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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247526/naltrexone-ameliorates-functional-network-abnormalities-in-alcohol-dependent-individuals
#1
Laurel S Morris, Kwangyeol Baek, Roger Tait, Rebecca Elliott, Karen D Ersche, Remy Flechais, John McGonigle, Anna Murphy, Liam J Nestor, Csaba Orban, Filippo Passetti, Louise M Paterson, Ilan Rabiner, Laurence Reed, Dana Smith, John Suckling, Eleanor M Taylor, Edward T Bullmore, Anne R Lingford-Hughes, Bill Deakin, David J Nutt, Barbara J Sahakian, Trevor W Robbins, Valerie Voon
Naltrexone, an opioid receptor antagonist, is commonly used as a relapse prevention medication in alcohol and opiate addiction, but its efficacy and the mechanisms underpinning its clinical usefulness are not well characterized. In the current study, we examined the effects of 50-mg naltrexone compared with placebo on neural network changes associated with substance dependence in 21 alcohol and 36 poly-drug-dependent individuals compared with 36 healthy volunteers. Graph theoretic and network-based statistical analysis of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data revealed that alcohol-dependent subjects had reduced functional connectivity of a dispersed network compared with both poly-drug-dependent and healthy subjects...
February 28, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144772/a-combined-opiate-agonist-and-antagonist-treatment-reduces-prolactin-secreting-pituitary-tumor-growth
#2
George Maglakelidze, Olivia Wynne, Dipak K Sarkar
Prolactin secreting pituitary adenomas (prolactinomas) is the most common pituitary tumors in humans. Animal studies have identified aggressive prolactinoma development in fetal alcohol exposed rats. We have recently identified a combination treatment of a μ opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone and a δ opioid receptor agonist D-Ala2-,N-Me-Phe4,Gly-ol Enkephalin (DPDPE) increases innate immune function. In this study, we tested whether naltrexone and DPDPE combination therapy is useful to control pituitary tumor growth...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600363/acute-naltrexone-does-not-remediate-fronto-striatal-disturbances-in-alcoholic-and-alcoholic-polysubstance-dependent-populations-during-a-monetary-incentive-delay-task
#3
Liam J Nestor, Anna Murphy, John McGonigle, Csaba Orban, Laurence Reed, Eleanor Taylor, Remy Flechais, Louise M Paterson, Dana Smith, Edward T Bullmore, Karen D Ersche, John Suckling, Roger Tait, Rebecca Elliott, Bill Deakin, Ilan Rabiner, Anne Lingford-Hughes, David J Nutt, Barbara Sahakian, Trevor W Robbins
There is a concerted research effort to investigate brain mechanisms underlying addiction processes that may predicate the development of new compounds for treating addiction. One target is the brain's opioid system, because of its role in the reinforcing effects of substances of abuse. Substance-dependent populations have increased numbers of the mu opioid receptor (MOR) in fronto-striatal regions that predict drug relapse, and demonstrate disturbances in these regions during the processing of non-drug rewards...
September 6, 2016: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27136952/-secondary-adrenal-insufficiency-during-opiate-treatment
#4
Jonatan Kornholt
A 25-year-old previously healthy man developed secondary adrenal insufficiency during opiate treatment with tramadol and morphine for upper back pain. He experienced a 10 kg weight loss in six weeks. MRI of the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland ruled out cerebral pathology. After discontinuation of the opiate treatment the condition normalised. Opiate therapy can cause endocrine dysfunction, and clinicians should always consider adverse drug reactions as a differential diagnosis for unexplained symptoms.
April 25, 2016: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26550535/pet-studies-in-epilepsy
#5
REVIEW
Ismet Sarikaya
Various PET studies, such as measurements of glucose, serotonin and oxygen metabolism, cerebral blood flow and receptor bindings are availabe for epilepsy. (18)Fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) PET imaging of brain glucose metabolism is a well established and widely available technique. Studies have demonstrated that the sensitivity of interictal FDG-PET is higher than interictal SPECT and similar to ictal SPECT for the lateralization and localization of epileptogenic foci in presurgical patients refractory to medical treatments who have noncontributory EEG and MRI...
