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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724998/effect-of-defects-controlled-by-preparation-condition-and-heat-treatment-on-the-ferromagnetic-properties-of-few-layer-graphene
#1
Qinghua Miao, Lidong Wang, Zhaoyuan Liu, Bing Wei, Jinhui Wang, Xiangli Liu, Weidong Fei
Magnetism in graphene has stimulated extensive studies to search for novel metal-free magnetic device. In this paper, we use a synthesis method far from equilibrium state named self-propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS) to produce few-layer graphene with different defect contents and then use a heat treatment process (vacuum-annealing and air-cooling) to further control the defects in graphene. We find that the type and content of defects in graphene can be controlled by adjusting the mole ratio of reactants (Mg: CaCO3) for SHS reaction and the temperature of the subsequent heat treatment...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722000/comparative-evaluation-of-shear-bond-strength-of-zirconia-restorations-cleansed-various-cleansing-protocols-bonded-with-two-different-resin-cements-an-in-vitro-study
#2
Sriram Sankar, Vijay Venkatesh Kondas, Sihi Vahanan Dhanasekaran, Prem Kumar Elavarasu
CONTEXT: Yttria partially stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline restorations have gained widespread use because of its enhanced strength and esthetics. During the try-in process, zirconia is likely to be contaminated with saliva. This contamination leads to a clear weakening of the bond between restorative material and cement. For this reason, zirconia surface should be cleaned before cementation. Hence, the purpose of this study is to compare the shear bond strength of zirconia restorations cleansed with various surface cleansing protocols bonded with two different resin cements...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715637/unit-cell-level-thickness-control-of-single-crystalline-zinc-oxide-nanosheets-enabled-by-electrical-double-layer-confinement
#3
Xin Yin, Yeqi Shi, Yanbing Wei, Yongho Joo, Padma Gopalan, Izabela Szlufarska, Xudong Wang
Ionic layer epitaxy (ILE) has recently been developed as an effective strategy to synthesize nanometer-thick 2D materials with a non-layered crystal structure, such as ZnO. The packing density of the amphiphilic monolayer is believed to be a key parameter that controls the nanosheet nucleation and growth. In this work, we systematically investigated the growth behavior of single-crystalline ZnO nanosheets templated at the water-air interface by an anionic oleylsulfate monolayer with different packing densities...
July 17, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714219/visible-light-excited-ultralong-organic-phosphorescence-by-manipulating-intermolecular-interactions
#4
Suzhi Cai, Huifang Shi, Jiewei Li, Long Gu, Yun Ni, Zhichao Cheng, Shan Wang, Wei-Wei Xiong, Lin Li, Zhongfu An, Wei Huang
Visible light is much more available and less harmful than ultraviolet light, but ultralong organic phosphorescence (UOP) with visible-light excitation remains a formidable challenge. Here, a concise chemical approach is provided to obtain bright UOP by tuning the molecular packing in the solid state under irradiation of available visible light, e.g., a cell phone flashlight under ambient conditions (room temperature and in air). The excitation spectra exhibit an obvious redshift via the incorporation of halogen atoms to tune intermolecular interactions...
July 17, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712740/aspects-of-adhesion-tests-on-resin-glass-ceramic-bonding
#5
Andrew Chi Ho Wong, Tian Tian, James Kit Hon Tsoi, Michael Francis Burrow, Jukka Pekka Matinlinna
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare and contrast two resin-ceramic bond strength tests, the tensile bond strength and the four-point bending tests. The effects of hydrofluoric acid (HF) etching time and storage condition on bond strength were also studied. METHODS: Ceramic beams (N=480) with the dimensions of 2.00×2.00×12.45mm(3) were sectioned from lithium disilicate ceramic ingots (IPS e.max CAD), then polished and fired for final crystallization. The joint surfaces were etched with HF gel (IPS Ceramic etching gel) for 20s, 40s, or 60s of each group (n=160)...
