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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914088/murine-mycobacterium-marinum-infection-as-a-model-for-tuberculosis
#1
Julia Lienard, Fredric Carlsson
Mycobacteria are a major human health problem globally. Regarding tuberculosis the situation is worsened by the poor efficacy of current vaccine regimens and by emergence of drug-resistant strains (Manjelievskaia J et al, Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 110: 110, 2016; Pereira et al., Lancet Infect Dis 12:300-306, 2012; http://www.who.int/tb/publications/global_report/en/) undermining both disease-prevention and available treatments. Thus, increased basic understanding of mycobacterial-and particularly Mycobacterium tuberculosis-virulence strategies and pathogenesis is of great importance...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914087/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-biofilm-formation-by-pathogenic-streptococci
#2
Yashuan Chao, Caroline Bergenfelz, Anders P Håkansson
This manuscript presents novel approaches to grow and evaluate Streptococcal biofilm formation using the human respiratory pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) as the main model organism on biological surfaces in vitro and in vivo. Most biofilm models are based on growth on abiotic surfaces, which is relevant for many pathogens whose growth on surfaces or medical devices is a major cause of disease transmission and infections, especially in hospital environments. However, most infections with commensal organisms require biofilm formation on biological surfaces in the host at the site of colonization or infection...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913947/preclinical-evaluation-of-cathepsin-based-fluorescent-imaging-system-for-cytoreductive-surgery
#3
Carlos H F Chan, Lukas F Liesenfeld, Isabel Ferreiro-Neira, James C Cusack
BACKGROUND: Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS-HIPEC) is a treatment option for peritoneal surface malignancies. The ability to detect microscopic foci of peritoneal metastasis intraoperatively may ensure the completeness of cytoreduction. In this study, we evaluated the suitability of a hand-held cathepsin-based fluorescent imaging system for intraoperative detection of appendiceal and colorectal peritoneal metastasis. METHODS: Peritoneal tumors and normal peritoneal tissues were collected from patients with appendiceal and colorectal peritoneal metastasis...
December 2, 2016: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913859/complex-genetics-architecture-contributes-to-salmonella-resistance-in-acb60-mice
#4
Sean Beatty, Leïla Rached-D'Astous, Danielle Malo
Human infection with Salmonella is of global public health concern. In low- and middle-income countries, Salmonella infection is a major source of disease in terms of both mortality and morbidity, while in high-income nations, the pathogen is an ongoing threat to food security. The outcome of infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salmonella Typhimurium) in mouse models is dependent upon a coordinated and complex immune response. A panel of recombinant congenic strains (RCS) derived from the reciprocal double backcross of A/J and C57BL/6J mice has been screened for their susceptibility to Salmonella infection, and the RCS AcB60 was identified to be the most resistant strain to Salmonella infection, more resistant than the parental strain A/J...
December 2, 2016: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913835/preventive-dna-vaccination-against-cea-expressing-tumors-with-anti-idiotypic-scfv6-c4-dna-in-cea-expressing-transgenic-mice
#5
Priscila M A Denapoli, Bianca F Zanetti, Adara A Dos Santos, Jane Z de Moraes, Sang W Han
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is expressed during embryonic life and in low level during adult life. Consequently, the CEA is recognized by the immune system as a self-antigen and thus CEA-expressing tumors are tolerated. Previously, we constructed a single chain variable fragment using the 6.C4 (scFv6.C4) hybridoma cell line, which gave rise to antibodies able to recognize CEA when C57/Bl6 mice were immunized. Here, the scFv6.C4 ability to prevent the CEA-expressing tumor growth was assessed in CEA-expressing transgenic mice CEA2682...
December 2, 2016: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913706/stat1-promotes-kras-colon-tumor-growth-and-susceptibility-to-pharmacological-inhibition-of-translation-initiation-factor-eif4a
#6
Shuo Wang, Cedric Darini, Laurent Désaubry, Antonis E Koromilas
The transcription factor STAT1 displays antitumor functions for certain forms of cancer via immunoregulatory and cell-autonomous pathways. Paradoxically, STAT1 can promote the survival of different tumor types treated with chemotherapeutic drugs through mechanisms that are not clearly defined. Herein, we demonstrate that STAT1 displays prosurvival effects in human KRAS colon tumor cells by regulating pathways that converge on the initiation of mRNA translation. Specifically, STAT1 increases PI3K class IB signaling and promotes the downregulation of the programmed cell death protein 4 (PDCD4), a protein with tumor-suppressive properties...
