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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159947/flexible-water-excitation-for-fat-free-mri-at-3t-using-lipid-insensitive-binomial-off-resonant-rf-excitation-libre-pulses
#1
Jessica A M Bastiaansen, Matthias Stuber
PURPOSE: To develop a robust and flexible low power water excitation pulse that enables effective fat suppression at high magnetic field strength. METHODS: A water excitation method that uses spatially non-selective pulses was optimized in numerical simulations, and implemented and tested in phantoms and healthy volunteers at 3T. The lipid insensitive binomial off-resonant excitation (LIBRE) pulse comprises two low power rectangular subpulses that have a variable frequency offset, phase offset and duration...
November 20, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159193/prep2-a-biomarker-based-algorithm-for-predicting-upper-limb-function-after-stroke
#2
Cathy M Stinear, Winston D Byblow, Suzanne J Ackerley, Marie-Claire Smith, Victor M Borges, P Alan Barber
Objective: Recovery of motor function is important for regaining independence after stroke, but difficult to predict for individual patients. Our aim was to develop an efficient, accurate, and accessible algorithm for use in clinical settings. Clinical, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging biomarkers of corticospinal integrity obtained within days of stroke were combined to predict likely upper limb motor outcomes 3 months after stroke. Methods: Data from 207 patients recruited within 3 days of stroke [103 females (50%), median age 72 (range 18-98) years] were included in a Classification and Regression Tree analysis to predict upper limb function 3 months poststroke...
November 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159151/a-case-of-unusual-presentation-of-contrast-induced-encephalopathy-after-cerebral-angiography-using-iodixanol
#3
Jun Chul Park, Jun Hyong Ahn, In Bok Chang, Jae Keun Oh, Ji Hee Kim, Joon Ho Song
Contrast-induced encephalopathy after cerebral angiography is a rare complication and until now, only few cases have been reported. This paper reports on contras-induced encephalopathy mimicking meningoencephalitis after cerebral angiography by using iodixanol, an iso-osmolar non-ionic contrast agent. A 58-year-old woman underwent cerebral angiography for the evaluation of multiple intracranial aneurysms. A few hours later, she had persistent headache, vomiting, fever, and seizures. Brain computed tomography (CT) showed sulcal obliteration of right cerebral hemisphere and cerebrospinal fluid profile was unremarkable...
September 2017: Journal of Cerebrovascular and Endovascular Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159057/gray-matter-atrophy-patterns-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-10-year-source-based-morphometry-study
#4
Niels Bergsland, Dana Horakova, Michael G Dwyer, Tomas Uher, Manuela Vaneckova, Michaela Tyblova, Zdenek Seidl, Jan Krasensky, Eva Havrdova, Robert Zivadinov
Objectives: To investigate spatial patterns of gray matter (GM) atrophy and their association with disability progression in patients with early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) in a longitudinal setting. Methods: Brain MRI and clinical neurological assessments were obtained in 152 MS patients at baseline and after 10 years of follow-up. Patients were classified into those with confirmed disability progression (CDP) (n = 85) and those without CDP (n = 67) at the end of the study...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159043/neuroimaging-and-other-modalities-to-assess-alzheimer-s-disease-in-down-syndrome
#5
REVIEW
Natalie Neale, Concepcion Padilla, Luciana Mascarenhas Fonseca, Tony Holland, Shahid Zaman
People with Down syndrome (DS) develop Alzheimer's disease (AD) at higher rates and a younger age of onset compared to the general population. As the average lifespan of people with DS is increasing, AD is becoming an important health concern in this group. Neuroimaging is becoming an increasingly useful tool in understanding the pathogenesis of dementia development in relation to clinical symptoms. Furthermore, neuroimaging has the potential to play a role in AD diagnosis and monitoring of therapeutics. This review describes major recent findings from in vivo neuroimaging studies analysing DS and AD via ligand-based positron emission tomography (PET), [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET, structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158471/thoracic-epidural-hematoma-complicating-vertebroplasty
#6
Cumhur Kaan Yaltırık, Selçuk Özdoğan, Başar Atalay
BACKGROUND Percutaneous vertebroplasty procedures are commonly used to treat vertebral fractures. These techniques may be associated with major complications. CASE REPORT We present here a case of a 64-year-old female patient with T9 and T10 acute osteoporotic fractures, treated previously with vertebroplasty for four levels of osteoporotic vertebral fractures. The patient was treated by T9-T10 vertebroplasty. The post-operative neurological examination was normal. Two hours later, she progressively worsened and developed paraplegia...
