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Infant mri

Alma V Huidobro-Chávez, Gianmarco D Vigo Pareja, Carlos Pachas-Peña, Karina Patiño-Calla
The Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a rare disease characterized by the clonal proliferation of CD1a + myeloid dendritic cells associated with a significant inflammatory component. The localized form of the disease is called eosinophilic granuloma. Bone involvement is common; in children, lytic lesions are most frequently found in the cranial dome being rare in the orbit. We present an 18-month-old infant who consulted due to periorbital edema and proptosis of the right eye, with two months of evolution. The computed tomography and the magnetic resonance imaging showed a maxillary sinus tumor mass of expansive growth and erosion of the roof of the orbit...
April 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
Divyen K Shah, Vennila Ponnusamy, Jane Evanson, Olga Kapellou, Georgia Ekitzidou, Neelam Gupta, Paul Clarke, Adina T Michael-Titus, Ping K Yip
Aims and hypothesis: Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) remains an important cause of death and disability in newborns. Mild therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is safe and effective; however, there are no tissue biomarkers available at the bedside to select babies for treatment. The aim of this study was to show that it is feasible to study plasma neurofilament light (NfL) levels from newborns and to evaluate their temporal course. Hypothesis: Raised plasma NFL protein levels from newborns who undergo TH after HIE are associated with abnormal MRI outcomes...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Michael C Mongé, Osama M Eltayeb, John M Costello, Joyce T Johnson, Andrada R Popescu, Cynthia K Rigsby, Carl L Backer
BACKGROUND: Controversy remains regarding the optimal surgical approach for children with supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS). METHODS: Since 1997 we have used Brom three-patch aortoplasty for patients with SVAS. We prefer computed tomography (CT) imaging for preoperative evaluation rather than cardiac catheterization as it avoids the well-known morbidity of general anesthesia. The purpose of this study was to present our intermediate-term results of this strategy...
March 2018: World Journal for Pediatric & Congenital Heart Surgery
Dante Picarelli, Ruben Leone, José L Surraco, Nicolas Fernandez, Martin Antelo, Carolina Grela, Jorge Speyer, Domingo Bianchi, Mateo Rios, Pedro Chiesa
A 15-month-old infant with a systolic cardiac murmur developed an episode of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia during transthoracic echocardiography. A large intracardiac mass, which widened the interventricular septum causing right ventricular outflow tract obstruction, was seen and confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. A cardiac fibroma was suspected, and because of the risk of life-threatening arrhythmias, surgery was rapidly considered. Despite the challenging location, the tumor was completely and successfully resected...
March 2018: World Journal for Pediatric & Congenital Heart Surgery
Irene Papanicolas, Liana R Woskie, Ashish K Jha
Importance: Health care spending in the United States is a major concern and is higher than in other high-income countries, but there is little evidence that efforts to reform US health care delivery have had a meaningful influence on controlling health care spending and costs. Objective: To compare potential drivers of spending, such as structural capacity and utilization, in the United States with those of 10 of the highest-income countries (United Kingdom, Canada, Germany, Australia, Japan, Sweden, France, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Denmark) to gain insight into what the United States can learn from these nations...
March 13, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Peiying Liu, Ying Qi, Zixuan Lin, Qiyong Guo, Xiaoming Wang, Hanzhang Lu
Abnormal cerebral blood flow (CBF) is implicated in several neonatal and infant diseases. However, measurement of CBF in this population remains difficult and has not been used in routine clinical MRI. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) methods suffer from both low SNR and poor quantification when applied to very young children. Furthermore, rapid change in brain physiology in this age range makes it difficult to choose sequence parameters such as labeling pulse flip angle and post labeling delay. Phase-contrast (PC) MRI is another approach to measure flow...
March 10, 2018: NeuroImage
Karl-Heinz Deeg
Prenatal, neonatal meningoencephalitis and infections of the brain in older infants are often associated with serious complications which can be diagnosed by sonography through the open fontanelles. Most frequently postmeningitic hydrocephalus and subdural effusions occur. Rarer complications are brain abscesses and ventriculitis which are caused by gram negative bacteria such as E. coli, Serratia marcescens, Proteus and Enterobacter. A serious complication after ventriculitis is the development of compartment hydrocephalus...