December 2016: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913686/micrognathia-in-mouse-models-of-ciliopathies
#7
REVIEW
Hadeel Adel Al-Lami, William B Barrell, Karen J Liu
Defects in the development of the mandible can lead to micrognathia, or small jaw, which manifests in ciliopathic conditions, such as orofaciodigital syndrome, Meckel-Gruber syndrome, and Bardet-Biedl syndrome. Although micrognathia occurs frequently in human and mouse ciliopathies, it has been difficult to pinpoint the underlying cellular causes. In this mini-review, we shed light on the tissue-specific contributions to ciliary dysfunction in the development of the mandible. First, we outline the steps involved in setting up the jaw primordium and subsequent steps in the outgrowth of the mandibular skeleton...
December 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913646/critical-differences-between-induced-and-spontaneous-mouse-models-of-graves-disease-with-implications-for-antigen-specific-immunotherapy-in-humans
#8
Basil Rapoport, Bianca Banuelos, Holly A Aliesky, Nicole Hartwig Trier, Sandra M McLachlan
Graves' hyperthyroidism, a common autoimmune disease caused by pathogenic autoantibodies to the thyrotropin (TSH) receptor (TSHR), can be treated but not cured. This single autoantigenic target makes Graves' disease a prime candidate for Ag-specific immunotherapy. Previously, in an induced mouse model, injecting TSHR A-subunit protein attenuated hyperthyroidism by diverting pathogenic TSHR Abs to a nonfunctional variety. In this study, we explored the possibility of a similar diversion in a mouse model that spontaneously develops pathogenic TSHR autoantibodies, NOD...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913633/chemorepellent-semaphorin-3e-negatively-regulates-neutrophil-migration-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#9
Hesam Movassagh, Abeer Saati, Saravanan Nandagopal, Ashfaque Mohammed, Nazanin Tatari, Lianyu Shan, Jonathan S Duke-Cohan, Keith R Fowke, Francis Lin, Abdelilah S Gounni
Neutrophil migration is an essential step in leukocyte trafficking during inflammatory responses. Semaphorins, originally discovered as axon guidance cues in neural development, have been shown to regulate cell migration beyond the nervous system. However, the potential contribution of semaphorins in the regulation of neutrophil migration is not well understood. This study examines the possible role of a secreted chemorepellent, Semaphorin 3E (Sema3E), in neutrophil migration. In this study, we demonstrated that human neutrophils constitutively express Sema3E high-affinity receptor, PlexinD1...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913620/pb1-f2-derived-from-avian-influenza-a-virus-h7n9-induces-inflammation-via-activation-of-the-nlrp3-inflammasome
#10
Anita Pinar, Jennifer K Dowling, Natalie J Bitto, Avril B Robertson, Eicke Latz, Cameron R Stewart, Grant R Drummond, Matthew A Cooper, Julie L McAuley, Michelle D Tate, Ashley Mansell
The emergence of avian H7N9 influenza A virus (IAV) in humans with associated high mortality, has highlighted the threat of a potential pandemic. Fatal H7N9 infections are characterised by hyperinflammation and increased cellular infiltrates in the lung. Currently there are limited therapies to address the pathologies associated with H7N9 infection and what virulence factors may contribute to these pathologies. We have found that PB1-F2 derived from H7N9 activates the NLRP3 inflammasome and induces lung inflammation and cellular recruitment that is NLRP3 dependent...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913602/clonal-conversion-of-b-lymphoid-leukemia-reveals-cross-lineage-transfer-of-malignant-states
#11
Rajesh Somasundaram, Josefine Åhsberg, Kazuki Okuyama, Jonas Ungerbäck, Henrik Lilljebjörn, Thoas Fioretos, Tobias Strid, Mikael Sigvardsson
Even though leukemia is considered to be confined to one specific hematopoietic cell type, cases of acute leukemia of ambiguous lineage and patients relapsing in phenotypically altered disease suggest that a malignant state may be transferred between lineages. Because B-cell leukemia is associated with mutations in transcription factors of importance for stable preservation of lineage identity, we here investigated the potential lineage plasticity of leukemic cells. We report that primary pro-B leukemia cells from mice carrying heterozygous mutations in either or both the Pax5 and Ebf1 genes, commonly mutated in human leukemia, can be converted into T lineage leukemia cells...
