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Infant mri

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168981/high-resolution-rapid-neonatal-whole-body-composition-using-3-0-tesla-chemical-shift-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#1
Jonathan P Dyke, Amanda C Garfinkel, Alan M Groves, Arzu Kovanlikaya
BACKGROUND: To evaluate a whole body rapid imaging technique to calculate neonatal lean body mass and percentage adiposity using 3.0 Tesla chemical shift Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). METHODS: A 2-Point Dixon MRI technique was used to calculate whole body fat and water images in term (n=10) and preterm (n=15) infants. RESULTS: Chemical shift images were obtained in 42 s. MRI calculated whole body mass correlated closely with measured body weight (R(2)=0...
November 23, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167058/neuroimaging-findings-in-normocephalic-newborns-with-intrauterine-zika-virus-exposure
#2
Sarah B Mulkey, Gilbert Vezina, Dorothy I Bulas, Zarir Khademian, Anna Blask, Youssef Kousa, Caitlin Cristante, Lindsay Pesacreta, Adre J du Plessis, Roberta L DeBiasi
BACKGROUND: Congenital Zika infection can result in a spectrum of neurological abnormalities in the newborn. Newborns exposed to Zika virus in utero often have neuroimaging as part of their clinical evaluation. METHODS: Through the Congenital Zika Program at Children's National Health System in Washington DC, we performed fetal or neonatal neuroimaging, including magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound, on over 70 fetuses or neonates with intrauterine Zika exposure...
October 19, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166461/presumed-zika-virus-related-congenital-brain-malformations-the-spectrum-of-ct-and-mri-findings-in-fetuses-and-newborns
#3
José Daniel Vieira de Castro, Licia Pacheco Pereira, Daniel Aguiar Dias, Lindenberg Barbosa Aguiar, Joanira Costa Nogueira Maia, Jesus Irajacy Fernandes da Costa, Eveline Campos Monteiro de Castro, Francisco Edson de Lucena Feitosa, Francisco Herlânio Costa Carvalho
OBJECTIVE: The new epidemic of Zika virus infection raises grave concerns, especially with the increasingly-recognized link between emerging cases of microcephaly and this infectious disease. Besides small cranial dimensions, there are striking morphologic anomalies in the fetal brain. Key anomalies include cortical developmental malformations and a peculiar distribution of pathologic calcifications. These potentially indicate a new pattern of congenital central nervous system infection...
October 2017: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158765/usefulness-of-the-korean-developmental-screening-test-for-infants-and-children-for-the-evaluation-of-developmental-delay-in-korean-infants-and-children-a-single-center-study
#4
Chung-Hyuk Yim, Gun-Ha Kim, Baik-Lin Eun
Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of the Korean Developmental Screening Test (K-DST) for infants and children for developmental delay assessment. Methods: This study was based on retrospective studies of the results of the K-DST, Preschool Receptive-Expressive Language Scale (PRES), Sequenced Language Scale for Infants (SELSI), Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT), electroencephalography, magnetic resonance imaging, and extensive tests conducted in 209 of 1,403 patients, of whom 758 underwent the K-DST at the Korea University Guro Hospital between January 2015 and December 2016 and 645 were referred from local clinics between January 2015 and June 2016...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158073/methodological-challenges-in-the-comparison-of-infant-fmri-across-age-groups
#5
REVIEW
Rhodri Cusack, Olivia McCuaig, Annika C Linke
Functional MRI (fMRI) in infants is rapidly growing and providing fundamental insights into the origins of brain functions. Comparing brain development at different ages is particularly powerful, but there are a number of methodological challenges that must be addressed if confounds are to be avoided. With development, brains change in composition in a way that alters their tissue contrast, and in size, shape, and gyrification, requiring careful image processing strategies and age-specific standard templates...
November 11, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155636/hepatic-imaging-in-neonates-and-young-infants-state-of-the-art
#6
Stephanie B Shamir, Jessica Kurian, Debora Kogan-Liberman, Benjamin H Taragin
Neonatal liver disease is an important source of morbidity in the pediatric population. The manifestation of liver disease in young infants may be different than in older patients, and there are a number of diagnoses that are unique to this age group. Familiarity with these entities is important as imaging plays a key role in the diagnostic workup, and prompt diagnosis is necessary to prevent complications. This article reviews the spectrum of liver pathologies that can manifest in the first 6 months of life and is intended to educate the general radiologist who may be faced with interpretation of neonatal liver imaging...
December 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154589/down-regulation-of-amygdala-response-to-infant-crying-a-role-for-distraction-in-maternal-emotion-regulation
#7
Christine Firk, Brigitte Dahmen, Christin Lehmann, Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann, Kerstin Konrad
Infant crying elicits caregiving behaviors, which are indispensable for fulfilling the infant's needs. However, infant crying can also evoke negative and angry feelings in the caregiver. Therefore, parents need to regulate their own negative emotions to infant crying to sensitively respond to the distressed infant. Thus, the current study aims to examine the neural basis of emotional reactivity and emotional regulation in response to infant crying using functional MRI in primiparous mothers (N = 26). Amygdala activation in response to infant crying was negatively associated with maternal sensitivity and maternal nonhostility during mother-infant interaction...
