential for thoracic surgeons. The factors related to patients, such as severe emphysema, smoking history, and insufficient lobulation, should be evaluated before surgery. Although time-consuming, careful and reliable surgical techniques are required. After the lung surgery, management of drain is essential for controlling air leakage...
July 2017: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783065/assessing-the-utility-of-low-cost-particulate-matter-sensors-over-a-12-week-period-in-the-cuyama-valley-of-california
#6
Anondo Mukherjee, Levi G Stanton, Ashley R Graham, Paul T Roberts
The use of low-cost air quality sensors has proliferated among non-profits and citizen scientists, due to their portability, affordability, and ease of use. Researchers are examining the sensors for their potential use in a wide range of applications, including the examination of the spatial and temporal variability of particulate matter (PM). However, few studies have quantified the performance (e.g., accuracy, precision, and reliability) of the sensors under real-world conditions. This study examined the performance of two models of PM sensors, the AirBeam and the Alphasense Optical Particle Counter (OPC-N2), over a 12-week period in the Cuyama Valley of California, where PM concentrations are impacted by wind-blown dust events and regional transport...
August 5, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782138/a-cautionary-note-on-the-effects-of-laboratory-air-contaminants-on-ambient-ionization-mass-spectrometry-measurements
#7
Sambhav R Kumbhani, Lisa M Wingen, Véronique Perraud, Barbara J Finlayson-Pitts
RATIONALE: Ambient ionization mass spectrometry methods are convenient, sensitive and require little sample preparation. However, they are susceptible to species present in air surrounding the mass spectrometer. This study identifies some challenges associated with the potential impacts of indoor air contaminants on ionization and analysis involving open air methods. METHODS: Unexpected effects of volatile organic compounds from floor maintenance activities on ambient ionization mass spectrometry were studied using three different ambient ionization techniques...
August 6, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781996/opinion-hazards-faced-by-macromolecules-when-confined-to-thin-aqueous-films
#8
REVIEW
Robert M Glaeser, Bong-Gyoon Han
Samples prepared for single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) necessarily have a very high surface-to-volume ratio during the short period of time between thinning and vitrification. During this time, there is an obvious risk that macromolecules of interest may adsorb to the air-water interface with a preferred orientation, or that they may even become partially or fully unfolded at the interface. In addition, adsorption of macromolecules to an air-water interface may occur even before thinning. This paper addresses the question whether currently used methods of sample preparation might be improved if one could avoid such interfacial interactions...
2017: Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780815/-evaluation-of-the-viability-of-beas-2b-cells-exposed-to-gasoline-engine-exhaust-with-different-particle-sizes-by-air-liquid-interface
#9
T Yu, X Y Zhang, Z X Wang, B Li, Y X Zheng, P Bin
Objective: To evaluate the viability of gasoline engine exhaust (GEE) with different particle sizes on human lung cell line BEAS-2B in vitro by air-liquid interface (ALI) . Methods: GEE were collected with a Tedlar bag and their particulate matter (PM) number, surface and mass concentration in three kind of GEE (filtered automobile exhaust, non-filtered automobile exhaust and motorcycle exhaust without three-way catalytic converter) were measured by two type of particle size spectrometer including TSI-3321 and SMPS-3938...
June 20, 2017: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779897/study-on-emission-of-hazardous-trace-elements-in-a-350%C3%A2-mw-coal-fired-power-plant-part-1-mercury
#10
Shilin Zhao, Yufeng Duan, Lei Chen, Yaning Li, Ting Yao, Shuai Liu, Meng Liu, Jianhong Lu
Hazardous trace elements (HTEs), especially mercury, emitted from coal-fired power plants had caused widespread concern worldwide. Field test on mercury emissions at three different loads (100%, 85%, 68% output) using different types of coal was conducted in a 350 MW pulverized coal combustion power plant equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR), electrostatic precipitator and fabric filter (ESP + FF), and wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD). The Ontario Hydro Method was used for simultaneous flue gas mercury sampling for mercury at the inlet and outlet of each of the air pollutant control device (APCD)...