2015: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26329431/neuroimaging-in-restless-legs-syndrome
#6
REVIEW
Federica Provini, Giacomo Chiaro
Neuroimaging studies are of crucial relevance in defining the pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome (RLS). MRI studies showed no structural brain lesions and confirmed a central iron deficiency. Structural and functional studies showed an involvement of the thalamus, sensorimotor cortical areas, and cerebellum in RLS and assessed neurotransmission abnormalities in the dopaminergic and opiate systems. Finally, glutamatergic hyperactivity has been proposed as a cause of disrupted and shortened sleep in RLS...
September 2015: Sleep Medicine Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26246790/applications-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-for-treatment-resistant-late-life-depression
#7
REVIEW
Christian Agudelo, Howard J Aizenstein, Jordan F Karp, Charles F Reynolds
Late-life depression (LLD) is a growing public and global health concern with diverse clinical manifestations and etiology. This literature review summarizes neuroimaging findings associated with depression in older adults and treatment-response variability. LLD has been associated with cerebral atrophy, diminished myelin integrity, and cerebral lesions in frontostriatal-limbic regions. These associations help explain the depression-executive dysfunction syndrome observed in LLD, and support cerebrovascular burden as a pathogenic mechanism...
June 2015: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26246443/the-imperial-college-cambridge-manchester-iccam-platform-study-an-experimental-medicine-platform-for-evaluating-new-drugs-for-relapse-prevention-in-addiction-part-a-study-description
#8
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Louise M Paterson, Remy S A Flechais, Anna Murphy, Laurence J Reed, Sanja Abbott, Venkataramana Boyapati, Rebecca Elliott, David Erritzoe, Karen D Ersche, Yetunde Faluyi, Luca Faravelli, Emilio Fernandez-Egea, Nicola J Kalk, Shankar S Kuchibatla, John McGonigle, Antonio Metastasio, Inge Mick, Liam Nestor, Csaba Orban, Filippo Passetti, Eugenii A Rabiner, Dana G Smith, John Suckling, Roger Tait, Eleanor M Taylor, Adam D Waldman, Trevor W Robbins, J F William Deakin, David J Nutt, Anne R Lingford-Hughes
Drug and alcohol dependence are global problems with substantial societal costs. There are few treatments for relapse prevention and therefore a pressing need for further study of brain mechanisms underpinning relapse circuitry. The Imperial College Cambridge Manchester (ICCAM) platform study is an experimental medicine approach to this problem: using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) techniques and selective pharmacological tools, it aims to explore the neuropharmacology of putative relapse pathways in cocaine, alcohol, opiate dependent, and healthy individuals to inform future drug development...
September 2015: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26240074/oxygen-in-the-setting-of-acute-myocardial-infarction-is-it-really-a-breath-of-fresh-air
#9
REVIEW
Rohit S Loomba, Karan Nijhawan, Saurabh Aggarwal, Rohit R Arora
INTRODUCTION: Supplemental oxygen has been used in the setting of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Once an official recommendation in the guidelines for the management of acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, it is now mentioned as an intervention to be considered. Data for the use of supplemental oxygen or AMI are limited, and some data have suggested associated harm. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of the literature and a subsequent meta-analysis of the data to determine the effect of high concentration oxygen versus titrated oxygen or room air in the setting of AMI...
March 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26080087/in-the-face-of-threat-neural-and-endocrine-correlates-of-impaired-facial-emotion-recognition-in-cocaine-dependence
#10
K D Ersche, C C Hagan, D G Smith, P S Jones, A J Calder, G B Williams
The ability to recognize facial expressions of emotion in others is a cornerstone of human interaction. Selective impairments in the recognition of facial expressions of fear have frequently been reported in chronic cocaine users, but the nature of these impairments remains poorly understood. We used the multivariate method of partial least squares and structural magnetic resonance imaging to identify gray matter brain networks that underlie facial affect processing in both cocaine-dependent (n = 29) and healthy male volunteers (n = 29)...
