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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545241/lactobacillus-rhamnosus-hn001-and-lactobacillus-acidophilus-la-14-attenuate-gardnerella-vaginalis-infected-bacterial-vaginosis-in-mice
#1
Se-Eun Jang, Jin-Ju Jeong, Su-Young Choi, Hyunji Kim, Myung Joo Han, Dong-Hyun Kim
Oral administration of a probiotic mixture (PM; Respecta(®)) consisting of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 (L1), Lactobacillus acidophilus La-14 (L2), and lactoferrin RCXTM results in colonization of these probiotics in the vagina of healthy women. Therefore, we examined whether vaginal colonization of the PM ingredients L1 and L2 could attenuate bacterial vaginosis (BV). BV was induced in mice via β-estradiol-3-benzoate-induced immunosuppression and intravaginal inoculation with Gardnerella vaginalis (GV)...
May 23, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545123/predictability-of-arousal-in-mouse-slow-wave-sleep-by-accelerometer-data
#2
Gustavo Zampier Dos Santos Lima, Sergio Roberto Lopes, Thiago Lima Prado, Bruno Lobao-Soares, George C do Nascimento, John Fontenele-Araujo, Gilberto Corso
Arousals can be roughly characterized by punctual intrusions of wakefulness into sleep. In a standard perspective, using human electroencephalography (EEG) data, arousals are associated to slow-wave rhythms and K-complex brain activity. The physiological mechanisms that give rise to arousals during sleep are not yet fully understood. Moreover, subtle body movement patterns, which may characterize arousals both in human and in animals, are usually not detectable by eye perception and are not in general present in sleep studies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545104/pkng-senses-amino-acid-availability-to-control-metabolism-and-virulence-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#3
Barbara Rieck, Giulia Degiacomi, Michael Zimmermann, Alessandro Cascioferro, Francesca Boldrin, Natalie R Lazar-Adler, Andrew R Bottrill, Fabien le Chevalier, Wafa Frigui, Marco Bellinzoni, María-Natalia Lisa, Pedro M Alzari, Liem Nguyen, Roland Brosch, Uwe Sauer, Riccardo Manganelli, Helen M O'Hare
Sensing and response to changes in nutrient availability are essential for the lifestyle of environmental and pathogenic bacteria. Serine/threonine protein kinase G (PknG) is required for virulence of the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and its putative substrate GarA regulates the tricarboxylic acid cycle in M. tuberculosis and other Actinobacteria by protein-protein binding. We sought to understand the stimuli that lead to phosphorylation of GarA, and the roles of this regulatory system in pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria...
May 17, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545044/differentiation-of-spontaneously-contracting-cardiomyocytes-from-non-virally-reprogrammed-human-amniotic-fluid-stem-cells
#4
Aaron J Velasquez-Mao, Christopher J M Tsao, Madeline N Monroe, Xavier Legras, Beatrice Bissig-Choisat, Karl-Dimiter Bissig, Rodrigo Ruano, Jeffrey G Jacot
Congenital heart defects are the most common birth defect. The limiting factor in tissue engineering repair strategies is an autologous source of functional cardiomyocytes. Amniotic fluid contains an ideal cell source for prenatal harvest and use in correction of congenital heart defects. This study aims to investigate the potential of amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (AFSC) to undergo non-viral reprogramming into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) followed by growth-factor-free differentiation into functional cardiomyocytes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544935/liquiritin-lt-exhibits-suppressive-effects-against-the-growth-of-human-cervical-cancer-cells-through-activating-caspase-3-in-vitro-and-xenograft-mice-in-vivo
#5
She-Hong He, Hong-Gai Liu, Yu-Fei Zhou, Qing-Fen Yue
Cervical cancer is one of the most common female malignancies worldwide. Liquiritin (LT), a major constituent of Glycyrrhiza Radix, possesses a variety of pharmacological activities, including anti-cancer, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and neuro-protective effects. However, its role in human cervical cancer remains to be elusive. In our study, we found that LT suppressed cervical cancer cell migration, invasion and cloning ability with little cytotoxicity to human normal cells. In addition, apoptosis was induced by LT in cervical cancer cells through activation of Caspase-3 and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage...
