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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822131/metabolic-engineering-of-photorespiration
#1
Martin K M Engqvist, Veronica G Maurino
The introduction of two alternative glycolate catabolic pathways in the chloroplasts of Arabidopsis thaliana rendered plants with increased biomass. To introduce these synthetic pathways, the selected genes were stepwise integrated in the nuclear genome of wild-type plants. These plants were transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens carrying the binary vectors using the floral dip method. Selection of transformants was conducted using different selection agents and the expression of the transgenes was confirmed by PCR and enzyme activity measurements...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822101/revisiting-the-logan-plot-to-account-for-non-negligible-blood-volume-in-brain-tissue
#2
Martin Schain, Patrik Fazio, Ladislav Mrzljak, Nahid Amini, Nabil Al-Tawil, Cheryl Fitzer-Attas, Juliana Bronzova, Bernhard Landwehrmeyer, Christina Sampaio, Christer Halldin, Andrea Varrone
BACKGROUND: Reference tissue-based quantification of brain PET data does not typically include correction for signal originating from blood vessels, which is known to result in biased outcome measures. The bias extent depends on the amount of radioactivity in the blood vessels. In this study, we seek to revisit the well-established Logan plot and derive alternative formulations that provide estimation of distribution volume ratios (DVRs) that are corrected for the signal originating from the vasculature...
August 18, 2017: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821972/non-deformed-singular-and-non-singular-exponential-type-potentials
#3
J J Pe Na, G Ovando, J Morales, J García-Ravelo
The canonical transformation method applied to the Schrödinger equation to transform it into a second-order differential equation of hypergeometric-type is presented. Starting from there, those exactly solvable multiparameter exponential-type (ME-T) potentials with hypergeometric wavefunctions that belong to the families of radial (singular) and one-dimensional (non-singular) potentials, are obtained. Furthermore, we show how the choice of the involved parameters leads, as particular cases, to different deformed or non-deformed potential models already used in the study of electronic properties of diatomic molecules...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821842/direct-learning-hidden-excited-state-interaction-patterns-from-ab-initio-dynamics-and-its-implication-as-alternative-molecular-mechanism-models
#4
Fang Liu, Likai Du, Dongju Zhang, Jun Gao
The excited states of polyatomic systems are rather complex, and often exhibit meta-stable dynamical behaviors. Static analysis of reaction pathway often fails to sufficiently characterize excited state motions due to their highly non-equilibrium nature. Here, we proposed a time series guided clustering algorithm to generate most relevant meta-stable patterns directly from ab initio dynamic trajectories. Based on the knowledge of these meta-stable patterns, we suggested an interpolation scheme with only a concrete and finite set of known patterns to accurately predict the ground and excited state properties of the entire dynamics trajectories, namely, the prediction with ensemble models (PEM)...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821669/transcriptomic-analysis-of-ribosome-bound-mrna-in-cortical-neurites-in-vivo
#5
Rebecca Ouwenga, Allison M Lake, David O'Brien, Amit Mogha, Adish Dani, Joseph D Dougherty
Localized translation in neurites helps regulate synaptic strength and development. Dysregulation of local translation is associated with many neurological disorders. However, due to technical limitations, study of this phenomenon has largely been limited to brain regions with laminar organization of dendrites such as the hippocampus or cerebellum. It has not been examined in the cortex, a region of importance for most neurological disorders, where dendrites of each neuronal population are densely intermingled with cell bodies of others...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821646/location-of-the-mesopontine-neurons-responsible-for-maintanance-of-anesthetic-loss-of-consciousness
#6
Anne Minert, Shai-Lee Yatziv, Marshall Devor
The transition from wakefulness to general anesthesia is widely attributed to suppressive actions of anesthetic molecules distributed by the systemic circulation to the cerebral cortex (for amnesia and loss-of-consciousness) and to the spinal cord (for atonia and antinociception). An alternative hypothesis proposes that anesthetics act on one or more brainstem or diencephalic nuclei, with suppression of cortex and spinal cord mediated by dedicated axonal pathways. We previously documented induction of an anesthesia-like state in rats by microinjection of small amounts of GABAA-R agonists into an upper brainstem region named the mesopontine tegmental anesthesia area(MPTA)...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821603/a-simple-light-isotope-metabolic-labeling-slim-labeling-strategy-a-powerful-tool-to-address-the-dynamics-of-proteome-variations-in-vivo
#7
Thibaut Léger, Camille Garcia, Laetitia Collomb, Jean-Michel Camadro
Many quantitative proteomics strategies rely on in vivo metabolic incorporation of amino acids with modified stable isotope profiles into proteins. These methods give rise to multiple ions for each peptide, with possible distortion of the isotopolog distribution, making the overall analytical process complex. We validated an alternative strategy, simple light isotope metabolic labeling (SLIM-labeling), which alleviates many of these problems. SLIM-labeling is based on the in vivo reduction of the isotopic composition of proteins using metabolic precursors with a unique light isotope composition to label all amino acids...
