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Infant mri

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426802/decoding-the-infant-mind-multivariate-pattern-analysis-mvpa-using-fnirs
#1
Lauren L Emberson, Benjamin D Zinszer, Rajeev D S Raizada, Richard N Aslin
The MRI environment restricts the types of populations and tasks that can be studied by cognitive neuroscientists (e.g., young infants, face-to-face communication). FNIRS is a neuroimaging modality that records the same physiological signal as fMRI but without the constraints of MRI, and with better spatial localization than EEG. However, research in the fNIRS community largely lacks the analytic sophistication of analogous fMRI work, restricting the application of this imaging technology. The current paper presents a method of multivariate pattern analysis for fNIRS that allows the authors to decode the infant mind (a key fNIRS population)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424764/diffusion-tensor-imaging-colour-mapping-threshold-for-identification-of-ventilation-induced-brain-injury-after-intrauterine-inflammation-in-preterm-lambs
#2
Dhafer M Alahmari, Beatrice Skiöld, Samantha K Barton, Ilias Nitsos, Courtney McDonald, Suzanne L Miller, Valerie Zahra, Robert Galinsky, Qizhu Wu, Michael John Farrell, Timothy J Moss, Stuart B Hooper, James T Pearson, Graeme R Polglase
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to examine whether advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques can detect early brain injury caused by intrauterine inflammation and inappropriate initial respiratory support in preterm lambs. HYPOTHESIS: Neuropathology caused by intrauterine inflammation is exacerbated by mechanical ventilation at birth and is detectable with advanced MRI techniques. METHODS: Pregnant ewes received intra-amniotic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) 7 days prior to delivery at ~125 days of gestation (85% of gestation), whereupon lambs were delivered and randomised to receive an injurious (LPS + INJ, n = 6) or protective (LPS + PROT, n = 6) ventilation strategy...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422948/beyond-the-uterine-environment-nonhuman-primate-model-to-investigate-maternal-fetal-and-neonatal-outcomes-following-chronic-intrauterine-infection
#3
Meredith A Kelleher, Zheng Liu, Xiaojie Wang, Christopher D Kroenke, Lisa A Houser, Brandy L Dozier, Lauren D Martin, Ken B Waites, Cindy McEvoy, Robert L Schelonka, Peta L Grigsby
BACKGROUND: Intrauterine infection is a significant cause of early preterm birth. We have developed a fetal-neonatal model in the rhesus macaque to determine the impact of chronic intrauterine infection with Ureaplasma parvum on early neonatal reflexes and brain development. METHODS: Time-mated, pregnant rhesus macaques were randomized to be inoculated with U. parvum (serovar 1; 10(5)cfu) or control media at ~120 dGA. Neonates were delivered by elective hysterotomy at 135-147 dGA (term=167d) stabilized and cared for in our nonhuman primate neonatal intensive care unit...
April 19, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419082/diffuse-optical-tomography-to-investigate-the-newborn-brain
#4
REVIEW
Chuen Wai Lee, Robert J Cooper, Topun Austin
Over the past 15 years, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) has emerged as a powerful technology for studying the developing brain. Diffuse Optical Tomography (DOT) is an extension of fNIRS that combines hemodynamic information from dense optical sensor arrays over a wide field of view. Using image reconstruction techniques, DOT can provide images of the hemodynamic correlates to neural function that are comparable to those produced by functional MRI (fMRI). This review article explains the principles of DOT, and highlights the growing literature on the use of DOT in the study of healthy development of the infant brain, and the study of novel pathophysiology in infants with brain injury...
April 18, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413918/mothers-who-were-neglected-in-childhood-show-differences-in-neural-response-to-their-infant-s-cry
#5
Dorianne B Wright, Heidemarie K Laurent, Jennifer C Ablow
The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate how a mother's experience of neglect in her own childhood is associated with her neural response to her infant's distress cues. During scanning, 22 high-risk primiparous mothers were exposed to both their own 18-month-old infant's cry sound and a control sound. Mothers' continuous Neglect subscale scores from the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire were examined as a predictor of their neural response to own infant cry > control sound...