May 22, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544850/pcpp-adjuvanted-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-sf-subunit-vaccine-self-assembled-supramolecular-complexes-enable-enhanced-immunogenicity-and-protection
#6
Corinne Cayatte, Alexander Marin, Gaurav Manohar Rajani, Kirsten Schneider-Ohrum, Angie Snell Bennett, Jason D Marshall, Alexander K Andrianov
PCPP, a well-defined polyphosphazene macromolecule, has been studied as an immunoadjuvant for a soluble form of the post-fusion glycoprotein (RSV sF) of RSV, which is an attractive vaccine candidate for inducing RSV-specific immunity in mice and humans. We demonstrate that RSV sF-PCPP formulations induce high neutralization titers to RSV comparable to Alum formulations even at a low PCPP dose and protect animals against viral challenge both in the lung and upper respiratory tract. PCPP formulations were also characterized by Th1-biased responses, compared to Th2-biased responses that are more typical for RSV sF alone or RSV sF-Alum formulations, suggesting an inherent immunostimulating activity of the polyphosphazene adjuvant...
May 25, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544814/optimization-of-liposomal-topotecan-for-use-in-treating-neuroblastoma
#7
Lina Chernov, Rebecca J Deyell, Malathi Anantha, Nancy Dos Santos, Roger Gilabert-Oriol, Marcel B Bally
The purpose of this work was to develop an optimized liposomal formulation of topotecan for use in the treatment of patients with neuroblastoma. Drug exposure time studies were used to determine that topotecan (Hycamtin) exhibited great cytotoxic activity against SK-N-SH, IMR-32 and LAN-1 neuroblastoma human cell lines. Sphingomyelin (SM)/cholesterol (Chol) and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC)/Chol liposomes were prepared using extrusion methods and then loaded with topotecan by pH gradient and copper-drug complexation...
May 23, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544727/ultraviolet-radiation-accelerates-nras-mutant-melanomagenesis-a-cooperative-effect-blocked-by-sunscreen
#8
Rebecca C Hennessey, Andrea M Holderbaum, Anamaria Bonilla, Conor Delaney, James E Gillahan, Kathleen L Tober, Tatiana M Oberyszyn, Jonathan H Zippin, Christin E Burd
To mitigate melanoma risk, sunscreen use is widely advocated; yet, the ability of sunscreens to prevent melanoma remains controversial. Here, we test the tenet that sunscreens limit melanoma risk by blocking ultraviolet radiation (UV)-induced DNA damage using murine models that recapitulate the genetics and spontaneous evolution of human melanoma. We find that a single, non-erythematous dose of UV dramatically accelerates melanoma onset and increases tumor multiplicity in mice carrying an endogenous, melanocyte-specific NRas(61R) allele...
May 24, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544701/intradiscal-application-of-a-pcla-peg-pcla-hydrogel-loaded-with-celecoxib-for-the-treatment-of-back-pain-in-canines-what-s-in-it-for-humans
#9
Anna R Tellegen, Nicole Willems, Martijn Beukers, Guy C M Grinwis, Saskia G M Plomp, Clemens Bos, Maarten van Dijk, Mike de Leeuw, Laura B Creemers, Marianna A Tryfonidou, Björn P Meij
Chronic low back pain is a common clinical problem in both the human and canine population. Current pharmaceutical treatment often consists of oral anti-inflammatory drugs to alleviate pain. Novel treatments for degenerative disc diseases focus on local application of sustained released drug formulations. The aim of this study was to determine safety and feasibility of intradiscal application of a PCLA-PEG-PCLA hydrogel releasing celecoxib, a COX-2 inhibitor. Biocompatibility was evaluated after subcutaneous injection in mice and safety of intradiscal injection of the hydrogel was evaluated in experimental dogs with early spontaneous intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544650/diverse-application-of-mri-for-mouse-phenotyping
#10
REVIEW
Yijen L Wu, Cecilia W Lo
Small animal models, particularly mouse models, of human diseases are becoming an indispensable tool for biomedical research. Studies in animal models have provided important insights into the etiology of diseases and accelerated the development of therapeutic strategies. Detailed phenotypic characterization is essential, both for the development of such animal models and mechanistic studies into disease pathogenesis and testing the efficacy of experimental therapeutics. MRI is a versatile and noninvasive imaging modality with excellent penetration depth, tissue coverage, and soft tissue contrast...
