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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922801/effect-of-severe-weather-events-on-the-shedding-of-shiga-toxigenic-escherichia-coli-in-slaughter-cattle-and-phenotype-of-serogroup-o157-isolates
#1
Kim Stanford, Tim Reuter, Susan J Bach, Linda Chui, Angela Ma, Cheyenne C Conrad, Renata Tostes, Tim A McAllister
High-event periods (HEPs) occur sporadically when beef carcasses and meat have episodes of acute contamination with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). In this study, severe weather events were investigated as catalysts for HEPs based on PCR and isolate prevalence of seven E. coli serogroups in slaughter cattle feces. Winter ambient temperatures with daily means 10.5oC warmer or 12.3°C colder than seasonal norms (-10.4°C) most altered STEC shedding. Fecal samples yielded increased proportions (P < 0...
September 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922749/unraveling-additional-o-methylation-steps-in-benzylisoquinoline-alkaloid-biosynthesis-in-california-poppy-eschscholzia-californica
#2
Ratmoyo Purwanto, Kentaro Hori, Yasuyuki Yamada, Fumihiko Sato
California poppy (Eschscholzia californica), a member of the Papaveraceae family, produces many biologically active benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs), such as sanguinarine, macarpine and chelerythrine. Sanguinarine biosynthesis has been elucidated at the molecular level, and its biosynthetic genes have been isolated and used in synthetic biology approaches to produce BIAs in vitro. However, several genes involved in the biosynthesis of macarpine and chelerythrine have not yet been characterized. In this study, we report the isolation and characterization of a novel O-methyltransferase (OMT) involved in the biosynthesis of partially characterized BIAs, especially chelerythrine...
September 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922740/a-conserved-dggk-motif-is-essential-for-the-function-of-the-pglb-oligosaccharyltransferase-from-campylobacter-jejuni
#3
Yasmin Barre, Harald Nothaft, Cody Thomas, Xin Liu, Jianjun Li, Kenneth K S Ng, Christine M Szymanski
In Campylobacter jejuni, the PglB oligosaccharyltransferase catalyzes the transfer of a heptasaccharide from a lipid donor to asparagine within the D/E-X1-N-X2-S/T sequon (X1,2 ≠ P) or releases this heptasaccharide as free oligosaccharides (fOS). Using available crystal structures and sequence alignments, we identified a DGGK motif near the active site of PglB that is conserved among all Campylobacter species. We demonstrate that amino acid substitutions in the aspartate and lysine residues result in loss of protein glycosylation in the heterologous Escherichia coli system...
October 1, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922613/the-etiology-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-among-children-under-5%C3%A2-years-of-age-in-mainland-china-2001-2015-a-systematic-review
#4
Guijun Ning, Xuxia Wang, Dan Wu, Zundong Yin, Yixing Li, Huaqing Wang, Weizhong Yang
BACKGROUND: The aim of this systematic review was to examine the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) among Chinese children younger than 5 years and provide evidence for further cost-effectiveness analyses for vaccine development, diagnostic strategies and empirical treatments. METHODS: The literature review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. Data were obtained by searching PubMed, Embase, Web-of Science, and the Chinese databases Wanfang Data and China National Knowledge Infrastructure...
September 18, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922100/frequency-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-bacteria-implicated-in-community-urinary-tract-infections-in-north-aveiro-between-2011-and-2014
#5
Tânia Costa, Inês Linhares, Ricardo Ferreira, Jasmin Neves, Adelaide Almeida
AIMS: The present study aims to evaluate the predominance of uropathogens responsible for urinary tract infection (UTI) and determine their resistance patterns, to assess if the recommended empirical treatment is appropriate for the studied population. Samples were collected in Aveiro (Portugal) from an ambulatory service between June 2011 and June 2014. RESULTS: From the 4,270 positive urine samples for UTI, 3,561 (83%) were from women and only 709 (17%) were from men...