July 13, 2017: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710446/the-movement-of-small-insects-in-the-convective-boundary-layer-linking-patterns-to-processes
#6
Charlotte E Wainwright, Phillip M Stepanian, Don R Reynolds, Andy M Reynolds
In fine warm weather, the daytime convective atmosphere over land areas is full of small migrant insects, among them serious pests (e.g. some species of aphid), but also many beneficial species (e.g. natural enemies of pests). For many years intensive aerial trapping studies were the only way of determining the density profiles of these small insects, and for taxon-specific studies trapping is still necessary. However, if we wish to determine generic behavioural responses to air movements shown by small day-migrating insects as a whole, the combination of millimetre-wavelength 'cloud radars' and Doppler lidar now provides virtually ideal instrumentation...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706223/single-molecule-magnet-with-an-unpaired-electron-trapped-between-two-lanthanide-ions-inside-a-fullerene
#7
Fupin Liu, Denis S Krylov, Lukas Spree, Stanislav M Avdoshenko, Nataliya A Samoylova, Marco Rosenkranz, Aram Kostanyan, Thomas Greber, Anja U B Wolter, Bernd Büchner, Alexey A Popov
Increasing the temperature at which molecules behave as single-molecule magnets is a serious challenge in molecular magnetism. One of the ways to address this problem is to create the molecules with strongly coupled lanthanide ions. In this work, endohedral metallofullerenes Y2@C80 and Dy2@C80 are obtained in the form of air-stable benzyl monoadducts. Both feature an unpaired electron trapped between metal ions, thus forming a single-electron metal-metal bond. Giant exchange interactions between lanthanide ions and the unpaired electron result in single-molecule magnetism of Dy2@C80(CH2Ph) with a record-high 100 s blocking temperature of 18 K...
July 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692273/protein-mixture-segregation-at-coffee-ring-real-time-imaging-of-protein-ring-precipitation-by-ftir-spectromicroscopy
#8
Sun Choi, Giovanni Birarda
During natural drying process, all solutions and suspensions tend to form the so-called "coffee-ring" deposits. This phenomenon, by far, has been interpreted by the hydrodynamics of evaporating fluids. However, in this study, by applying Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIRI), it is possible to observe the segregation and separation of a protein mixture at the "ring", hence we suggest a new way to interpret "coffee-ring effect" of solutions. The results explore the dynamic process that leads to the ring formation in case of model plasma proteins, such as BGG (bovine γ globulin), BSA (bovine serum albumin), and Hfib (human fibrinogen), and also report fascinating discovery of the segregation at the ring deposits of two model proteins BGG and BSA, which can be explained by an energy kinetic model, only...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690780/alpine-glacier-fed-turbid-lakes-are-discontinuous-cold-polymictic-rather-than-dimictic
#9
Hannes Peter, Ruben Sommaruga
Glacier retreat as a consequence of climate change influences freshwater ecosystems in manifold ways, yet the physical and chemical bases of these effects are poorly studied. Here, we characterize how water temperature differs between alpine lakes with and without direct glacier influence on seasonal and diurnal timescales. Using high temporal resolution monitoring of temperature in 4 lakes located in a catchment influenced by glacier retreat, we reported unexpectedly high surface temperatures, even in proglacial lakes located 2600 m a...
