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Escherichia coli

Karen E Bowker, Alan R Noel, Sharon Tomaselli, Marie Attwood, Alasdair P MacGowan
Background: The pharmacodynamics of inhaled antimicrobials are poorly studied. Amikacin is being developed for inhalational therapy as BAY 41-6551. Objectives: We employed an in vitro pharmacokinetic model to study the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of amikacin. Methods: A dose-ranging design was used to establish fAUC/MIC and fCmax/MIC targets for static, -1 log drop and -2 log drop effects for strains of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Folachodé U G Akogou, Heidy M W den Besten, A P Polycarpe Kayodé, Vincenzo Fogliano, Anita R Linnemann
Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) extract is traditionally used as red biocolorant in West Africa to colour foods, among which wagashi, a soft cheese. This biocolorant is a source of the phytoalexin apigeninidin and phenolic acids, and users claim that it has preservative effects next to its colouring properties. If such a claim can be scientifically substantiated, it adds a valuable functional property to this natural red colorant, thereby increasing its potential applications in the food industry. Hence, the present study evaluated the antimicrobial properties of dye sorghum extracts using challenge tests in broth and wagashi as a model of a popular food application...
2018: PloS One
Svetlana Ferreira Lima, Marcela Lucas de Souza Bicalho, Rodrigo Carvalho Bicalho
Amplicon sequencing technique has been increasingly applied to the clinical setting as a sensitive diagnostic tool. Therefore, it is of great importance to develop a DNA extraction method that accurate isolates DNA from complex host-associated microbiota. Given the multifactorial etiology of clinical mastitis and the diversified lifestyle of bacterial species harboring in milk, here four distinct milk sample fractions: raw whole milk, milk fat, casein-pellet, and casein-pellet + fat from healthy cows and cows with clinical mastitis, were subjected to bead-beating DNA extraction, followed by high-throughput sequencing...
2018: PloS One
Qian Fei, E-Bin Gao, Biao Liu, Yao Wei, Degang Ning
Type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems play important roles in bacterial stress survival by regulating cell growth or death. They are highly abundant in cyanobacteria yet remain poorly characterized. Here, we report the identification and regulation of a putative type II TA system from Synechocystis PCC6803, VapBC15. The VapBC15 system is encoded by the chromosomal operon vapBC15 . Exogenous expression of VapC15 dramatically arrested cell growth of Escherichia coli and reduced the numbers of colony-forming units (CFU)...
March 21, 2018: Genes
Zhenzhen Wang, Lin Huang, Bihua Wu, Jiliang Hu, Zilong Jiang, Pengfei Qi, Youliang Zheng, Dengcai Liu
Glu-1Ay , one of six genes encoding a high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS), is frequently silenced in hexaploid common wheat. Here, an active allele of Glu-1Ay was integrated from wild emmer wheat ( Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides ) accession D97 into the common wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) cultivar Chuannong 16 via the repeated self-fertilization of the pentaploid interspecific hybrid, culminating in the selection of a line TaAy7-40 shown to express the wild emmer Glu-1Ay allele. The open reading frame of this allele was a 1830 bp long sequence, demonstrated by its heterologous expression in Escherichia coli to encode a 608-residue polypeptide...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Shenghao Wang, Muhammad Kalim, Keying Liang, Jinbiao Zhan
Glypican-3 (GPC3) is an integral membrane proteoglycan, which contains a core protein anchored to the cytoplasmic membrane through a glycosyl phosphatidylinositol linkage. The glypican-3 can regulate the signaling pathways, thereby enhances cell division, growth, and apoptosis in certain cell types. It is almost non-existent on the surface of the human normal cell membrane and highly expresses on the membrane of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. It has been well established that GPC3 provide a useful diagnostic marker...
March 21, 2018: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
Xia Liu, Yongdong Xu, Zhi Li, Shengwei Jiang, Shuo Yao, Rina Wu, Yingfeng An
A silica sands-based method has been developed to isolate high quality genomic DNAs from cells of animals, plants and microorganisms, such as Hemisalanx prognathus, Spinacia oleracea, Pichia pastoris, Bacillus licheniformis and Escherichia coli. To the best of our knowledge, no DNA isolation method has so wide application until now. In addition, this method and a commercially available kit were compared in analysis of microbial communities using high-throughput 16 s rDNA sequencing. As a result, the silica sands-based method was found to be even more efficient in isolating genomic DNA from gram-positive bacteria than the kit, indicating that it would become a very valuable choice to faithfully reflect the composition of microbial communities...
