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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816610/tobacco-control-law-implementation-in-a-middle-income-country-transnational-tobacco-control-network-overcoming-tobacco-industry-opposition-in-colombia
#1
Randy Uang, Eric Crosbie, Stanton A Glantz
The objective of this paper is to examine the implementation of Colombia's tobacco control law. Methods involved are triangulated government legislation, news sources, and interviews with policy-makers and health advocates in Colombia. Colombia, a middle-income country, passed a tobacco control law in 2009 that included a prohibition on tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship; and required pictorial health warning labels, ingredients disclosure, and a prohibition on individual cigarette sales. Tobacco companies challenged the implementation through litigation, tested government enforcement of advertising provisions and regulations on ingredients disclosure, and lobbied local governments to deprioritise policy responses to single cigarette sales...
August 17, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703260/-publish-amp-perish-research-on-research-and-researchers
#2
J K Tijdink
In the last years many people have questioned the reliability of research results and the societal relevance of much of today's clinical research; they are critical too about the current publication culture in which scientists are judged according to the number of articles they have published, impact factors and citations.<br/> AIM: To make a close study of the publication culture that now prevails in the Dutch biomedical sciences. <br/> METHOD: Discussion of results described in the thesis entitled 'Publish and Perish; research on research and researchers'...
2017: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667226/a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-pharmaceutical-industry-funded-events-for-health-professionals-in-australia
#3
Alice Fabbri, Quinn Grundy, Barbara Mintzes, Swestika Swandari, Ray Moynihan, Emily Walkom, Lisa A Bero
OBJECTIVES: To analyse patterns and characteristics of pharmaceutical industry sponsorship of events for Australian health professionals and to understand the implications of recent changes in transparency provisions that no longer require reporting of payments for food and beverages. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: 301 publicly available company transparency reports downloaded from the website of Medicines Australia, the pharmaceutical industry trade association, covering the period from October 2011 to September 2015...
June 30, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631099/discontinuation-of-pharmacological-treatment-of-children-and-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-meta-analysis-of-63-studies-enrolling-11-788-patients
#4
M Riera, X Castells, A Tobias, R Cunill, L Blanco, D Capellà
BACKGROUND: The risk-benefit balance of pharmacological treatment for children and adolescents with ADHD and the factors that moderate this relationship are unclear. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trials (RPCCTs) investigating the efficacy of pharmacological treatment in children or adolescents with ADHD was carried out. Meta-analysis of treatment discontinuation, clinician-, parent- and teacher-rated efficacy and adverse events was performed...
June 19, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595992/-food-industry-funding-and-epidemiologic-research-in-public-health-nutrition
#5
Eva María Navarrete-Muñoz, Adonina Tardón, Dora Romaguera, Miguel Ángel Martínez-González, Jesús Vioque
The interests of the food industry to fund nutrition and health research are not limited to promoting scientific advances. Recently, several systematic reviews conducted about the effect of sugar-sweetened beverages and health outcomes have shown some biased conclusions in studies that acknowledge industry sponsorship. In this context, the Nutrition Working Group of the Spanish Epidemiology Society presented a scientific session entitled Food industry and epidemiologic research at its annual meeting. In a round table, four experts in nutrition research presented their points of view about whether the food industry should fund nutrition-related research and the related potential conflicts of interest of the food industry...
June 5, 2017: Gaceta Sanitaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594535/collaborative-orthopaedic-research-between-and-within-institutions
#6
Brian R Wolf, Nikhil N Verma, Kurt P Spindler, Rick W Wright
Collaborative research is common in many medical disciplines; however, the field of orthopaedics has been relatively slow to adopt this type of research approach. Collaborative research efforts can occur between multiple institutions and, in some instances, may benefit from subspecialty society sponsorship. Collaborative research efforts between several research spheres within a single institution also can be advantageous. Collaborative research has many benefits, including a larger number of patients in studies, more power in the research, and better generalizability...