May 22, 2017: Birth Defects Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544620/phenotyping-cardiac-and-structural-birth-defects-in-fetal-and-newborn-mice
#11
REVIEW
Xiaoqin Liu, Andrew J Kim, William Reynolds, Yijen Wu, Cecilia W Lo
Mouse models are invaluable for investigating the developmental etiology and molecular pathogenesis of structural birth defects. While this has been deployed for studying a wide spectrum of birth defects, mice are particularly valuable for modeling congenital heart disease, given they have the same four-chamber cardiac anatomy as in humans. We have developed the use of noninvasive fetal ultrasound together with micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) imaging for high throughput phenotyping of mice for congenital heart defects (CHD) and other developmental anomalies...
May 22, 2017: Birth Defects Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544111/kallistatin-reduces-vascular-senescence-and-aging-by-regulating-microrna-34a-sirt1-pathway
#12
Youming Guo, Pengfei Li, Lin Gao, Jingmei Zhang, Zhirong Yang, Grant Bledsoe, Eugene Chang, Lee Chao, Julie Chao
Kallistatin, an endogenous protein, protects against vascular injury by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation in hypertensive rats and enhancing the mobility and function of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). We aimed to determine the role and mechanism of kallistatin in vascular senescence and aging using cultured EPCs, streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice, and Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Human kallistatin significantly decreased TNF-α-induced cellular senescence in EPCs, as indicated by reduced senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression, and elevated telomerase activity...
May 24, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543623/regulatory-effect-of-microrna-34a-on-osteogenesis-and-angiogenesis-in-glucocorticoid-induced-osteonecrosis-of-the-femoral-head
#13
Xiaolong Zha, Bolin Sun, Rufan Zhang, Chen Li, Zuoqin Yan, Jifei Chen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Glucocorticoid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (GIOFH) is a common and devastating orthopedic disease, and its underlying mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the role of microRNA-34a (mir-34a) in GIOFH. METHODS: C57 mouse mesenchymal stem cells (mMSCs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured with dexamethasone (Dex). A total of 48 adult rats were treated with glucocorticoids, and after the onset of GIOFH, each femoral head was removed...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543567/tgr5-contributes-to-hepatic-cystogenesis-in-rodents-with-polycystic-liver-diseases-via-camp-g%C3%AE-s-signaling
#14
Tatyana V Masyuk, Anatoliy I Masyuk, Maria Lorenzo Pisarello, Brynn N Howard, Bing Q Huang, Pui-Yuen Lee, Xavier Fung, Eduard Sergienko, Robert J Ardesky, Thomas Dy Chung, Anthony B Pinkerton, Nicholas F LaRusso
Hepatic cystogenesis in Polycystic Liver Disease (PLD) is associated with increased levels of cAMP in cholangiocytes lining liver cysts. TGR5, a G protein-coupled bile acid receptor, is linked to cAMP and expressed in cholangiocytes. Therefore, we hypothesized that TGR5 might contribute to disease progression. We examined expression of TGR5 and Gα proteins in cultured cholangiocytes and in livers of animal models and humans with PLD. In vitro, we assessed cholangiocyte proliferation, cAMP levels, and cyst growth in response to: (i) TGR5 agonists [taurolithocholic acid (TLCA), oleanolic acid (OA) and two synthetic compounds]; (ii) a novel TGR5 antagonist (SBI-115); and (iii) a combination of SBI-115 and pasireotide, a somatostatin receptor (SSTR) analog...
