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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169223/comparison-of-pfge-is6110-rflp-and-24-locus-miru-vntr-for-molecular-epidemiologic-typing-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-with-known-epidemic-connections
#1
Semi Jeon, Nara Lim, Sanghee Park, Misun Park, Seonghan Kim
Two molecular epidemiologic methods, IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (IS6110-RFLP) and 24-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable-number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR), are used worldwide in studies of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). Conversely, because of its poor resolution, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is not widely used for MTB. In this study, we improved 24-locus MIRU-VNTR and PFGE protocols and compared the effectiveness of these approaches for the molecular typing of MTB using 75 clinical isolates obtained from a cohort investigation of high-risk populations infected with MTB...
November 25, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169190/measurement-of-basal-serum-calcitonin-for-the-diagnosis-of-medullary-thyroid-cancer
#2
Stephanie Allelein, Margret Ehlers, Corinna Morneau, Katharina Schwartz, Peter E Goretzki, Thomas Seppel, Joachim Feldkamp, Andreas Krieg, Wolfram Trudo Knoefel, Anne Kuebart, Matthias Haase, Till Dringenberg, Christine Schmid, Matthias Schott
Calcitonin (CT), a tumor marker for medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), can be stimulated with pentagastrin or calcium. Because of the unavailability of pentagastrin, basal CT measurement is frequently used for the preoperative diagnosis of MTC. The aim of the study was to define basal serum calcitonin (bCT) cut-off thresholds for diagnosing MTC. Within a retrospective analysis, 114 patients (51 males) were included fulfilling the criteria of an increased preoperative bCT level (>10 pg/ml) and the criteria of an available postoperative histology analysis...
November 23, 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169179/apolipoprotein-e-e4-allele-is-associated-with-subjective-cognitive-decline-a-meta-analysis
#3
Ting Zhang, Shuling Liu, Yajing Zhang, Yalin Guan, Xiaodan Wang, Lei Zhao, Zhihong Shi, Wei Yue, Ying Zhang, Shuai Liu, Yong Ji
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) is a condition associated with increased risk of Alzheimer's disease. This study performs a meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of the Apolipoprotein E e4 (APOE e4) allele in SCD and the association of APOE e4 with SCD. METHODS: The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched. Meta-analyses were conducted using STATA 12.0 software. When significant heterogeneity was present (I2 >50% and p < 0...
November 23, 2017: Neuroepidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169174/melatonin-induced-changes-in-cytosolic-calcium-might-be-responsible-for-apoptosis-induction-in-tumour-cells
#4
Barbora Chovancova, Sona Hudecova, Lubomira Lencesova, Petr Babula, Ingeborg Rezuchova, Adela Penesova, Marian Grman, Roman Moravcik, Michal Zeman, Olga Krizanova
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Melatonin is a hormone transferring information about duration of darkness to the organism and is known to modulate several signaling pathways in the cells, e.g. generation of endoplasmic reticulum stress, oxidative status of the cells, etc. Melatonin has been shown to exert antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects on various human cancers. We proposed that this hormone can differently affect tumour cells and healthy cells. METHODS: We compared the effect of 24 h melatonin treatment on calcium transport (by fluorescent probes FLUO-3AM and Rhod-5N), ER stress (determined as changes in the expression of CHOP, XBP1 and fluorescently, using Thioflavin T), ROS formation (by CellROX® Green/Orange Reagent) and apoptosis induction (by Annexin-V-FLUOS/propidiumiodide) in two tumour cell lines - ovarian cancer cell line A2780 and stable cell line DLD1 derived from colorectal carcinoma, with non-tumour endothelial cell line EA...