February 15, 2017: Instructional Course Lectures
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591792/corporate-sponsorship-of-physical-activity-promotion-programmes-part-of-the-solution-or-part-of-the-problem
#7
B Jane, K Gibson
Background: Parklives is a programme intended to raise levels of physical activity across the UK, funded by Coca-Cola GB and delivered in association with Local Authorities and other organizations. Such public-private partnerships have been advocated by many however critics suggest that the conflict between stakeholder motives is too great. Methods: This study conducted a content analysis of twitter content related to the ParkLives physical activity programme. Images and text were analysed from two separate weeks, one from the school vacation period and one during school term time...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573138/lurasidone-in-the-treatment-of-bipolar-depression-systematic-review-of-systematic-reviews
#8
REVIEW
Michele Fornaro, Domenico De Berardis, Giampaolo Perna, Marco Solmi, Nicola Veronese, Laura Orsolini, Elisabetta Filomena Buonaguro, Felice Iasevoli, Cristiano André Köhler, André Ferrer Carvalho, Andrea de Bartolomeis
INTRODUCTION: A burgeoning number of systematic reviews considering lurasidone in the treatment of bipolar depression have occurred since its Food and Drug Administration extended approval in 2013. While a paucity of available quantitative evidence still precludes preliminary meta-analysis on the matter, the present quality assessment of systematic review of systematic reviews, nonetheless, aims at highlighting current essential information on the topic. METHODS: Both published and unpublished systematic reviews about lurasidone mono- or adjunctive therapy in the treatment of bipolar depression were searched by two independent authors inquiring PubMed/Cochrane/Embase/Scopus from inception until October 2016...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541090/sixty-years-of-placebo-controlled-antipsychotic-drug-trials-in-acute-schizophrenia-systematic-review-bayesian-meta-analysis-and-meta-regression-of-efficacy-predictors
#9
Stefan Leucht, Claudia Leucht, Maximilian Huhn, Anna Chaimani, Dimitris Mavridis, Bartosz Helfer, Myrto Samara, Matteo Rabaioli, Susanne Bächer, Andrea Cipriani, John R Geddes, Georgia Salanti, John M Davis
OBJECTIVE: Antipsychotic drug efficacy may have decreased over recent decades. The authors present a meta-analysis of all placebo-controlled trials in patients with acute exacerbations of schizophrenia, and they investigate which trial characteristics have changed over the years and which are moderators of drug-placebo efficacy differences. METHOD: The search included multiple electronic databases. The outcomes were overall efficacy (primary outcome); responder and dropout rates; positive, negative, and depressive symptoms; quality of life; functioning; and major side effects...
May 25, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480479/historical-roots-of-international-biomedical-and-health-informatics-the-road-to-ifip-tc4-and-imia-through-cybernetic-medicine-and-the-elsinore-meetings
#10
C A Kulikowski
BACKGROUND: It is 50 years since the International Federation of Information Processing (IFIP) Societies approved the formation of a new Technical Committee (TC) 4 on Medical Information Processing under the leadership of Professor Francois Grémy, which was the direct precursor of the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA). OBJECTIVES: The goals of this paper are to give a very brief overview of early international developments leading to informatics in medicine, with the origins of the applications of computers to medicine in the USA and Europe, and two meetings - of the International Society of Cybernetic Medicine, and the Elsinore Meetings on Hospital Information Systems - that took place in 1966...
May 8, 2017: Yearbook of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473746/practices-related-to-tobacco-sale-promotion-and-protection-from-tobacco-smoke-exposure-in-restaurants-and-bars-in-kampala-before-implementation-of-the-uganda-tobacco-control-act-2015
#11
Steven Ndugwa Kabwama, Daniel Kadobera, Sheila Ndyanabangi, Kellen Namusisi Nyamurungi, Shannon Gravely, Lindsay Robertson, David Guwatudde
BACKGROUND: The Word Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control calls on parties to implement evidenced-based tobacco control policies, which includes Article 8 (protect the public from exposure to tobacco smoke), and Article 13 (tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship (TAPS)). In 2015, Uganda passed the Tobacco Control Act 2015 which includes a comprehensive ban on smoking in all public places and on all forms of TAPS. Prior to implementation, we sought to assess practices related to protection of the public from tobacco smoke exposure, limiting access to tobacco products and TAPS in restaurants and bars in Kampala City to inform implementation of the new law...
2017: Tobacco Induced Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412315/reporting-compliance-of-stroke-trials-cross-sectional-analysis
#12
Konark Malhotra, Appaji Rayi, Monica Khunger, Stephanie Thompson, David S Liebeskind
BACKGROUND: The FDA mandates timely reporting of all clinical trials conducted in the United States. However, often the results are not reported in a timely manner, resulting in wastage of finite resources. We assessed the reporting of results of completed stroke trials and compared the reporting trends between U.S. and non-U.S. stroke trials. METHODS: We assessed consecutive clinical stroke trials registered as completed in ClinicalTrials.gov between January 1, 2008 and January 1, 2015...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410086/premature-discontinuation-of-pediatric-randomized-controlled-trials-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#13
Stefan Schandelmaier, Yuki Tomonaga, Dirk Bassler, Joerg J Meerpohl, Erik von Elm, John J You, Anette Bluemle, Francois Lamontagne, Ramon Saccilotto, Alain Amstutz, Theresa Bengough, Mihaela Stegert, Kelechi K Olu, Kari A O Tikkinen, Ignacio Neumann, Alonso Carrasco-Labra, Markus Faulhaber, Sohail M Mulla, Dominik Mertz, Elie A Akl, Xin Sun, Jason W Busse, Ignacio Ferreira-González, Alain Nordmann, Viktoria Gloy, Heike Raatz, Lorenzo Moja, Rachel Rosenthal, Shanil Ebrahim, Per O Vandvik, Bradley C Johnston, Martin A Walter, Bernard Burnand, Matthias Schwenkglenks, Lars G Hemkens, Gordon Guyatt, Heiner C Bucher, Benjamin Kasenda, Matthias Briel
OBJECTIVES: To determine the proportion of pediatric randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that are prematurely discontinued, examine the reasons for discontinuation, and compare the risk for recruitment failure in pediatric and adult RCTs. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study of RCTs approved by 1 of 6 Research Ethics Committees (RECs) in Switzerland, Germany, and Canada between 2000 and 2003. We recorded trial characteristics, trial discontinuation, and reasons for discontinuation from protocols, corresponding publications, REC files, and a survey of trialists...
