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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182288/the-place-of-crowdfunding-in-the-discovery-of-scientific-and-social-value-of-medical-research
#1
Lorenzo Del Savio
Crowdfunding is increasingly common in medical research. Some critics are concerned that by adopting crowdfunding, some researchers may sidestep the established systems of review of the social and scientific value of studies (e.g. impact on disease burden, issues of justice), especially mechanisms of expert-based review. I argue firstly that such concerns are based on a misleading picture of how research value is assessed and secondly that crowdfunding may turn out to be an useful complement of extant funding systems...
February 9, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169445/industry-sponsorship-in-trials-on-fluoride-varnish-or-gels-for-caries-prevention
#2
Seif Reda, Karim Elhennawy, Hendrik Meyer-Lückel, Sebastian Paris, Falk Schwendicke
OBJECTIVES: Fluoride is effective for caries prevention, but trials on fluoride varnish or gels are often industry-sponsored. We assessed trial design and findings in sponsored and nonsponsored trials on fluoride varnish and fluoride gels for caries prevention. METHODS: Data on trials included in the most recent Cochrane Reviews on fluoride varnish and fluoride gels were extracted. Sample sizes/age/dentition, year/country of publication, follow-up, test and control, risk of bias and spin (claims of a beneficial effect that were not supported by reported data) were assessed...
February 7, 2017: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131999/cost-effectiveness-research-in-cancer-therapy-a-systematic-review-of-literature-trends-methods-and-the-influence-of-funding
#3
Daoud Al-Badriyeh, Marwah Alameri, Randa Al-Okka
OBJECTIVE: To perform a first-time analysis of the cost-effectiveness (CE) literature on chemotherapies, of all types, in cancer, in terms of trends and change over time, including the influence of industry funding. DESIGN: Systematic review. SETTING: A wide range of cancer-related research settings within healthcare, including health systems, hospitals and medical centres. PARTICIPANTS: All literature comparative CE research of drug-based cancer therapies in the period 1986 to 2015...
January 27, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118735/why-packaging-is-commercially-vital-for-tobacco-corporations
#4
Simon Barraclough, Deborah Gleeson
This study analyses what British American Tobacco (BAT) and its 4 publicly listed Asian subsidiary companies have told their shareholders about the commercial value of tobacco packaging. The discourse on packaging in BAT annual reports was analyzed, revealing themes of modernization, rejuvenation, internationalism, heritage, innovation, value for money, and competitive edge. Packaging was credited with providing existing brands with a competitive edge and enabling the successful "launch" of new ones. Since advertising, sponsorship, and free samples were prohibited in many countries, packaging has become more important for advertising...
January 1, 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107475/review-and-analysis-of-publication-trends-over-three-decades-in-three-high-impact-medicine-journals
#5
Alexander Ivanov, Beata A Kaczkowska, Saadat A Khan, Jean Ho, Morteza Tavakol, Ashok Prasad, Geetha Bhumireddy, Allan F Beall, Igor Klem, Parag Mehta, William M Briggs, Terrence J Sacchi, John F Heitner
CONTEXT: Over the past three decades, industry sponsored research expanded in the United States. Financial incentives can lead to potential conflicts of interest (COI) resulting in underreporting of negative study results. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that over the three decades, there would be an increase in: a) reporting of conflict of interest and source of funding; b) percentage of randomized control trials c) number of patients per study and d) industry funding...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102361/effectiveness-and-tolerability-of-different-recommended-doses-of-ppis-and-h2ras-in-gerd-network-meta-analysis-and-grade-system
#6
Chao Zhang, Joey S W Kwong, Rui-Xia Yuan, Hao Chen, Chang Xu, Yi-Pin Wang, Gong-Li Yang, Jin-Zhu Yan, Le Peng, Xian-Tao Zeng, Hong Weng, Jie Luo, Yu-Ming Niu
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and histamine-2-receptor antagonists (H2RAs) are used for gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD); however, the clinical evidence for treatment is poor. We evaluated the effectiveness and tolerability of different doses of PPIs, H2RAs and placebo in adults with GERD. Six online databases were searched through September 1, 2016. All related articles were included and combined with a Bayesian network meta-analysis from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The GRADE systems were employed to assess the main outcome...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989264/study-sponsorship-and-the-nutrition-research-agenda-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials-included-in-systematic-reviews-of-nutrition-interventions-to-address-obesity
#7
Alice Fabbri, Nicholas Chartres, Gyorgy Scrinis, Lisa A Bero
OBJECTIVE: To categorize the research topics covered by a sample of randomized controlled trials (RCT) included in systematic reviews of nutrition interventions to address obesity; to describe their funding sources; and to explore the association between funding sources and nutrition research topics. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS: RCT included in Cochrane Reviews of nutrition interventions to address obesity and/or overweight. RESULTS: Two hundred and thirteen RCT from seventeen Cochrane Reviews were included...
