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Pablo Antonio Maia de Farias, Fernando Gomes Figueredo, Aline Maria Brito Lucas, Rafael Barbosa de Moura, Henrique Douglas Melo Coutinho, Tania Maria Sarmento da Silva, Ana Luiza de Aguiar Rocha Martin, Marta Maria de França Fonteles
BACKGROUND: The search for new active compounds from the Brazilian flora has intensified in recent years, especially for new drugs with antibiotic potential. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to determine whether riachin has antibiotic activity in itself or is able to modulate the activity of conventional antibiotics. METHODS: A non-cyanogenic cyanoglycoside known as riachin was isolated from Bauhinia pentandra, and was tested alone and in combination with three antibiotics (clindamycin, amikacin, and gentamicin) against multiresistant bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus)...
2015: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
D Raubenheimer
All stages in the life cycle ofAcraea horta (L.) (Lepidoptera: Acraeinae) were found to release hydrogen cyanide (HCN) from their crushed tissues, and the source of cyanogenesis was present in the hemolymph of adults and larvae. Comparison with standards on thin-layer chromatograms (TLC) revealed the presence in adults of gynocardin, a cyclopentenyl cyanoglycoside also produced by the larval food plant,Kiggelaria africana L. (Flacourtiaceae). Analysis of adults reared on plant species (Passifloraceae) containing gynocardin and/or other cyanoglycosides suggested selective uptake of gynocardin by the larvae...
August 1989: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Daisuke Saeki, Takeshi Yamada, Tetsuya Kajimoto, Osamu Muraoka, Reiko Tanaka
A set of two diastereomers of phenylcyano glycosides, (7S)- and (7R)-phenylcyanomethyl 1'-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1, 2), were isolated from the methanol extract of dried vines of P. quadrangularis. The absolute configurations of the benzylic methine centers were determined mainly by the comparison of 13C NMR spectra of these compounds, prunasin (3) and sambunigrin (4), of which the last two cyanoglycosides are known to have (R)- and (S)-configurations, respectively.
August 2011: Natural Product Communications
Sylvia Lievens, Isabelle Verbaeys, Gerda Flo, Rudy Briers, Eddy Decuypere, Marnix Cokelaere
Simmondsin, a cyanoglycoside from jojoba meal, reduces food intake after oral administration. To diagnose if it acts by inducing satiation or by creating abnormal physiological effects, an observational study was undertaken to investigate the effects of simmondsin on feeding and other behaviors. Particular attention was paid to the behavioral sequence associated with satiety (BSS). At first contact, simmondsin non-significantly reduced food intake by 17% and had little effect on feeding and associated behaviors...
June 2009: Appetite
Karina Lucas Silva-Brandão, Niklas Wahlberg, Ronaldo Bastos Francini, Ana Maria L Azeredo-Espin, Keith S Brown, Márlon Paluch, David C Lees, André V L Freitas
The tribe Acraeini (Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae) is believed to comprise between one and seven genera, with the greatest diversity in Africa. The genera Abananote, Altinote, and Actinote (s. str.) are distributed in the Neotropics, while the genera Acraea, Bematistes, Miyana, and Pardopsis have a Palaeotropical distribution. The monotypic Pardopsis use herbaceous plants of the family Violaceae, Acraea and Bematistes feed selectively on plants with cyanoglycosides belonging to many plant families, but preferentially to Passifloraceae, and all Neotropical species with a known life cycle feed on Asteraceae only...
February 2008: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
E Y Morrison, D Ragoobirsingh, S A Peter
Over the years, several clinical syndromes have been described in diabetes mellitus. Although world opinion has settled somewhat on the main two types, the debate continues as to how the 'formes frustes' syndromes fit in and what if any implications there are for the accepted aetiology of the disease. Type 1, insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, results from pancreatic inadequacy as a result of a variety of insults such as autoimmune attack, toxic damage, etc. Insulin administration is at the core of the therapeutic approach...