September 18, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922058/evolution-of-regions-containing-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-fii-2-fib-1-colv-colla-virulence-plasmids
#6
Robert A Moran, Ruth M Hall
Three ColV virulence plasmids carrying antibiotic resistance genes were assembled from draft genome sequences of commensal ST95, ST131, and ST2705 Escherichia coli isolates from healthy Australians. Plasmids pCERC4, pCERC5, and pCERC9 include almost identical backbones containing FII-2 and FIB-1 replicons and the conserved ColV virulence region with an additional ColIa determinant. Only pCERC5 includes a complete, uninterrupted F-like transfer region and was able to conjugate. pCERC5 and pCERC9 contain Tn1721, carrying the tet(A) tetracycline resistance determinant in the same location, with Tn2 (blaTEM; ampicillin resistance) interrupting the Tn1721 in pCERC5...
September 18, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922029/exploratory-study-into-the-microbiological-quality-of-spinach-and-cabbage-purchased-from-street-vendors-and-retailers-in-johannesburg-south-africa
#7
Erika M du Plessis, Sarasha Govender, Bala Pillay, Lise Korsten
Knowledge of the microbiological quality and prevalence of antibiotic resistance and virulence genes in bacterial isolates from leafy green vegetables supplied by formal suppliers (retailers) and informal suppliers (street vendors) in South Africa is limited. Because leafy vegetables have been implicated in foodborne disease outbreaks worldwide, 180 cabbage and spinach samples were collected from three major retailers and nine street vendors in Johannesburg, South Africa. Escherichia coli and coliforms were enumerated using Petrifilm plates...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921940/attribution-of-human-infections-with-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-stec-to-livestock-sources-and-identification-of-source-specific-risk-factors-the-netherlands-2010-2014
#8
L Mughini-Gras, W van Pelt, M van der Voort, M Heck, I Friesema, E Franz
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a zoonotic pathogen of public health concern whose sources and transmission routes are difficult to trace. Using a combined source attribution and case-control analysis, we determined the relative contributions of four putative livestock sources (cattle, small ruminants, pigs, poultry) to human STEC infections and their associated dietary, animal contact, temporal and socio-econo-demographic risk factors in the Netherlands in 2010/2011-2014. Dutch source data were supplemented with those from other European countries with similar STEC epidemiology...
September 17, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921905/antibiotic-resistant-escherichia-coli-in-southeastern-australian-pig-herds-and-implications-for-surveillance
#9
L K van Breda, O P Dhungyel, M P Ward
To investigate public health implications of antibiotics to control post-weaning scours, we surveyed 22 commercial pig herds in southeastern Australia. Fifty faecal samples per herd were collected from pre- and post-weaned piglets. Presumptive Escherichia coli isolates were confirmed by MALDI-TOF MS. Isolates (n = 325) were screened for susceptibility to 19 veterinary antibiotics using MIC broth microdilution. All 325 E. coli isolates underwent further testing against 27 antibiotics used in human medicine and were screened for ETEC adhesin and enterotoxin genes (F4 (K88), F5 (K99), F6 (987P), F18, F41, STa, STb, Stx2e and LT) by multiplex PCR...
September 17, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921480/the-biodiversity-of-lactobacillus-spp-from-iranian-raw-milk-motal-cheese-and-antibacterial-evaluation-based-on-bacteriocin-encoding-genes
#10
Fahimeh Azizi, Mohammad B Habibi Najafi, Mohammad R Edalatian Dovom
Lactobacilli, as the largest group of lactic acid bacteria, produce large amounts of antimicrobial metabolites such as organic acids, fatty acids, ammonia, hydrogen peroxide, diacetyl and bacteriocin, which inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria and increase shelf life of food. The aim of this study was to identify the Lactobacillus spp. isolated from Iranian raw milk Motal cheese and to detect the presence of bacteriocin genes in the isolated Lactobacillus strains exhibiting antimicrobial activity. For this purpose, 6 Motal cheese samples from Dasht-e-Moghan region, Iran, were subjected to microbial characterization...
