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Agnes Weiss, Helmut Weiss
Small photovoltaic plants in private ownership are typically rated at 5 kW (peak). The panels are mounted on roofs at a decline angle of 20° to 45°. In winter time, a dense layer of snow at a width of e.g., 10 cm keeps off solar radiation from the photovoltaic cells for weeks under continental climate conditions. Practically, no energy is produced over the time of snow coverage. Only until outside air temperature has risen high enough for a rather long-time interval to allow partial melting of snow; the snow layer rushes down in an avalanche...
November 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Meryem Gülce Subaşı, Gülce Alp
PURPOSE: To explore the influence of different surface conditionings on surface changes and the influence of surface treatments and aging on the bond strengths of composites to non-aged and aged resin nanoceramics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rectangular-shaped non-aged and aged (5000 thermocycles) resin nanoceramic specimens (Lava Ultimate) (n=63, each) were divided into 3 groups according to surface treatments (untreated, air abrasion, or silica coating) (n=21). The surface roughness was measured and scanning electron microscopy was used to examine one specimen from each group...
October 2017: Journal of Advanced Prosthodontics
Pengwei Wang, Tianyi Zhao, Ruixin Bian, Guangyan Wang, Huan Liu
Superhydrophobic carbon nanotubes (CNTs) films have demonstrated many fascinating performances in versatile applications, especially for those involving solid/liquid interfacial processes, because of its ability in affecting the way of the material/energy transfer at interfaces. Thus, developing superhydrophobic CNTs has attracted extensively research interests in the past decades, and it could be achieved either by surface coating of inorganic/organic low-free energy materials or by constructing micro-/nano- hierarchical structures via various complicated processes...
November 15, 2017: ACS Nano
Adam O Goldstein, Stephanie P Gans, Carol Ripley-Moffitt, Chris Kotsen, Matthew Bars
Carbon Monoxide (CO) testing is considered an easy, non-invasive, and objective contribution to the assessment of smoking behavior, as CO is rapidly absorbed into the blood stream when lit cigarettes or cigars are inhaled. CO testing is a medically important, billable outpatient service that can contribute to sustainability of face-to-face tobacco use treatment services by clinicians. This article reviews research on the clinical use of CO testing to provide bio-medical feedback in assessing smoking behavior, on educating smokers on tobacco health effects, on assisting with treatment planning, and as a motivational tool to encourage people to become tobacco free...
November 11, 2017: Chest
Lisa Foucart, Annelies De Decker, Isabelle Sioen, Stefaan De Henauw, Nathalie Michels
AIM: To identify children at risk of overweight, assessing children's body composition in a valid way is crucial. The present cross-sectional study examines the comparability of children's fat mass percentage obtained by hand-to-foot bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) versus BodPod air-displacement plethysmography as a reference method. METHODS: The body composition of 206 Belgian children (7-13 years; 7.7% overweight) was measured with BodPod and hand-to-foot BIA (Tanita BC418 with built-in formula)...
November 2017: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
Yong Sung You, Seongchan Kang, Rodolphe Mauchauffé, Se Youn Moon
Oil-water separation is a worldwide challenge because of the increasing production of industrial oily wastewater and frequent oil spills. The growing environmental and economic demands emphasize the need to develop effective solutions to separate oil and water. Recently, oil-water separation methods were developed by tuning the wettability of membranes via surface functionalization. However, the industrialization of such methods remains challenging due to the easy-fouling, high cost and complex fabrication...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
Helen W Sullivan, Kathryn J Aikin, Jon Poehlman
Direct-to-consumer (DTC) television ads for prescription drugs are required to disclose the product's major risks in the audio or audio and visual parts of the presentation (sometimes referred to as the "major statement"). The objective of this content analysis was to determine how the major statement of risks is presented in DTC television ads, including what risk information is presented, how easy or difficult it is to understand the risk information, and the audio and visual characteristics of the major statement...
November 10, 2017: Health Communication
Yu-Qing Liu, Dong-Dong Han, Zhi-Zhen Jiao, Yan Liu, Hao-Bo Jiang, Xuan-Hang Wu, Hong Ding, Yong-Lai Zhang, Hong-Bo Sun
We report here the fabrication of a Janus wire mesh by a combined process of laser structuring and fluorosilane/graphene oxide (GO) modification of the two sides of the mesh, respectively, toward its applications in efficient oil/water separation. Femtosecond laser processing has been employed to make different laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on each side of the mesh. Surface modification with fluorosilane on one side and GO on the other side endows the two sides of the Janus mesh with distinct wettability...