May 26, 2015: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25962809/non-thermal-extremely-low-frequency-magnetic-field-effects-on-opioid-related-behaviors-snails-to-humans-mechanisms-to-therapy
#11
REVIEW
Frank S Prato
In 1984, it was initially discovered in mice that an extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) could attenuate opiate induced analgesia. In the past 30 years, we defined some of ELF-MF exposure and subject state conditions that can both increase and decrease nociception in snails and mice and can induce analgesia in humans. In our search for mechanisms and our desire to translate our findings to the treatment of chronic pain in humans, we pioneered the use of electroencephalography and magnetic resonance imaging to monitor effects during exposure...
July 2015: Bioelectromagnetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25948171/advances-in-cns-imaging-agents-focus-on-pet-and-spect-tracers-in-experimental-and-clinical-use
#12
REVIEW
Noble George, Emily G Gean, Ayon Nandi, Boris Frolov, Eram Zaidi, Ho Lee, James R Brašić, Dean F Wong
The physiological functioning of the brain is not well-known in current day medicine and the pathologies of many neuropsychiatric disorders are still not yet fully understood. With our aging population and better life expectancies, it has become imperative to find better biomarkers for disease progression as well as receptor target engagements. In the last decade, these major advances in the field of molecular CNS imaging have been made available with tools such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and neuroreceptor-targeted positron emission tomography (PET)...
April 2015: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25035700/comparison-of-brain-white-matter-hyperintensities-in-methamphetamine-and-methadone-dependent-patients-and-healthy-controls
#13
Abdulrasool Alaee, Mehran Zarghami, Samaneh Farnia, Mohammad Khademloo, Talayeh Khoddad
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have proven the development of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) in methamphetamine and opioid users. Opiates and methamphetamines (MA) are the most common addictive agents in Iran. The adverse effects of drugs on the CNS is of concern to specialists and researchers, and given that the neurotoxicity associated with methamphetamine is greater than opioids, it is hypothesized that the severity of WMH in patients with methamphetamine dependence is more than opioid drug-dependent individuals...
May 2014: Iranian Journal of Radiology: a Quarterly Journal Published By the Iranian Radiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25021079/pmm-81%C3%A2-conservative-management-of-spontaneous-bilateral-adrenal-haemorrhages-in-pregnancy
#14
L Ismail, H Annamraju, J Hall
INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous adrenal haemorrhage is a very rare condition. To date there have been only 13 reported cases associated with pregnancy. CASE HISTORY: A 29 year old para 2+5 presented at 38 weeks gestation with severe right loin pain. She had an otherwise uneventful pregnancy, and no significant medical history. Her observations were normal and urine dipstick was clear. She had marked right renal angle tenderness and a high CRP. She was started on empirical antibiotics for suspected pyelonephritis, and regular opiates for analgesia...
June 2014: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24999039/prenatal-cocaine-effects-on-brain-structure-in-early-infancy
#15
Karen Grewen, Margaret Burchinal, Clement Vachet, Sylvain Gouttard, John H Gilmore, Weili Lin, Josephine Johns, Mala Elam, Guido Gerig
Prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) is related to subtle deficits in cognitive and behavioral function in infancy, childhood and adolescence. Very little is known about the effects of in utero PCE on early brain development that may contribute to these impairments. The purpose of this study was to examine brain structural differences in infants with and without PCE. We conducted MRI scans of newborns (mean age = 5 weeks) to determine cocaine's impact on early brain structural development. Subjects were three groups of infants: 33 with PCE co-morbid with other drugs, 46 drug-free controls and 40 with prenatal exposure to other drugs (nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, opiates, SSRIs) but without cocaine...