May 23, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543546/bmp4-enhances-hepatocellular-carcinoma-proliferation-by-promoting-cell-cycle-progression-via-id2-cdkn1b-signaling
#15
Junli Ma, Shan Zeng, Yan Zhang, Ganlu Deng, Yanlin Qu, Cao Guo, Ling Yin, Ying Han, Hong Shen
Bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4) plays a crucial role in carcinogenesis, but the effects and signaling mechanisms of BMP4 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are not clearly clarified. The present study aimed to identify the roles of BMP4 in the proliferation of human HCC. In this study, BMP4 expression and its correlation with clinicopathological characteristics and the survival of HCC patients were analyzed in two independent cohorts consisting of 310 subjects. Functional analysis of BMP4 on HCC proliferation was performed in vitro and in vivo in human HCC specimens, HCC cells of Bel-7402 and HCCLM3, and subcutaneous tumor model...
May 23, 2017: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543438/humanized-mice-a-brief-overview-on-their-diverse-applications-in-biomedical-research
#16
REVIEW
Shigeyoshi Fujiwara
Model animals naturally differ from humans in various respects and results from the former are not directly translatable to the latter. One approach to address this issue is humanized mice that are defined as mice engrafted with functional human cells or tissues. In humanized mice, we can investigate the development and function of human cells or tissues (including their products encoded by human genes) in the in vivo context of a small animal. As such, humanized mouse models have played important roles that cannot be substituted by other animal models in various areas of biomedical research...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543406/novel-murine-xenograft-model-for-the-evaluation-of-stem-cell-therapy-for-profound-dysphagia
#17
Maggie A Kuhn, Amanda B Black, M Tausif Siddiqui, Jan A Nolta, Peter C Belafsky
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Dysphagia is common and costly. Treatments are limited and innovative therapies are required. The tongue is essential for safe, effective swallowing and is a natural target for regenerative therapy. Muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) hold potential to restore dynamic function, and their application in the damaged tongue is appealing. We examined the safety and efficacy of human MDSC implantation into a novel mouse tongue model. STUDY DESIGN: Animal study...
May 23, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542929/the-immune-response-to-prevotella-bacteria-in-chronic-inflammatory-disease
#18
REVIEW
Jeppe Madura Larsen
The microbiota plays a central role in human health and disease by shaping immune development, immune responses, metabolism, and protecting from invading pathogens. Technical advances that allow comprehensive characterization of microbial communities by genetic sequencing have sparked the hunt for disease modulating bacteria. Emerging studies in humans have linked increased abundance of Prevotella species at mucosal sites to localized and systemic disease, including periodontitis, bacterial vaginosis, rheumatoid arthritis, metabolic disorders, and low-grade systemic inflammation...
May 19, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542921/cd40-mediated-signaling-influences-trafficking-tcr-expression-and-t-cell-pathogenesis-in-the-nod-model-of-type-1-diabetes
#19
Gisela M Vaitaitis, Dan M Waid, Martin G Yussman, David H Wagner
CD40 plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D). The mechanism of action however is undetermined, likely because CD40 expression has been grossly underestimated. CD40 is expressed on numerous cell types that now include T cells and pancreatic β cells. CD40(+) CD4(+) cells (TH40) prove highly pathogenic in NOD mice and in translational human T1D studies. We generated BDC2.5.CD40(-/-) and re-derived NOD.CD154(-/-) mice to better understand CD40 mechanism of action. Fully functional CD40 expression is required not only for T1D development but for insulitis...
May 19, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542649/evaluation-of-connectivity-map-discovered-celastrol-as-a-radiosensitizing-agent-in-a-murine-lung-carcinoma-model-feasibility-study-of-diffusion-weighted-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#20
Hong Young Jun, Tae-Hoon Kim, Jin Woo Choi, Young Hwan Lee, Kang Kyoo Lee, Kwon-Ha Yoon
This study was designed to identify potential radiosensitizing (RS) agents for combined radio- and chemotherapy in a murine model of human lung carcinoma, and to evaluate the in vivo effect of the RS agents using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI). Radioresistance-associated genes in A549 and H460 cells were isolated on the basis of their gene expression profiles. Celastrol was selected as a candidate RS by using connectivity mapping, and its efficacy in lung cancer radiotherapy was tested...
2017: PloS One
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