May 2017: Child Maltreatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413672/whole-body-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-the-diagnosis-and-follow-up-of-multicentric-infantile-myofibromatosis-a-case-report
#6
Sergio Salerno, Maria Chiara Terranova, Mario Rossello, Maria Piccione, Ottavio Ziino, Giuseppe Lo Re
Myofibromatosis is an uncommon disorder of infancy, characterized by proliferation of myofibroblasts in solitary or multiple nodules. The clinical characteristics depend on the involved sites: Myofibromatosis may develop as a musculoskeletal form, with non-painful swellings and eventual mass effect symptoms, or as a generalized form with visceral involvement and organ failure. Prognosis and therapy vary between the abovementioned patterns. When there is no visceral involvement, the tumors may regress spontaneously; however, the visceral form may represent a lifethreatening condition with poor outcome and it requires aggressive management...
April 2017: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411331/glutaric-acidemia-type-1-a-case-of-infantile-stroke
#7
Gül Demet Kaya Ozcora, Songul Gokay, Mehmet Canpolat, Fatih Kardaş, Mustafa Kendirci, Sefer Kumandaş
BACKGROUND: Glutaric acidemia Type 1 (GA-1) is an autosomal recessively inherited metabolic disorder which is associated with GCDH gene mutations which alters the glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase, an enzyme playing role in the catabolic pathways of the amino acids lysine, hydroxylysine, and tryptophan. Clinical findings are often encephalopathic crises, dystonia, and extrapyramidal symptoms. CASE REPORT: A 9-month-old male infant referred to our department with focal tonic-clonic seizures during rotavirus infection and acute infarcts in MRI...
April 15, 2017: JIMD Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410084/clinical-and-electroencephalographic-characteristics-of-infantile-onset-epilepsies-caused-by-genetic-mutations
#8
Yun Jung Hur, Sookyong Koh, John Millichap, Srishti Nangia, Lawrence J Jennings, Douglas R Nordli
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether certain characteristic electroencephalography (EEG) features are indicative of a genetic cause in early-life epilepsy. STUDY DESIGN: We enrolled a total of 100 patients with infantile-onset (<3 years) epilepsy due to known genetic cause (n?=?50) and nongenetic cause (acquired, structural, or unknown, n?=?50). The genetic group was classified into synaptopathies, channelopathies, mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin)-opathies, and chromosomal abnormalities...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409761/the-question-of-whether-or-not-to-perform-therapeutic-hypothermia-a-case-of-neonatal-spinal-cord-injury
#9
K Yokoi, S Kobayashi, K Muramatsu, S Suzuki, H Gotou
Neonatal spinal cord injury is an extremely rare perinatal complication that often occurs concurrently with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), further complicating diagnosis of spinal cord injury. Although therapeutic hypothermia for moderate to severe HIE is widely recommended in Japan, it is difficult to determine whether it satisfies the neurological findings-related entry criteria in some patients.We describe a female infant with neonatal spinal cord injury after forceps delivery, who underwent therapeutic hypothermia upon diagnosis of HIE...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409754/the-clinical-utility-of-anthropometric-measures-to-assess-adiposity-in-a-cohort-of-prematurely-born-infants-correlations-with-mri-fat-quantification
#10
T A Stokes, D Kuehn, M Hood, D M Biko, Ashleigh Pavey, Cara Olsen, C E Hunt
OBJECTIVE: To correlate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of body fat in preterm infants at the time of hospital discharge with same-day anthropometric measures, and to assess the clinical utility of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and WC/length ratio as indicators of visceral fat. STUDY DESIGN: MRI performed prior to NICU discharge in 25 infants born preterm at <32 weeks gestation. Total body fat and visceral fat were quantified using a commercial software program...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409752/early-appearance-of-tuberous-sclerosis-complex-on-cerebral-ultrasound-in-extremely-preterm-infant
#11
E B F Terpstra-Prinsen, K Kamphuis-Van Ulzen, K D Liem
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an inherited neurocutaneous disorder. Diagnosis of early onset TSC in newborn infants is usually made by cardiac ultrasound because of circulatory problems due to cardiac rhabdomyoma. Early appearance of cortical tubers on cerebral ultrasound in newborn infants is very rare. Mostly TSC is diagnosed on MRI and not by cerebral ultrasound. Subependymal nodules are the usual presenting sign of TSC on cerebral ultrasound in neonates, which are often misdiagnosed as subependymal hemorrhage, calcifications or ischemic lesions after intrauterine germinal matrix hemorrhage...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401986/auditory-processing-following-infantile-spasms-an-event-related-potential-study
#12
Tangunu Fosi, Klaus Werner, Stewart G Boyd, Michelle De Haan, Rod C Scott, Brian G Neville
OBJECTIVES: To investigate acoustic auditory processing in patients with recent infantile spasms (IS). METHODS: Patients (n = 22; 12 female; median age 8 months; range 5-11 months) had normal preceding development, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and neurometabolic testing (West syndrome of unknown cause, uWS). Controls were healthy babies (n = 22; 11 female; median age 6 months; range 3-12 months). Event-related potentials (ERPs) and psychometry (Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Second Edition, BSID-II) took place at a month following IS remission...
