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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446074/a-hitchhiker-s-guide-to-humanized-mice-new-pathways-to-studying-viral-infections
#1
REVIEW
J K Skelton, A M Ortega-Prieto, M Dorner
Humanized mice are increasingly appreciated as an incredibly powerful platform for infectious disease research. The often very narrow species tropism of many viral infections, coupled with the sometimes-misleading results from preclinical studies in animal models (e.g. fatal immune reactions in the PEARL study 1 ) further emphasize the need for more predictive model systems based on human cells rather than surrogates. Humanized mice represent such a model and have been greatly enhanced in regards to their immune system reconstitution as well as immune functionality in the past years, resulting in their recommendation as pre-clinical model by the US Food and Drug Administration...
February 15, 2018: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432243/epilepsy-syndromes-in-childhood
#2
Phillip L Pearl
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Epilepsy syndromes are an important clinical construct in pediatric epilepsy, as they encompass recognizable patterns seen in patients with epilepsies, whether of the more benign variety or associated with encephalopathy. RECENT FINDINGS: Syndromes may be organized by age of onset: neonatal, infantile, childhood, or adolescent. The assignment of a syndrome has specific implications for diagnosis, management, and prognostication. The 2010 revised classification of the epilepsies by the International League Against Epilepsy preserved the syndrome approach, while progress in genetics continues to advance our understanding of the pathophysiology and overlap of the epilepsy syndromes...
February 2018: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427156/monogenean-parasites-infect-ornamental-fish-imported-to-australia
#3
A Trujillo-González, J A Becker, D B Vaughan, K S Hutson
The ornamental fish trade provides a pathway for the global translocation of aquatic parasites. We examined a total of 1020 fish imported from Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, or Sri Lanka to Australia (including freshwater and marine fish species) for monogenean ectoparasites. Fish were received following veterinary certification that they showed no clinical signs of pests and diseases from the exporting country and visual inspection at Australian border control. Australian import conditions require mandatory treatment for goldfish with parasiticides (e...
February 9, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399446/mini-open-subpectoral-biceps-tenodesis-using-a-suture-anchor
#4
Christopher Arena, Aman Dhawan
The long head of the biceps (LHB) tendon is a potential source of shoulder pain encountered by orthopaedic surgeons. A multitude of approaches to addressing LHB tendinopathy have been described. These include various surgical techniques such as tenodesis versus tenotomy, an arthroscopic versus an open approach, and differing methods of tenodesis fixation. Our preferred approach to addressing LHB tendinopathy is through a mini-open approach using a double-loaded 4.5-mm suture anchor. This Technical Note with accompanying video describes our technique for performing this procedure, as well as supporting clinical evidence and technical pearls...
October 2017: Arthroscopy Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392464/primary-progressive-aphasia-a-clinical-approach
#5
Charles R Marshall, Chris J D Hardy, Anna Volkmer, Lucy L Russell, Rebecca L Bond, Phillip D Fletcher, Camilla N Clark, Catherine J Mummery, Jonathan M Schott, Martin N Rossor, Nick C Fox, Sebastian J Crutch, Jonathan D Rohrer, Jason D Warren
The primary progressive aphasias are a heterogeneous group of focal 'language-led' dementias that pose substantial challenges for diagnosis and management. Here we present a clinical approach to the progressive aphasias, based on our experience of these disorders and directed at non-specialists. We first outline a framework for assessing language, tailored to the common presentations of progressive aphasia. We then consider the defining features of the canonical progressive nonfluent, semantic and logopenic aphasic syndromes, including 'clinical pearls' that we have found diagnostically useful and neuroanatomical and other key associations of each syndrome...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389568/efficacy-of-protein-rich-pearl-powder-on-antioxidant-status-in-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#6
Hui-Fang Chiu, Su-Chun Hsiao, Yan-Ying Lu, Yi-Chun Han, You-Cheng Shen, Kamesh Venkatakrishnan, Chin-Kun Wang
Pearl is one of the well-known traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescribed for treating various skin and bone related disorders due to its abundant proteins and mineral contents. The present investigation focused on antioxidation and life span prolonging effects from different extracts of pearl powder. During in vitro studies, various oxidative indices were evaluated, along with lifespan-prolonging effect were checked using wild-type Caenorhabditis elegans. For the clinical trial, 20 healthy middle-aged subjects were recruited and separated into 2 groups as experimental and placebo group, who received 3 g of pearl powder/d (n = 10) and 3 g of placebo/d (n = 10) for 8 weeks, respectively...