November 23, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169161/digoxin-and-hypermagnesuria
#5
Luca Zanoli, Paolo Lentini, Pasquale Fatuzzo
In a recent issue of Nephron, Abu-Amer et al.[<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="ref1">1</xref>] reported the presence of hypermagnesuria in patients following acute intravenous administration of digoxin and suggested that the Na+/K+-ATPase γ-subunit, which is the pharmacological target of digoxin, can play a role in this process. Hypermagnesuria induced by digoxin may have important clinical consequences, particularly in the presence of inherited and acquired conditions associated with hypermagnesuria and hypomagnesemia...
November 23, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169160/the-use-of-peritoneal-dialysis-in-phenobarbitone-toxicity-in-a-critically-unwell-neonate
#6
Amelia K Le Page, Alice E Stewart, Charles C Roehr, Lilian M Johnstone, Andis Graudins
BACKGROUND: Phenobarbitone (PB) is the first-line anti-convulsant for neonatal seizures. The use of peritoneal dialysis (PD) to enhance drug elimination in cases of neonatal PB overdose has not been reported. OBJECTIVE: To report a case of neonatal severe PB toxicity and review the elimination of PB by PD. METHODS: Assessment of PD drug clearance. RESULTS: A neonate with prolonged seizures was administered PB. Encephalopathy and myocardial failure developed, which were initially suspected to be secondary to hypoxia...
November 24, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169142/a-matter-of-fact-adolescents-assumptions-about-crime-laws-and-authority-and-their-domain-specific-beliefs-about-punishment
#7
Benjamin Oosterhoff, Natalie J Shook, Aaron Metzger
This study examined adolescents' beliefs about the amount of punishment individuals should receive for violating different laws and whether these beliefs are connected with their informational assumptions (i.e., perceived facts) about crime, laws, and authority. American adolescents (N = 340; Mage = 16.64, 58.2% female) reported their judgments concerning the appropriate punishment for violating laws regulating domain-specific behaviors and their informational assumptions regarding the prevalence and causes of crime, beliefs that authority is knowledgeable, and the purpose of punishment...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169129/saline-soil-properties-quality-and-productivity-of-wheat-grown-with-bagasse-ash-and-thiourea-in-different-climatic-zones
#8
Mahmoud F Seleiman, Ahmed M S Kheir
Soil salinity and atmosphere temperature change have negative impacts on crop productivity and its quality and can pose a significant risk to soil properties in semi-arid regions. We conducted two field experiments in North (first zone) and South (second zone) of Egypt to investigate the effects of soil bagasse ash (10 ton ha(-1)), foliar thiourea (240 g ha(-1)) and their combination in comparison to the control treatment on saline soil properties and productivity and quality traits of wheat. All studied treatments were received the recommended rate of N, P and K fertilizations...
November 14, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169127/a-decision-support-tool-for-selecting-the-optimal-sewage-sludge-treatment
#9
Ville Turunen, Jaana Sorvari, Anna Mikola
Sewage sludge contains significant amounts of resources, such as nutrients and organic matter. At the same time, the organic contaminants (OC) found in sewage sludge are of growing concern. Consequently, in many European countries incineration is currently favored over recycling in agriculture. This study presents a Multi-Attribute Value Theory (MAVT)-based decision support tool (DST) for facilitating sludge treatment decisions. Essential decision criteria were recognized and prioritized, i.e., weighted, by experts from water utilities...