April 12, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401835/brain-activity-and-infant-attachment-history-in-young-men-during-loss-and-reward-processing
#13
Karina Quevedo, Theodore E A Waters, Hannah Scott, Glenn I Roisman, Daniel S Shaw, Erika E Forbes
There is now ample evidence that the quality of early attachment experiences shapes expectations for supportive and responsive care and ultimately serves to scaffold adaptation to the salient tasks of development. Nonetheless, few studies have identified neural mechanisms that might give rise to these associations. Using a moderately large sample of low-income male participants recruited during infancy (N = 171), we studied the predictive significance of attachment insecurity and disorganization at age 18 months (as measured in the Strange Situation Procedure) for patterns of neural activation to reward and loss at age 20 years (assessed during a reward-based task as part of a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan)...
May 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398665/both-a-frameshift-and-a-missense-mutation-of-the-stra6-gene-observed-in-an-infant-with-the-matthew-wood-syndrome
#14
Samantha Sadowski, Nicolas Chassaing, Zuzanna Gaj, Ewa Czichos, Jan Wilczynski, Dorota Nowakowska
BACKGROUND: The Matthew-Wood syndrome is associated with mutations of the STRA6 gene. It combines a pulmonary agenesis/hypoplasia; microphthalmia/anophthalmia; congenital cardiac, digestive, and urogenital malformations; and diaphragmatic defects. CASE: A 23-year-old nulliparous woman was referred to our center after a fetal ultrasound examination at 26 weeks of pregnancy revealed an abnormal head shape, a heart malformation, multiple cysts in both kidneys, and dilated ureters...
March 1, 2017: Birth Defects Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396921/mri-findings-of-chronic-abruption-oligohydramnios-sequence-caos-report-of-three-cases
#15
Yasuhisa Kurata, Aki Kido, Sachiko Minamiguchi, Eiji Kondoh, Kaori Togashi
Chronic abruption-oligohydramnios sequence (CAOS), characterized by chronic vaginal hemorrhage and oligohydramnios, is a rare clinical condition of pregnancy. Because CAOS is associated with preterm delivery and lung injury to the infant, it is a major clinical concern. This report describes three CAOS cases which presented characteristic MRI findings reflecting CAOS pathological mechanisms and pathological findings. First, in all cases, the placenta detached from the uterus at the peripheral portion of the placenta because of placental marginal hematoma...