November 21, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158172/estimated-minimal-residual-membranous-urethral-length-on-preoperative-magnetic-resonance-imaging-can-be-a-new-predictor-for-continence-after-radical-prostatectomy
#7
Yohei Satake, Yasuhiro Kaiho, Hideo Saito, Takayuki Yamada, Naoki Kawamorita, Shinichi Yamashita, Koji Mitsuzuka, Shigeyuki Yamada, Akihiro Ito, Yoichi Arai
OBJECTIVE: To identify a parameter predicting postoperative recovery of urinary continence after radical prostatectomy, associations between parameters on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and postoperative continence status were investigated. METHODS: This prospective study enrolled 113 patients with localized prostate cancer who underwent MRI before radical prostatectomy. Continence was evaluated using the Expanded Prostate Index Composite instrument before surgery and at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months postoperatively...
November 17, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158073/methodological-challenges-in-the-comparison-of-infant-fmri-across-age-groups
#8
REVIEW
Rhodri Cusack, Olivia McCuaig, Annika C Linke
Functional MRI (fMRI) in infants is rapidly growing and providing fundamental insights into the origins of brain functions. Comparing brain development at different ages is particularly powerful, but there are a number of methodological challenges that must be addressed if confounds are to be avoided. With development, brains change in composition in a way that alters their tissue contrast, and in size, shape, and gyrification, requiring careful image processing strategies and age-specific standard templates...
November 11, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157997/smaller-amygdala-volume-and-increased-neuroticism-predict-anxiety-symptoms-in-healthy-subjects-a-volumetric-approach-using-manual-tracing
#9
Yifan Hu, Matthew Moore, Zachariah Bertels, K Luan Phan, Florin Dolcos, Sanda Dolcos
Volume reductions in the amygdala (AMY) have been found in patients with anxiety disorders, but findings are mixed in subclinical participants with high trait anxiety scores, in whom both reductions and increases in AMY volume have been identified. One potential reason for such discrepancies could be the employment of different methods to determine the AMY volume (i.e., manual tracing in psychiatric research vs. automated methods), in non-patient research. In addition to trait anxiety, smaller AMY volume has also been linked to neuroticism, a personality trait consistently linked to increased vulnerability to anxiety...
November 17, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157492/biomolecular-mri-reporters-evolution-of-new-mechanisms
#10
REVIEW
Arnab Mukherjee, Hunter C Davis, Pradeep Ramesh, George J Lu, Mikhail G Shapiro
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful technique for observing the function of specific cells and molecules inside living organisms. However, compared to optical microscopy, in which fluorescent protein reporters are available to visualize hundreds of cellular functions ranging from gene expression and chemical signaling to biomechanics, to date relatively few such reporters are available for MRI. Efforts to develop MRI-detectable biomolecules have mainly focused on proteins transporting paramagnetic metals for T1 and T2 relaxation enhancement or containing large numbers of exchangeable protons for chemical exchange saturation transfer...
November 2017: Progress in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157403/spinal-cord-mri-in-multiple-sclerosis
#11
REVIEW
Alexandra Muccilli, Estelle Seyman, Jiwon Oh
Spinal cord (SC) MRI in multiple sclerosis (MS) has significant usefulness in clinical and investigational settings. Conventional MRI of the SC is used in clinical practice, because it has both diagnostic and prognostic value. A number of advanced, quantitative SC MRI measures that assess the structural and functional integrity of the SC have been evaluated in investigational settings. These techniques have collectively demonstrated usefulness in providing insight into microstructural and functional changes relevant to disability in MS...