August 2, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777880/stomatal-heterogeneity-in-responses-to-humidity-and-temperature-testing-a-mechanistic-model
#11
Kathryn J Sweet, David Peak, Keith A Mott
The role of stomatal heterogeneity in the response of stomatal conductance (gs ) to the mole fraction difference in water vapor between the inside of the leaf and the ambient air (Δw) was determined using thermography and gas exchange for three species. The value of Δw for the leaf was varied in two different ways: first by varying air humidity while holding leaf temperature constant and second by varying leaf temperature while holding air humidity constant. Stomatal heterogeneity was explored by examining the response of gs in small areas of the leaf (as determined by thermography) and comparing them to each other and to the average value of gs (as determined by gas exchange)...
August 4, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772427/bonding-to-different-peek-compositions-the-impact-of-dental-light-curing-units
#12
Nina Lümkemann, Marlis Eichberger, Bogna Stawarczyk
This study investigated the impact of different light curing units (LCUs) for the polymerization of adhesive system visio.link (VL) on the tensile bond strength (TBS) of different PEEK compositions. For TBS measurements, 216 PEEK specimens with varying amounts of TiO₂ (PEEK/0%, PEEK/20%, PEEK/>30%) were embedded, polished, air abraded (Al₂O₃, 50 µm, 0.4 MPa), conditioned using VL, and polymerized using either a halogen LCU (HAL-LCU) or a LED LCU (LED-LCU) for chairside or labside application, respectively...
January 14, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772415/capability-study-of-ti-cr-w-ta-and-pt-as-seed-layers-for-electrodeposited-platinum-films-on-%C3%AE-al%C3%A2-o%C3%A2-for-high-temperature-and-harsh-environment-applications
#13
Marietta Seifert, Erik Brachmann, Gayatri K Rane, Siegfried B Menzel, Thomas Gemming
High temperature surface acoustic wave sensors based on radio frequency identification technology require adequate antennas of high efficiency and thermal stability for the signal transmission. Platinum is well known and frequently used as a material of choice for high temperature and harsh environment applications because of the high melting point and its chemical stability. Therefore, one way to realize high temperature stable antennas is the combination of a Pt metallization on an Al 2 O 3 substrate. As a cost-effective technique, the Pt film is deposited via electrochemical deposition...
January 11, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764442/inverse-identification-of-the-acoustic-porous-parameters-of-double-layered-poroelastic-structures-by-acoustic-rigidity-approximation
#14
Yaoguang Liu, Xiandong Liu, Jun Xu, Xiaojun Hu, Zhaowang Xia
A method to characterize the porous parameters (i.e., tortuosity, flow resistivity, viscous, and thermal lengths) of double-layered poroelastic structures is proposed and validated. The porosity, elastic coefficients (estimated), frame density, and thickness of each layer are assumed to be known. The way is to first identify the effective density and bulk modulus of each layer by a system of equations established based on the measured surface impedance of the structures backed by various air cavities, and then extract the porous parameters from the above identified parameters through the least square method at frequencies where the effect of vibration of frame is trivial...
July 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762266/gradated-mixed-hole-transport-layer-in-a-perovskite-solar-cell-improving-moisture-stability-and-efficiency
#15
Guan-Woo Kim, Gyeongho Kang, Mahdi Malekshahi Byranvand, Gang-Young Lee, Taiho Park
We demonstrate a simple and facile way to improve the efficiency and moisture stability of perovskite solar cells using commercially available hole transport materials, 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis-(N,N-di-4-methoxyphenylamino)-9,9'-spirobifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD) and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). The hole transport layer (HTL) composed of mixed spiro-OMeTAD and P3HT exhibited favorable vertical phase separation. The hydrophobic P3HT was more distributed near the surface (the air atmosphere), whereas the hydrophilic spiro-OMeTAD was more distributed near the perovskite layer...