January 2018: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387652/congenital-absence-of-the-long-head-of-biceps-tendon-its-clinical-implications-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#7
REVIEW
Chouhan Devendra Kumar, John Rakesh, Bansal Tungish, Dhillon Mandeep Singh
Background: Multiple reports of congenitally absent long head of biceps tendon (LHBT) have been reported in the literature. However, there is no consensus on the clinical implications of this relatively rare entity. Study Purpose: To systematically review and analyze all studies which have reported absence of LHBT. Methods: PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched. Also, a secondary search was performed by pearling the bibliography of all the full-text articles obtained...
July 2017: Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383057/fantastic-learning-moments-and-where-to-find-them
#8
Alexander Y Sheng, Ryan Sullivan, Kara Kleber, Patricia M Mitchell, James H Liu, Jolion McGreevy, Kerry McCabe, Annemieke Atema, Jeffrey I Schneider
Introduction: Experiential learning is crucial for the development of all learners. Literature exploring how and where experiential learning happens in the modern clinical learning environment is sparse. We created a novel, web-based educational tool called "Learning Moment" (LM) to foster experiential learning among our learners. We used data captured by LM as a research database to determine where learning experiences were occuring within our emergency department (ED). We hypothesized that these moments would occur more frequently at the physician workstations as opposed to the bedside...
January 2018: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382318/patients-satisfaction-with-dental-care-a-qualitative-study-to-develop-a-satisfaction-instrument
#9
Jennifer Yu Ning Luo, Pearl Pei Liu, May Chun Mei Wong
BACKGROUND: To explore and better understand how patients evaluate satisfaction in dental care and elicit information from them to develop a dental satisfaction instrument. METHODS: Patients currently receiving dental treatment in a teaching hospital were invited to be part of a qualitative research project which involved focus group discussion. Focus groups were conducted in Cantonese and discussions were recorded (audio and video) and later transcribed. RESULTS: Thirty patients participated and a thematic analysis of data from four focus groups helped generate a questionnaire on dental satisfaction...
January 30, 2018: BMC Oral Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29375129/immunological-roulette-luck-or-something-more-considering-the-connections-between-host-and-environment-in-tb
#10
John E Pearl, Mrinal Das, Andrea M Cooper
Accurate prediction of which patient will progress from a sub-clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection to active tuberculosis represents an elusive, yet critical, clinical research objective. From the individual perspective, progression can be considered to be the product of a series of unfortunate events or even a run of bad luck. Here, we identify the subtle physiological relationships that can influence the odds of progression to active TB and how this progression may reflect directed dysbiosis in a number of interrelated systems...
January 29, 2018: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349018/open-4-compartment-fasciotomy-for-chronic-exertional-compartment-syndrome-of-the-leg
#11
Amos Z Dai, Michael Zacchilli, Neha Jejurikar, Hien Pham, Laith Jazrawi
Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is a significant source of lower extremity pain and morbidity in the athletic population. Although endoscopic techniques have been introduced, open fasciotomy remains the mainstay of surgical treatment because of the paucity of evidence in support of an endoscopic approach. The literature on surgical management of CECS is mixed, and overall success rates are modest at best. Optimizing surgical technique, including prevention of neurovascular injury and wound complications, can make a significant impact on the clinical outcome...
December 2017: Arthroscopy Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344777/giant-cell-arteritis-practical-pearls-and-updates
#12
REVIEW
Swati Pradeep, Jonathan H Smith
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize recent updates and distill practical points from the literature which can be applied to the care of patients with suspected and confirmed giant cell arteritis (GCA). RECENT FINDINGS: Contemporary thinking implicates a fundamental failure of T regulatory cell function in GCA pathophysiology, representing opportunity for novel therapeutic avenues. Tocilizumab has become the first Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment for GCA following demonstration of efficacy and safety in a phase 3 clinical trial...
January 17, 2018: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333023/nivolumab-pearls-of-evidence
#13
REVIEW
Pratishtha B Chaudhari
Purpose: Nivolumab is one of the most extensively studied immune checkpoint inhibitors across various tumor types. In this narrative review, the current clinical efficacy and safety data of anti-programmed death-1 (PD-1) nivolumab for nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and renal cell cancer (RCC) are elucidated. Methods: Systematic search was done on Pubmed, Medline, Embase, Web of Knowledge, and Cochrane Central through September 2016 for controlled prospective interventional studies of nivolumab across two indications - NSCLC and RCC...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320333/prostate-specific-membrane-antigen-pet-clinical-utility-in-prostate-cancer-normal-patterns-pearls-and-pitfalls
#14
Michael S Hofman, Rodney J Hicks, Tobias Maurer, Matthias Eiber
Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is overexpressed in prostate cancer. Radiolabeled small molecules that bind with high affinity to its active extracellular center have emerged as a potential new diagnostic standard of reference for prostate cancer, resulting in images with extraordinary tumor-to-background contrast. Currently, gallium 68 ( 68 Ga)-PSMA-11 (or HBED-PSMA) is the most widely used radiotracer for PSMA positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) or PSMA PET/magnetic resonance (MR) imaging...