March 21, 2018: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
Jinbin Liu, Jing Jiang, Yajun Bai, Tai-Ping Fan, Ye Zhao, Xiaohui Zheng, Yujie Cai
Bacteria rarely produce natural 2-phenylethanol. We verified a new pathway from Proteus mirabilis JN458 to produce 2-phenylethanol using Escherichia coli to co-express L-amino acid deaminase, α-keto acid decarboxylase, and alcohol dehydrogenase from P. mirabilis. Based on this pathway, a glucose dehydrogenase coenzyme regeneration system was constructed. The optimal conditions of biotransformation by the recombinant strain E-pAEAKaG were at 40°C and pH 7.0. Finally, the recombinant strain E-pAEAKaG produced 3...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Yawei Xu, Yan Zhou, Rui Yin, Cheng Wang, Haijiao Chu, Junling Wang
The balance of oxidation and reduction in the body requires the synergistic effect of various antioxidant enzymes. Therefore, the construction of enzyme mimics with multiple antioxidant activities is important and beneficial for further research on the synergistic effects of antioxidant enzymes and their mechanism of action. To explore the synergistic effect of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), a 76-mer selenium-containing peptide (Se-76P) mimic containing the active SOD and GPx centers was designed...
March 20, 2018: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
Bernadette U Ukah, Ogbonnaya Igwe, Peter Ameh
In Ajao Estate, it is believed that poor quality of its groundwater is unconnected to the dislodging of wastewater into the environment by food- and wine-producing industries operating in the area. To ascertain this claim, the impact of this wastewater on microbiological and physicochemical quality of the groundwater was evaluated. Microbiological result of water samples revealed decrease in Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium spp., Escherichia coli, etc. count from the industrial wastewater dislodging point...
March 20, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Sven van Teeffelen, Lars D Renner
Cell shape and cell volume are important for many bacterial functions. In recent years, we have seen a range of experimental and theoretical work that led to a better understanding of the determinants of cell shape and size. The roles of different molecular machineries for cell-wall expansion have been detailed and partially redefined, mechanical forces have been shown to influence cell shape, and new connections between metabolism and cell shape have been proposed. Yet the fundamental determinants of the different cellular dimensions remain to be identified...
2018: F1000Research
Marcin Krupka, William Margolin
To generate two cells from one, bacteria such as Escherichia coli use a complex of membrane-embedded proteins called the divisome that synthesize the division septum. The initial stage of cytokinesis requires a tubulin homolog, FtsZ, which forms polymers that treadmill around the cell circumference. The attachment of these polymers to the cytoplasmic membrane requires an actin homolog, FtsA, which also forms dynamic polymers that directly bind to FtsZ. Recent evidence indicates that FtsA and FtsZ regulate each other's oligomeric state in E...
