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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227989/computational-models-of-non-invasive-brain-and-spinal-cord-stimulation
#1
Pedro C Miranda, Ricardo Salvador, Cornelia Wenger, Sofia R Fernandes, Pedro C Miranda, Ricardo Salvador, Cornelia Wenger, Sofia R Fernandes, Sofia R Fernandes, Pedro C Miranda, Cornelia Wenger, Ricardo Salvador
Non-invasive brain and spinal cord stimulation techniques are increasingly used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Knowledge of the spatial distribution of the induced electric field is necessary to interpret experimental results and to optimize field delivery. Since the induced electric field cannot be measured in vivo in humans, computational models play a fundamental role in determining the characteristics of the electric field. We produced computational models of the head and trunk to calculate the electric field induced in the brain and spinal cord by transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation and transcutaneous spinal cord direct current stimulation...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227964/cross-entropy-optimization-for-neuromodulation
#2
Harleen K Brar, Yunpeng Pan, Babak Mahmoudi, Evangelos A Theodorou, Harleen K Brar, Yunpeng Pan, Babak Mahmoudi, Evangelos A Theodorou, Yunpeng Pan, Harleen K Brar, Babak Mahmoudi, Evangelos A Theodorou
This study presents a reinforcement learning approach for the optimization of the proportional-integral gains of the feedback controller represented in a computational model of epilepsy. The chaotic oscillator model provides a feedback control systems view of the dynamics of an epileptic brain with an internal feedback controller representative of the natural seizure suppression mechanism within the brain circuitry. Normal and pathological brain activity is simulated in this model by adjusting the feedback gain values of the internal controller...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227912/a-hybrid-discrete-continuous-model-of-in-vitro-spheroid-tumor-growth-and-drug-response
#3
Giorgos Tzedakis, Evangelos Liapis, Eleftheria Tzamali, Giannis Zacharakis, Vangelis Sakkalis, Giorgos Tzedakis, Evangelos Liapis, Eleftheria Tzamali, Giannis Zacharakis, Vangelis Sakkalis, Giannis Zacharakis, Vangelis Sakkalis, Evangelos Liapis, Giorgos Tzedakis, Eleftheria Tzamali
Anti-cancer therapy efficacy in solid tumors mainly depends on drug transportation through the vasculature system and the extracellular matrix, on diffusion gradients and clonal heterogeneity within the tumor mass, as well as on the responses of the individual tumor cells to drugs and their interactions with each other and their local microenvironment. In this work, we develop a mathematical predictive model for tumor growth and drug response based on 3D spheroids experiments that possess several in vivo features of tumors and are considered better for drug screening...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227911/an-implementation-for-the-simulation-of-cells-on-micro-post-arrays
#4
Duy T Truong, Christian Bahls, Barbara Nebe, Ursula van Rienen, Duy T Truong, Christian Bahls, Barbara Nebe, Ursula van Rienen, Duy T Truong, Christian Bahls, Ursula van Rienen, Barbara Nebe
The mechanical interaction between cells and their underlying substrates is important in understanding the processes that take place at an interface between biological tissue and the surface of implants. There have been numerous studies that examine these interactions both by experimental and numerical modeling. The bio-chemo-mechanical model for cell contractility by Deshpande et al. [1] has numerous applications and advantages. This work shows a way to implement this model in COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS® so it can be easily modified or extended...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227908/a-boolean-approach-to-bacterial-chemotaxis
#5
Anuj Deshpande, Sibendu Samanta, Haimabati Das, Ritwik Kumar Layek, Anuj Deshpande, Sibendu Samanta, Haimabati Das, Ritwik Kumar Layek, Sibendu Samanta, Anuj Deshpande, Haimabati Das, Ritwik Kumar Layek
Bacterium such as Escherichia coli (E. coli) show biased Brownian motion in different chemical concentration gradients. This chemical sensitive motility or chemotaxis has gained considerable interest among scientists for some remarkable features such as chemo-sensory dynamic range, adaptation, diffusion and drift. A Boolean model of the whole chemotaxis process has been developed in this manuscript. The response of the circuit is in accordance with the experimental results available in the literature, providing indirect validation of the model...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227903/development-of-a-detailed-model-of-calcium-dynamics-at-the-postsynaptic-spine-of-an-excitatory-synapse
#6