February 2018: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157218/brain-medical-image-diagnosis-based-on-corners-with-importance-values
#12
Linlin Gao, Haiwei Pan, Qing Li, Xiaoqin Xie, Zhiqiang Zhang, Jinming Han, Xiao Zhai
BACKGROUND: Brain disorders are one of the top causes of human death. Generally, neurologists analyze brain medical images for diagnosis. In the image analysis field, corners are one of the most important features, which makes corner detection and matching studies essential. However, existing corner detection studies do not consider the domain information of brain. This leads to many useless corners and the loss of significant information. Regarding corner matching, the uncertainty and structure of brain are not employed in existing methods...
November 21, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156557/the-invasive-region-of-glioblastoma-defined-by-5ala-guided-surgery-has-an-altered-cancer-stem-cell-marker-profile-compared-to-central-tumour
#13
Stuart J Smith, Mohammed Diksin, Saachi Chhaya, Shwetha Sairam, Maria A Estevez-Cebrero, Ruman Rahman
Glioblastoma, a WHO grade IV astrocytoma, is a highly aggressive and heterogeneous tumour that infiltrates deeply into surrounding brain parenchyma, making complete surgical resection impossible. Despite chemo-radiotherapy, the residual cell population within brain parenchyma post-surgery causes inevitable recurrence. Previously, the tumour core has been the focus of research and the basis for targeted therapeutic regimes, which have failed to improve survival in clinical trials. Here, we focus on the invasive margin as defined by the region with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5ALA) (GliolanTM) fluorescence at surgery beyond the T1 enhancing region on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
November 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155947/dementia-after-moderate-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-coexistence-of-multiple-proteinopathies
#14
Kimbra Kenney, Diego Iacono, Brian L Edlow, Douglas I Katz, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Kristen Dams-O'Connor, Daniel H Daneshvar, Allison Stevens, Allison L Moreau, Lee S Tirrell, Ani Varjabedian, Anastasia Yendiki, Andre van der Kouwe, Azma Mareyam, Jennifer A McNab, Wayne A Gordon, Bruce Fischl, Ann C McKee, Daniel P Perl
We report the clinical, neuroimaging, and neuropathologic characteristics of 2 patients who developed early onset dementia after a moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Neuropathological evaluation revealed abundant β-amyloid neuritic and cored plaques, diffuse β-amyloid plaques, and frequent hyperphosphorylated-tau neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) involving much of the cortex, including insula and mammillary bodies in both cases. Case 1 additionally showed NFTs in both the superficial and deep cortical layers, occasional perivascular and depth-of-sulci NFTs, and parietal white matter rarefaction, which corresponded with decreased parietal fiber tracts observed on ex vivo MRI...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155186/prediction-of-prostate-cancer-risk-among-men-undergoing-combined-mri-targeted-and-systematic-biopsy-using-novel-pre-biopsy-nomograms-that-incorporate-mri-findings
#15
Marc A Bjurlin, Andrew B Rosenkrantz, Saradwata Sarkar, Herbert Lepor, William C Huang, Richard Huang, Rajesh Venkataraman, Samir S Taneja
OBJECTIVE: To develop nomograms that predict the probability of overall PCa and clinically significant PCa (Gleason ≥7) on MRI targeted, and combined MRI-targeted and systematic, prostate biopsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From June 2012 to August 2014, MR-US fusion targeted prostate biopsy was performed on 464 men with suspicious regions identified on pre-biopsy 3T MRI along with systematic 12 core biopsy. Logistic regression modeling was used to evaluate predictors of overall and clinically significant PCa, and corresponding nomograms were generated for men who were not previously biopsied or had one or more prior negative biopsies...
November 16, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155183/insights-into-brain-microstructure-from-in-vivo-dw-mrs
#16
Marco Palombo, Noam Shemesh, Itamar Ronen, Julien Valette
Many developmental processes, such as plasticity and aging, or pathological processes such as neurological diseases are characterized by modulations of specific cellular types and their microstructures. Diffusion-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DW-MRI) is a powerful technique for probing microstructure, yet its information arises from the ubiquitous, non-specific water signal. By contrast, diffusion-weighted Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (DW-MRS) allows specific characterizations of tissues such as brain and muscle in vivo by quantifying the diffusion properties of MR-observable metabolites...