April 10, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392081/increased-extra-axial-cerebrospinal-fluid-in-high-risk-infants-who-later-develop-autism
#16
Mark D Shen, Sun Hyung Kim, Robert C McKinstry, Hongbin Gu, Heather C Hazlett, Christine W Nordahl, Robert W Emerson, Dennis Shaw, Jed T Elison, Meghan R Swanson, Vladimir S Fonov, Guido Gerig, Stephen R Dager, Kelly N Botteron, Sarah Paterson, Robert T Schultz, Alan C Evans, Annette M Estes, Lonnie Zwaigenbaum, Martin A Styner, David G Amaral, Joseph Piven, J Piven, H C Hazlett, C Chappell, S Dager, A Estes, D Shaw, K Botteron, R McKinstry, J Constantino, J Pruett, R Schultz, L Zwaigenbaum, J Elison, A C Evans, D L Collins, G B Pike, V Fonov, P Kostopoulos, S Das, G Gerig, M Styner, H Gu
BACKGROUND: We previously reported that infants who developed autism spectrum disorder (ASD) had increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the subarachnoid space (i.e., extra-axial CSF) from 6 to 24 months of age. We attempted to confirm and extend this finding in a larger independent sample. METHODS: A longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging study of infants at risk for ASD was carried out on 343 infants, who underwent neuroimaging at 6, 12, and 24 months. Of these infants, 221 were at high risk for ASD because of an older sibling with ASD, and 122 were at low risk with no family history of ASD...
March 6, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391012/mapping-of-pain-circuitry-in-early-post-natal-development-using-manganese-enhanced-mri-in-rats
#17
M M Sperry, B M Kandel, S Wehrli, K N Bass, S R Das, P S Dhillon, J C Gee, G A Barr
Premature or ill full-term infants are subject to a number of noxious procedures as part of their necessary medical care. Although we know that human infants show neural changes in response to such procedures, we know little of the sensory or affective brain circuitry activated by pain. In rodent models, the focus has been on spinal cord and, more recently, midbrain and medulla. The present study assesses activation of brain circuits using manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI). Uptake of manganese, a paramagnetic contrast agent that is transported across active synapses and along axons, was measured in response to a hindpaw injection of dilute formalin in 12-day-old rat pups, the age at which rats begin to show aversion learning and which is roughly the equivalent of full-term human infants...
April 5, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389088/pulmonary-diagnostics
#18
REVIEW
Steven M Donn, Sunil K Sinha
Term infants with respiratory distress may have extremely varied etiologies of their illnesses. These range from anatomical malformations to infectious or inflammatory conditions to genetic, metabolic, or neurological abnormalities. This article reviews the present array of diagnostic studies available to the clinician, including the physical examination, imaging (radiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound, and nuclear scanning techniques), lung mechanics and function testing, evaluation of gas exchange (blood gases, pulse oximetry, transcutaneous monitoring, and end-tidal carbon monoxide measurements), and anatomical studies (bronchoscopy and lung biopsy)...
April 4, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388738/riboflavin-responsive-multiple-acyl-coa-dehydrogenase-deficiency-associated-with-hepatoencephalomyopathy-and-white-matter-signal-abnormalities-on-brain-mri
#19
Päivi Vieira, Päivi Myllynen, Marja Perhomaa, Hannu Tuominen, Riikka Keski-Filppula, Seppo Rytky, Leila Risteli, Johanna Uusimaa
Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) is a rare inborn error of metabolism affecting both fatty acid and amino acid oxidation. It can manifest at any age, but riboflavin-responsiveness has mainly been described in less severely affected patients. We describe an infant with severe MADD presenting with profound hypotonia and hepatomegaly. Treatment with riboflavin improved his muscle strength, liver size, and biochemical markers. A homozygous mutation of electron transfer flavoprotein dehydrogenase (ETFDH) was found...
April 7, 2017: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383535/comparison-of-preterm-and-term-equivalent-age-mri-for-the-evaluation-of-preterm-brain-injury
#20
A Malhotra, M C Fahey, M Davies-Tuck, F Wong, E Carse, G Whiteley, M Ditchfield
OBJECTIVE: To compare information obtained from preterm magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; 31-34 weeks) brain scan to that done at term equivalent age. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational study of premature infants with evidence or suspicion of parenchymal brain injury on cranial ultrasound. Brain injury on two scans scored using a scoring system and analyzed. RESULTS: Fourteen infants with a median (range) gestation at birth of 28 (25-29) weeks and birth weight of 1254 (680-1557) grams were studied...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
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