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Infant mri

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353270/screening-for-brain-involvement-in-infants-with-multifocal-cutaneous-infantile-hemangiomas
#1
Rivka Friedland, Dan Ben Amitai, Alex Zvulunov
BACKGROUND: Multifocal (≥5) infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are known as a risk factor for extracutaneous involvement. Liver is the most commonly involved organ, but involvement of other systems has also been reported. This study aims to describe the characteristic findings in a group of infants with multiple cutaneous hemangiomas, with emphasis on intracranial involvement. METHODS: A retrospective case series study was carried out in a pediatric dermatology unit of a tertiary pediatric medical center...
January 20, 2018: Dermatology: International Journal for Clinical and Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353032/clinical-assessment-and-brain-findings-in-a-cohort-of-mothers-fetuses-and-infants-infected-with-zika-virus
#2
Magdalena Sanz Cortes, Ana Maria Rivera, Mayel Yepez, Carolina V Guimaraes, Israel Diaz Yunes, Alexander Zarutskie, Ivan Davila, Anil Shetty, Arun Mahadev, Saray Maria Serrano, Nicolas Castillo, Wesley Lee, Gregory Valentine, Michael Belfort, Guido Parra, Carrie Mohila, Kjersti Aagaard, Miguel Parra
BACKGROUND: Congenital Zika virus (ZIKV) infection can be detected in both the presence and absence of microcephaly, and manifests as a number of signs and symptoms detected clinically and by neuroimaging. However, to date, qualitative and quantitative measures for the purpose of diagnosis and prognosis are limited. OBJECTIVES: Main objectives of this study conducted on fetuses and infants with confirmed congenital ZIKV infection and detected brain abnormalities are: 1) To assess the prevalence of microcephaly and the frequency of the anomalies including a detailed description based on ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in fetuses and ultrasound, MRI and computed tomography imaging postnatally; 2) To provide quantitative measures of fetal and infant brain findings by MRI using volumetric analyses and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI); 3) To obtain additional information from placental and fetal histopathological assessments and postnatal clinical evaluations...
January 15, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350636/imaging-of-pediatric-foot-disorders
#3
Alfonso Reginelli, Anna Russo, Fabrizio Turrizziani, Roberto Picascia, Elisa Micheletti, Vittoria Galeazzi, Umberto Russo, Assunta Sica, Fabrizio Cioce, Alberto Aliprandi, Andrea Giovagnoni, Salvatore Cappabianca
Infants and children undergo imaging studies to evaluate a wide variety of congenital and acquired disorders. Imaging protocols have to consider the patient's comfort, level of anxiety, and smaller size. The first imaging study is usually made with plain radiographs. The routine radiographic examination of the foot includes the anteroposterior (AP), lateral, and oblique projections. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (RMI) provides excellent anatomic detail of cartilage, vasculature and soft tissue thanks to superior soft tissue contrast and spatial resolution, so is valuable in many cases...
January 19, 2018: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350333/deltoid-muscle-morphometry-as-an-index-of-impaired-skeletal-muscularity-in-neonatal-intensive-care
#4
Theodore Dassios, Ourania Kaltsogianni, Miltiadis Krokidis, Ann Hickey, Anne Greenough
We hypothesised that extremely premature infants would have decreased muscle mass at term-corrected age compared to term-born infants and that the degree of reduced muscle mass acquisition would correlate with the duration of invasive mechanical ventilation. The MRI brain scans of infants admitted in the neonatal unit at King's College Hospital between 1 January 2010 and 1 June 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. The coronal cross-sectional area of the left deltoid muscle (DCSA) was measured in 17 infants born < 28 weeks of gestation and in 20 infants born at term...
January 19, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348276/congenital-tuberculosis-presenting-as-otorrhoea-in-a-preterm-infant
#5
Jose Carlos Aldana-Aguirre, Hamdy El-Hakim, Ernest Phillipos, Marc-Antoine Landry
A premature infant of 25 weeks' gestational age presented at 8 weeks after birth with otorrhoea from the left ear. Following a course of topical and systemic antibiotics, the patient deteriorated developing facial nerve paralysis and cervical lymphadenitis. Contrast-enhanced CT and MRI of the head showed a destructive process of the left temporal bone. These findings prompted the clinicians to send swabs from the purulent discharge from the ear for acid-fast bacilli stain. Furthermore, surgical exploration and debridement were undertaken...