November 16, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154535/novel-gd-loaded-silicon-nanohybrid-a-potential-egfr-expressing-cancer-cell-targeting-mri-contrast-agent
#17
Sougata Sinha, Wing Yin Tong, Nathan H Williamson, Steven James Peter McInnes, Simon Puttick, Anna Cifuentes-Rius, Richa Bhardwaj, Sally E Plush, Nicolas H Voelcker
Continuing our research efforts in developing mesoporous silicon nanoparticle based biomaterials for cancer therapy, here we employed porous silicon nanoparticles as a nanocarrier to deliver contrast agents to diseased cells. Nanoconfinement of small molecule Gd-chelates (L1-Gd) enhanced the T1 contrast dramatically compared to distinct Gd-chelate (L1-Gd) by virtue of its slow tumbling rate, increased number of bound water molecules and their occupancy time. The newly synthesized Gd-chelate (L1-Gd) was covalently grafted on silicon nanostructures and conjugated to an antibody specific for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) via a hydrazone linkage...
November 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154442/a-biomimetic-tumor-tissue-phantom-for-validating-diffusion-weighted-mri-measurements
#18
Damien J McHugh, Feng-Lei Zhou, Ian Wimpenny, Gowsihan Poologasundarampillai, Josephine H Naish, Penny L Hubbard Cristinacce, Geoffrey J M Parker
PURPOSE: To develop a biomimetic tumor tissue phantom which more closely reflects water diffusion in biological tissue than previously used phantoms, and to evaluate the stability of the phantom and its potential as a tool for validating diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI measurements. METHODS: Coaxial-electrospraying was used to generate micron-sized hollow polymer spheres, which mimic cells. The bulk structure was immersed in water, providing a DW-MRI phantom whose apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and microstructural properties were evaluated over a period of 10 months...
November 20, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154277/potential-of-low-dose-leuco-methylthioninium-bis-hydromethanesulphonate-lmtm-monotherapy-for-treatment-of-mild-alzheimer-s-disease-cohort-analysis-as-modified-primary-outcome-in-a-phase-iii-clinical-trial
#19
Gordon K Wilcock, Serge Gauthier, Giovanni B Frisoni, Jianping Jia, Jiri H Hardlund, Hans J Moebius, Peter Bentham, Karin A Kook, Bjoern O Schelter, Damon J Wischik, Charles S Davis, Roger T Staff, Vesna Vuksanovic, Trevor Ahearn, Luc Bracoud, Kohkan Shamsi, Ken Marek, John Seibyl, Gernot Riedel, John M D Storey, Charles R Harrington, Claude M Wischik
BACKGROUND: LMTM is being developed as a treatment for AD based on inhibition of tau aggregation. OBJECTIVES: To examine the efficacy of LMTM as monotherapy in non-randomized cohort analyses as modified primary outcomes in an 18-month Phase III trial in mild AD. METHODS: Mild AD patients (n = 800) were randomly assigned to 100 mg twice a day or 4 mg twice a day. Prior to unblinding, the Statistical Analysis Plan was revised to compare the 100 mg twice a day as monotherapy subgroup (n = 79) versus 4 mg twice a day as randomized (n = 396), and 4 mg twice a day as monotherapy (n = 76) versus 4 mg twice a day as add-on therapy (n = 297), with strong control of family-wise type I error...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154276/sparcl1-accelerates-symptom-onset-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-influences-brain-structure-and-function-during-aging
#20
Sahba Seddighi, Vijay R Varma, Yang An, Sudhir Varma, Lori L Beason-Held, Toshiko Tanaka, Melissa H Kitner-Triolo, Michael A Kraut, Christos Davatzikos, Madhav Thambisetty
We recently reported that alpha-2 macroglobulin (A2M) is a biomarker of neuronal injury in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and identified a network of nine genes co-expressed with A2M in the brain. This network includes the gene encoding SPARCL1, a protein implicated in synaptic maintenance. Here, we examine whether SPARCL1 is associated with longitudinal changes in brain structure and function in older individuals at risk for AD in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Using data from the Gene-Tissue Expression Project, we first identified two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs9998212 and rs7695558, associated with lower brain SPARCL1 gene expression...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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