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Firearm injuries

Yi Zuo, Elizabeth C Pino, Mrithyunjay Vyliparambil, Bindu Kalesan
The majority of the burden of firearm injury in the United States is on men as compared to women. There is limited evidence regarding sex differences in short-term hospitalization outcomes after surviving firearm injury. The risk of cardiovascular and all-cause hospital readmission, length of stay (LOS), and costs within 180 days after surviving an index firearm injury was compared between males and females. A claims-based, retrospective, cohort study was performed using Nationwide Readmission Database (2013-2014) to obtain a cohort of patients who survived an index hospitalization of firearm injury...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Men's Health
Nichole MacPhee, Anne Savage, Nikolas Noton, Eilidh Beattie, Louise Milne, Joanna Fraser
Bows and arrows are used more for recreation, sport and hunting in the Western world and tend not to be as popular a weapon as firearms or knives. Yet there are still injuries and fatalities caused by these low-velocity weapons due to their availability to the public and that a licence is not required to own them. This study aimed to highlight the penetration capabilities of aluminium arrows into soft tissue and bones in the presence of clothing. Further from that, how the type and fit of clothing as well as arrowhead type contribute to penetration capacity...
March 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
Yongwen Jiang, Megan L Ranney, Brian Sullivan, Dennis Hilliard, Samara Viner-Brown, Nicole Alexander-Scott
CONTEXT: National data on the epidemiology of firearm injuries and circumstances of firearm deaths are difficult to obtain and often are nonreliable. Since firearm injury and death rates and causes can vary substantially between states, it is critical to consider state-specific data sources. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we illustrate how states can systematically examine demographic characteristics, firearm information, type of wound, toxicology tests, precipitating circumstances, and costs to provide a comprehensive picture of firearm injuries and deaths using data sets from a single state with relatively low rates of firearm injury and death...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
Pina Violano, Stephanie Bonne, Thomas Duncan, Peter Pappas, A Britton Christmas, Andrew Dennis, Stephanie Goldberg, Wendy Greene, Michael Hirsh, William Shillinglaw, Bryce Robinson, Marie Crandall
BACKGROUND: Over 50,000 homicides and suicides occur each year. An estimated half of all U.S. households are believed to have a firearm present, making them one of the most ubiquitous consumer products. Our goal was to determine if the manner of storage of a firearm in a home could potentially make a difference in the outcomes of intentional and unintentional injuries involving a firearm; specifically addressing the use of gun safes and devices that block/disable firearm function (trigger locks, cable locks, etc...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Banwari Meel
Background Firearm-related deaths are a serious public-health problem in South Africa, which has the second-highest rate of firearm-related deaths in the world. Objective The aim of this study was to examine the trend in firearm deaths in the Transkei subregion of South Africa. Method An autopsy record review study was conducted at the Forensic Pathology Laboratory at Mthatha over a period of 23 years (1993-2015). Results Over a 23-year period (1993-2015), 27,036 autopsies were performed at the Mthatha Forensic Pathology Laboratory on people who had died from unnatural causes...
January 1, 2018: Medicine, Science, and the Law
Zhao-Wen Zong, Lian-Yang Zhang, Hao Qin, Si-Xu Chen, Lin Zhang, Lei Yang, Xiao-Xue Li, Quan-Wei Bao, Dao-Cheng Liu, Si-Hao He, Yue Shen, Rong Zhang, Yu-Feng Zhao, Xiao-Zheng Zhong
The accurate assessment and diagnosis of combat injuries are the basis for triage and treatment of combat casualties. A consensus on the assessment and diagnosis of combat injuries was made and discussed at the second annual meeting of the Professional Committee on Disaster Medicine of the Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA). In this consensus agreement, the massive hemorrhage, airway, respiration, circulation and hypothermia (MARCH) algorithm, which is a simple triage and rapid treatment and field triage score, was recommended to assess combat casualties during the first-aid stage, whereas the abbreviated scoring method for combat casualty and the MARCH algorithm were recommended to assess combat casualties in level II facilities...
February 13, 2018: Military Medical Research
Justin E Heinze, Patrick M Carter, Quyen Ngo, Marc A Zimmerman, Maureen A Walton, Rebecca M Cunningham
PURPOSE: Perpetration of violent behavior begins to increase in adolescence and peaks in young adulthood (e.g., age 18-29) before decreasing by the early 30s. Considerable variability in reported perpetration, targets, and severity of violence suggests youth may change their violent behavior patterns over time. METHODS: We use latent transition analysis to describe profiles of violent behavior against partners and nonpartners in an at-risk sample of young adults (N = 599; 59% male; 61% African-American) over a period of 2 years...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
Anupam B Jena, Andrew R Olenski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
Katherine Austin, Margo Lane
Firearm injuries are a significant and preventable cause of death in Canadian youth. Adolescent and young adult males are disproportionately affected; however, firearm-related deaths occur in youth of all ages. Canada's rate of firearm ownership is lower than that of the USA, but high compared with other upper-income countries. The availability of firearms to youth is an important factor in adolescent suicide, unintentional firearm deaths, gang homicide and school shootings. Guns should not be kept in homes or environments where children and adolescents live or play...
