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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230630/update-on-the-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome-and-its-relevance-to-schizophrenia
#1
Lily Van, Erik Boot, Anne S Bassett
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Schizophrenia occurs in ∼25% of individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), the strongest known molecular genetic risk factor for schizophrenia. This review highlights recent literature in 22q11.2DS as it pertains to psychosis and schizophrenia. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in noninvasive prenatal testing allow for early detection of 22q11.2DS in utero, whereas premature birth has been shown to be a significant risk factor for development of psychotic illness in 22q11...
February 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229399/neurological-complications-of-the-leukemias-across-the-ages
#2
REVIEW
Stephanie Berg, Sucha Nand
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute and chronic leukemias are heterogeneous diseases and can affect any part of the body upon initial discovery. Understanding the sequela of systemic involvement is key for proper diagnosis and treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Over the decades, new research has emerged regarding neurological complications of the myeloid or lymphoid leukemias. Central nervous system involvement usually confers a poor prognosis and requires emergent treatment. Standard of care still involves systemic therapy, intrathecal administration of chemotherapeutic agents, and cranial radiation...
February 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228716/intranasal-bmp9-ameliorates-alzheimer-disease-like-pathology-and-cognitive-deficits-in-app-ps1-transgenic-mice
#3
Zigao Wang, Lu Xiong, Wenbin Wan, Lijie Duan, Xiaojing Bai, Hengbing Zu
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia and has no effective therapies. Previous studies showed that bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9), an important factor in the differentiation and phenotype maintenance of cholinergic neurons, ameliorated the cholinergic defects resulting from amyloid deposition. These findings suggest that BMP9 has potential as a therapeutic agent for AD. However, the effects of BMP9 on cognitive function in AD and its underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In the present study, BMP9 was delivered intranasally to 7-month-old APP/PS1 mice for 4 weeks...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226870/effect-of-vagus-nerve-stimulation-on-neural-adaptation-in-thalamo-cortical-system-in-rats
#4
Tomoyo I Shiramatsu, Rie Hitsuyu, Kenji Ibayashi, Ryohei Kanzaki, Kensuke Kawai, Hirokazu Takahashi, Tomoyo I Shiramatsu, Rie Hitsuyu, Kenji Ibayashi, Ryohei Kanzaki, Kensuke Kawai, Hirokazu Takahashi, Kenji Ibayashi, Kensuke Kawai, Ryohei Kanzaki, Hirokazu Takahashi, Tomoyo I Shiramatsu, Rie Hitsuyu
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a therapy on medically refractory epilepsy, and recently reported to improve cognitive function including learning and memory. The thalamo-cortical system may underlie such VNS-induced cognitive improvements. Thus, the present study targeted the auditory cortex and thalamus in rats, and investigated whether and how VNS modulates stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA) of the neural activity in these nuclei. A depth electrode array recorded auditory evoked potentials from the auditory thalamus and cortex under an oddball paradigm either with or without VNS...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225493/acetylcholinesterase-inhibitor-treatment-alleviated-cognitive-impairment-caused-by-delayed-encephalopathy-due-to-carbon-monoxide-poisoning-two-case-reports-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#5
Kumi Yanagiha, Kazuhiro Ishii, Akira Tamaoka
INTRODUCTION: Delayed encephalopathy due to carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning can even occur in patients with mild symptoms of acute CO poisoning. Some cases taking conventional hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy or steroid-pulse therapy may be insufficient, and AchEI may be effective. PATIENT CONCERNS AND DIAGNOSES: We report two cases of delayed encephalopathy after acute CO poisoning involving two women aged 69 (Case 1) and 60 years (Case 2) whose cognitive function improved with acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AchEI) treatment...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224415/effectiveness-of-workplace-interventions-in-return-to-work-for-musculoskeletal-pain-related-and-mental-health-conditions-an-update-of-the-evidence-and-messages-for-practitioners
#6
REVIEW
K L Cullen, E Irvin, A Collie, F Clay, U Gensby, P A Jennings, S Hogg-Johnson, V Kristman, M Laberge, D McKenzie, S Newnam, A Palagyi, R Ruseckaite, D M Sheppard, S Shourie, I Steenstra, D Van Eerd, B C Amick
Purpose The objective of this systematic review was to synthesize evidence on the effectiveness of workplace-based return-to-work (RTW) interventions and work disability management (DM) interventions that assist workers with musculoskeletal (MSK) and pain-related conditions and mental health (MH) conditions with RTW. Methods We followed a systematic review process developed by the Institute for Work & Health and an adapted best evidence synthesis that ranked evidence as strong, moderate, limited, or insufficient...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223129/regenerative-medicine-in-huntington-s-disease-strengths-and-weaknesses-of-preclinical-studies
#7
REVIEW
A M Tartaglione, P Popoli, G Calamandrei
TARTAGLIONE, A.M., P. Popoli and G. Calamandrei. Regenerative medicine in Huntington's disease: strengths and weaknesses of pre-clinical studies. NEUROSCIENCE BIOBEHAV REV (2016). Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by impairment in motor, cognitive and psychiatric domains. Currently, there is no specific therapy to act on the onset or progression of HD. The marked neuronal death observed in HD is a main argument in favour of stem cells (SCs) transplantation as a promising therapeutic perspective to replace the population of lost neurons and restore the functionality of the damaged circuitry...