January 17, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348132/t2-relaxometry-mri-predicts-cerebral-palsy-in-preterm-infants
#6
L-W Chen, S-T Wang, C-C Huang, Y-F Tu, Y-S Tsai
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: T2-relaxometry brain MR imaging enables objective measurement of brain maturation based on the water-macromolecule ratio in white matter, but the outcome correlation is not established in preterm infants. Our study aimed to predict neurodevelopment with T2-relaxation values of brain MR imaging among preterm infants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 1, 2012, to May 31, 2015, preterm infants who underwent both T2-relaxometry brain MR imaging and neurodevelopmental follow-up were retrospectively reviewed...
January 18, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339258/relationship-between-very-early-brain-structure-and-neuromotor-neurological-and-neurobehavioral-function-in-infants-born-31%C3%A2-weeks-gestational-age
#7
Joanne M George, Simona Fiori, Jurgen Fripp, Kerstin Pannek, Andrea Guzzetta, Michael David, Robert S Ware, Stephen E Rose, Paul B Colditz, Roslyn N Boyd
AIM: This study aimed to examine associations between structural MRI and concurrent motor, neurological and neurobehavioral measures at 30-32 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA; 'Early'), and at term equivalent age ('Term'). METHOD: In this prospective cohort study, infants underwent Early MRI (n = 119; 73 male; median 32 weeks 1 day PMA) and Term MRI (n = 102; 61 male; median 40 weeks 4 days PMA) at 3 T. Structural images were scored generating white matter (WM), cortical gray matter, deep gray matter, cerebellar and global brain abnormality scores...
January 13, 2018: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339179/primary-diffuse-leptomeningeal-atypical-teratoid-rhabdoid-tumor-diagnosed-by-cerebrospinal-fluid-cytology-case-report-with-molecular-genetic-analysis
#8
Ran Tomomasa, Satoshi Nakata, Sumihito Nobusawa, Keishi Horiguchi, Nozomi Matsumura, Hayato Ikota, Junko Hirato, Yuhei Yoshimoto, Hideaki Yokoo
Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT) are rare malignant neoplasms that mainly affect infants and young children, and are typically located in the cerebellar hemispheres. These tumors are histologically characterized by varying proportions of rhabdoid cells, and nuclear INI1 immunonegativity. Here, we report a case of a 15-year-old male with primary diffuse leptomeningeal AT/RT. The patient had symptoms similar to those of meningitis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed leptomeningeal thickening. Cytological examination using cerebrospinal fluid was repeatedly performed and revealed rhabdoid cells with loss of INI1 reactivity, and shortly after, the diagnosis of AT/RT was confirmed by tissue biopsy...
January 12, 2018: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339139/improved-coronary-magnetic-resonance-angiography-using-gadobenate-dimeglumine-in-pediatric-congenital-heart-disease
#9
Miguel Silva Vieira, Markus Henningsson, Nathalie Dedieu, Vassilios S Vassiliou, Aaron Bell, Sujeev Mathur, Kuberan Pushparajah, Carlos Alberto Figueroa, Tarique Hussain, René Botnar, Gerald F Greil
BACKGROUND: CMRA in pediatrics remains challenging due to the smaller vessel size, high heart rates (HR), potential image degradation caused by limited patient cooperation and long acquisition times. High-relaxivity contrast agents have been shown to improve coronary imaging in adults, but limited data is available in children. We sought to investigate whether gadobenate dimeglumine (Gd-BOPTA) together with self-navigated inversion-prepared coronary magnetic resonance angiography (CMRA) sequence design improves coronary image quality in pediatric patients...