November 13, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169121/perceptions-of-firearms-and-suicide-the-role-of-misinformation-in-storage-practices-and-openness-to-means-safety-measures
#10
Michael D Anestis, Sarah E Butterworth, Claire Houtsma
BACKGROUND: Firearm ownership and unsafe storage increase risk for suicide. Little is known regarding factors that influence storage practices and willingness to engage in means safety. METHODS: Utilizing Amazon's Mechanical Turk program, we recruited an online sample of 300 adults living in the US who own at least one firearm. Firearm storage practices and openness to means safety measures were assessed using items designed for this study. Data were collected and analyzed in 2017...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169108/identification-of-mutagenic-transformation-products-generated-during-oxidation-of-3-methyl-4-nitrophenol-solutions-by-orbitrap-tandem-mass-spectrometry-and-quantitative-structure-activity-relationship-analyses
#11
Taku Matsushita, Shiho Honda, Taisuke Kuriyama, Yuki Fujita, Takashi Kondo, Yoshihiko Matsui, Nobutaka Shirasaki, Hirokazu Takanashi, Takashi Kameya
We used Ames assays to investigate the effects of ozonation (designated O3), ozonation followed by chlorination (O3/Cl), an advanced oxidation process (AOP, UV/H2O2), and AOP followed by chlorination (AOP/Cl) on the mutagenicity of solutions of 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol (3M4NP), a major environmental degradation product of the organophosphorus insecticide fenitrothion. Whereas O3 did not induce mutagenicity, O3/Cl, AOP, and AOP/Cl converted 3M4NP into mutagenic transformation products (TPs). Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we detected a total of 138 peaks in the solutions subjected to O3/Cl, AOP, and AOP/Cl...
November 14, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169105/constitutive-redox-and-phosphoproteome-changes-in-multiple-herbicide-resistant-avena-fatua-l-are-similar-to-those-of-systemic-acquired-resistance-and-systemic-acquired-acclimation
#12
Erin E Burns, Barbara K Keith, Mohammed Y Refai, Brian Bothner, William E Dyer
Plants are routinely confronted with numerous biotic and abiotic stressors, and in response have evolved highly effective strategies of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and systemic acquired acclimation (SAA), respectively. A much more evolutionarily recent abiotic stress is the application of herbicides to control weedy plants, and their intensive use has selected for resistant weed populations that cause substantial crop yield losses and increase production costs. Non-target site resistance (NTSR) to herbicides is rapidly increasing worldwide and is associated with alterations in generalized stress defense networks...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169104/reconciling-ethical-and-economic-conceptions-of-value-in-health-policy-using-the-capabilities-approach-a-qualitative-investigation-of-non-invasive-prenatal-testing
#13
Mia Kibel, Meredith Vanstone
When evaluating new morally complex health technologies, policy decision-makers consider a broad range of different evaluations, which may include the technology's clinical effectiveness, cost effectiveness, and social or ethical implications. This type of holistic assessment is challenging, because each of these evaluations may be grounded in different and potentially contradictory assumptions about the technology's value. One such technology where evaluations conflict is Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing (NIPT)...
November 16, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169098/assessing-the-effects-of-seawater-temperature-and-ph-on-the-bioaccumulation-of-emerging-chemical-contaminants-in-marine-bivalves
#14
Ana Luísa Maulvault, Carolina Camacho, Vera Barbosa, Ricardo Alves, Patrícia Anacleto, Fabiola Fogaça, Christiaan Kwadijk, Michiel Kotterman, Sara C Cunha, José O Fernandes, Rie R Rasmussen, Jens J Sloth, Òscar Aznar-Alemany, Ethel Eljarrat, Damià Barceló, António Marques
Emerging chemical contaminants [e.g. toxic metals speciation, flame retardants (FRs) and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), among others], that have not been historically recognized as pollutants nor their toxicological hazards, are increasingly more present in the marine environment. Furthermore, the effects of environmental conditions (e.g. temperature and pH) on bioaccumulation and elimination mechanisms of these emerging contaminants in marine biota have been poorly studied until now. In this context, the aim of this study was to assess, for the first time, the effect of warmer seawater temperatures (Δ = + 4°C) and lower pH levels (Δ = - 0...
November 20, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169092/triterpenoids-with-antiplatelet-aggregation-activity-from-ilex-rotunda
#15
Bao Yang, Jin-Ping Zhu, Li Rong, Jing Jin, Di Cao, Hui Li, Xing-Hong Zhou, Zhong-Xiang Zhao
Phytochemical studies on the barks of Ilex rotunda Thunb. had resulted in the isolation of seven previously undescribed triterpenoids, rotundinosides E-K, along with sixteen known ones. The structures of previously undescribed compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis and the sugar moieties were further identified by HPLC and GC after acid hydrolysis. Among the isolates, rotundinoside F featured a rare triterpene-phenylpropanoid hybrid structure and rotundinoside H was an uncommon triterpene saponin with α-linked glucopyranosyl moiety at C-3...