November 1, 2014: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24800897/effects-of-oxycodone-on-brain-responses-to-emotional-images
#16
Margaret C Wardle, Daniel A Fitzgerald, Michael Angstadt, Christine A Rabinak, Harriet de Wit, K Luan Phan
RATIONALE: Evidence from animal and human studies suggests that opiate drugs decrease emotional responses to negative stimuli and increase responses to positive stimuli. Such emotional effects may motivate misuse of oxycodone (OXY), a widely abused opiate. Yet, we know little about how OXY affects neural circuits underlying emotional processing in humans. OBJECTIVE: We examined effects of OXY on brain activity during presentation of positive and negative visual emotional stimuli...
November 2014: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24319388/pleasure-and-pain-teaching-neuroscientific-principles-of-hedonism-in-a-large-general-education-undergraduate-course
#17
Richard J Bodnar, James R Stellar, Tamar T Kraft, Ilyssa Loiacono, Adesh Bajnath, Francis M Rotella, Alicia Barrientos, Golshan Aghanori, Kerstin Olsson, Tricia Coke, Donald Huang, Zeke Luger, Seyed Ali Reza Mousavi, Trisha Dindyal, Naveen Naqvi, Jung-Yo Kim
In a large (250 registrants) general education lecture course, neuroscience principles were taught by two professors as co-instructors, starting with simple brain anatomy, chemistry, and function, proceeding to basic brain circuits of pleasure and pain, and progressing with fellow expert professors covering relevant philosophical, artistic, marketing, and anthropological issues. With this as a base, the course wove between fields of high relevance to psychology and neuroscience, such as food addiction and preferences, drug seeking and craving, analgesic pain-inhibitory systems activated by opiates and stress, neuroeconomics, unconscious decision-making, empathy, and modern neuroscientific techniques (functional magnetic resonance imaging and event-related potentials) presented by the co-instructors and other Psychology professors...
2013: Journal of Undergraduate Neuroscience Education: JUNE: a Publication of FUN, Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23754917/percutaneous-vertebral-augmentation-for-painful-osteolytic-vertebral-metastasis-a-case-report
#18
Giovanni C Anselmetti, Sean M Tutton, Francis R Facchini, Larry E Miller, Jon E Block
INTRODUCTION: Vertebral metastases are associated with significant pain, disability, and morbidity. Open surgery for fracture stabilization is often inappropriate in this population due to a poor risk-benefit profile, particularly if life expectancy is short. Percutaneous vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are appealing adjunctive procedures in patients with malignancy for alleviation of intractable pain. However, these patients have higher risk of serious complications, notably cement extravasation...
2012: International Medical Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23154203/long-term-changes-in-the-personality-and-psychopathological-profile-of-opiate-addicts-after-nucleus-accumbens-ablative-surgery-are-associated-with-treatment-outcome
#19
Shunnan Ge, Chongwang Chang, John R Adler, Haikang Zhao, Xiaozan Chang, Li Gao, Heming Wu, Jing Wang, Nan Li, Xuelian Wang, Guodong Gao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the long-term outcome and changes of the personality and psychopathological profile of opiate addicts after bilateral stereotactic nucleus accumbens (NAc) ablative surgery. METHODS: 60 patients were followed up for 5 years and abstinent status and adverse events were evaluated. NAc lesion volumes and locations were obtained by postoperative MRI scans. The Chinese version of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-RSC), the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) and the World Health Organization's Quality of Life Questionnaire - Brief Version (WHOQOL-BREF) were administered to the patients before and 5 years after the stereotactic surgery...
2013: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22926408/epidural-fentanyl-for-postoperative-analgesia-after-lumbar-canal-decompression-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Mathew R Guilfoyle, Richard J Mannion, Patrick Mitchell, Simon Thomson
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Postoperative back pain is common after decompression surgery for lumbar stenosis and often delays discharge from hospital. Achieving regional analgesia by intraoperative delivery of epidural opiates after lumbar canal decompression is a promising approach to reduce postoperative pain and enhance early mobilization. However, there have been concerns about opiate-related complications, such as respiratory depression and urinary retention in what is generally an elderly population of patients...
August 2012: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
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