January 12, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336632/m%C3%A3-bius-syndrome-with-cardiac-rhabdomyomas
#10
Aimee Verner, Swati Agarwal-Sinha, Frank Yanfeng Han
BACKGROUND: Möbius syndrome is a rare congenital condition which presents not merely with 6th and 7th nerve palsies, but involves gaze paresis associated with craniofacial, limb, and other abnormalities. Heterogeneity is well known in patients with Möbius syndrome and rather than being of familial inheritance based on rare cases, it is much more recognized as a sporadic syndrome. We report an infant with features of congenital Möbius syndrome associated with cardiac rhabdomyomas in the absence of tuberous sclerosis...
January 16, 2018: Ophthalmic Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336617/incidental-neuroblastoma-with-bilateral-retinoblastoma-what-are-the-chances
#11
Kelsey Roelofs, Furqan Shaikh, William Astle, Brenda L Gallie, Sameh E Soliman
A child with bilateral familial retinoblastoma underwent staging MRI brain and orbit which identified subtle leptomeningeal enhancement, thus prompting an MRI whole body, which revealed a retroperitoneal mass, confirmed on laparoscopic biopsy to be neuroblastoma. This is the first reported case of these two rare embryonal non-central nervous system tumors occurring concurrently. The cause of this concurrence is unknown despite their pathogenic similarities with a chance of 4 cases per 10 billion children aged 1-4 years...
January 16, 2018: Ophthalmic Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335880/the-long-term-effect-of-erythropoiesis-stimulating-agents-given-to-preterm-infants-a-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-study-on-neurometabolites-in-early-childhood
#12
Charles Gasparovic, Arvind Caprihan, Ronald A Yeo, John Phillips, Jean R Lowe, Richard Campbell, Robin K Ohls
BACKGROUND: Erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) are neuroprotective in cell and animal models of preterm birth. Prematurity has been shown to alter neurometabolite levels in children in studies using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that ESA treatment in premature infants would tend to normalize neurometabolites by 4-6 years of age. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Children in a longitudinal study of neurodevelopment underwent MRI and 1H-MRS at approximately 4 years and 6 years of age...
January 15, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334856/stroke-after-minor-head-trauma-in-infants-and-young-children-with-basal-ganglia-calcification-a-lenticulostriate-vasculopathy
#13
Jatinder Singh Goraya, Shivankshi Berry, Kavita Saggar, Archana Ahluwalia
The authors retrospectively reviewed charts of the children with basal ganglia stroke who either had preceding minor head injury or showed basal ganglia calcification on computed tomography (CT) scan. Twenty children, 14 boys and 6 girls were identified. Eighteen were aged between 7 months to 17 months. Presentation was with hemiparesis in 17 and seizures in 3. Preceding minor head trauma was noted in 18. Family history was positive in 1 case. Bilateral basal ganglia calcification on CT scan was noted in 18...
February 2018: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333914/hybrid-pet-mri-imaging-in-healthy-unsedated-newborn-infants-with-quantitative-rcbf-measurements-using-15o-water-pet
#14
Julie B Andersen, Ulrich Lindberg, Oline V Olesen, Didier Benoit, Claes N Ladefoged, Henrik Bw Larsson, Liselotte Højgaard, Gorm Greisen, Ian Law
In this study, a new hybrid PET/MRI method for quantitative regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measurements in healthy newborn infants was assessed and the low values of rCBF in white matter previously obtained by arterial spin labeling (ASL) were tested. Four healthy full-term newborn subjects were scanned in a PET/MRI scanner during natural sleep after median intravenous injection of 14 MBq 15O-water. Regional CBF was quantified using a one-tissue-compartment model employing an image-derived input function (IDIF) from the left ventricle...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331659/mindfulness-related-differences-in-neural-response-to-own-infant-negative-versus-positive-emotion-contexts
#15
Heidemarie K Laurent, Dorianne Wright, Megan Finnegan
Mindfulness is thought to promote well-being by shaping the way people respond to challenging social-emotional situations. Current understanding of how this occurs at the neural level is based on studies of response to decontextualized emotion stimuli that may not adequately represent lived experiences. In this study, we tested relations between mothers' dispositional mindfulness and neural responses to their own infant in different emotion-eliciting contexts. Mothers (n = 25) engaged with their 3-month-old infants in videorecorded tasks designed to elicit negative (arm restraint) or positive (peekaboo) emotion...