August 18, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821185/phylogeography-and-ecological-niche-modeling-of-the-desert-iguana-dipsosaurus-dorsalis-baird-girard-1852-in-the-baja-california-peninsula
#8
Tania Valdivia-Carrillo, Francisco J García-De León, Ma Carmen Blázquez, Carina Gutiérrez-Flores, Patricia González Zamorano
Understanding the factors that explain the patterns of genetic structure or phylogeographic breaks at an intraspecific level is key to inferring the mechanisms of population differentiation in its early stages. These topics have been well studied in the Baja California region, with vicariance and the dispersal ability of individuals being the prevailing hypothesis for phylogeographic breaks. In this study, we evaluated the phylogeographic patterns in the desert iguana (Dipsosaurus dorsalis), a species with a recent history in the region and spatial variation in life history traits...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821052/industrial-scale-salt-free-reactive-dyeing-of-cationized-cotton-fabric-with-different-reactive-dye-chemistry
#9
Arivithamani Nallathambi, Giri Dev Venkateshwarapuram Rengaswami
Dyeing of knitted cotton goods in the industry has been mostly with reactive dyes. Handling of salt laden coloured effluent arising out of dyeing process is one of the prime concerns of the industry. Cationization of cotton is one of the effective alternative to overcome the above problem. But for cationization to be successful at industrial scale it has to be carried out by exhaust process and should be adoptable for the various dye chemistries currently practiced in the industry. Hence, in the present work, industrial level exhaust method of cationization process was carried out with concentration of 40g/L and 80g/L...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821025/fabrication-and-characterization-of-water-dispersed-chitosan-nanofiber-poly-ethylene-glycol-diacrylate-calcium-phosphate-based-porous-composites
#10
Sachiko Nitta, Ayaka Komatsu, Taisei Ishii, Masatoshi Ohnishi, Atsuko Inoue, Hiroyuki Iwamoto
We evaluated the capacity of chitosan nanofiber (CNF)- and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based hydrogel/calcium phosphate hybrid (CNF-PEG/CaP) composites to act as scaffolding materials. CNF-PEG/CaP composites were fabricated by mineralization of CNF-PEG hydrogels using an alternate soaking method. The amount of CaP mineralized on CNF-PEG hydrogels increased as the ratio of CNF in the CNF-PEG hydrogel increased. Young's modulus of CNF-PEG/CaP hydrogels was enhanced by increase in CNF ratio. It was further confirmed that osteoblasts embedded on the CNF-PEG/CaP composites were viable after incubation for 5days and firmly attached to the CaP porous layer, forming an extensive cell-scaffold leading to cell-cell interactions...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820991/robust-evaluation-of-performance-monitoring-options-for-ozone-disinfection-in-water-recycling-using-bayesian-analysis
#11
Guido Carvajal, Amos Branch, Philipp Michel, Scott A Sisson, David J Roser, Jörg E Drewes, Stuart J Khan
Ozonation of wastewater has gained popularity because of its effectiveness in removing colour, UV absorbance, trace organic chemicals, and pathogens. Due to the rapid reaction of ozone with organic compounds, dissolved ozone is often not measurable and therefore, the common disinfection controlling parameter, concentration integrated over contact time (CT) cannot be obtained. In such cases, alternative parameters have been shown to be useful as surrogate measures for microbial removal including change in UV254 absorbance (ΔUVA), change in total fluorescence (ΔTF), or O3:TOC (or O3:DOC)...