August 9, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756570/sensitivity-and-specificity-of-the-abbreviated-profile-of-hearing-aid-benefit-aphab
#16
Jan Löhler, F Gräbner, B Wollenberg, P Schlattmann, R Schönweiler
Subjective hearing loss in hearing-impaired patients can be assessed by inventory questionnaires. The abbreviated profile of hearing aid benefit (APHAB) measures subjective hearing loss in four typical hearing situations (subscales). It is used to fit hearing aids in patients with statutory insurance in Germany. In addition, the unaided APHAB (APHABu) can be used as a primary diagnostic instrument in audiology. There are no published data regarding the sensitivity and specificity of the unaided APHABu. Therefore, we investigated these parameters for detecting hearing loss of at least 25 dB at any frequency between 0...
July 29, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754899/efficient-and-reversible-electron-doping-of-semiconductor-enriched-single-walled-carbon-nanotubes-by-using-decamethylcobaltocene
#17
Jian-Long Xu, Rui-Xuan Dai, Yan Xin, Yi-Lin Sun, Xian Li, Yang-Xin Yu, Lan Xiang, Dan Xie, Sui-Dong Wang, Tian-Ling Ren
Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) offer great potential for field-effect transistors and integrated circuit applications due to their extraordinary electrical properties. To date, as-made SWCNT transistors are usually p-type in air, and it still remains challenging for realizing n-type devices. Herein, we present efficient and reversible electron doping of semiconductor-enriched single-walled carbon nanotubes (s-SWCNTs) by firstly utilizing decamethylcobaltocene (DMC) deposited by a simple spin-coating process at room temperature as an electron donor...
July 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754013/interference-effects-redress-over-power-efficient-wireless-friendly-mesh-networks-for-ubiquitous-sensor-communications-across-smart-cities
#18
Jose Santana, Domingo Marrero, Elsa Macías, Vicente Mena, Álvaro Suárez
Ubiquitous sensing allows smart cities to take control of many parameters (e.g., road traffic, air or noise pollution levels, etc.). An inexpensive Wireless Mesh Network can be used as an efficient way to transport sensed data. When that mesh is autonomously powered (e.g., solar powered), it constitutes an ideal portable network system which can be deployed when needed. Nevertheless, its power consumption must be restrained to extend its operational cycle and for preserving the environment. To this end, our strategy fosters wireless interface deactivation among nodes which do not participate in any route...
July 21, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753269/highly-sensitive-flexible-pressure-sensor-based-on-silver-nanowires-embedded-polydimethylsiloxane-electrode-with-microarray-structure
#19
Xingtian Shuai, Pengli Zhu, Wenjin Zeng, Yougen Hu, Xianwen Liang, Yu Zhang, Rong Sun, Ching-Ping Wong
Flexible pressure sensors have attracted increasing research interest because of their potential applications for wearable sensing devices. Herein, a highly sensitive flexible pressure sensor is exhibited based on the elastomeric electrodes and a microarray architecture. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate, coated with silver nanowires (AgNWs), is used as the top electrode, while polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as the dielectric layer. Several transfer processes are applied on seeking facile strategy for the preparation of the bottom electrode via embedding AgNWs into the PDMS film of microarray structure...
August 9, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750776/in-vitro-biofilm-formation-on-resin-based-composites-after-different-finishing-and-polishing-procedures
#20
Gloria Cazzaniga, Marco Ottobelli, Andrei C Ionescu, Gaetano Paolone, Enrico Gherlone, Jack L Ferracane, Eugenio Brambilla
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the influence of surface treatments of different resin-based composites (RBCs) on S. mutans biofilm formation. METHODS: 4 RBCs (microhybrid, nanohybrid, nanofilled, bulk-filled) and 6 finishing-polishing (F/P) procedures (open-air light-curing, light-curing against Mylar strip, aluminum oxide discs, one-step rubber point, diamond bur, multi-blade carbide bur) were evaluated. Surface roughness (SR) (n=5/group), gloss (n=5/group), scanning electron microscopy morphological analysis (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) (n=3/group), and S...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Dentistry
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