December 2, 2016: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913437/surface-expression-of-tgf%C3%AE-docking-receptor-garp-promotes-oncogenesis-and-immune-tolerance-in-breast-cancer
#12
Alessandra Metelli, Bill X Wu, Caroline W Fugle, Saleh Rachidi, Shaoli Sun, Yongliang Zhang, Jennifer Wu, Stephen Tomlinson, Philip H Howe, Yi Yang, Elizabeth Garrett-Mayer, Bei Liu, Zihai Li
GARP encoded by the Lrrc32 gene is the cell surface docking receptor for latent TGFβ, which is expressed naturally by platelets and regulatory T cells (Treg). Although Lrrc32 is amplified frequently in breast cancer, the expression and relevant functions of GARP in cancer have not been explored. Here, we report that GARP exerts oncogenic effects, promoting immune tolerance by enriching and activating latent TGFβ in the tumor microenvironment. We found that human breast, lung, and colon cancers expressed GARP aberrantly...
October 20, 2016: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913422/factor-xi-deficiency-enhances-the-pulmonary-allergic-response-to-house-dust-mite-in-mice-independent-of-factor-xii
#13
Ingrid Stroo, Jack Yang, Johannes Daan de Boer, Joris J T H Roelofs, Cornelis van 't Veer, Francis J Castellino, Sacha Zeerleder, Tom van der Poll
Asthma is associated with activation of coagulation in the airways. The coagulation system can be initiated via the extrinsic tissue factor dependent pathway or via the intrinsic pathway, in which the central player factor XI (FXI) can be either activated via active factor XII (FXIIa) or via thrombin. We aimed to determine the role of the intrinsic coagulation system, and its possible route of activation, in allergic lung inflammation induced by the clinically relevant human allergen house dust mite (HDM). Wild-type (WT), FXI knockout (KO) and FXII KO mice were subjected to repeated exposure to HDM via the airways, and inflammatory responses were compared...
December 2, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913146/effects-of-high-fat-diet-on-plasma-profiles-of-eicosanoid-metabolites-in-mice
#14
Weicang Wang, Jun Yang, Haixia Yang, Katherine Z Sanidad, Bruce D Hammock, Daeyoung Kim, Guodong Zhang
Obesity is a serious health problem in the US and is associated with increased risks of various human diseases. To date, the mechanisms by which obesity increases the risks of a wide range of human diseases are not well understood. Here we used a LC-MS/MS-based lipidomics, which can analyze >100 bioactive lipid mediators produced by cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, and cytochrome P450 enzymes, to analyze plasma profiles of lipid mediators in high-fat diet induced obesity in C57BL/6 mice. Our results showed that the plasma concentrations of epoxyoctadecenoic acids (EpOMEs, also termed as leukotoxins) were significantly increased in plasma of high-fat diet-fed mice, in addition, EpOMEs are among the most abundant lipid mediators detected in mouse plasma...
November 29, 2016: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913140/comparative-analysis-of-tcdd-induced-ahr-mediated-gene-expression-in-human-mouse-and-rat-primary-b-cells
#15
Natalia Kovalova, Rance Nault, Robert Crawford, Timothy R Zacharewski, Norbert E Kaminski
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a persistent environmental pollutant that activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) resulting in altered gene expression. In vivo, in vitro, and ex vivo studies have demonstrated that B cells are directly impaired by TCDD, and are a sensitive target as evidenced by suppression of antibody responses. The window of sensitivity to TCDD-induced suppression of IgM secretion among mouse, rat and human B cells is similar. Specifically, TCDD must be present within the initial 12h post B cell stimulation, indicating that TCDD disrupts early signaling network(s) necessary for B lymphocyte activation and differentiation...