Eric Y Hu, Jean-Marie C Bouteiller, Dong Song, Theodore W Berger, Eric Y Hu, Jean-Marie C Bouteiller, Dong Song, Theodore W Berger, Jean-Marie C Bouteiller, Eric Y Hu, Dong Song, Theodore W Berger
Postsynaptic calcium dynamics play a critical role in synaptic plasticity, but are often difficult to measure in experimental protocols due to their relatively fast rise and decay times, and the small spine dimensions. To circumvent these limitations, we propose to develop a computational model of calcium dynamics in the postsynaptic spine. This model integrates the main elements that participate in calcium concentration influx, efflux, diffusion and buffering. These consist of (i) spine geometry; (ii) calcium influx through NMDA receptors and voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCC); (iii) calcium efflux with plasma membrane calcium pumps (PMCA) and sodium-calcium exchangers (NCX); (iv) intracellular calcium stores; and (v) calcium buffers...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227890/in-vitro-identification-of-shoulder-joint-and-muscle-dynamics-based-on-motion-capture-and-musculoskeletal-computation
#7
Akihiko Murai, Yusuke Kawano, Ko Ayusawa, Mitsunori Tada, Noboru Matsumura, Takeo Nagura, Akihiko Murai, Yusuke Kawano, Ko Ayusawa, Mitsunori Tada, Noboru Matsumura, Takeo Nagura
Dynamics properties of shoulder joint and muscle are experimentally identified under different musculoskeletal conditions for a digital human model with accurate dynamics. Passive swing motions of scapula and upper limb bones in cadaveric specimen with and without muscles are measured by an optical motion capture system. External forces that are applied to the scapula bone are simultaneously measured by a force plate. The dynamics identification process consists of 3 steps: 1) identify the inertial parameters of the cadaveric specimen with and without muscles respectively, 2) identify the viscosity of the glenohumeral joint from the specimen without muscles, and 3) identify the viscosity of the shoulder muscles from the specimen with muscles and the identified joint viscosity...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227883/development-and-validation-of-thums-version-5-with-1d-muscle-models-for-active-and-passive-automotive-safety-research
#8
Hideyuki Kimpara, Yuko Nakahira, Masami Iwamoto, Hideyuki Kimpara, Yuko Nakahira, Masami Iwamoto, Hideyuki Kimpara, Masami Iwamoto, Yuko Nakahira
Accurately predicting the occupant kinematics is critical to better understand the injury mechanisms during an automotive crash event. The objectives of this study were to develop and validate a finite element (FE) model of the human body integrated with an active muscle model called Total HUman Model for Safety (THUMS) version 5, which has the body size of the 50th percentile American adult male (AM50). This model is characterized by being able to generate a force owing to muscle tone and to predict the occupant response during an automotive crash event...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227870/identifying-disease-network-perturbations-through-regression-on-gene-expression-and-pathway-topology-analysis
#9
Georgios N Dimitrakopoulos, Panos Balomenos, Aristidis G Vrahatis, Kyriakos Sgarbas, Anastasios Bezerianos, Georgios N Dimitrakopoulos, Panos Balomenos, Aristidis G Vrahatis, Kyriakos Sgarbas, Anastasios Bezerianos, Kyriakos Sgarbas, Panos Balomenos, Georgios N Dimitrakopoulos, Anastasios Bezerianos, Aristidis G Vrahatis
In Systems Biology, network-based approaches have been extensively used to effectively study complex diseases. An important challenge is the detection of network perturbations which disrupt regular biological functions as a result of a disease. In this regard, we introduce a network based pathway analysis method which isolates casual interactions with significant regulatory roles within diseased-perturbed pathways. Specifically, we use gene expression data with Random Forest regression models to assess the interactivity strengths of genes within disease-perturbed networks, using KEGG pathway maps as a source of prior-knowledge pertaining to pathway topology...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227868/middle-and-inner-ear-modelling-from-microct-images-to-3d-reconstruction-and-coupling-of-models
#10
N S Tachos, A I Sakellarios, G Rigas, V Isailovic, G Ni, F Bohnke, N Filipovic, T Bibas, D I Fotiadis, N S Tachos, A I Sakellarios, G Rigas, V Isailovic, G Ni, F Bohnke, N Filipovic, T Bibas, D I Fotiadis, A I Sakellarios, V Isailovic, D I Fotiadis, A Bibas, F Bohnke, G Ni, N Filipovic, G Rigas, N S Tachos
