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genitourinary pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608721/practical-applications-of-immunohistochemistry-in-the-diagnosis-of-genitourinary-tumors
#1
Xiuli Xiao, Rong Hu, Fang-Ming Deng, Steven S Shen, Ximing J Yang, Chin-Lee Wu
CONTEXT: - Pathologic diagnosis of tumors in the genitourinary system can be challenging based on morphology alone, particularly when diagnostic material is limited, such as in core biopsies. Immunohistochemical stain can be a useful tool to aid in the diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: - To provide an update on practical applications and interpretation of immunohistochemical stains in the diagnosis of tumors in prostate, kidney, bladder, and testis. We particularly focus on difficult differential diagnoses, providing our insights in frequently encountered challenging situations...
June 13, 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582484/comparison-of-three-methods-for-measuring-workload-in-surgical-pathology-and-cytopathology
#2
Daniel Cloetingh, Rodney A Schmidt, Christina S Kong
Objectives: Pathologist workload in the United States has traditionally been measured by relative value units (RVUs), which is often criticized for providing an inaccurate estimate of actual work. This study compares three methods for measuring workload. Methods: Surgical pathology and cytopathology workload for 1 representative month at Stanford Health Care was assessed using three different methods: RVUs, Royal College of Pathologists (RCP) point system, and University of Washington-Seattle (UW) slide count method...
June 5, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547760/blinded-review-of-archival-radical-prostatectomy-specimens-supports-that-contemporary-gleason-score-6-prostate-cancer-lacks-metastatic-potential
#3
Luciano A Nunez Bragayrac, Christine Murekeyisoni, Michael J Vacchio, Kristopher Attwood, Diana C Mehedint, James L Mohler, Gissou Azabdaftari, Bo Xu, Eric C Kauffman
BACKGROUND: Retrospective identification of Gleason pattern 4 in metastatic Gleason score 3 + 3 = 6 (GS6) radical prostatectomy (RP) specimens has suggested true GS6 prostate cancer (CaP) lacks metastatic potential. However, pathologist awareness of study design and metastasis outcomes at the time of RP review might have introduced upgrading bias. We used pathologist-blinded methodology for unbiased characterization of metastasis rates for contemporarily defined pathologic GS6 (pGS6) CaP...
May 26, 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540148/clinical-and-microbiological-characteristics-of-bacteroides-prosthetic-joint-infections
#4
Neel Shah, Douglas Osmon, Aaron J Tande, James Steckelberg, Rafael Sierra, Randall Walker, Elie F Berbari
Clinical and microbiological characteristics of patients with Bacteroides prosthetic joint infection (PJI) have not been well described in the literature. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to assess the outcome of patients with Bacteroides PJI and to review risk factors associated with failure of therapy. Between 1/1969 and 12/2012, 20 episodes of Bacteroides PJI in 17 patients were identified at our institution. The mean age of the patients in this cohort at the time of diagnosis was 55.6 years; 59% (n=10) had knee involvement...
2017: Journal of bone and joint infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526243/histopathology-in-ureteropelvic-junction-obstruction-with-and-without-crossing-vessels
#5
Madeline Cancian, Gyan Pareek, Anthony Caldamone, Liza Aguiar, Hai Wang, Ali Amin
OBJECTIVE: To determine if the histopathology of the ureteropelvic junction differs between those with and without crossing vessels who present with a ureteropelvic junction obstruction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our database was queried for patients undergoing pyeloplasty (CPT 50400, 50405, 50544) between 6/1/2002 to 3/10/3016. We excluded patients with other renal anatomic abnormalities and patients undergoing surgery for upper tract tumor. One genitourinary pathologist reviewed all slides for muscle hypertrophy, fibrosis, edema and inflammation...