November 20, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150375/type-i-interferon-and-proinflammatory-cytokine-levels-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-newborns-with-rotavirus-associated-leukoencephalopathy
#8
Kyung Yeon Lee, Chang Hoon Moon, Seong Hoon Choi
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify whether there is an increase in type I interferon and proinflammatory cytokine levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of newborns with rotavirus-associated leukoencephalopathy. METHODS: Levels of type I interferons (interferon-alpha and interferon-beta) and proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6 and interferon-gamma) were measured in the cerebrospinal fluid of 23 newborns with rotavirus-associated leukoencephalopathy (patient group) and 39 infants under 90 days-of-age (control group)...
November 14, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149191/resting-state-fmri-in-sleeping-infants-more-closely-resembles-adult-sleep-than-adult-wakefulness
#9
Anish Mitra, Abraham Z Snyder, Enzo Tagliazucchi, Helmut Laufs, Jed Elison, Robert W Emerson, Mark D Shen, Jason J Wolff, Kelly N Botteron, Stephen Dager, Annette M Estes, Alan Evans, Guido Gerig, Heather C Hazlett, Sarah J Paterson, Robert T Schultz, Martin A Styner, Lonnie Zwaigenbaum, Bradley L Schlaggar, Joseph Piven, John R Pruett, Marcus Raichle
Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) in infants enables important studies of functional brain organization early in human development. However, rs-fMRI in infants has universally been obtained during sleep to reduce participant motion artifact, raising the question of whether differences in functional organization between awake adults and sleeping infants that are commonly attributed to development may instead derive, at least in part, from sleep. This question is especially important as rs-fMRI differences in adult wake vs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146620/diagnosing-infection-in-a-neonate-using-whole-body-screening-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#10
Ting Ting Fu, Paul S Kingma
The location of invasive infections is difficult to detect in infants, in part due to their inability to localize signs and symptoms. However, identifying the location often significantly alters clinical management by extending the duration of antibiotic therapy or revealing a source requiring surgical intervention. Compared with commonly used first-line imaging techniques such as radiographs and ultrasounds, MRI has higher sensitivity for identifying invasive infections and allows for simultaneous evaluation of multiple foci...
November 16, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146290/sustained-opioid-antagonism-modulates-striatal-sensitivity-to-baby-schema-in-opioid-use-disorder
#11
An-Li Wang, Steven B Lowen, Igor Elman, Zhenhao Shi, Victoria P Fairchild, Alexander Bouril, Ruben C Gur, Daniel D Langleben
BACKGROUND: Chronic opioid misuse is associated with reduced sensitivity to natural rewards and social motivation deficits that include impaired caregiving. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying these deficits and their response to treatment are not well understood. Baby schema (Kindchenschema) is a set of juvenile physical features, which is perceived as "cute" and triggers motivation for caregiving. Recent studies suggest that the "baby schema effect" is mediated by the brain "reward" network...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144251/evaluation-of-dorsal-midline-discolorations-with-physical-examination-and-ultrasound
#12
Liat Ben-Sira, Penina Ponger, Shlomi Constantini
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between dorsal midline skin discolorations, tethering of the spinal cord, and the role of ultrasound screening of these stigmata, focusing specifically on vascular lesions. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a prospective observational study of infants <6 months of age with suspicious dorsal midline skin stigmata. All were evaluated by physical examination and ultrasound scan. A subset also had a magnetic resonance imaging examination...
November 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133165/infant-crossed-renal-ectopia-with-upj-obstruction-repaired-via-robot-assisted-laparoscopic-pyeloplasty
#13
K Puttmann, G O Huang, J T White, K Kukreja, A Seth, C J Koh
INTRODUCTION: We present a robot-assisted approach to surgical treatment of UPJ obstruction associated with crossed renal ectopia in a male infant. METHODS: A 31 year-old woman presented at 37 weeks gestation for prenatal hydronephrosis and delivered at 39 weeks. Renal ultrasound identified the bladder and right kidney in a crossed ectopic position in the left pelvis, and MRI showed the cystic lesion to be hydronephrosis associated with a ureteropelvic junction obstruction of the crossed ectopic right kidney...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131075/the-cerebellar-cerebral-microstructure-is-disrupted-at-multiple-sites-in-very-preterm-infants-with-cerebellar-haemorrhage
#14
Vera Neubauer, Tanja Djurdjevic, Elke Griesmaier, Marlene Biermayr, Elke Ruth Gizewski, Ursula Kiechl-Kohlendorfer
BACKGROUND: Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques have prompted reconsideration of the anatomical correlates of adverse outcomes in preterm infants. The importance of the contribution made by the cerebellum is now increasingly appreciated. The effect of cerebellar haemorrhage (CBH) on the microstructure of the cerebellar-cerebral circuit is largely unexplored. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of CBH on the microstructure of cerebellar-cerebral connections in preterm infants aged <32 gestational weeks...