January 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314260/approach-to-the-jewelry-aficionado
#15
Lauren A Ivey, Brittanya A Limone, Sharon E Jacob
Children's and teens' frequent use of inexpensive "costume" jewelry exposes them to a variety of contact allergens. Greater use heightens the risk of developing allergic contact dermatitis, especially in the setting of body piercings. Several clinical pearls, prevention strategies, and avoidance alternatives are provided in this article to guide clinicians and patients in the management of jewelry-related allergic contact dermatitis.
January 4, 2018: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309444/implementing-patient-reported-outcome-measures-in-your-practice-pearls-and-pitfalls
#16
Emily M Brook, Kimberly M Glerum, Laurence D Higgins, Elizabeth G Matzkin
Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are an important component of health outcomes assessment. Preoperative and postoperative measurement of patient-reported pain, functionality, and quality of life offers many benefits to orthopedic surgeons in all practice settings. PROM data are used in research and have many other applications. Providers can use PROM data to measure the individual or institutional recovery trajectory for any surgical procedure, and patients can actively engage in their recovery after a procedure by learning about its expected outcomes...
November 2017: American Journal of Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288545/a-randomized-trial-of-lorcaserin-and-lifestyle-counseling-for-maintaining-weight-loss-achieved-with-a-low-calorie-diet
#17
Jena Shaw Tronieri, Thomas A Wadden, Robert I Berkowitz, Ariana M Chao, Rebecca L Pearl, Naji Alamuddin, Sharon M Leonard, Ray Carvajal, Zayna M Bakizada, Emilie Pinkasavage, Kathryn A Gruber, Olivia A Walsh, Nasreen Alfaris
OBJECTIVE: Improving the maintenance of lost weight remains a critical challenge, which can be addressed by long-term behavioral and/or pharmacological interventions. METHODS: This study investigated the efficacy of combined behavioral and pharmacological treatment in facilitating weight loss maintenance (WLM) in 137 adults (86.1% female; 68.6% black; BMI = 37.0 ± 5.6 kg/m2 ) who had lost ≥ 5% of initial weight during a 14-week low-calorie diet (LCD) program (mean = 9...
December 29, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288262/rate-or-rhythm-control-of-atrial-fibrillation-pearls-for-the-internist
#18
Weiting Huang, Felix Yj Keng, Chi Keong Ching
Atrial fibrillation is an epidemic in Asia that is increasingly prevalent. Apart from stroke risk stratification and management of anticoagulation, physicians managing this group of patients also need to determine an optimal strategy in terms of rate or rhythm control. With new techniques of catheter ablation to maintain patients in sinus rhythm, patients with atrial fibrillation now have more options for treatment, on top of pharmacological methods. This paper aims to review the current evidence for rate and rhythm control in both general patients and subgroups of interest commonly encountered in clinical practices such as obesity, heart failure and thyroid disease...
November 2017: Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259325/clinical-characteristics-and-molecular-epidemiology-of-hepatitis-e-in-shenzhen-china-a-shift-toward-foodborne-transmission-of-hepatitis-e-virus-infection
#19
Siddharth Sridhar, Simon Kf Lo, Fanfan Xing, Jin Yang, Haiyan Ye, Jasper Fw Chan, Jade Ll Teng, Chuan Huang, Cyril Cy Yip, Susanna Kp Lau, Patrick Cy Woo
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the most common cause of acute viral hepatitis in China. Recently, a shift in molecular epidemiology from hepatitis E genotype 1 (HEV-1) to hepatitis E genotype 4 (HEV-4) has been observed in Northern China, marking a switch from human-to-human transmission to zoonosis. However, similar data from cities in Southern China are lacking. This observational study of human hepatitis E cases in Shenzhen, a metropolitan city in the Pearl River Delta region, aimed to describe the clinical features and molecular epidemiology of hepatitis E in Southern China...
December 20, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250979/pharmacokinetic-drug-evaluation-of-ulipristal-acetate-for-the-treatment-of-uterine-fibroids
#20
REVIEW
Simone Ferrero, Valerio Gaetano Vellone, Fabio Barra
Uterine fibroids are the most common form of benign gynecological tumors in women of reproductive ages. Although surgery is the main option to treat them, alternative pharmacological approaches are being investigated to control their symptoms. Among them, ulipristal acetate (UPA) has been the first selective progesterone-receptor modulator (SPRM) approved for the pre-operative and long-term treatment of uterine fibroids. Areas covered: The aim of this article is to review the literature on the pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics (PK), clinical efficacy and safety of UPA for the treatment of uterine fibroids...
January 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
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