September 18, 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921437/expression-of-glycosylated-proteins-in-bacterial-system-and-purification-by-affinity-chromatography
#11
Carlos Alexandre Breyer, Marcos Antonio de Oliveira, Adalberto Pessoa
The bacterial expression of glycoproteins has experienced significant progress in recent years, particularly in regard to the production of conjugate vaccines against pathogens. In this case, a protein carrier conjugated with glycosides is used to produce intense stimulation of the immune system. Glycoconjugate vaccines account for 35% of the global vaccine market, and consequently, several biotechnological companies have developed products for the purification of glycosylated proteins to attain homogeneity...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921304/expression-and-purification-of-an-fgf9-fusion-protein-in-e-coli-and-the-effects-of-the-fgf9-subfamily-on-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cell-proliferation-and-migration
#12
Shen Wang, Haipeng Lin, Tiantian Zhao, Sisi Huang, David G Fernig, Nuo Xu, Fenfang Wu, Mi Zhou, Chao Jiang, Haishan Tian
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 9 has oncogenic activity and plays an important role in the development of ovarian, lung, prostate, and gastric cancers. In the present study, with the aim of reducing the cost of utilizing growth factors in cancer research, a simple and efficient method for the preparation of recombinant human (rh)FGF9 in Escherichia coli was established. The rhFGF9 fusion protein (6 × His-TEV-rhFGF9) and the native protein released by tobacco etch virus (TEV) protease were obtained using a Ni-NTA system, with > 95% purity...
September 18, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921162/a-bionanohybrid-znal-nads-ecological-pesticide-as-a-treatment-for-soft-rot-disease-in-potato-solanum-tuberosum-l
#13
Erika Elizabeth Morales-Irigoyen, Yolanda de Las Mercedes Gómez-Y-Gómez, Jorge Luis Flores-Moreno, Marina Olivia Franco-Hernández
Pectobacterium carotovorum (Pc) is a phytopathogenic strain that causes soft rot disease in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), resulting in postharvest losses. Chemical control is effective for managing this disease, but overdoses cause adverse effects. Because farmers insist on using chemical agents for crop protection, it is necessary to develop more effective pesticides in which the active compound released can be regulated. In this context, we proposed the synthesis of ZnAl-NADS, in which nalidixic acid sodium salt (NADS) is linked to a ZnAl-NO3 layered double hydroxide (LDH) host as a nanocarrier...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921081/site-saturation-mutagenesis-of-mutant-l-asparaginase-ii-signal-peptide-hydrophobic-region-for-improved-excretion-of-cyclodextrin-glucanotransferase
#14
Abbas Ismail, Rosli Md Illias
The excretion of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase) into the culture medium offers significant advantages over cytoplasmic expression. However, the limitation of Escherichia coli is its inability to excrete high amount of CGTase outside the cells. In this study, modification of the hydrophobic region of the N1R3 signal peptide using site-saturation mutagenesis improved the excretion of CGTase. Signal peptide mutants designated M9F, V10L and A15Y enhanced the excretion of CGTase three-fold and demonstrated two-fold higher secretion rate than the wild type...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921048/antibacterial-and-antitumor-activity-of-bogorol-b-jx-isolated-from-brevibacillus-laterosporus-jx-5
#15
Hongxia Jiang, Chao Ji, Junkang Sui, Rongbo Sa, Xiaohui Wang, Xunli Liu, Tai L Guo
Antimicrobial peptides are promising anti-infective agent candidates because they have a broad antimicrobial spectrum and bioactivity and are unlikely to elicit antibiotic resistance. The bogorols represent a new cationic antibiotic peptide and possess great therapeutic potential because of their bioactivity and precise mode of action. Here, we report that Bogorol B-JX (BBJX), a peptide previously isolated from Brevibacillus laterosporus JX-5 by us, has significant antibacterial and antitumor activities in vitro...