2006: Medical Hypotheses
Marcel Goverde, Andreas Erhardt, Jürg Stöcklin
Effects of elevated CO2 and P availability on plant growth of the legume Lotus corniculatus and consequences for the butterfly larvae of Polyommatus icarus feeding on L. corniculatus were investigated in screen-aided CO2 control chambers under natural conditions on a calcareous grassland in the Swiss Jura mountains. Elevated CO2 conditions and P fertilisation increased the biomass production of L. corniculatus plants and affected the plant chemical composition. CO2 enrichment increased the C/N ratio and sugar concentration and decreased the N and P concentrations...
May 2004: Oecologia
F Zerrin Erdemgil, Kemal Hüsnü Can Baser, Pinar Akbay, Otto Sticher, Ihsan Calis
From the underground parts of Thalictrum orientale Boiss., a new phenolic compound 1 was isolated in addition to one known cyanoglycoside, lithospermoside (2). For the structure elucidation of all compounds, 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques (DEPT, COSY, HMBC, HSQC) and MS (HR-MALDI) were used. The structure of the new compound was established as 2-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-nitroethane-4'-O-[beta-xylopyranosyl-(1 --> 6)-beta-glucopyranoside] (1).
September 2003: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
R G Boby, M Indira
The effects of feeding a cassava (Manihot esculenta) rich diet on alcohol induced peroxidative damages were investigated in male albino rats. Rats were divided into four groups and maintained for 60 days as follows. (1) CONTROL GROUP: cassava free diet, (2) alcohol group: cassava free diet+ethanol (4 g/kg body wt/day), (3) cassava group: cassava diet and (4) alcohol+cassava group: cassava diet+ethanol (4 g/kg body wt/day). Results revealed that alcohol induced significant lipid peroxidation, since the lipid peroxidation products malondialdehyde (MDA), hydroperoxides and conjugated dienes were elevated in the liver...
September 15, 2003: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
E. Swain, J. E. Poulton
Cotyledons of mature black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) seeds contain the cyanogenic diglucoside (R)-amygdalin. The levels of amygdalin, its corresponding monoglucoside (R)-prunasin, and the enzymes that metabolize these cyanoglycosides were measured during the course of seedling development. During the first 3 weeks following imbibition, cotyledonary amygdalin levels declined by more than 80%, but free hydrogen cyanide was not released to the atmosphere. Concomitantly, prunasin, which was not present in mature, ungerminated seeds, accumulated in the seedling epicotyls, hypocotyls, and cotyledons to levels approaching 4 [mu]mol per seedling...
October 1994: Plant Physiology
J. E. Poulton, C. P. Li
Plum (Prunus domestica) seeds, which contain the cyanogenic diglucoside (R)-amygdalin and lesser amounts of the corresponding monoglucoside (R)-prunasin, release the respiratory toxin HCN upon tissue disruption. Amygdalin hydrolase (AH) and prunasin hydrolase (PH), two specific [beta]-glucosidases responsible for hydrolysis of these glucosides, were purified to near homogeneity by concanavalin A-Sepharose 4B and carboxymethyl-cellulose chromatography. Both proteins appear as polypeptides with molecular masses of 60 kD upon sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, but they exhibit different isoelectric points (PH, 5...
January 1994: Plant Physiology
A S Bhat, J Gervay-Hague
[reaction: see text] Reported herein is a general method for the efficient syntheses of a variety of beta-cyano glycosides through the activation of per-O-trimethylsilyl glycosides with TMSI to form alpha-glycosyl iodides, which undergo S(N)2-type displacement when treated with tetrabutylammonium cyanide. The cyanoglycosides were reduced under mild conditions using NaBH(4) in the presence of catalytic CoCl(2)(H(2)O)(6) in THF/H(2)O to give the corresponding aminomethyl glycosides.