August 1, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820940/polyoxometalate-cationic-cluster-and-%C3%AF-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-from-primary-interactions-to-supramolecular-hybrid-materials
#12
Mhamad Aly Moussawi, Nathalie Leclerc-Laronze, Sébastien Floquet, Pavel A Abramov, Maxim Nailyevich Sokolov, Stephane Cordier, Anne Ponchel, Eric Monflier, Herve Bricout, David Landy, Mohamed Haouas, Jerome Marrot, Emmanuel Cadot
Herein, we report on a three-component supramolecular hybrid system built from specific recognition processes involving a Dawson type polyoxometalate [P2W18O62](6-,) a cationic electron-rich cluster {[Ta6Br12(H6O)6]@2CD}(2+) and γ-cyclodextrin. Investigations of such a class of materials have been conducted using bottom-up approach by studying the specific interactions between -CD and both types of inorganic units. Their ability to interact has been investigated in the solid state by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and in solution using multinuclear NMR methods (including DOSY, EXSY and COSY), ESI-mass and UV-vis spectroscopies, electrochemistry and ITC experiments...
August 18, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820905/estimating-the-evidential-value-of-significant-results-in-psychological-science
#13
Balazs Aczel, Bence Palfi, Barnabas Szaszi
Quantifying evidence is an inherent aim of empirical science, yet the customary statistical methods in psychology do not communicate the degree to which the collected data serve as evidence for the tested hypothesis. In order to estimate the distribution of the strength of evidence that individual significant results offer in psychology, we calculated Bayes factors (BF) for 287,424 findings of 35,515 articles published in 293 psychological journals between 1985 and 2016. Overall, 55% of all analyzed results were found to provide BF > 10 (often labeled as strong evidence) for the alternative hypothesis, while more than half of the remaining results do not pass the level of BF = 3 (labeled as anecdotal evidence)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820716/evaluation-of-community-directed-operation-of-black-fly-traps-for-entomological-surveillance-of-onchocerca-volvulus-transmission-in-the-madi-mid-north-focus-of-onchocerciasis-in-northern-uganda
#14
Denis Loum, Charles R Katholi, Thomson Lakwo, Peace Habomugisha, Edridah M Tukahebwa, Thomas R Unnasch
Entomological measures of transmission are important metrics specified by the World Health Organization to document the suppression and interruption of transmission of Onchocerca volvulus, the causative agent of onchocerciasis. These metrics require testing of large numbers of vector black flies. Black fly collection has relied on human landing collections, which are inefficient and potentially hazardous. As the focus of the international community has shifted from onchocerciasis control to elimination, replacement of human landing collections has become a priority...
July 31, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820359/clinical-outcomes-of-direct-oral-anticoagulants-after-lower-extremity-arterial-procedures
#15
Afsha Aurshina, Pavel Kibrik, Justin Eisenberg, Ahmad Alsheekh, Anil Hingorani, Natalie Marks, Enrico Ascher
Objectives The use of postoperative anticoagulation is not uncommon for patients undergoing lower extremity arterial procedures as adjunctive therapy. Longer postoperative length of stay is necessary to achieve adequate therapeutic international normalized ratio with traditional protocols that call for the use of unfractionated heparin and warfarin therapy. We hypothesized the direct oral anticoagulants are an attractive alternative to provide adequate anticoagulation in patients who undergo lower extremity arterial procedures...