May 16, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461996/renal-colic-during-pregnancy-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-aspects-literature-review
#6
REVIEW
Leonardo Tortolero Blanco, Moises Rodriguez Socarras, Rubén Fabuena Montero, Elena López Diez, Antonio Ojea Calvo, Sergio Alonso Y Gregorio, José Ramón Cansino, Juan Antonio Galan, Juan Gómez Rivas
INTRODUCTION: Renal colic during pregnancy is a rare urgency but is one of the most common non-obstetric reasons for hospital admission. The management often means a challenge for the urologist and gynecologist due to the complexity involved in preserving the maternal and fetal well-being. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a literature search within the PubMed database. We found 65 related articles in English. We selected 36 for this review prioritizing publications in the last two decades...
2017: Central European Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448860/a-unique-presentation-of-renal-cell-transformation-into-renal-cell-carcinoma-in-subcutaneous-fatty-tissue-post-twenty-year-old-healing-gun-shot-wound-a-case-report
#7
Awadh R Alqahtani, Mohammed A Alqahtani
INTRODUCTION: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common malignancy in the genitourinary tract, and is among the 10 most common cancers in both males and females. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We report a case of a 61-year-old male who presented with a cutaneous lesion on his left back side at a site where he had undergone several surgeries - including Left nephrectomy - twenty years ago for a gun-shot wound he sustained which penetrated his abdomen. DISCUSSION: At that time pathology reports turned out to be normal, specially left kidney pathology report which was negative for any malignancy...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405833/interpathologist-concordance-in-the-histological-diagnosis-of-focal-prostatic-atrophy-lesions-acute-and-chronic-prostatitis-pin-and-prostate-cancer
#8
Francesca Giunchi, Kristina Jordahl, Enrico Bollito, Maurizio Colecchia, Carlo Patriarca, Antonietta D'Errico, Francesco Vasuri, Deborah Malvi, Alessandro Fornari, Luca Reggiani Bonetti, Barbara Corti, Mauro Papotti, Paolo DeGiuli, Massimo Loda, Rodolfo Montironi, Michelangelo Fiorentino, Jennifer R Rider
Epidemiological and biological evidence indicates a causal relationship between the presence of proliferative atrophic lesions and the development of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and prostate cancer. The presence of inflammatory and atrophic lesions of the prostate is widely underestimated and they are not generally mentioned in pathology reports. We performed a histopathological concordance study among eight genitourinary specialists and seven generalist pathologists, using 116 histological slides of prostate lesions, including proliferative atrophic lesions, PIN, and cancer...
June 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392009/genitourinary-and-gastrointestinal-co-morbidities-in-children-the-role-of-neural-circuits-in-regulation-of-visceral-function
#9
REVIEW
A P Malykhina, K E Brodie, D T Wilcox
OBJECTIVE: Pediatric lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) is a common problem in childhood. Lower urinary tract symptoms in children include overactive bladder, voiding postponement, stress incontinence, giggle incontinence, and dysfunctional voiding. Gastrointestinal co-morbidities, including constipation or fecal incontinence, are commonly associated with lower urinary tract (LUT) symptoms in children, often reaching 22-34%. This review summarized the potential mechanisms underlying functional lower urinary and gastrointestinal co-morbidities in children...
April 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334854/the-burden-of-hpv-related-diseases-in-italy-2001-12
#10
P Kuhdari, S Previato, M Giordani, P Biavati, S Ferretti, G Gabutti
Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the main cause of cervical cancer and plays a relevant role in the development of genital warts and of the cancer of penis and anus, head/neck, oropharynx and genitourinary system. The aim of this study is the evaluation of hospitalizations due to HPV-related pathologies in 2001-12 in Italy. Methods: The national hospital discharge forms were provided by the Ministry of Health. The HPV-related hospitalizations were identified using specific diagnostic codes, accordingly to the ICD-9-CM coding system...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325651/genitourinary-paraganglioma-demographic-pathologic-and-clinical-characteristics-in-the-surveillance-epidemiology-and-end-results-database-2000-2012
#11
Stephanie Purnell, Abhinav Sidana, Mahir Maruf, Campbell Grant, Piyush K Agarwal
BACKGROUND: Extra-adrenal paragangliomas (PGLs) are infrequent, benign, and neuroendocrine tumors arising from chromaffin cells of the autonomic nervous system. Most PGLs are sporadic, but up to 32% are associated with inherited syndromes such as neurofibromatosis type 1, von Hippel-Lindau disease, and familial PGL. Although most PGLs develop above the umbilicus, they have been reported in the genitourinary (GU) tract. Owing to the paucity of literature on the rates of GU PGL, the objective of our study is to describe the demographic, pathologic, and clinical characteristics of GU PGL, and compare them to non-GU sites of PGL using the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results (SEER) database...