February 2018: Paediatrics & Child Health
Christopher S Koper, William D Johnson, Kenneth Stesin, Jeffery Egge
Laws restricting large ammunition magazines for semiautomatic weapons are intended to reduce firearm deaths and injuries by preventing gun attacks involving high numbers of shots. However, data on shootings from high-volume gunfire (HVG) incidents are extremely limited. This study examined gunshot victimisations resulting from HVG attacks (>10 shots fired) using police data on shootings in Minneapolis, Minnesota from January through August 2014 (n=135 to 167). Shots fired estimates were generated from police reports based on physical evidence recovered, reported gunshot victims, and accounts of witnesses and actors...
February 24, 2018: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
Özlenen Özkan, Ömer Özkan, Anı Çinpolat, Mehmet Can Ubur, Gamze Bektaş, Adil Jumshudov, Hilmi Uysal
BACKGROUND: The repair of extensive lower lip defects is difficult due to the presence of both functional and esthetic requirements. This report describes functional lip repair using the partial latissimus dorsi free flap without nerve coaptation. METHODS: Reconstruction of the lower lip due to subtotal and total tissue defects was performed using latissimus dorsi free flap on twelve patients, between 2013 and 2017. The etiology was squamous cell carcinoma in six patients, malignant melanoma in one, firearm injury in three and microstomia in two...
February 23, 2018: Microsurgery
Natalie L Yanchar, Suzanne Beno
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 20, 2018: Annals of Surgery
Jennifer M Boggs, Arne Beck, Sam Hubley, Edward L Peterson, Yong Hu, L Keoki Williams, Deepak Prabhakar, Rebecca C Rossom, Frances L Lynch, Christine Y Lu, Beth E Waitzfelder, Ashli A Owen-Smith, Gregory E Simon, Brian K Ahmedani
OBJECTIVE: Mitigation of suicide risk by reducing access to lethal means, such as firearms and potentially lethal medications, is a highly recommended practice. To better understand groups of patients at risk of suicide in medical settings, the authors compared demographic and clinical risk factors between patients who died by suicide by using firearms or other means with matched patients who did not die by suicide (control group). METHODS: In a case-control study in 2016 from eight health care systems within the Mental Health Research Network, 2,674 suicide cases from 2010-2013 were matched to a control group (N=267,400)...
February 15, 2018: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Selwyn O Rogers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 12, 2018: Annals of Surgery
Kavelin Rumalla, Vijay Letchuman, Kyle A Smith, Paul M Arnold
BACKGROUND: Hydrocephalus is a life-threatening sequela of traumatic brain injury (TBI) with poorly defined epidemiology in children. Here, we report the national incidence, risk factors, and outcomes associated with post-traumatic hydrocephalus (PTH). METHODS: The Kids Inpatient Database (2003, 2006, 2009, 2012) was queried using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes to identify all patients (age 0 to 20) with TBI (850...
December 11, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
John O'Neill, Mark E Hartman, Dawn A O'Neill, William J Lewinski
Empirical analysis of the contexts in which UDs occur in law enforcement have only recently begun to emerge. We analyzed a novel sample of UD reports (N = 171) that occurred between 1992 and 2016, collected from one non-U.S. and three U.S. law enforcement entities. Using an established antecedent-behavior-consequence (A-B-C) taxonomy, reports were analyzed by context, officer behavior, type of firearm, injuries, deaths, and property damages. This study is the first to empirically document reports of UDs caused by the startle response and the first to analyze a substantial sample of UDs that involved handguns with a double-action only trigger mechanism...
April 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Cora Peterson, Stephanie L Foster, Likang Xu, William M Hartnett, Curtis Florence, Tadesse Haileyesus
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the presence of fraternities and sororities was associated with a higher local injury rate among undergraduate-age youth. METHODS: In 2016 we compared the rate of 2010-2013 youth (18-24 years) emergency department (ED) visits for injuries in Hospital Service Areas (HSA) with and without fraternities and sororities. ED visits were identified in the State Emergency Department Database (n=1,560 hospitals, 1,080 HSAs, 16 states). US Census Bureau and National Center for Education Statistics sources identified HSA population and campus (n=659) characteristics...
February 6, 2018: Journal of American College Health: J of ACH
Katherine A Fowler, Shane P D Jack, Bridget H Lyons, Carter J Betz, Emiko Petrosky
PROBLEM/CONDITION: In 2014, approximately 59,000 persons died in the United States as a result of violence-related injuries. This report summarizes data from CDC's National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) regarding violent deaths from 18 U.S. states for 2014. Results are reported by sex, age group, race/ethnicity, marital status, location of injury, method of injury, circumstances of injury, and other selected characteristics. REPORTING PERIOD COVERED: 2014...
February 2, 2018: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
Elliot L Ames
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2018: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
Alessia Giaquinta, Dovile Mociskyte, Giuseppe D'Arrigo, Giuseppe Barbagallo, Francesco Certo, Massimiliano Veroux, Pierfrancesco Veroux
BACKGROUND: Penetrating aortic trauma remains one of the most challenging injuries with a high mortality rate if left untreated, or if the surgical treatment is delayed. We present an uncommon case of a late diagnosed abdominal firearm injury, in which the bullet partially penetrated the wall of the aorta, creating a plug that prevented immediate death due to massive bleeding. CASE PRESENTATION: A 26-year-old Libyan man was a victim of a firearm wound, with a bullet penetrating his abdominal wall from the left to right side...
January 27, 2018: BMC Surgery
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