March 13, 2018: Ultraschall in der Medizin
Christiane Graetz, Adriane Gröger, Felix Luessi, Anke Salmen, Daniela Zöller, Janine Schultz, Nelly Siller, Vinzenz Fleischer, Barbara Bellenberg, Achim Berthele, Viola Biberacher, Joachim Havla, Michael Hecker, Reinhard Hohlfeld, Carmen Infante-Duarte, Jan S Kirschke, Tania Kümpfel, Ralf Linker, Friedemann Paul, Steffen Pfeuffer, Philipp Sämann, Gerrit Toenges, Frank Weber, Uwe K Zettl, Antje Jahn-Eimermacher, Gisela Antony, Sergiu Groppa, Heinz Wiendl, Bernhard Hemmer, Mark Mühlau, Carsten Lukas, Ralf Gold, Christina M Lill, Frauke Zipp
BACKGROUND: The course of multiple sclerosis (MS) shows substantial inter-individual variability. The underlying determinants of disease severity likely involve genetic and environmental factors. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of APOE and HLA polymorphisms as well as smoking and body mass index (BMI) in the very early MS course. METHODS: Untreated patients ( n = 263) with a recent diagnosis of relapsing-remitting (RR) MS or clinically isolated syndrome underwent standardized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
March 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Jessica Dubois, Julien Lefèvre, Hugo Angleys, François Leroy, Clara Fischer, Jessica Lebenberg, Ghislaine Dehaene-Lambertz, Cristina Borradori-Tolsa, François Lazeyras, Lucie Hertz-Pannier, Jean-François Mangin, Petra Hüppi, David Germanaud
In the human brain, the appearance of cortical sulci is a complex process that takes place mostly during the second half of pregnancy, with a relatively stable temporal sequence across individuals. Since deviant gyrification patterns have been observed in many neurodevelopmental disorders, mapping cortical development in vivo from the early stages on is an essential step to uncover new markers for diagnosis or prognosis. Recently this has been made possible by MRI combined with post-processing tools, but the reported results are still fragmented...
March 6, 2018: NeuroImage
Li Wang, Gang Li, Ehsan Adeli, Mingxia Liu, Zhengwang Wu, Yu Meng, Weili Lin, Dinggang Shen
Tissue segmentation of infant brain MRIs with risk of autism is critically important for characterizing early brain development and identifying biomarkers. However, it is challenging due to low tissue contrast caused by inherent ongoing myelination and maturation. In particular, at around 6 months of age, the voxel intensities in both gray matter and white matter are within similar ranges, thus leading to the lowest image contrast in the first postnatal year. Previous studies typically employed intensity images and tentatively estimated tissue probabilities to train a sequence of classifiers for tissue segmentation...
March 8, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Ali-Reza Mohammadi-Nejad, Mahdi Mahmoudzadeh, Mahlegha S Hassanpour, Fabrice Wallois, Otto Muzik, Christos Papadelis, Anne Hansen, Hamid Soltanian-Zadeh, Juri Gelovani, Mohammadreza Nasiriavanaki
Infancy is the most critical period in human brain development. Studies demonstrate that subtle brain abnormalities during this state of life may greatly affect the developmental processes of the newborn infants. One of the rapidly developing methods for early characterization of abnormal brain development is functional connectivity of the brain at rest. While the majority of resting-state studies have been conducted using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), there is clear evidence that resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) can also be evaluated using other imaging modalities...
June 2018: Photoacoustics
Lorraine James, Animesh Tandon, Alan Nugent, Sadia Malik, Claudio Ramaciotti, Gerald Greil, Luis Zabala, Joseph Forbess, Tarique Hussain
Previous studies have shown that cardiac MRI can be used to evaluate the suitability for infants to undergo the Glenn operation after having undergone the Norwood procedure. We sought to analyse our institutional data retrospectively to identify whether such a policy would be advisable in the current era. We reviewed patients who underwent the Norwood procedure between 1 January, 2006 and 1 January, 2016. All patients undergoing evaluation for the Glenn procedure received clinical evaluation, echocardiography, and cardiac catheterisation...
March 6, 2018: Cardiology in the Young
Renato S Procianoy, Andrea Lucia A Corso, Maria Gabriela Longo, Leonardo Vedolin, Rita C Silveira
OBJECTIVE: To determine the neurodevelopment outcomes after Therapeutic Hypothermia for Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE) and identify the neonatal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) findings associated with neurological outcome in a middle-income country. STUDY DESIGN: All infants born after 35 completed weeks' gestation with signs of moderate to severe encephalopathy and evidence of perinatal asphyxia before 6 hours of life were submitted to whole-body hypothermia and were imaged at 18 ± 8...