February 18, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222706/low-intensity-interventions-for-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-ocd-a-qualitative-study-of-mental-health-practitioner-experiences
#8
Judith Gellatly, Rebecca Pedley, Christine Molloy, Jennifer Butler, Karina Lovell, Penny Bee
BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a debilitating mental health disorder that can substantially impact upon quality of life and everyday functioning. Guidelines recommend pharmacological and psychological treatments, using a cognitive behaviour therapy approach (CBT) including exposure and response prevention, but access has generally been poor. Low intensity psychological interventions have been advocated. The evidence base for these interventions is emerging but there is a paucity of information regarding practitioners' perceptions and experiences of supporting individuals with OCD using this approach...
February 22, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222513/clinical-effectiveness-and-tolerability-of-electroconvulsive-therapy-in-patients-with-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-of-dementia
#9
Moshe Isserles, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Sanjeev Kumar, Tarek K Rajji, Daniel M Blumberger
BACKGROUND: Dementia frequently presents with aggression, agitation, and disorganized behavior for which current treatment is partially effective and is associated with significant adverse effects. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to retrospectively assess the clinical effectiveness and tolerability of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in a sample of patients with neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia (NPS) and to explore factors associated with response and with cognitive adverse effects...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221056/memory-support-strategies-and-bundles-a-pathway-to-improving-cognitive-therapy-for-depression
#10
Lu Dong, Jason Y Lee, Allison G Harvey
OBJECTIVE: Therapist use of memory support (MS) alongside treatment-as-usual, with the goal of enhancing patient recall of treatment contents, has been of recent interest as a novel pathway to improve treatment outcome. The memory support intervention (MSI) involves treatment providers' using 8 specific MS strategies to promote patient memory for treatment. The present study examines to what extent therapist use of MS strategies and bundles improves patient recall of treatment contents and treatment outcome...
March 2017: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220928/malt-combined-motor-and-language-therapy-tool-for-brain-injury-patients-using-kinect
#11
Maitreyee Wairagkar, Rachel McCrindle, Holly Robson, Lotte Meteyard, Malcom Sperrin, Andy Smith, Moyra Pugh
BACKGROUND: The functional connectivity and structural proximity of elements of the language and motor systems result in frequent co-morbidity post brain injury. Although rehabilitation services are becoming increasingly multidisciplinary and "integrated", treatment for language and motor functions often occurs in isolation. Thus, behavioural therapies which promote neural reorganisation do not reflect the high intersystem connectivity of the neurologically intact brain. As such, there is a pressing need for rehabilitation tools which better reflect and target the impaired cognitive networks...
February 21, 2017: Methods of Information in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220089/emotion-regulation-therapy-a-mechanism-targeted-treatment-for-disorders-of-distress
#12
Megan E Renna, Jean M Quintero, David M Fresco, Douglas S Mennin
"Distress disorders," which include generalized anxiety disorder and major depression are often highly comorbid with each other and appear to be characterized by common temperamental features that reflect heightened sensitivity to underlying motivational systems related to threat/safety and reward/loss. Further, individuals with distress disorders tend to utilize self-referential processes (e.g., worry, rumination, self-criticism) in a maladaptive attempt to respond to motivationally relevant distress, often resulting in suboptimal contextual learning...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219828/treating-cognitive-impairment-with-transcranial-low-level-laser-therapy
#13
Jack C de la Torre
This report examines the potential of low level laser therapy (LLLT) to alter brain cell function and neurometabolic pathways using red or near infrared (NIR) wavelengths transcranially for the prevention and treatment of cognitive impairment. Although laser therapy on human tissue has been used for a number of medical conditions since the late 1960s, it is only recently that several clinical studies have shown its value in raising neurometabolic energy levels that can improve cerebral hemodynamics and cognitive abilities in humans...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219319/biomarkers-in-alzheimer-s-disease-recent-update
#14
Sushil Sharma, Walter Lipincott
Alzheimer disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by loss of memory and cognitive function. It is the common cause of dementia in elderly and is a global health concern as the population of people aged 85 and older, is growing alarmingly. Although pharmacotherapy for the treatment of AD has improved, lot of work remains to treat this devastating disease. AD pathology begins even before the onset of clinical symptoms. Because therapies could be more effective if implemented early in the disease progression, it is highly prudent to discover reliable biomarkers, to detect its exact pathophysiology during pre-symptomatic stage...