November 9, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125932/pathogenesis-of-cleft-palate-in-robin-sequence-observations-from-prenatal-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#15
Cory M Resnick, Judy A Estroff, Tessa D Kooiman, Carly E Calabrese, Maarten J Koudstaal, Bonnie L Padwa
PURPOSE: The etiology of the palatal cleft in Robin sequence (RS) is unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess the position of the fetal tongue at prenatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to suggest a potential relation between tongue position and development of the cleft palate seen in most patients with RS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective case-and-control study including fetuses with prenatal MRIs performed in the authors' center from 2002 to 2017...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124254/developmental-patterns-based-individualized-parcellation-of-infant-cortical-surface
#16
Gang Li, Li Wang, Weili Lin, Dinggang Shen
The human cerebral cortex develops dynamically during the early postnatal stage, reflecting the underlying rapid changes of cortical microstructures and their connections, which jointly determine the functional principles of cortical regions. Hence, the dynamic cortical developmental patterns are ideal for defining the distinct cortical regions in microstructure and function for neurodevelopmental studies. Moreover, given the remarkable inter-subject variability in terms of cortical structure/function and their developmental patterns, the individualized cortical parcellation based on each infant's own developmental patterns is critical for precisely localizing personalized distinct cortical regions and also understanding inter-subject variability...
September 2017: Medical Image Computing and Computer-assisted Intervention: MICCAI ..
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119146/4d-infant-cortical-surface-atlas-construction-using-spherical-patch-based-sparse-representation
#17
Zhengwang Wu, Gang Li, Yu Meng, Li Wang, Weili Lin, Dinggang Shen
The 4D infant cortical surface atlas with densely sampled time points is highly needed for neuroimaging analysis of early brain development. In this paper, we build the 4D infant cortical surface atlas firstly covering 6 postnatal years with 11 time points (i.e., 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 months), based on 339 longitudinal MRI scans from 50 healthy infants. To build the 4D cortical surface atlas, first, we adopt a two-stage groupwise surface registration strategy to ensure both longitudinal consistency and unbiasedness...
September 2017: Medical Image Computing and Computer-assisted Intervention: MICCAI ..
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118365/impaired-development-of-the-cerebral-cortex-in-infants-with-congenital-heart-disease-is-correlated-to-reduced-cerebral-oxygen-delivery
#18
Christopher J Kelly, Antonios Makropoulos, Lucilio Cordero-Grande, Jana Hutter, Anthony Price, Emer Hughes, Maria Murgasova, Rui Pedro A G Teixeira, Johannes K Steinweg, Sagar Kulkarni, Loay Rahman, Hui Zhang, Daniel C Alexander, Kuberan Pushparajah, Daniel Rueckert, Joseph V Hajnal, John Simpson, A David Edwards, Mary A Rutherford, Serena J Counsell
Neurodevelopmental impairment is the most common comorbidity associated with complex congenital heart disease (CHD), while the underlying biological mechanism remains unclear. We hypothesised that impaired cerebral oxygen delivery in infants with CHD is a cause of impaired cortical development, and predicted that cardiac lesions most associated with reduced cerebral oxygen delivery would demonstrate the greatest impairment of cortical development. We compared 30 newborns with complex CHD prior to surgery and 30 age-matched healthy controls using brain MRI...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108501/occult-massive-visceral-fat-necrosis-following-therapeutic-hypothermia-for-neonatal-encephalopathy
#19
Salwa Khedr, Anna Piskorski, Adrienne R Bingham, Justin Goldstein, Abbot R Laptook, Monique E De Paepe
Therapeutic hypothermia (head or whole-body cooling) improves survival and neurodevelopmental outcome in term newborns with moderate-to-severe encephalopathy. Hypothermia treatment is well tolerated; the most common side effect is thrombocytopenia. In about 1% of infants, focal subcutaneous fat necrosis has been reported. We describe a case of clinically unsuspected massive visceral fat necrosis in a term infant with Apgar score 0 at 1 min ("resuscitated apparently stillborn" infant) who was treated with therapeutic hypothermia for 72 h and expired on the 25th day of life following a neonatal course complicated by severe encephalopathy, pulmonary artery hypertension, persistent thrombocytopenia, hypoglycemia, and severe basal ganglia-thalamic abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging...
January 1, 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106787/familial-pallister-hall-in-adulthood
#20
(no author information available yet)
Pallister Hall syndrome is autosomal dominant disorder usually diagnosed in infants and children. Current diagnostic criteria include presence of hypothalamic hamartoma, post axial polydactyly and positive family history, but the disease has variable manifestations. Herein we report Pallister Hall syndrome diagnosed in a family where both patients were adults. A 59 year old man developed seizures 4 years prior to our evaluation of him, at which time imaging showed a hypothalamic hamartoma. The seizures were controlled medically...
October 6, 2017: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
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