2018: F1000Research
Peng Cui, Hongxia Niu, Wanliang Shi, Shuo Zhang, Wenhong Zhang, Ying Zhang
Persister cells are metabolically quiescent multi-drug tolerant fraction of a genetically sensitive bacterial population and are thought to be responsible for relapse of many persistent infections. Persisters can be formed naturally in the stationary phase culture, and also can be induced by bacteriostatic antibiotics. However, the molecular basis of bacteriostatic antibiotic induced persister formation is unknown. Here, we established a bacteriostatic antibiotic induced persister model and screened the Escherichia coli single gene deletion mutant library for mutants with defect in rifampin or tetracycline induced persistence to ofloxacin...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Christoph Jans, Eleonora Sarno, Lucie Collineau, Leo Meile, Katharina D C Stärk, Roger Stephan
Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacteria is an increasing health concern. The spread of AMR bacteria (AMRB) between animals and humans via the food chain and the exchange of AMR genes requires holistic approaches for risk mitigation. The AMRB exposure of humans via food is currently only poorly understood leaving an important gap for intervention design. Method: This study aimed to assess AMRB prevalence in retail food and subsequent exposure of Swiss consumers in a systematic literature review of data published between 1996 and 2016 covering the Swiss agriculture sector and relevant imported food...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Tatsuya Nakayama, Yuko Kumeda, Ryuji Kawahara, Takahiro Yamaguchi, Yoshimasa Yamamoto
Background: Due to increasing colistin usage, the dissemination of the colistin-resistant gene mcr-1 has been increasingly investigated. The aim of this study was to determine whether a traveler on a short-term international trip to a developing country could bring mcr-1 back to their home country. Materials and methods: Thirty-four travel events from Japan to Vietnam encompassing 19 travelers were assessed. A fecal specimen was collected from each traveler before and after each travel event and was inoculated on CHROMagar containing cefotaxime (CTX)...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Sean D Workman, Liam J Worrall, Natalie C J Strynadka
Undecaprenyl pyrophosphate phosphatase (UppP) is an integral membrane protein that recycles the lipid carrier essential to the ongoing biosynthesis of the bacterial cell wall. Individual building blocks of peptidoglycan are assembled in the cytoplasm on undecaprenyl phosphate (C55-P) before being flipped to the periplasmic face, where they are polymerized and transferred to the existing cell wall sacculus, resulting in the side product undecaprenyl pyrophosphate (C55-PP). Interruption of UppP's regeneration of C55-P from C55-PP leads to the buildup of cell wall intermediates and cell lysis...
March 20, 2018: Nature Communications
Jianyun Lu, Miaomiao Li, Lihua Gao, Yizhi Pan, Yaping Xiang, Jinhua Huang, Xianzhen Jiang
To determine initial concentrations of ozonated water under different temperatures, attenuation rules of ozonated water under the room temperature (25 ℃), and to inspect the effects of ozonated water under different concentrations on common microorganisms.
 Methods: The online test method and the plate cultivation method were employed to check the concentrations and killing rates on common microorganisms of ozonated water produced by HZ-2601 B Ozone Water Generating Instrument.
 Results: The initial concentrations of ozonated water at 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 ℃ were 4...
February 28, 2018: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
Nadège Bossuet-Greif, Julien Vignard, Frédéric Taieb, Gladys Mirey, Damien Dubois, Claude Petit, Eric Oswald, Jean-Philippe Nougayrède
Colibactins are hybrid polyketide-nonribosomal peptides produced by Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumoniae , and other Enterobacteriaceae harboring the pks genomic island. These genotoxic metabolites are produced by pks -encoded peptide-polyketide synthases as inactive prodrugs called precolibactins, which are then converted to colibactins by deacylation for DNA-damaging effects. Colibactins are bona fide virulence factors and are suspected of promoting colorectal carcinogenesis when produced by intestinal E...
March 20, 2018: MBio
Kerrie L May, Thomas J Silhavy
The outer membrane (OM) bilayer of Gram-negative bacteria is biologically unique in its asymmetrical organization of lipids, with an inner leaflet composed of glycerophospholipids (PLs) and a surface-exposed outer leaflet composed of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This lipid organization is integral to the OM's barrier properties. Perturbations of the outer leaflet by antimicrobial peptides or defects in LPS biosynthesis or transport to the OM cause a compensatory flipping of PLs to the outer leaflet. As a result, lipid asymmetry is disrupted and OM integrity is compromised...
March 20, 2018: MBio
George A Sutherland, Katie J Grayson, Nathan B P Adams, Daphne M J Mermans, Alexander S Jones, Angus J Robertson, Dirk B Auman, Amanda A Brindley, Fabio Sterpone, Pierre Tuffery, Philippe Derreumaux, P Leslie Dutton, Colin Robinson, Andrew Hitchcock, C Neil Hunter
Protein transport across the cytoplasmic membrane of bacterial cells is mediated by either the general secretion (Sec) system or the twin arginine translocase (Tat). The Tat machinery exports folded and cofactor containing proteins from the cytoplasm to the periplasm by using the transmembrane proton motive force as a source of energy. The Tat apparatus apparently senses the folded state of its protein substrates, a quality control mechanism that prevents premature export of nascent unfolded or misfolded polypeptides, but its mechanistic basis has not yet been determined...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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