February 20, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219113/personality-coping-and-social-support-as-predictors-of-long-term-quality-of-life-trajectories-in-older-breast-cancer-survivors-calgb-protocol-369901-alliance
#15
Estrella Durá-Ferrandis, Jeanne S Mandelblatt, Jonathan Clapp, George Luta, Leigh Anne Faul, Gretchen Kimmick, Harvey J Cohen, Rachel L Yung, Arti Hurria
OBJECTIVE: To determine long-term quality-of-life (QoL) trajectories among breast cancer survivors aged 65+ ("older") evaluating the effects of personality and social support. METHODS: Older women (N = 1280) newly diagnosed with invasive, non-metastatic breast cancer completed baseline assessments. Follow-up data were collected 6 and 12 months later and then annually for up to 7 years (median 4.5 years). QoL was assessed using EORTC-QLQC30 emotional, physical, and cognitive scales...
February 20, 2017: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217146/cognitive-behavioural-therapy-and-mindfulness-for-health-related-quality-of-life-comparing-treatments-for-parents-of-children-with-chronic-conditions-a-pilot-feasibility-study
#16
Malin Anclair, Fredrik Hjärthag, Arto Juhani Hiltunen
BACKGROUND: Research on parents of children with chronic conditions has shown that this parent group frequently suffers from psychological problems such as deteriorating life quality and stress-related disorders. OBJECTIVE: The present feasibility study focuses on Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) and life satisfaction of parents of children with chronic conditions. METHOD: The study was conducted using a repeated measures design and applied either group-based cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT; n = 10) or a group-based mindfulness programme (MF; n = 9)...
2017: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216256/kleine-levin-syndrome
#17
REVIEW
Olufunke Afolabi-Brown, Thornton B A Mason
Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS) is a rare disorder characterized by discrete episodes of hypersomnia associated with cognitive and behavioural abnormalities, as well as normal alertness and function between episodes. The prevalence of KLS may be underestimated as it is often misdiagnosed and managed as another sleep disorder, neurological disorder or psychiatric condition. KLS is more typically seen in adolescence than at other ages, and is more common in males than in females. There are currently neither standard biomarkers nor specific imaging study findings, making the diagnosis of KLS a challenge...
December 23, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215652/polypathology-polypharmacy-medication-regimen-complexity-and-drug-therapy-appropriateness
#18
N Gómez Aguirre, A Caudevilla Martínez, L Bellostas Muñoz, M Crespo Avellana, J Velilla Marco, J Díez-Manglano
Polypathological patients are usually elderly and take numerous drugs. Polypharmacy affects 85% of these individuals and is not associated with greater survival. On the contrary, polypharmacy exposes these individuals to more adverse effects, such as weight loss, falls, functional and cognitive impairment and hospitalisations. The complexity of a drug regimen covers more aspects than the simple number of drugs consumed. The galenic form, the dosage and the method for preparing the drug can impede the understanding of and compliance with prescriptions...
February 16, 2017: Revista Clínica Española
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215510/short-term-treatment-with-flumazenil-restores-long-term-object-memory-in-a-mouse-model-of-down-syndrome
#19
Damien Colas, Bayarsaikhan Chuluun, Craig C Garner, H Craig Heller
Down syndrome (DS) is a common genetic cause of intellectual disability yet no pro-cognitive drug therapies are approved for human use. Mechanistic studies in a mouse model of DS (Ts65Dn mice) demonstrate that impaired cognitive function is due to excessive neuronal inhibitory tone. These deficits are normalized by chronic, short-term low doses of GABAA receptor (GABAAR) antagonists in adult animals, but none of the compounds investigated are approved for human use. We explored the therapeutic potential of flumazenil (FLUM), a GABAAR antagonist working at the benzodiazepine binding site that has FDA approval...
February 12, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214985/melatonin-alleviates-the-epilepsy-associated-impairments-in-hippocampal-ltp-and-spatial-learning-through-rescue-of-surface-glur2-expression-at-hippocampal-ca1-synapses
#20
Yue Ma, Xiaolong Sun, Juan Li, Ruihua Jia, Fang Yuan, Dong Wei, Wen Jiang
Epilepsy-associated cognitive impairment is common, and negatively impacts patients' quality of life. However, most antiepileptic drugs focus on the suppression of seizures, and fewer emphasize treatment of cognitive dysfunction. Melatonin, an indolamine synthesized primarily in the pineal grand, is reported to be neuroprotective against several central nervous system disorders. In this study, we investigated whether melatonin could reverse cognitive dysfunction in lithium-pilocarpine treated rats. Chronic treatment with melatonin (8 mg/kg daily for 15 days) after induction of status epilepticus significantly alleviated seizure severity, reduced neuronal death in the CA1 region of the hippocampus, improved spatial learning (as measured by the Morris water maze test), and reversed LTP impairments, compared to vehicle treatment...
February 18, 2017: Neurochemical Research
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