July 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325359/immunohistochemistry-in-the-workup-of-prostate-biopsies-frequency-variation-and-appropriateness-of-use-among-pathologists-practicing-at-an-academic-center
#12
Sameer Al Diffalha, Mohanad Shaar, Güliz A Barkan, Eva M Wojcik, Maria M Picken, Stefan E Pambuccian
OBJECTIVES: We studied the frequency, inter-pathologist variation, appropriateness and utility of immunohistochemistry (IHC) performed on prostate biopsies (PB) to determine the significance of foci of suspicious glands/atypical small acinar proliferations (ASAP). METHODS: We calculated the rate of IHC use and diagnostic rate of ASAP and adenocarcinoma in PB from 01/01/2008 to 06/30/2015 for individual pathologists working in a tertiary academic institution, and correlated them with the pathologists' experience, subspecialization and PB volume with the aim of determining the interpathologist variation and appropriateness of use of IHC according to recently published recommendations, and the usefulness of IHC to resolve foci of ASAP as either benign or adenocarcinoma...
April 2017: Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302349/influence-of-pathologist-experience-on-positive-surgical-margins-following-radical-prostatectomy
#13
Jacob E Tallman, Vignesh T Packiam, Kristen E Wroblewski, Gladell P Paner, Scott E Eggener
BACKGROUND: A positive surgical margin (PSM) following radical prostatectomy (RP) for prostate cancer is associated with increased risk of biochemical recurrence. We sought to examine whether the pathologist is an independent predictor of PSMs. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of 3,557 men who underwent RP for localized prostate cancer at our institution from 2003 to 2015. We evaluated 29 separate pathologists. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression were used to test variables previously shown to influence PSM rates...
July 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300036/-inflammatory-myofibroblastic-genitourinary-tumor-the-challenge-of-controlling-and-monitoring-an-non-frequent-oncological-disease
#14
Luis Rico, Francisco Miguel López, Gonzalo Vitagliano, Ameri Carlos
OBJECTIVE: The inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a neoplasia with intermediate biological potential, infrequent, with an unpredictable clinical prognosis and a low recurrence rate after an effective treatment. We report two cases of IMT with genitourinary localization, being this entit's publications infrequent. Both presented with little symptomatology, leading to multiple differential diagnosis. The surgical treatment was chosen and pathologic result confirmed the diagnosis...
March 2017: Archivos Españoles de Urología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293790/deconstructing-the-genitourinary-syndrome-of-menopause
#15
Pedro Vieira-Baptista, Claudia Marchitelli, Hope K Haefner, Gilbert Donders, Faustino Pérez-López
The concept of genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM) was recently introduced and has been gaining widespread use. While some justifications for its introduction are straightforward, others may be questionable. Numerous unspecific symptoms and signs were included in the definition of the syndrome, but the minimum number required for diagnosis was not established. While the GSM definition is designed to facilitate identifying vulvovaginal and urinary estrogen-deprivation-associated symptoms and signs, several concerns have evolved: (1) the syndrome may result in the underdiagnosis of vulvar and urinary pathology; and (2) serious conditions (e...