June 28, 2001: Organic Letters
S Sandhyamani, A Vijayakumari, M Balaraman Nair
Pancreatic degenerative lesions of identical nature could be induced in bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata) fed protein-deficient tapioca or cassava starch-based and corn-starch-based diets for 3 or 5 months. Marked to severe lobular and acinar cell atrophy in animals fed low-protein diets resembled human pancreatic atrophy resulting from protein deficiency. Animals fed low-protein, high-carbohydrate diets showed lesions akin to tropical chronic calculus pancreatopathy with diabetes mellitus. The pancreatic lesions comprised moderate to marked acinar cell atrophy, marked islet hyperplasia or nesidioblastosis with hypertrophy and mucoid metaplasia of the duct epithelium...
January 1999: Pancreas
H Siller, J Winter
During cassava starch production, large amounts of cyanoglycosides were released and hydrolysed by plant-borne enzymes, leading to cyanide concentrations in the wastewater as high as 200 mg/l. For anaerobic degradation of the cyanide during pre-acidification or single-step methane fermentation, anaerobic cultures were enriched from soil residues of cassava roots and sewage sludge. In a pre-acidification reactor this culture was able to remove up to 4 g potassium cyanide/l of wastewater at a hydraulic retention time (tHR) of 4 days, equivalent to a maximal cyanide space loading of 400 mg CN- 1(-1) day-1...
September 1998: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
H Siller, J Winter
During the process of producing cassava starch from Manihot esculenta roots, large amounts of cyanoglycosides were released, which rapidly decayed to CN- following enzymatic hydrolysis. Depending on the varying cyanoglycoside content of the cassava varieties, the cyanide concentration in the wastewater was as high as 200 mg/l. To simulate anaerobic stabilization, a wastewater with a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of about 20 g/l was prepared from cassava roots and was fermented in a fixed-bed methanogenic reactor...
February 1998: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
M Yoshikawa, H Shimada, S Horikawa, T Murakami, H Shimoda, J Yamahara, H Matsuda
The methanolic extract of the underground part of Rhodiola sacra (PRAIN ex HAMET) S. H. Fu was found to show inhibitory activity on the histamine release from rat peritoneal exudate cells induced by an antigen-antibody reaction. From the methanolic extract with the inhibitory activity on histamine release, a new cyanoglycoside called rhodiocyanoside D and two new monoterpene glycosides called sacranosides A and B were isolated, together with eight known compounds, rhodiocyanoside A, heterodendrin, lotaustralin, rhodioloside, 2-phenylethyl alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 2-methyl-3-buten-2-yl beta-D-glucopyranoside, kenposide A, and rhodiooctanoside...
September 1997: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
M Yoshikawa, H Shimada, H Shimoda, N Murakami, J Yamahara, H Matsuda
Two bioactive cyanoglycosides, rhodiocyanosides A and B, and two oligoglycosides, rhodioflavonoside [gossypetin 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-->3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside] and rhodiooctanoside [octyl alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl(1-->6) beta- D-glucopyranoside), were isolated from the Chinese natural medicine "Si Lie Hong Jing Tian" (Shiretsukoukeiten in Japanese), the underground part of Rhodiola quadrifida (Pall.) Fisch. et Mey., together with four known compounds: rhodioloside, n-hexyl beta-D-glucopyranoside, gossypetin 7-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside, and tricetin...
November 1996: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
M Yoshikawa, H Shimada, H Shimoda, H Matsuda, J Yamahara, N Murakami
Two new antiallergic cyanoglycosides named rhodiocyanosides A and B were isolated from the Chinese natural medicine "Si Lie Hong Jing Tian" (Shiretsukoukeiten in Japanese), the underground part of Rhodiola quadrifida (Pall.) Fisch. et Mey., together with two new glycosides, octyl alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl(1-6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside and gossypetin 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside. Their chemical structures were determined on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. Rhodiocyanosides A and B exhibited inhibitory activity on the histamine release from rat peritoneal exudate cells sensitized with anti-DNP IgE...
July 1995: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
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