December 19, 2016: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925123/-conflict-of-interest-in-the-training-and-practices-of-nutritionists-regulation-is-necessary
#8
Tatiane Nunes Pereira, Fabiana Alves do Nascimento, Daniel Henrique Bandoni
Transnational "Big Food" companies use advertising strategies to influence nutritionists, professors and students of nutrition. There are, however, conflicts of interest in this relationship. The scope of this study is to conduct a narrative review on the influence of the food industry in training in nutrition. It was revealed that industries seek to induce the recommendation, the prescription and the consumption of products by students and nutritionists through strategies such as sponsorship of scientific meetings, travel funding and the distribution of promotional gifts...
December 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903958/global-approaches-to-regulating-electronic-cigarettes
#9
Ryan David Kennedy, Ayodeji Awopegba, Elaine De León, Joanna E Cohen
OBJECTIVES: Classify and describe the policy approaches used by countries to regulate e-cigarettes. METHODS: National policies regulating e-cigarettes were identified by (1) conducting web searches on Ministry of Health websites, and (2) broad web searches. The mechanisms used to regulate e-cigarettes were classified as new/amended laws, or existing laws. The policy domains identified include restrictions or prohibitions on product: sale, manufacturing, importation, distribution, use, product design including e-liquid ingredients, advertising/promotion/sponsorship, trademarks, and regulation requiring: taxation, health warning labels and child-safety standards...
November 30, 2016: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27745783/sponsorship-of-national-health-organizations-by-two-major-soda-companies
#10
Daniel G Aaron, Michael B Siegel
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is a pervasive public health problem in the U.S. Reducing soda consumption is important for stemming the obesity epidemic. However, several articles and one book suggest that soda companies are using their resources to impede public health interventions that might reduce soda consumption. Although corporate sponsorship by tobacco and alcohol companies has been studied extensively, there has been no systematic attempt to catalog sponsorship activities of soda companies...
January 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690131/outcome-reporting-bias-in-government-sponsored-policy-evaluations-a-qualitative-content-analysis-of-13-studies
#11
Arnaud Vaganay
The reporting of evaluation outcomes can be a point of contention between evaluators and policy-makers when a given reform fails to fulfil its promises. Whereas evaluators are required to report outcomes in full, policy-makers have a vested interest in framing these outcomes in a positive light-especially when they previously expressed a commitment to the reform. The current evidence base is limited to a survey of policy evaluators, a study on reporting bias in education research and several studies investigating the influence of industry sponsorship on the reporting of clinical trials...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649911/sponsorship-and-publication-information
#12
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27632172/please-like-me-facebook-and-public-health-communication
#13
James Kite, Bridget C Foley, Anne C Grunseit, Becky Freeman
Facebook, the most widely used social media platform, has been adopted by public health organisations for health promotion and behaviour change campaigns and activities. However, limited information is available on the most effective and efficient use of Facebook for this purpose. This study sought to identify the features of Facebook posts that are associated with higher user engagement on Australian public health organisations' Facebook pages. We selected 20 eligible pages through a systematic search and coded 360-days of posts for each page...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614277/premature-trial-discontinuation-often-not-accurately-reflected-in-registries-comparison-of-registry-records-with-publications
#14
Reem Alturki, Stefan Schandelmaier, Kelechi Kalu Olu, Belinda von Niederhäusern, Arnav Agarwal, Roy Frei, Neera Bhatnagar, Lotty Hooft, Erik von Elm, Matthias Briel
BACKGROUND: One quarter of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are prematurely discontinued and frequently remain unpublished. Trial registries can document whether a trial is ongoing, suspended, discontinued, or completed and therefore represent an important source for trial status information. The accuracy of this information is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To examine the accuracy of completion status and reasons for discontinuation documented in trial registries as compared to corresponding publications of discontinued RCTs and to investigate potential predictors for accurate trial status information in registries...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613084/beyond-the-randomized-controlled-trial-a-review-of-alternatives-in-mhealth-clinical-trial-methods
#15
Quynh Pham, David Wiljer, Joseph A Cafazzo
BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have long been considered the primary research study design capable of eliciting causal relationships between health interventions and consequent outcomes. However, with a prolonged duration from recruitment to publication, high-cost trial implementation, and a rigid trial protocol, RCTs are perceived as an impractical evaluation methodology for most mHealth apps. OBJECTIVE: Given the recent development of alternative evaluation methodologies and tools to automate mHealth research, we sought to determine the breadth of these methods and the extent that they were being used in clinical trials...