We present finite element (FE) modeling approaches of ear mechanics including 3-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the human middle and inner ear. Specifically, we demonstrate a semi-automatic methodology for the 3D reconstruction of the inner ear structures, a FE harmonic response model of the middle ear to predict the stapes footplate frequency response, a 2D FE slice model of the cochlea for the coupled response at the micromechanical level for either acoustic or electrical excitation and a coupled FE middle ear model with a simplified cochlea box model to simulate the basilar membrane velocity in response to acoustic excitation...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227807/ecog-data-analyses-to-inform-closed-loop-bci-experiments-for-speech-based-prosthetic-applications
#11
Tejaswy Pailla, Werner Jiang, Benjamin Dichter, Edward F Chang, Vikash Gilja, Tejaswy Pailla, Werner Jiang, Benjamin Dichter, Edward F Chang, Vikash Gilja, Vikash Gilja, Werner Jiang, Tejaswy Pailla, Benjamin Dichter, Edward F Chang
Brain Computer Interfaces (BCIs) assist individuals with motor disabilities by enabling them to control prosthetic devices with their neural activity. Performance of closed-loop BCI systems can be improved by using design strategies that leverage structured and task-relevant neural activity. We use data from high density electrocorticography (ECoG) grids implanted in three subjects to study sensory-motor activity during an instructed speech task in which the subjects vocalized three cardinal vowel phonemes...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227793/experimental-validation-of-neutron-activation-simulation-of-a-varian-medical-linear-accelerator
#12
S Morato, B Juste, R Miro, G Verdu, S Diez, S Morato, B Juste, R Miro, G Verdu, S Diez, B Juste, S Diez, R Miro, S Morato, G Verdu
This work presents a Monte Carlo simulation using the last version of MCNP, v. 6.1.1, of a Varian CLinAc emitting a 15MeV photon beam. The main objective of the work is to estimate the photoneutron production and activated products inside the medical linear accelerator head. To that, the Varian LinAc head was modelled in detail using the manufacturer information, and the model was generated with a CAD software and exported as a mesh to be included in the particle transport simulation. The model includes the transport of photoneutrons generated by primary photons and the (n, ╬│) reactions which can result in activation products...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227776/propagation-of-parametric-uncertainty-for-the-k-channel-model-in-mouse-ventricular-myocytes
#13
Yuncheng Du, Dongping Du, Yuncheng Du, Dongping Du, Dongping Du, Yuncheng Du
Cardiac potassium (K+) channel plays an important role in cardiac electrical signaling. Mathematical models have been widely used to investigate the effects of K+ channels on cardiac functions. However, the model of K+ channel involves parametric uncertainties, which can be induced by fitting the model's parameters that best capture experimental data. Since the prediction of cardiac functions are highly parameter-dependent, it is critical to quantify the influence of parametric uncertainty on the model responses to provide the more reliable predictions...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227773/whole-heart-modeling-spatiotemporal-dynamics-of-electrical-wave-conduction-and-propagation
#14
Hui Yang, Yun Chen, Fabio M Leonelli, Hui Yang, Yun Chen, Fabio M Leonelli, Hui Yang, Fabio M Leonelli, Yun Chen
Cardiac electrical activities are varying in both space and time. Human heart consists of a fractal network of muscle cells, Purkinje fibers, arteries and veins. Whole-heart modeling of electrical wave conduction and propagation involves a greater level of complexity. Our previous work developed a computer model of the anatomically realistic heart and simulated the electrical conduction with the use of cellular automata. However, simplistic assumptions and rules limit its ability to provide an accurate approximation of real-world dynamics on the complex heart surface, due to sensitive dependence of nonlinear dynamical systems on initial conditions...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227749/reconstructing-multivariate-causal-structure-between-functional-brain-networks-through-a-laguerre-volterra-based-granger-causality-approach
#15
Andrea Duggento, Gaetano Valenza, Luca Passamonti, Maria Guerrisi, Riccardo Barbieri, Nicola Toschi, Andrea Duggento, Gaetano Valenza, Luca Passamonti, Maria Guerrisi, Riccardo Barbieri, Nicola Toschi, Andrea Duggento, Nicola Toschi, Maria Guerrisi, Luca Passamonti, Riccardo Barbieri, Gaetano Valenza
Classical multivariate approaches based on Granger causality (GC) which estimate functional connectivity in the brain are almost exclusively based on autoregressive models. Nevertheless, information available from past samples is limited due to both signal autocorrelation and necessarily low model orders. Consequently, multiple time-scales interactions are usually unaccounted for. To overcome these limitations, in this study we propose the use of discrete-time orthogonal Laguerre basis functions within a Wiener-Volterra decomposition of the BOLD signals to perform effective GC assessments of brain functional connectivity...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227715/bivariate-autoregressive-state-space-modeling-of-psychophysiological-time-series-data
