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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781763/new-insights-into-the-nucleolar-localization-of-a-plant-rna-virus-encoded-protein-that-acts-in-both-rna-packaging-and-rna-silencing-suppression-involvement-of-importins-alpha-and-relevance-for-viral-infection
#1
Miryam Pérez-Cañamás, Carmen Hernández
Despite replication of plus strand RNA viruses takes place in the cytoplasm of host cells, different proteins encoded by these infectious agents have been shown to localize in the nucleus, with high accumulation at the nucleolus. In most cases, the molecular determinants and/or biological significance of such subcellular localization remain elusive. Recently, we reported that protein p37 encoded by Pelargonium line pattern virus (family Tombusviridae) acts in both RNA packaging and RNA silencing suppression...
May 21, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781303/lavandula-x-intermedia-and-lavandula-angustifolia-essential-oils-phytochemical-composition-and-antimicrobial-activity-against-foodborne-pathogens
#2
Roberta Tardugno, Annalisa Serio, Federica Pellati, Serena D'Amato, Clemencia Chaves López, Maria Grazia Bellardi, Maura Di Vito, Vincenzo Savini, Antonello Paparella, Stefania Benvenuti
Four cultivars (cv) of Lavandula x intermedia ('Abrialis', 'Alba', 'Rinaldi Ceroni' (R.C.) and 'Sumiens') were cultivated in Italy and their essential oils (EOs) were distilled from Alfalfa Mosaic Virus-free plants. These EOs and one from L. angustifolia Miller were chemically characterised by GC-MS and GC-FID. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated against Listeria monocytogenes (24 strains) and Salmonella enterica (10 food strains). Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ≥ 10.0 μL/mL inhibited Salmonella (cv 'R...
May 21, 2018: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780682/-nitraria-schoberi-l-hairy-root-culture-as-a-source-of-compounds-with-antiviral-activity-against-influenza-virus-subtypes-%C3%B0-h5n1-and-%C3%B0-h3n2
#3
Tatiana Zheleznichenko, Evgenii Banaev, Sergey Asbaganov, Maria Voronkova, Tatiana Kukushkina, Ekaterina Filippova, Natalia Mazurkova, Larisa Shishkina, Tatyana Novikova
The hairy root culture of halophyte Nitraria schoberi was obtained by transforming seedlings' primary leaves with a wild strain of Agrobacterium rhizogenes 15834 SWISS (transformation frequency was 78.7%). The roots' transgenic status was confirmed by PCR analysis using rolB -, rolC -, virC -, virD1 -specific primers. There was a significant increase in the biosynthesis of flavonoids, hydroxycinnamic acids, pectins, protopectins and saponins in hairy roots as compared to intact plant roots. The сatechin content in ethanol extracts of transformed roots' exceeded this factor 3...
June 2018: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779095/crispr-cas13a-targeting-of-rna-virus-in-plants
#4
Kulbhushan Chaudhary
This approach is quite promising to control plant viral diseases and create synthetic networks to better understand the structure/function relationship in RNA and proteins. Plant viruses are obligate intracellular parasites which causes enormous losses in crop yield worldwide. These viruses replicate into infected cells by highjacking host cellular machinery. Over the last two decades, diverse approaches such as conventional breeding, transgenic approach and gene silencing strategies have been used to control RNA viruses, but escaped due to high rate of mutation...
May 19, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778199/disinfection-of-transboundary-animal-disease-viruses-on-surfaces-used-in-pork-packing-plants
#5
Peter W Krug, Talina Davis, Catherine O'Brien, Michael LaRocco, Luis L Rodriguez
In the event of an intentional or accidental incursion of a transboundary animal disease (TAD) virus into the US, a major concern to the meat industry would be the potential contamination of packing plants by processing infected animals. TAD agents such as foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV), African swine fever virus (ASFV) and classical swine fever virus (CSFV) are found in swine products such as blood and feces and are present in the tissues of infected animals. To test the disinfection of TAD viruses in a pork-packing environment, a previously developed disinfection assay was used to test two biocides currently used by industry sanitarians, against TAD viruses dried on industry relevant surfaces in saline or swine products...