March 4, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Makoto Nishioka, Yuji Inaba, Mitsuo Motobayashi, Yosuke Hara, Ryusuke Numata, Yoshiro Amano, Kunihiko Shingu, Yoichiro Yamamoto, Kei Murayama, Akira Ohtake, Yozo Nakazawa
INTRODUCTION: Mitochondrial dysfunction results in a wide range of organ disorders through diverse genetic abnormalities. We herein present the detailed clinical course of an infant admitted for extensive, rapidly progressing white matter lesions and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy due to a BOLA3 gene mutation. CASE: A 6-month-old girl with no remarkable family or past medical history until 1 month prior presented with developmental regression and feeding impairment...
February 28, 2018: Brain & Development
Bruno Dubois, Stephane Epelbaum, Francis Nyasse, Hovagim Bakardjian, Geoffroy Gagliardi, Olga Uspenskaya, Marion Houot, Simone Lista, Federica Cacciamani, Marie-Claude Potier, Anne Bertrand, Foudil Lamari, Habib Benali, Jean-François Mangin, Olivier Colliot, Remy Genthon, Marie-Odile Habert, Harald Hampel
BACKGROUND: Improved understanding is needed of risk factors and markers of disease progression in preclinical Alzheimer's disease. We assessed associations between brain β-amyloidosis and various cognitive and neuroimaging parameters with progression of cognitive decline in individuals with preclinical Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: The INSIGHT-preAD is an ongoing single-centre observational study at the Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris, France. Eligible participants were age 70-85 years with subjective memory complaints but unimpaired cognition and memory (Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE] score ≥27, Clinical Dementia Rating score 0, and Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test [FCSRT] total recall score ≥41)...
February 27, 2018: Lancet Neurology
Michael Kim, Jessa Hoffman, Anubhav Amin, Manish Purohit, Avinash Mohan
A spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma is a collection of blood in the spinal epidural space that occurs in the absence of trauma. They most commonly present in the fourth to fifth decade in life with acute onset neck or back pain with delayed neurologic deficit. However, this presentation is often complicated in children because of the limitations in the pediatric neurologic exam. Magnetic resonance imaging is the imaging modality of choice for diagnosis. Here is a rare case of an infant spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma whose diagnosis was delayed because of a recent history of fever and viral pharyngitis before his development of neurologic deficits...
February 28, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
Annika C Linke, Conor Wild, Leire Zubiaurre-Elorza, Charlotte Herzmann, Hester Duffy, Victor K Han, David S C Lee, Rhodri Cusack
Objective: Functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) of neonates with perinatal brain injury could improve prediction of motor impairment before symptoms manifest, and establish how early brain organization relates to subsequent development. This cohort study is the first to describe and quantitatively assess functional brain networks and their relation to later motor skills in neonates with a diverse range of perinatal brain injuries. Methods: Infants ( n  = 65, included in final analyses: n  = 53) were recruited from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and were stratified based on their age at birth (premature vs...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Suneeti Gupta, Jayapalli Rajiv Bapuraj, Gabrielle Carlson, Emily Trumpower, Ronald E Dechert, Subrata Sarkar
BACKGROUND: Asphyxiated infants treated with therapeutic cooling can have persistent oral feeding difficulty because of involvement of neural pathways in the brainstem, cortex, and basal ganglia. The goal is to predict the composite adverse outcome of death or persistent oral feeding difficulty using precooling/cooling attributes, and the severity and distribution of hypoxic-ischemic lesions, especially brainstem lesions on post-cooling brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: Retrospective review of 86 asphyxiated infants cooled from January 2006 to August 2014...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Eyal Abraham, Talma Hendler, Orna Zagoory-Sharon, Ruth Feldman
Interoception, the perception and interpretation of one's own bodily signals, is a key aspect of human caregiving that impacts infant health and well-being across life. Interoception relies on limbic structures, mainly the amygdala, and the agranular visceromotor cortex, particularly the anterior insula (AI), that integrate with the oxytocin (OT) system to support interoceptive sensitivity. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine whether interoception sensitivity in the parent's brain during the first months of parenting combines with sensitive parenting and OT-system functionality to predict children's somatic symptoms six years later...
February 24, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Maddy Artunduaga, Siddharth P Jadhav, Karen W Eldin, Thomas J Seery, Prakash Masand
Papillary fibroelastomas are benign primary cardiac tumors that usually arise from the valve apparatus and are rare in the pediatric population. Involvement of the tricuspid valve is even less common with only a few cases reported in the literature. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is a valuable examination that aids in differentiating a tumor from a thrombus. We present the case of an 11-month-old girl referred by her pediatrician to investigate a murmur noted since birth. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a pathologically proven papillary fibroelastoma arising from the tricuspid valve characterized by magnetic resonance imaging in an infant...
December 2017: Radiology Case Reports
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