January 1, 2017: Vascular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820231/interventions-for-treating-persistent-pain-in-survivors-of-torture
#16
REVIEW
Emma Baird, Amanda C de C Williams, Leslie Hearn, Kirstine Amris
BACKGROUND: Persistent (chronic) pain is a frequent complaint in survivors of torture, particularly but not exclusively pain in the musculoskeletal system. Torture survivors may have no access to health care; where they do, they may not be recognised when they present, and the care available often falls short of their needs. There is a tendency in state and non-governmental organisations' services to focus on mental health, with poor understanding of persistent pain, while survivors may have many other legal, welfare, and social problems that take precedence over health care...
August 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820049/receptor-binding-assay-for-the-detection-of-paralytic-shellfish-poisoning-toxins-comparison-to-the-mouse-bioassay-and-applicability-under-regulatory-use
#17
Shiyamalie R Ruberu, Gregg W Langlois, Melisa Masuda, Clive Kittredge, S Kusum Perera, Raphael M Kudela
The receptor-binding assay (RBA) method for the detection of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins was evaluated for its overall performance in comparison with the mouse bioassay (MBA). An initial study to evaluate the effects of filtering shellfish extracts prior to running the RBA indicated no significant difference between filtered and unfiltered extracts on the determined saxitoxin concentrations. Next, we tested the RBA assay on 295 naturally contaminated mussel tissue samples, ranging in concentrations from 320 µg STX equiv...
August 18, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819834/recurrence-of-endovascularly-and-microsurgically-treated-intracranial-aneurysms-review-of-the-putative-role-of-aneurysm-wall-biology
#18
REVIEW
Serge Marbacher, Mika Niemelä, Juha Hernesniemi, Juhana Frösén
Although endovascular therapy has been proven safe and has become in many centers the primary method of treatment for intracranial aneurysms, the long-term durability of endovascular embolization remains a concern; at least for some aneurysms despite initial good result. While healing after clipping relies on mechanical occlusion, restoration after endovascular occlusion mainly requires the induction of a biological response. Healing after embolization depends on the growth of new tissue over the thrombus formed by the embolization material, or alternatively, on the organization of thrombus into fibrous tissue...
August 17, 2017: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819722/carbon-and-amide-detect-backbone-assignment-methods-of-a-novel-repeat-protein-from-the-staphylocoagulase-in-s-aureus
#19
Markus Voehler, Maddur Appajaiah Ashoka, Jens Meiler, Paul E Bock
The C-terminal repeat domain of staphylocoagulase that is secreted by the S. aureus is believed to play an important role interacting with fibrinogen and promotes blood clotting. To study this interaction by NMR, full assignment of each amide residue in the HSQC spectrum was required. Despite of the short sequence of the repeat construct, the HSQC spectrum contained a substantial amount of overlapped and exchange broadened resonances, indicating little secondary or tertiary structure. This caused severe problems while using the conventional, amide based NMR method for the backbone assignment...
August 17, 2017: Biomolecular NMR Assignments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819645/3d-imaging-of-optically-cleared-tissue-using-a-simplified-clarity-method-and-on-chip-microscopy
#20
Yibo Zhang, Yoonjung Shin, Kevin Sung, Sam Yang, Harrison Chen, Hongda Wang, Da Teng, Yair Rivenson, Rajan P Kulkarni, Aydogan Ozcan
High-throughput sectioning and optical imaging of tissue samples using traditional immunohistochemical techniques can be costly and inaccessible in resource-limited areas. We demonstrate three-dimensional (3D) imaging and phenotyping in optically transparent tissue using lens-free holographic on-chip microscopy as a low-cost, simple, and high-throughput alternative to conventional approaches. The tissue sample is passively cleared using a simplified CLARITY method and stained using 3,3'-diaminobenzidine to target cells of interest, enabling bright-field optical imaging and 3D sectioning of thick samples...
August 2017: Science Advances
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