June 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777803/an-isolate-of-potato-virus-x-capsid-protein-from-n-benthamiana-insights-from-homology-modeling-and-molecular-dynamics-simulation
#6
Neda Esfandiari, Yahya Sefidbakht
Since Potato Virus X (PVX) is easily transmitted mechanically between their hosts, its control is difficult. We have previously reported new isolate of this virus (PVX-Iran, GenBank Accession number FJ461343). However, the molecular basis of resistance breaking activity and its relation to capsid protein structure are still not well-understood. SDS-PAGE, ELISA, Western blot and RT-PCR molecular examinations were performed on the inoculated plants Nicotiana benthamiana. The pathological symptoms were related to the PVX isolate...
May 16, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775725/anti-hepatitis-c-virus-activity-and-synergistic-effect-of-nymphaea-alba-extracts-and-bioactive-constituents-in-liver-infected-cells
#7
Sidra Rehman, Usman Ali Ashfaq, Bushra Ijaz, Sheikh Riazuddin
BACKGROUND: Without an effective vaccine, hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains a global threat, inflicting 170-300 million carriers worldwide at risk of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Though various direct acting antivirals have been redeemed the hepatitis C treatment, a few restraints persist including possible side effects, viral resistance emergence, excessive cost which restricts its availability to a common person. HYPOTHESIS: There is no preventive HCV vaccine available today so the discovery of potent antiviral natural flora and their bioactive constituents may help to develop preventive cures against HCV infection...
May 15, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775724/biological-activities-and-phytocompounds-of-northwest-algeria-ajuga-iva-l-extracts-partial-identification-of-the-antibacterial-fraction
#8
Saida Medjeldi, Lamjed Bouslama, Amina Benabdalla, Rim Essid, Soumaya Haou, Salem Elkahoui
The use of synthetic food additive and the appearance of antibiotic resistance are at the basis of important human health problems. The substitution of synthetic compounds with new natural substances extracted from plants or microorganisms is therefore the ideal solution to this scourge. The objective of this work was to evaluate the phyto-constituents (polyphenols, flavonoids and condensed tannins), and to test the biological activities (antioxidant, antibacterial and antiviral) of the Ajuga iva (L) aerial part extracts...
May 15, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774653/matrix-glycoprotein-interactions-required-for-budding-of-a-plant-nucleorhabdovirus-and-induction-of-inner-nuclear-membrane-invagination
#9
Kai Sun, Xin Zhou, Wenye Lin, Xueping Zhou, Andrew O Jackson, Zhenghe Li
Nucleorhabdoviruses such as Sonchus yellow net virus (SYNV) replicate in the nuclei and undergo morphogenesis at the inner nuclear membrane (IM) in plant cells. Mature particles are presumed to form by budding of the Matrix (M) protein-nucleocapsid complexes through host IMs to acquire host phospholipids and the surface glycoproteins (G). To address mechanisms underlying nucleorhabdovirus budding, we generated recombinant SYNV G mutants containing a truncated amino-terminal (NT) or carboxyl-terminal (CT) domain...
May 18, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774043/integration-of-the-pokeweed-mirna-and-mrna-transcriptomes-reveals-targeting-of-jasmonic-acid-responsive-genes
#10
Kira C M Neller, Alexander Klenov, Juan C Guzman, Katalin A Hudak
The American pokeweed plant, Phytolacca americana , displays broad-spectrum resistance to plant viruses and is a heavy metal hyperaccumulator. However, little is known about the regulation of biotic and abiotic stress responses in this non-model plant. To investigate the control of miRNAs in gene expression, we sequenced the small RNA transcriptome of pokeweed treated with jasmonic acid (JA), a hormone that mediates pathogen defense and stress tolerance. We predicted 145 miRNAs responsive to JA, most of which were unique to pokeweed...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772296/seven-new-anthranilamide-derivatives-from-aconitum-apetalum
#11
Zhan-Xing Hu, Li-Hua Zhao, Hong-Yu Tang, Haji Aker Aisa, Yu Zhang, Xiao-Jiang Hao
Seven new anthranilamide derivatives, acoapetalines A-G (1-7), including one new naturally occurring compound (7), together with six known ones (8-13) were isolated from the whole plants of Aconitum apetalum. Their structures were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses (IR, UV, HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR). All compounds were evaluated for their anti-tobacco mosaic virus (anti-TMV) activities. The results showed that compound 10 exhibited significant anti-TMV activity with an inhibition rate of 67...