November 29, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912874/the-anxiolytic-effect-of-essential-oil-of-cananga-odorata-exposure-on-mice-and-determination-of-its-major-active-constituents
#16
Nan Zhang, Lei Zhang, Linyin Feng, Lei Yao
BACKGROUND: Essential oil from Cananga odorata (ylang-ylang essential oil, YYO) is usually used in reducing blood pressure, improving cognitive functioning in aromatherapy in human. Few reports showed its effect on anxiety behaviors. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: To investigate the anxiolytic effects of YYO exposure on anxiety animal models, determine the major active constituents and investigate the change of neurotransmitters after odor exposure. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: ICR mice were subjected to three anxiety models including open field, elevated plus maze and light-dark box tests after acute and chronic YYO exposure...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912316/th2-cells-in-health-and-disease
#17
Toshinori Nakayama, Kiyoshi Hirahara, Atsushi Onodera, Yusuke Endo, Hiroyuki Hosokawa, Kenta Shinoda, Damon J Tumes, Yoshitaka Okamoto
Helper T (Th) cell subsets direct immune responses by producing signature cytokines. Th2 cells produce IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, which are important in humoral immunity and protection from helminth infection and are central to the pathogenesis of many allergic inflammatory diseases. Molecular analysis of Th2 cell differentiation and maintenance of function has led to recent discoveries that have refined our understanding of Th2 cell biology. Epigenetic regulation of Gata3 expression by chromatin remodeling complexes such as Polycomb and Trithorax is crucial for maintaining Th2 cell identity...
November 28, 2016: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912208/smad-nuclear-interacting-protein-1-acts-as-a-protective-regulator-of-pressure-overload-induced-pathological-cardiac-hypertrophy
#18
Yu-Yan Lu, Da-Chun Xu, Yi-Fan Zhao, Guo-Fu Zhu, Meng-Yun Zhu, Wei-Jing Liu, Xue-Jing Yu, Wei Chen, Zheng Liu, Ya-Wei Xu
BACKGROUND: Smad nuclear interacting protein 1 (SNIP1) plays a critical role in cell proliferation, transformation of embryonic fibroblasts, and immune regulation. However, the role of SNIP1 in cardiac hypertrophy remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: Here we examined the role of SNIP1 in pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and its mechanisms. Our results demonstrated that SNIP1 expression was downregulated in human dilated cardiomyopathic hearts, aortic banding-induced mice hearts, and angiotensin II-treated cardiomyocytes...
October 26, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912196/nox-isoforms-in-the-development-of-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm
#19
Kin Lung Siu, Qiang Li, Yixuan Zhang, Jun Guo, Ji Youn Youn, Jie Du, Hua Cai
Oxidative stress plays an important role in the formation of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), and we have recently established a causal role of uncoupled eNOS in this severe human disease. We have also shown that activation of NADPH oxidase (NOX) lies upstream of uncoupled eNOS. Therefore, identification of the specific NOX isoforms that are required for eNOS uncoupling and AAA formation would ultimately lead to novel therapies for AAA. In the present study, we used the Ang II infused hph-1 mice to examine the roles of NOX isoforms in the development of AAA...
November 19, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912139/repair-of-calvarial-bone-defects-in-mice-using-electrospun-polystyrene-scaffolds-combined-with-%C3%AE-tcp-or-gold-nanoparticles
#20
Lisa Terranova, Diana Maria Dragusin, Romain Mallet, Eugeniu Vasile, Izabela-Cristina Stancu, Catherine Behets, Daniel Chappard
Non-biodegradable porous polystyrene (PS) scaffolds, composed of microfibers, have been prepared by electrospinning for the reconstruction of large bone defects. PS microfibers were prepared by incorporating β-TCP grains inside the polymer or grafting gold nanoparticles surface functionalized with mercaptosuccinic acid. Cytocompatibility of the three types of scaffolds (PS, β-TCP-PS and Au-PS) was studied by seeding human mesenchymal stem cells. Biocompatibility was evaluated by implanting β-TCP-PS and Au-PS scaffolds into a critical size (4mm) calvarial defect in mice...
November 8, 2016: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
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