November 20, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169073/difficulty-of-confining-recalcitrant-tuberculosis-patients-in-isolation-wards-in-japan-2013-2014
#16
Y Nagata, M Ota, E Saito
OBJECTIVES: In Japan, approximately 7000 smear-positive tuberculosis (TB) cases were reported in 2014. According to the law, such patients must be isolated in a TB ward until they become at least sputum smear-negative. However, there are some recalcitrant patients who are difficult to isolate because of problematic behaviors. This study was conducted to characterize recalcitrant TB patients and determine why they left the hospitals and how they were followed up after they left. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study...
November 20, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169069/anti-inflammatory-agents-in-peripheral-arterial-disease
#17
REVIEW
Alexios S Antonopoulos, Evi Papanikolaou, Georgia Vogiatzi, Evangelos Oikonomou, Dimitris Tousoulis
Inflammation is pivotally involved in coronary and peripheral atherosclerotic disease. This established concept is based on both experimental animal models of vascular inflammation and Mendelian randomization studies demonstrating a causal relationship between pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. interleukin-6) and cardiovascular disease risk. More recently, the reduction of cardiovascular events by use of an interleukin-1β inhibitor (canakinumab) has revived interest in the use of anti-inflammatory agents for the treatment of atherosclerotic disease, including peripheral arterial disease...
November 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169065/can-postmortem-proteolysis-explain-tenderness-differences-in-various-bovine-muscles
#18
Eva Veiseth-Kent, Mona E Pedersen, Sissel B Rønning, Rune Rødbotten
This study investigated the relationship between postmortem proteolysis, muscle pH decline, sarcomere length (SL), intramuscular fat (IMF) and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) in four bovine muscles (biceps femoris (BF), infraspinatus (IS), longissimus lumborum (LL), psoas major (PM). The WBSF was low in BF, IS and PM, while LL had a higher value (P<0.001), but still considered as tender. The PM had fastest pH decline (P<0.001), ultimate pH was lowest in LL and PM and highest for IS (P<0.001), sarcomeres were longest for PM and shortest for BF and LL (P<0...
November 8, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169063/measurement-of-absolute-%C3%AE-ray-emission-probabilities-in-the-decay-of-235-u
#19
M Marouli, G Lutter, S Pommé, R Van Ammel, M Hult, S Richter, R Eykens, V Peyrés, E García-Toraño, P Dryák, M Mazánová, P Carconi
Accurate measurements were performed of the photon emission probabilities following the α decay of (235)U to (231)Th. Sources of highly enriched (235)U were characterised in terms of isotopic composition by mass spectrometry and their activities were standardised by means of alpha-particle counting at a low defined solid angle. The standardised sources were subsequently measured by high-resolution γ-ray spectrometry with calibrated high-purity germanium detectors to determine the photon emission probabilities...
October 29, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169060/involuntary-autobiographical-memories-are-relatively-more-often-reported-during-high-cognitive-load-tasks
#20
Krystian Barzykowski, Agnieszka Niedźwieńska
Recent studies on involuntary autobiographical memories (IAMs) in daily life have shown that they are most frequently reported during daily routines (e.g. while ironing). Such studies have suggested that reporting IAMs may be influenced by the level of the ongoing task demands and availability of cognitive resources. In two studies, we investigated the effects of cognitive load on reporting IAMs. To examine the presumed cognitive load dependency of IAMs, we utilised an often-employed experimental paradigm (Schlagman & Kvavilashvili, 2008) to elicit IAMs under conditions that differed in cognitive load...
November 20, 2017: Acta Psychologica
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