January 2, 2017: Inland Waters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690556/sound-spectrum-influences-auditory-distance-perception-of-sound-sources-located-in-a-room-environment
#10
Ignacio Spiousas, Pablo E Etchemendy, Manuel C Eguia, Esteban R Calcagno, Ezequiel Abregú, Ramiro O Vergara
Previous studies on the effect of spectral content on auditory distance perception (ADP) focused on the physically measurable cues occurring either in the near field (low-pass filtering due to head diffraction) or when the sound travels distances >15 m (high-frequency energy losses due to air absorption). Here, we study how the spectrum of a sound arriving from a source located in a reverberant room at intermediate distances (1-6 m) influences the perception of the distance to the source. First, we conducted an ADP experiment using pure tones (the simplest possible spectrum) of frequencies 0...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687798/achieving-low-emissivity-materials-with-high-transmission-for-broadband-radio-frequency-signals
#11
Liu Liu, Huiting Chang, Tao Xu, Yanan Song, Chi Zhang, Zhi Hong Hang, Xinhua Hu
The use of low-emissivity (low-e) materials in modern buildings is an extremely efficient way to save energy. However, such materials are coated by metallic films, which can strongly block radio-frequency signals and prevent indoor-outdoor wireless communication. Here, we demonstrate that, when specially-designed metallic metasurfaces are covered on them, the low-e materials can remain low emissivity for thermal radiation and allow very high transmission for a broad band of radio-frequency signals. It is found that the application of air-connected metasurfaces with subwavelength periods is critical to the observed high transmission...
July 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686472/children-s-urinary-environmental-carbon-load-a-novel-marker-reflecting-residential-ambient-air-pollution-exposure
#12
Nelly D Saenen, Hannelore Bové, Christian Steuwe, Maarten B J Roeffaers, Eline B Provost, Wouter Lefebvre, Charlotte Vanpoucke, Marcel Ameloot, Tim S Nawrot
RATIONALE: Ambient air pollution, including black carbon, entails a serious public health risk because of its carcinogenic potential and as climate pollutant. To date, an internal exposure marker to black carbon particles having cleared from the circulation into the urine does not exist. We developed and validated a novel method to measure black carbon particles in a label-free way in urine. METHODS: We detected urinary carbon load in 289 children (aged 9-12 years) using white-light generation under femtosecond pulsed laser illumination...
July 7, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683726/factors-contributing-to-airborne-particle-dispersal-in-the-operating-room
#13
Chieko Noguchi, Hironobu Koseki, Hidehiko Horiuchi, Akihiko Yonekura, Masato Tomita, Takashi Higuchi, Shinya Sunagawa, Makoto Osaki
BACKGROUND: Surgical-site infections due to intraoperative contamination are chiefly ascribable to airborne particles carrying microorganisms. The purpose of this study is to identify the actions that increase the number of airborne particles in the operating room. METHODS: Two surgeons and two surgical nurses performed three patterns of physical movements to mimic intraoperative actions, such as preparing the instrument table, gowning and donning/doffing gloves, and preparing for total knee arthroplasty...
July 6, 2017: BMC Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683336/towards-improved-comparability-of-studies-addressing-atmospheric-concentrations-of-semivolatile-organic-compounds-based-on-their-sequestration-in-pine-needles
#14
Daniela Baráková, Jana Klánová, Mária Chropeňová, Pavel Čupr
Coniferous needles can be used as a passive air sampler of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOC) and an indicator of atmospheric pollution patterns and trends. There is limited information on whether different parts of the plant (e.g., foliage leaves, dwarf shoots, twig, etc.) contain different levels of SVOC. Only few studies have compared levels of SVOC surface layer of wax and to their total content in all needle tissues and what affects an uptake and distribution of SVOC. It is important to have better understanding of the extent to which sampling and sample preparation procedures affect measured levels of SVOC in pine needles and reduce comparability of data from samples processed in different ways...