May 2017: International Urogynecology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260746/inhibition-of-t24-and-rt4-human-bladder-cancer-cell-lines-by-heterocyclic-molecules
#16
Zhi-Feng Zhao, Kai Wang, Feng-Fu Guo, Hua Lu
BACKGROUND Bladder cancer is a major widespread tumor of the genitourinary tract. Around 30% of patients with superficial cancers develop invasive and metastatic pathology. MATERIAL AND METHODS Some new heterocyclic 4-methyl coumarin derivatives were designed using molecular modeling studies to evaluate their potential against bladder cancer lines T24 and RT-4. The designed compounds that showed good binding affinity to T24 and RT4 were synthesized, with excellent yield. The synthesized compounds after structural evaluation were further evaluated for their antiproliferative activity by cell viability assay, cell cycle analysis, and apoptosis assay...
March 6, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248057/-tuberculosis-of-the-prostate
#17
O S Streltsova, V N Krupin, K E Yunusova, M V Mamonov
Genitourinary tract is the second most common site where extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) occurs. Genitourinary TB is notable for a latent clinical course and difficult diagnosis. The paper presents clinical observations of two patients treated in a urology department of a general public hospital. One of them was diagnosed with tuberculosis of the prostate, MTB+. In the other, TB of the prostate was suspected based on pathologic assessment of the surgical specimen after surgery for prostate cancer.
December 2016: Urologii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241186/distribution-and-quantity-of-sites-of-john-cunningham-virus-persistence-in-immunologically-healthy-patients-correlation-with-john-cunningham-virus-antibody-and-urine-john-cunningham-virus-dna
#18
Joseph R Berger, Craig S Miller, Robert J Danaher, Kathryn Doyle, Kenneth J Simon, Elizabeth Norton, Leonid Gorelik, Ellen Cahir-McFarland, Divya Singhal, Nawaz Hack, Joseph Ryan Owens, Peter T Nelson, Janna H Neltner
Importance: Although seroepidemiological studies indicate that greater than 50% of the population has been infected with John Cunningham virus (JCV), the sites of JCV persistence remain incompletely characterized. Objective: To determine sites of JCV persistence in immunologically healthy individuals. Design, Setting, and Participants: Tissue specimens from multiple sites including brain, renal, and nonrenal tissues were obtained at autopsy performed in the Department of Pathology at the University of Kentucky from 12 immunologically healthy patients between February 9, 2011, and November 27, 2012...
April 1, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237181/moderate-hypofractionated-postprostatectomy-volumetric-modulated-arc-therapy-with-daily-image-guidance-vmat-igrt-a%C3%A2-mono-institutional-report-on-feasibility-and-acute-toxicity
#19
Sergio Fersino, Umberto Tebano, Rosario Mazzola, Niccolò Giaj-Levra, Francesco Ricchetti, Gioacchino Di Paola, Alba Fiorentino, Gianluisa Sicignano, Stefania Naccarato, Ruggero Ruggieri, Stefano Cavalleri, Filippo Alongi
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute toxicity profiles of a moderate hypofractionated regimen with volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) in patients with prostate cancer (PC) who underwent radical prostatectomy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From December 2012 to February 2016, 125 patients, previously having undergone radical prostatectomy, received adjuvant (64 patients) or salvage (61 patients) radiotherapy (RT) inside an institutional protocol of moderate hypofractionation schedule using the VMAT technique (Varian RapidArc, Palo Alto, CA)...
February 6, 2017: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225445/adjuvant-radiotherapy-versus-wait-and-see-strategy-for-pathologic-t3-or-margin-positive-prostate-cancer-a-meta-analysis
#20
M Parvez Shaikh, Fiori Alite, Meng-Jia Wu, Abhishek A Solanki, Matthew M Harkenrider
OBJECTIVE: To conduct a meta-analysis of the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing adjuvant radiotherapy (ART) to wait-and-see (WS) strategy in pathologic T3 or margin-positive prostate cancer. METHODS: A comprehensive EMBASE, MEDLINE, http://www.clinicaltrails.gov, and Cochrane Library search for RCTs of ART versus WS was done. Results were synthesized for metastasis-free, biochemical progression-free, clinical progression-free, hormone-free, and overall survival as well as gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicities...
February 20, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Oncology
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