November 10, 2017: Nanoscale
Chung-Hsien Kuo, Chun-Ju Wu, Hung-Chyun Chou, Guan-Ting Chen, Yu-Cheng Kuo
This paper presents an oscillometric blood pressure (BP) measurement approach based on the active control schemes of cuff pressure. Compared with conventional electronic BP instruments, the novelty of the proposed BP measurement approach is to utilize a variable volume chamber which actively and stably alters the cuff pressure during inflating or deflating cycles. The variable volume chamber is operated with a closed-loop pressure control scheme, and it is activated by controlling the piston position of a single-acting cylinder driven by a screw motor...
2017: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
Elvin Kesimci, Erdem Çoşkun, Gökçer Uğur, Togay Müderris, Seval İzdeş, Bensu Karahalil
Objective: Volatile anaesthetics can inhibit the bronchociliary clearence in a dose- and time-dependend way. Moreover, they can have potential mutagenic/carcinogenic effects under chronic exposure. A genotoxicity test -micronuclei assay- was carried out in nasal epithelial cells to analyze the genotoxic effect of sevoflurane in adult patients undergoing general anesthesia. Methods: In this study, micronucleus (MN) assay was conducted using nasal epithelial cells of 37 adult patients (age, 18-65 years) who underwent elective, minor, short surgical procedures under general anaesthesia with sevoflurane...
October 2017: Turkish Journal of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation
Marina Vlasova, Abigail Parra Parra, Pedro Antonio Márquez Aguilar, Ariadna Trujillo Estrada, Veronica González Molina, Mykola Kakazey, Tamara Tomila, Virginia Gómez-Vidales
The recycling of waste activated sludge (WAS) formed in the process of biological purification of sewage is an urgent ecological problem. In the present work, two ways of recycling of WAS containing from 8 to 30% free water, namely, the synthesis of a carbon-containing component and synthesis of porous building ceramics (bricks) with the use of WAS and waste carbonizate, have been considered. For the preparation of a carbon adsorbent, the carbonization of WAS has been carried out in an argon atmosphere. For the synthesis of ceramics, clay-cullet-tezontle-WAS mixtures with different contents of the components have been used...
November 4, 2017: Waste Management
Arvid Steinar Haugen, Hilde Valen Wæhle, Stian Kreken Almeland, Stig Harthug, Nick Sevdalis, Geir Egil Eide, Monica Wammen Nortvedt, Ingrid Smith, Eirik Søfteland
OBJECTIVE: We hypothesize that high-quality implementation of the World Health Organization's Surgical Safety Checklist (SSC) will lead to improved care processes and subsequently reduction of peri- and postoperative complications. BACKGROUND: Implementation of the SSC was associated with robust reduction in morbidity and length of in-hospital stay in a stepped wedge cluster randomized controlled trial conducted in 2 Norwegian hospitals. Further investigation of precisely how the SSC improves care processes and subsequently patient outcomes is needed to understand the causal mechanisms of improvement...
November 6, 2017: Annals of Surgery
Priya G Patel, Alex C DiBartola, Laura S Phieffer, Thomas J Scharschmidt, Joel L Mayerson, Andrew H Glassman, Susan D Moffatt-Bruce, Carmen E Quatman
OBJECTIVE: High rates of operating room (OR) traffic may contribute to surgical air contamination and surgical site infections (SSIs). The purpose of this study was to evaluate room traffic patterns in orthopedic implant procedures to determine the frequency of door openings and if time of day had an effect on room traffic. METHODS: In 2015, OR traffic was assessed in orthopedic implant cases. Room traffic was reported as the number of door openings per minute. Counts of how many people were present in the operating room were noted in 5-minute intervals from the time of sterile case opening to dressing placement...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Patient Safety
Roxanna Kiessling, Samuel J S Rubin, Jacquelyn Zehner, Collin Barraugh, Katherine Snell, Corinna Fukushima, Matthew Mulligan, Melissa Keckley, Anthony Bosshardt, Walter Cook, Babak Sanii
We introduce a method to produce continuous polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) silicone filaments on the order of 0.5 m long and 100 μm in diameter. The approach overcomes traditional limitations in silicone drawing by partially precuring the polymer and drawing through a tube furnace. We characterize the filaments' mechanical properties, and their ability to switch hydrophobicity by UV-ozone and corona discharge patterning. The flexible filaments' dynamic properties were evaluated by way of athermal acoustic excitation at the air-water interface, revealing conformational reconfigurability consistent with a wormlike chain model...