June 30, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682934/the-accuracy-of-resting-metabolic-rate-prediction-equations-in-athletes
#15
Andrew R Jagim, Clayton L Camic, Jacob Kisiolek, Joel Luedke, Jacob Erickson, Margaret T Jones, Jonathan M Oliver
The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of five different resting metabolic rate (RMR) prediction equations in male and female athletes. Twenty-two female (19.7± 1.4 yrs.; 166.2 ± 5.5 cm; 63.5 ± 7.3 kg; 49.2 ± 4.3 kg of Fat-Free Mass; 23.4 ± 4.4 BF%) and twenty-eight male (20.2 ± 1.6 yrs.; 181.9 ± 6.1 cm; 94.5 ± 16.2 kg; 79.1 ± 7.2 kg of FFM; 15.1 ± 8.5% BF) athletes were recruited to participate in one day of metabolic testing. Assessments comprised RMR measurements via indirect calorimetry and body composition analyses via air displacement plethysmography...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679789/acoustic-communication-in-terrestrial-and-aquatic-vertebrates
#16
REVIEW
Friedrich Ladich, Hans Winkler
Sound propagates much faster and over larger distances in water than in air, mainly because of differences in the density of these media. This raises the question of whether terrestrial (land mammals, birds) and (semi-)aquatic animals (frogs, fishes, cetaceans) differ fundamentally in the way they communicate acoustically. Terrestrial vertebrates primarily produce sounds by vibrating vocal tissue (folds) directly in an airflow. This mechanism has been modified in frogs and cetaceans, whereas fishes generate sounds in quite different ways mainly by utilizing the swimbladder or pectoral fins...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676918/evaluation-of-the-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-proinflammatory-activities-of-gold-and-gold-nanoparticles
#17
Isabelle Durocher, Claudie Noël, Valérie Lavastre, Denis Girard
OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: The aim of this study was to determine potential effects of gold (+) and gold (-) nanoparticles, AuNP(+) and AuNP(-), on neutrophil biology. MATERIAL OR SUBJECTS: Freshly isolated human neutrophils were used for the in vitro aspects and CD-1 mice were used in the in vivo murine air pouch model of acute neutrophilic inflammation. TREATMENT: Human neutrophils were treated with the indicated concentrations of AuNP(+) or AuNP(-) in vitro and mice received 100 or 500 µg/ml AuNP(+) or AuNP(-) into air pouches...
July 4, 2017: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669773/development-of-a-methodological-approach-for-the-characterization-of-bioaerosols-in-exhaust-air-from-pig-fattening-farms-with-maldi-tof-mass-spectrometry
#18
Katharina Druckenmüller, Andrea Gärtner, Udo Jäckel, Kerstin Klug, Johannes Schiffels, Klaus Günther, Gereon Elbers
In this paper, we evaluated matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) as a cultivation-independent, routinely applicable approach to identify microbial fractions in bioaerosol emission samples. We developed a streamlined protocol in line with the German state-of-the-art impingement sampling guideline. Following isokinetic sampling, a fast and reliable pre-treatment methodology involving a series of cascade filtration steps was implemented, which produced fractions for spectrometric measurement devoid of interfering substances...
May 11, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668173/mapping-urban-air-quality-in-near-real-time-using-observations-from-low-cost-sensors-and-model-information
#19
Philipp Schneider, Nuria Castell, Matthias Vogt, Franck R Dauge, William A Lahoz, Alena Bartonova
The recent emergence of low-cost microsensors measuring various air pollutants has significant potential for carrying out high-resolution mapping of air quality in the urban environment. However, the data obtained by such sensors are generally less reliable than that from standard equipment and they are subject to significant data gaps in both space and time. In order to overcome this issue, we present here a data fusion method based on geostatistics that allows for merging observations of air quality from a network of low-cost sensors with spatial information from an urban-scale air quality model...
June 28, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666886/comparison-of-methods-to-evaluate-bacterial-contact-killing-materials
#20
Marieke van de Lagemaat, Arjen Grotenhuis, Betsy van de Belt-Gritter, Steven Roest, Ton J A Loontjens, Henk J Busscher, Henny C van der Mei, Yijin Ren
Cationic surfaces with alkylated quaternary-ammonium groups kill adhering bacteria upon contact by membrane disruption and are considered increasingly promising as a non-antibiotic based way to eradicate bacteria adhering to surfaces. However, reliable in vitro evaluation methods for bacterial contact-killing surfaces do not yet exist. More importantly, results of different evaluation methods are often conflicting. Therefore, we compared five methods to evaluate contact-killing surfaces. To this end, we have copolymerized quaternary-ammonium groups into diurethane dimethacrylate/glycerol dimethacrylate (UDMA/GDMA) and determined contact-killing efficacies against five different Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains...
June 27, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
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