May 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333580/air-quality-measurements-from-rubber-bands-to-tapping-the-rainbow
#14
George M Hidy, Peter K Mueller, Samuel L Altshuler, Judith C Chow, John G Watson
It is axiomatic that good measurements are integral to good public policy for environmental protection. The generalized term for "measurements" includes sampling and quantitation, data integrity, documentation, network design, sponsorship, operations, archiving, and accessing for applications. Each of these components has evolved and advanced over the last 200 years as knowledge of atmospheric chemistry and physics has matured. Air quality was first detected by what people could see and smell in contaminated air...
June 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182288/the-place-of-crowdfunding-in-the-discovery-of-scientific-and-social-value-of-medical-research
#15
Lorenzo Del Savio
Crowdfunding is increasingly common in medical research. Some critics are concerned that by adopting crowdfunding, some researchers may sidestep the established systems of review of the social and scientific value of studies (e.g. impact on disease burden, issues of justice), especially mechanisms of expert-based review. I argue firstly that such concerns are based on a misleading picture of how research value is assessed and secondly that crowdfunding may turn out to be an useful complement of extant funding systems...
June 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169445/industry-sponsorship-in-trials-on-fluoride-varnish-or-gels-for-caries-prevention
#16
Seif Reda, Karim Elhennawy, Hendrik Meyer-Lückel, Sebastian Paris, Falk Schwendicke
OBJECTIVES: Fluoride is effective for caries prevention, but trials on fluoride varnish or gels are often industry-sponsored. We assessed trial design and findings in sponsored and nonsponsored trials on fluoride varnish and fluoride gels for caries prevention. METHODS: Data on trials included in the most recent Cochrane Reviews on fluoride varnish and fluoride gels were extracted. Sample sizes/age/dentition, year/country of publication, follow-up, test and control, risk of bias and spin (claims of a beneficial effect that were not supported by reported data) were assessed...
February 7, 2017: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131999/cost-effectiveness-research-in-cancer-therapy-a-systematic-review-of-literature-trends-methods-and-the-influence-of-funding
#17
Daoud Al-Badriyeh, Marwah Alameri, Randa Al-Okka
OBJECTIVE: To perform a first-time analysis of the cost-effectiveness (CE) literature on chemotherapies, of all types, in cancer, in terms of trends and change over time, including the influence of industry funding. DESIGN: Systematic review. SETTING: A wide range of cancer-related research settings within healthcare, including health systems, hospitals and medical centres. PARTICIPANTS: All literature comparative CE research of drug-based cancer therapies in the period 1986 to 2015...
January 27, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118735/why-packaging-is-commercially-vital-for-tobacco-corporations
#18
Simon Barraclough, Deborah Gleeson
This study analyses what British American Tobacco (BAT) and its 4 publicly listed Asian subsidiary companies have told their shareholders about the commercial value of tobacco packaging. The discourse on packaging in BAT annual reports was analyzed, revealing themes of modernization, rejuvenation, internationalism, heritage, innovation, value for money, and competitive edge. Packaging was credited with providing existing brands with a competitive edge and enabling the successful "launch" of new ones. Since advertising, sponsorship, and free samples were prohibited in many countries, packaging has become more important for advertising...
March 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107475/review-and-analysis-of-publication-trends-over-three-decades-in-three-high-impact-medicine-journals
#19
Alexander Ivanov, Beata A Kaczkowska, Saadat A Khan, Jean Ho, Morteza Tavakol, Ashok Prasad, Geetha Bhumireddy, Allan F Beall, Igor Klem, Parag Mehta, William M Briggs, Terrence J Sacchi, John F Heitner
CONTEXT: Over the past three decades, industry sponsored research expanded in the United States. Financial incentives can lead to potential conflicts of interest (COI) resulting in underreporting of negative study results. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that over the three decades, there would be an increase in: a) reporting of conflict of interest and source of funding; b) percentage of randomized control trials c) number of patients per study and d) industry funding...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102361/effectiveness-and-tolerability-of-different-recommended-doses-of-ppis-and-h2ras-in-gerd-network-meta-analysis-and-grade-system
#20
Chao Zhang, Joey S W Kwong, Rui-Xia Yuan, Hao Chen, Chang Xu, Yi-Pin Wang, Gong-Li Yang, Jin-Zhu Yan, Le Peng, Xian-Tao Zeng, Hong Weng, Jie Luo, Yu-Ming Niu
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and histamine-2-receptor antagonists (H2RAs) are used for gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD); however, the clinical evidence for treatment is poor. We evaluated the effectiveness and tolerability of different doses of PPIs, H2RAs and placebo in adults with GERD. Six online databases were searched through September 1, 2016. All related articles were included and combined with a Bayesian network meta-analysis from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The GRADE systems were employed to assess the main outcome...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
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