November 10, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Mei Ding, Ya-Dong Gao, Xian-Tao Zeng, Yi Guo, Jiong Yang
Persistent air leak (PAL) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, prolonged hospitalization and increased health-care costs. It can arise from a number of conditions, including pneumothorax, necrotizing infection, trauma, malignancies, procedural interventions and complications after thoracic surgery. Numerous therapeutic options, including noninvasive and invasive techniques, are available to treat PALs. Recently, endobronchial one-way valves have been used to treat PAL. We conducted a systematic review based on studies retrieved from PubMed, EMbase and Cochrane library...
November 6, 2017: Respiratory Research
Xia Sheng, Hailiang Zhao, Lin Du
Coal combustion causes indoor pollution of CO. In this work, DFT calculations on cobalt corrole (Co(Cor)) with three most common indoor gas molecules (N2, O2 and CO) were performed. The Mulliken spin densities show that the ground states of Co(N2)(Cor), Co(CO)(Cor) and Co(OC)(Cor) have an anti-ferromagnetic coupling fashion of the electrons on the Co 3d z(2) orbital and the π orbital of the corrole ring. However, Co(O2)(Cor) has a triplet ground state. With the spin contamination corrections, the Co(N2)(Cor) binding energy was obtained at -50...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
Eva Gallego, Francisco Javier Roca, José Francisco Perales, Enrique Gadea
1,3-Butadiene is a carcinogenic compound that can be emitted to the atmosphere from several sources, such as the combustion of organic matter or traffic. However, petrochemical industry is one of the main origins of this compound. Several campaigns (2013-2017) were conducted in twelve Catalan urban areas to determine 1,3-butadiene concentrations in outdoor air, five of which were close to Tarragona petrochemical region. 1,3-Butadiene was dynamically sampled in multi-sorbent bed tubes (Carbotrap, Carbopack X and Carboxen 569) using portable pump equipment...
November 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Wen-Bo Shu, Yi-Bo Zhao, Hong-Gang Ni, Hui Zeng
Two waste incinerators were selected for investigation of size-dependent emission characteristics of airborne parent and halogenated PAHs (PAHs and HPAHs) and incidence of these pollutants from trash incineration. The concentrations of total PAHs (gas and particles with aerodynamic diameter 0.43-10 μm) in ambient air of Shenzhen incinerators were at the lower end of the global range while those of HPAHs were higher than those of urban air in other studies. High-ring PAHs dominated in PM2.5 (66%-86%), while low-ring PAHs dominated in PM10 (83%-86%)...
October 30, 2017: Chemosphere
Manal Almalki, Kathleen Gray, Fernando Martin-Sanchez
BACKGROUND: The use of wearable tools for health self-quantification (SQ) introduces new ways of thinking about one's body and about how to achieve desired health outcomes. Measurements from individuals, such as heart rate, respiratory volume, skin temperature, sleep, mood, blood pressure, food consumed, and quality of surrounding air can be acquired, quantified, and aggregated in a holistic way that has never been possible before. However, health SQ still lacks a formal common language or taxonomy for describing these kinds of measurements...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Magdalena Fandiño-Del-Rio, Dina Goodman, Josiah L Kephart, Catherine H Miele, Kendra N Williams, Mitra Moazzami, Elizabeth C Fung, Kirsten Koehler, Victor G Davila-Roman, Kathryn A Lee, Saachi Nangia, Steven A Harvey, Kyle Steenland, Gustavo F Gonzales, William Checkley
BACKGROUND: Biomass fuel smoke is a leading risk factor for the burden of disease worldwide. International campaigns are promoting the widespread adoption of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) in resource-limited settings. However, it is unclear if the introduction and use of LPG stoves, in settings where biomass fuels are used daily, reduces pollution concentration exposure, improves health outcomes, or how cultural and social barriers influence the exclusive adoption of LPG stoves. METHODS: We will conduct a randomized controlled, field intervention trial of LPG stoves and fuel distribution in rural Puno, Peru, in which we will enroll 180 female participants aged 25-64 years and follow them for 2 years...
November 3, 2017: Trials
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