September 9, 2016: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598425/the-quality-of-reporting-of-measures-of-precision-in-animal-experiments-in-implant-dentistry-a-methodological-study
#16
Clovis Mariano Faggion, Luisiana Aranda, Karla Tatiana Diaz, Ming-Chieh Shih, Yu-Kang Tu, Marco Antonio Alarcón
PURPOSE: Information on precision of treatment-effect estimates is pivotal for understanding research findings. In animal experiments, which provide important information for supporting clinical trials in implant dentistry, inaccurate information may lead to biased clinical trials. The aim of this methodological study was to determine whether sample size calculation, standard errors, and confidence intervals for treatment-effect estimates are reported accurately in publications describing animal experiments in implant dentistry...
November 2016: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536859/tobacco-advertising-and-promotional-expenditures-in-sports-and-sporting-events-united-states-1992-2013
#17
Israel T Agaku, Satomi Odani, Stephanie Sturgis, Charles Harless, Rebecca Glover-Kudon
Smokeless tobacco has been actively promoted by tobacco companies using endorsements by major sport figures, and research indicates that tobacco advertising can lead to youth initiation of tobacco use (1,2). Television and radio advertisements for cigarettes and smokeless tobacco have been prohibited since 1969,* and the 1998 Master Settlement Agreement(†) further prohibited tobacco companies from targeting youths with tobacco product advertisements in specified areas. In 2010, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), under authority of the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA), prohibited tobacco-brand sponsorship (i...
August 19, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27524900/lisdexamfetamine-in-the-treatment-of-moderate-to-severe-binge-eating-disorder-in-adults-systematic-review-and-exploratory-meta-analysis-of-publicly-available-placebo-controlled-randomized-clinical-trials
#18
Michele Fornaro, Marco Solmi, Giampaolo Perna, Domenico De Berardis, Nicola Veronese, Laura Orsolini, Licinia Ganança, Brendon Stubbs
BACKGROUND: Preliminary placebo-controlled evidence paved the ground to the US Food and Drug Administration approval extension of lisdexamfetamine for the treatment of moderate-to-severe binge eating disorder (BED) in adults. OBJECTIVES: To provide a preliminary qualitative and quantitative synthesis of the placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials (RCTs) considering the efficacy and tolerability of lisdexamfetamine in the acute and/or maintenance treatment of moderate-to-severe BED in adults...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27457471/impact-of-warfarin-on-atrial-fibrillation-outcomes-related-to-economic-consumption-patterns-hospitalization-cost-and-mortality-may-be-predictable-and-modifiable-at-the-population-level
#19
Michael H Kim, Qiang Cai, Liou Xu, Gary A Puckrein
INTRODUCTION: Warfarin reduces atrial fibrillation (AF)-related strokes and may impact mortality, hospitalizations, and costs. This study investigated the possibility that patterns of warfarin consumption are associated with the frequency of acute events. METHODS: Annual cost profiles of 9.2 million Medicare beneficiaries with AF were analyzed to identify patterns of benefits consumption from 2000 through 2010. Beneficiaries were divided into five consumption clusters based upon their annual cost profiles, ranging from crisis consumers at the high end to low consumers...
September 2016: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27402583/registered-randomized-trials-comparing-generic-and-brand-name-drugs-a-survey
#20
Maria Elena Flacco, Lamberto Manzoli, Stefania Boccia, Anna Puggina, Annalisa Rosso, Carolina Marzuillo, Giacomo Scaioli, Maria Rosaria Gualano, Walter Ricciardi, Paolo Villari, John P A Ioannidis
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the research agenda of registered randomized trials comparing generic and brand-name drugs in terms of who sponsors them, whether they are published promptly, and whether they find favorable results. METHODS: We included randomized trials comparing the safety or efficacy of brand-name vs generic medications that were registered in ClinicalTrials.gov or other registries from January 1, 2000, through July 31, 2015. To identify published articles or results generated from such trials, we searched PubMed, Scopus, Google, and registry databases...
August 2016: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
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