September 18, 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920571/recurrent-seasonal-outbreak-of-an-emerging-serotype-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-stec-o55-h7-stx2a-in-the-south-west-of-england-july-2014-to-september-2015
#16
Noëleen McFarland, Nick Bundle, Claire Jenkins, Gauri Godbole, Amy Mikhail, Tim Dallman, Catherine O'Connor, Noel McCarthy, Emer O'Connell, Juli Treacy, Girija Dabke, James Mapstone, Yvette Landy, Janet Moore, Rachel Partridge, Frieda Jorgensen, Caroline Willis, Piers Mook, Chas Rawlings, Richard Acornley, Charlotte Featherstone, Sharleen Gayle, Joanne Edge, Eleanor McNamara, Jeremy Hawker, Sooria Balasegaram
The first documented British outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O55:H7 began in the county of Dorset, England, in July 2014. Since then, there have been a total of 31 cases of which 13 presented with haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS). The outbreak strain had Shiga toxin (Stx) subtype 2a associated with an elevated risk of HUS. This strain had not previously been isolated from humans or animals in England. The only epidemiological link was living in or having close links to two areas in Dorset...
September 7, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920463/evaluation-of-genotoxicity-and-subchronic-toxicity-of-standardized-rose-hip-extract
#17
A Nagatomo, M Oguri, N Nishida, M Ogawa, A Ichikawa, Y Tanaka-Azuma
Rose hip is the fruit of the rose plant, which is widely used in food, cosmetics and as a traditional medicine. Therefore, rose hip is considered safe and has a sufficient history of consumption as food. However, few studies have reported on the safety of rose hip extracts in toxicological analyses. Thus, to evaluate the safety of rosehip polyphenol MJ (RHPMJ), an aqueous ethanol extract standardized with the trans-tiliroside content, we performed genotoxicity and 90-day repeated oral dose toxicity studies in compliance with the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development-Good Laboratory Practice...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920402/-preparation-and-transformation-optimization-for-supercompetent-b-subtilis-sck6-cells
#18
Xinzhi Li, Zhenghui Lu, Yuling Zhou, Shiyu Li, Guimin Zhang
Bacillus subtilis is Gram-positive aerobic bacterium and widely used as a heterologous protein expression host because of its safety and high protein secretion property. However, comparing to Escherichia coli, the low transformation efficiency limits the application of B. subtilis as a host cell for directed evolution of heterologous enzymes. Therefore, we optimized the competent cell preparation conditions for conventional plasmid, including the alteration of the medium, the concentration of inducer, the plasmid type, and other parameters...
April 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920394/-bioinformatic-analysis-and-characterization-of-myxobacteria-laccase-like-multicopper-oxidases
#19
Xiuyan Zhao, Fei Chang, Zemin Fang, Yinliang Zhang, Yazhong Xiao
Laccase is a widely-used environment-friendly copper-containing oxidase found in many plants, insects and fungi. Recently, more and more laccases are also found in bacteria. Myxobacteria are an important bacteria resource. However, myxobacteria are much more difficult to isolate and purify than other bacteria. We used bioinformatic approach to screen myxobacteria proteomes available in NCBI. Based on conserved sequences of four copper binding sites in multicopper oxidase, 30 potential laccase sequences were obtained...
April 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920175/chemoenzymatic-synthesis-of-3-phosphoadenosine-5-phosphosulfate-coupling-with-an-atp-regeneration-system
#20
Cuiying An, Long Zhao, Zhaojun Wei, Xianxuan Zhou
3'-Phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) is the obligate cosubstrate and source of the sulfonate group in the chemoenzymatic synthesis of heparin, a commonly used anticoagulant drug. Previously, using ATP as the substrate, we had developed a one-pot synthesis to prepare PAPS with 47% ATP conversion efficiency. During the reaction, 47% of ATP was converted into the by-product, ADP. Here, to increase the conversion ratio of ATP to PAPS, an ATP regeneration system was developed to couple with PAPS synthesis...
September 17, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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