May 14, 2018: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769332/identification-of-plant-virus-receptor-candidates-in-the-stylets-of-their-aphid-vectors
#12
Craig G Webster, Elodie Pichon, Manuella van Munster, Baptiste Monsion, Maëlle Deshoux, Daniel Gargani, Federica Calevro, Jaime Jimenez, Aranzazu Moreno, Björn Krenz, Jeremy R Thompson, Keith L Perry, Alberto Fereres, Stéphane Blanc, Marilyne Uzest
Plant viruses transmitted by insects cause tremendous losses in most important crops around the world. The identification of receptors of plant viruses within their insect vectors is a key challenge to understanding the mechanisms of transmission, and offers an avenue for future alternative control strategies to limit viral spread. We here report the identification of two cuticular proteins within aphid mouthparts, and we provide experimental support for the role of one of them in the transmission of a non-circulative virus...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769081/n-6-methyl-adenosine-level-in-nicotiana-tabacum-is-associated-with-tobacco-mosaic-virus
#13
Zhurui Li, Jing Shi, Lu Yu, Xiaozhen Zhao, Longlu Ran, Deyu Hu, Baoan Song
BACKGROUND: N 6 -methyl-adenosine (m6 A) is a prevalent RNA modification in many species. Abnormal m6 A methylation levels can lead to RNA dysfunction and can cause diseases. Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is one of the most devastating viruses for agricultural plants. It has many hosts, particularly including tobacco and other members the family Solanaceae. However, it remains unclear whether the abnormal growth induced by TMV is associated with the m6 A level. METHODS: A rapid and accurate analytical method using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HR - MS/MS) was developed to analyse the adenosine (A), cytidine (C), guanosine (G), uridine (U), and m6 A contents in the tobacco leaf, and the m6 A/G ratio was used to evaluate the m6 A level...
May 16, 2018: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767548/disruption-of-chloroplast-function-through-downregulation-of-phytoene-desaturase-enhances-the-systemic-accumulation-of-an-aphid-borne-phloem-restricted-virus
#14
Stacy L DeBlasio, Ana Rita Rebelo, Katherine Parks, Stewart Gray, Michelle Cilia
Chloroplasts play a central role in pathogen defense in plants. However, the majority of studies explaining the relationship between pathogens and chloroplasts have focused on pathogens that infect mesophyll cells. In contrast, the family Luteoviridae comprises RNA viruses that replicate and traffic exclusively in the phloem. Recently, our lab has shown that Potato leafroll virus (PLRV), the type species in the genus Polerovirus, forms an extensive interaction network with chloroplast-localized proteins, which is partially dependent on the PLRV capsid readthrough domain (RTD)...
May 16, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767342/characterization-of-xanthine-dehydrogenase-and-aldehyde-oxidase-of-marsupenaeus-japonicus-and-their-response-to-microbial-pathogen
#15
Yo Okamura, Mari Inada, Gehad Elsaid Elshopakey, Toshiaki Itami
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play key roles in many physiological processes. In particular, the sterilization mechanism of bacteria using ROS in macrophages is a very important function for biological defense. Xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) and aldehyde oxidase (AOX), members of the molybdo-flavoenzyme subfamily, are known to generate ROS. Although these enzymes occur in many vertebrates, some insects, and plants, little research has been conducted on XDHs and AOXs in crustaceans. Here, we cloned the entire cDNA sequences of XDH (MjXDH: 4328 bp) and AOX (MjAOX: 4425 bp) from Marsupenaeus japonicus (kuruma shrimp) using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and random amplification of cDNA ends (RACE)...