January 5, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330886/surgery-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-increase-the-risk-of-hypothermia-in-infants
#16
Joel M Don Paul, Elizabeth J Perkins, Prue M Pereira-Fantini, Asha Suka, Olivia Farrell, Julia K Gunn, Anushi E Rajapaksa, David G Tingay
AIM: Maintaining normothermia is a tenet of neonatal care. However, neonatal thermal care guidelines applicable to intra-hospital transport beyond the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and during surgery or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are lacking. The aim of this study is to determine the proportion of infants normothermic (36.5-37.5°C) on return to NICU after management during surgery and MRI, and during standard clinical care in both environments. METHODS: Sixty-two newborns requiring either surgery in the operating theatre (OT) (n = 41) or an MRI scan (n = 21) at the Royal Children's Hospital (Melbourne) NICU were prospectively studied...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326869/prenatal-methadone-exposure-is-associated-with-altered-neonatal-brain-development
#17
Victoria J Monnelly, Devasuda Anblagan, Alan Quigley, Manuel Blesa Cabez, E Sarah Cooper, Helen Mactier, Scott I Semple, Mark E Bastin, James P Boardman
Methadone is used for medication-assisted treatment of heroin addiction during pregnancy. The neurodevelopmental outcome of children with prenatal methadone exposure can be sub-optimal. We tested the hypothesis that brain development is altered among newborn infants whose mothers were prescribed methadone. 20 methadone-exposed neonates born after 37 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA) and 20 non-exposed controls underwent diffusion MRI at mean PMA of 39+ 2 and 41+ 1 weeks, respectively. An age-optimized Tract-based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) pipeline was used to perform voxel-wise statistical comparison of fractional anisotropy (FA) data between exposed and non-exposed neonates...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321200/bilateral-haemorrhagic-basal-ganglia-infarction-associated-with-early-onset-group-b-streptococcus-meningitis
#18
Rajesh Gupta, Taiwo Maraiyesa, Brendon Conry
A 2-day-old infant presented with poor feeding and grunting. Investigations revealed a raised C reactive protein of 164. Full septic screen was done, which subsequently confirmed a diagnosis of group B streptococcus meningitis. Baby was apyrexial and haemodynamically stable. There were no obvious neurological manifestations, and a routine cranial ultrasound scan was done, which revealed echogenic changes in the basal ganglia and thalami. MRI brain showed extensive haemorrhagic infarction within the lentiform and caudate nuclei with involvement of both posterior limbs of the internal capsule...
January 9, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320484/brain-growth-in-the-nicu-critical-periods-of-tissue-specific-expansion
#19
Lillian G Matthews, Brian H Walsh, Clare Knutsen, Jeffrey J Neil, Christopher D Smyser, Cynthia E Rogers, Terrie E Inder
OBJECTIVE: To examine using serial MRI, total and tissue-specific brain growth in VPT infants during the period that coincides with the early and late stages of the third trimester. METHODS: Structural MRI scans were collected from two prospective cohorts of VPT infants (≤30 weeks' gestation). 51 MRI scans from 18 VPT subjects were available for volumetric analysis. Brain tissue was classified into cerebrospinal fluid, cortical grey matter, myelinated and unmyelinated white matter, deep nuclear grey matter, and cerebellum...
January 10, 2018: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320482/severe-retinopathy-of-prematurity-is-associated-with-reduced-cerebellar-and-brainstem-volumes-at-term-and-neurodevelopmental-deficits-at-two-years
#20
Femke J Drost, Kristin Keunen, Pim Moeskops, Nathalie H P Claessens, Femke van Kalken, Ivana Išgum, Elsbeth S M Voskuil-Kerkhof, Floris Groenendaal, Linda S de Vries, Manon J N L Benders, Jacqueline U M Termote
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), measures of brain morphology at term equivalent age (TEA) and neurodevelopmental outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 18 infants with severe ROP (median gestational age (GA) 25.3 (range 24.6-25.9 weeks) were included in this retrospective case-control study. Each infant was matched to two extremely preterm control infants (n=36) by GA, birth weight, sex and brain injury. T2-weighted images were obtained on a 3T MRI at TEA...
January 10, 2018: Pediatric Research
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