#16
Daniel M Smith, Mohammadreza Abtahi, Amir Mohammad Amiri, Kunal Mankodiya, Daniel M Smith, Mohammadreza Abtahi, Amir Mohammad Amiri, Kunal Mankodiya, Kunal Mankodiya, Daniel M Smith, Mohammadreza Abtahi, Amir Mohammad Amiri
Heart rate (HR) and electrodermal activity (EDA) are often used as physiological measures of psychological arousal in various neuropsychology experiments. In this exploratory study, we analyze HR and EDA data collected from four participants, each with a history of suicidal tendencies, during a cognitive task known as the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT). A central aim of this investigation is to guide future research by assessing heterogeneity in the population of individuals with suicidal tendencies...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227655/development-of-a-snake-like-dexterous-manipulator-for-skull-base-surgery
#17
Suat Coemert, Anzhu Gao, John P Carey, Mattias F Traeger, Russell H Taylor, Tim C Lueth, Mehran Armand, Suat Coemert, Anzhu Gao, John P Carey, Mattias F Traeger, Russell H Taylor, Tim C Lueth, Mehran Armand, Anzhu Gao, Russell H Taylor, Mattias F Traeger, Mehran Armand, Suat Coemert, Tim C Lueth, John P Carey
Petrous apex lesions constitute considerable surgical challenges due to their location in the skull base and close relationship with critical structures such as inner ear, carotid arteries, facial nerves and jugular bulb. These lesions often cannot be treated completely with rigid tools due to the limited accessibility. We are aiming to develop a snake-like manipulator to assist surgeons with the infralabyrinthine treatment of petrous apex lesions with increased dexterity. This snake-like dexterous manipulator (SDM) with 3...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227641/optimization-of-an-unpowered-energy-stored-exoskeleton-for-patients-with-spinal-cord-injury
#18
Xinyu Guan, Linhong Ji, Rencheng Wang, Wenjie Huang, Xinyu Guan, Linhong Ji, Rencheng Wang, Wenjie Huang, Rencheng Wang, Xinyu Guan, Wenjie Huang, Linhong Ji
The paper describes a novel unpowered energy-stored exoskeleton (ES-EXO) for spinal cord injured patients in consideration of patients' characteristics and injured levels. It proposed a method to optimize the energy-stored element to decrease the hip joint moment in walking. EMG patterns, ground reaction force and motion data from one participant with complete spinal cord injury at T10 were recorded. A combined human-ES-EXO model was built and the stored-energy element including locations and stiffness of springs were optimized in AnyBody Modeling System...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227638/simulation-of-fluid-environment-using-a-robotic-orthosis-on-human-lower-extremity-for-therapeutic-purposes
#19
Tayfun Efe Ertop, Tolga Yuksel, Erhan Ilhan Konukseven, Tayfun Efe Ertop, Tolga Yuksel, Erhan Ilhan Konukseven, Tolga Yuksel, Erhan Ilhan Konukseven, Tayfun Efe Ertop
Rehabilitation under water is a viable physical rehabilitation option, but it has some limitations in terms of adapting to needs of each patient. In addition, its facility requirements are relatively high. Simulating the fluid environment using a robotic system would enable therapists adjust various parameters so that the therapy is tailored to the patient's unique state. Also, using a robotic system instead might be less costly and easily reachable. In this study, human lower extremity movement in fluids is modeled...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227571/applying-neural-network-to-vo2-estimation-using-6-axis-motion-sensing-data
#20
Naoteru Nakamura, Takashi Nagata, Masato Miyatake, Akira Yuuki, Hiroyuki Yomo, Takashi Kawabata, Shinsuke Hara, Naoteru Nakamura, Takashi Nagata, Masato Miyatake, Akira Yuuki, Hiroyuki Yomo, Takashi Kawabata, Shinsuke Hara, Takashi Kawabata, Masato Miyatake, Shinsuke Hara, Akira Yuuki, Naoteru Nakamura, Takashi Nagata, Hiroyuki Yomo
This paper focuses on oxygen consumption (VO2) estimation using 6-axis motion data (3-axis acceleration and 3-axis angular velocity) that are obtained from small motion sensors attached to people playing sports with different intensities. In order to achieve high estimation accuracy over a wide range of intensities of exercises, we apply neural network that is trained by experimental data consisting of the measured VO2 and motion sensing data of people with a wide range of intensities of exercises. We first investigate the gain brought by applying neural network by comparing its accuracy with an approach based on the linear regression model...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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