May 16, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764651/recently-identified-bee-viruses-and-their-impact-on-bee-pollinators
#16
REVIEW
Alexander J McMenamin, Michelle L Flenniken
Bees are agriculturally and ecologically important plant pollinators. Recent high annual losses of honey bee colonies, and reduced populations of native and wild bees in some geographic locations, may impact the availability of affordable food crops and the diversity and abundance of native and wild plant species. Multiple factors including viral infections affect pollinator health. The majority of well-characterized bee viruses are picorna-like RNA viruses, which may be maintained as covert infections or cause symptomatic infections or death...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763626/profiling-of-small-rnas-derived-from-cucumber-mosaic-virus-in-infected-nicotiana-benthamiana-plants-by-deep-sequencing
#17
Yanhong Qiu, Yuping Wu, Yongjiang Zhang, Wenjie Xu, Chenguang Wang, Shuifang Zhu
In plants, RNA silencing is a conserved mechanism underlying antiviral immunity. To investigate antiviral responses in Nicotiana benthamiana, we analyzed the profiles of the virus-derived small RNAs (vsRNAs) in wild-type N. benthamiana and NbRDR6 mutant plants infected with the cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) 2b-deficient mutant. We observed that NbRDR6 regulates RNA silencing by producing vsRNAs that trigger an effective antiviral response, while NbRDR1 may nonredundantly and synergistically function with NbRDR6 to mediate immune responses...
May 12, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763449/a-novel-specific-duplex-real-time-rt-pcr-method-for-absolute-quantitation-of-grapevine-pinot-gris-virus-in-plant-material-and-single-mites
#18
Félix Morán, Antonio Olmos, Leonidas Lotos, Lukáš Predajňa, Nikolaos Katis, Miroslav Glasa, Varvara Maliogka, Ana B Ruiz-García
Grapevine Pinot gris virus (GPGV) is a widely distributed grapevine pathogen that has been associated to the grapevine leaf mottling and deformation disease. With the aim of better understanding the disease epidemiology and providing efficient control strategies a specific and quantitative duplex TaqMan real-time RT-PCR assay has been developed. This method has allowed reliable quantitation of the GPGV titer ranging from 30 up to 3 x 108 transcript copies, with a detection limit of 70 viral copies in plant material...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762476/function-of-the-erfl1a-transcription-factor-in-wheat-responses-to-water-deficiency
#19
Tian Gao, Ge-Zi Li, Chuan-Ren Wang, Jie Dong, Sha-Sha Yuan, Yong-Hua Wang, Guo-Zhang Kang
The APETALA2/ethylene response factor (AP2/ERF) superfamily is involved in the responses of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses; however, the functions and mechanisms of some members of this family in plants are unclear. In our previous study, expression of TaERFL1a , a member of the AP2/ERF family, was remarkably induced in wheat seedlings suffering freezing stress. In this study, we show that its expression was rapidly upregulated in response to salt, cold, and water deficiency, suggesting roles in the responses to abiotic stresses...
May 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757986/medicinal-plants-used-in-the-treatment-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#20
REVIEW
Bahare Salehi, Nanjangud V Anil Kumar, Bilge Şener, Mehdi Sharifi-Rad, Mehtap Kılıç, Gail B Mahady, Sanja Vlaisavljevic, Marcello Iriti, Farzad Kobarfard, William N Setzer, Seyed Abdulmajid Ayatollahi, Athar Ata, Javad Sharifi-Rad
Since the beginning of the epidemic, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has infected around 70 million people worldwide, most of whom reside is sub-Saharan Africa. There have been very promising developments in the treatment of HIV with anti-retroviral drug cocktails. However, drug resistance to anti-HIV drugs is emerging, and many people infected with HIV have adverse reactions or do not have ready access to currently available HIV chemotherapies. Thus, there is a need to discover new anti-HIV agents to supplement our current arsenal of anti-HIV drugs and to provide therapeutic options for populations with limited resources or access to currently efficacious chemotherapies...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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