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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213872/capulavirus-and-grablovirus-two-new-genera-in-the-family-geminiviridae
#1
Arvind Varsani, Philippe Roumagnac, Marc Fuchs, Jesús Navas-Castillo, Enrique Moriones, Ali Idris, Rob W Briddon, Rafael Rivera-Bustamante, F Murilo Zerbini, Darren P Martin
Geminiviruses are plant-infecting single-stranded DNA viruses that occur in most parts of the world. Currently, there are seven genera within the family Geminiviridae (Becurtovirus, Begomovirus, Curtovirus, Eragrovirus, Mastrevirus, Topocuvirus and Turncurtovirus). The rate of discovery of new geminiviruses has increased significantly over the last decade as a result of new molecular tools and approaches (rolling-circle amplification and deep sequencing) that allow for high-throughput workflows. Here, we report the establishment of two new genera: Capulavirus, with four new species (Alfalfa leaf curl virus, Euphorbia caput-medusae latent virus, French bean severe leaf curl virus and Plantago lanceolata latent virus), and Grablovirus, with one new species (Grapevine red blotch virus)...
February 17, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213698/rice-grassy-stunt-virus-p5-interacts-with-two-protein-components-of-the-plant-specific-cbl-cipk-ca-2-signaling-network-of-rice
#2
Guihong Xiong, Xiaojuan Liu, Ping Qiu, Xiaoyong Wu, Zhenguo Du, Jie Zhang, Liang Yang, Zujian Wu
Rice grassy stunt virus (RGSV) is a tenuivirus posing a threat to rice production in many South, Southeast, and East Asian countries. To date, no host factor interacting with RGSV has been reported. In this study, we screened a rice cDNA library with the GAL4-based yeast two-hybrid system using RGSV p5 as the bait. One of the candidate host factors interacting with RGSV p5 was found to be CBL-interacting protein kinase 25 (OsCIPK25), a member of the plant-specific CBL-CIPK Ca(2+) signaling network. The interaction between RGSV p5 and OsCIPK25, as well as OsCIPK5, which is closely related to OsCIPK25, was confirmed by their cellular co-localization and by a bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay in Nicotiana benthamiana cells...
February 17, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206859/evaluation-and-adaptation-of-attractive-toxic-sugar-baits-for-culex-tarsalis-and-culex-quinquefasciatus-control-in-the-coachella-valley-southern-california
#3
Whitney A Qualls, Jodi Scott-Fiorenzano, Gunter C Müller, Kristopher L Arheart, John C Beier, Rui-De Xue
The project goal was to determine how a new vector control strategy that targets the sugar-feeding behavior of mosquitoes, attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSBs), can be used to more effectively control West Nile virus (WNV) vectors in the Coachella Valley, California. Three laboratory studies were conducted to determine the utility of this method for control against Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex tarsalis : 1) efficacy evaluations of 2 formulations of ATSB, microencapsulated garlic oil, and a combination of microencapsulated garlic oil and 1% boric acid; 2) choice assays to determine the attractiveness of ATSB with the microencapsulated garlic oil against attractive sugar baits (ASB; the attractant alone; without toxin) and a 10% sucrose solution; and 3) vegetation efficacy tests on 3 common plant species in the Coachella Valley, Atriplex lentiformis, Tamarix ramosissima , and Pluchea sericea...
December 2016: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205516/a-viral-protease-relocalizes-in-the-presence-of-the-vector-to-promote-vector-performance
#4
Aurélie Bak, Andrea L Cheung, Chunling Yang, Steven A Whitham, Clare L Casteel
Vector-borne pathogens influence host characteristics relevant to host-vector contact, increasing pathogen transmission and survival. Previously, we demonstrated that infection with Turnip mosaic virus, a member of one of the largest families of plant-infecting viruses, increases vector attraction and reproduction on infected hosts. These changes were due to a single viral protein, NIa-Pro. Here we show that NIa-Pro responds to the presence of the aphid vector during infection by relocalizing to the vacuole...
February 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203233/exo-mirexplorer-a-comprehensive-resource-for-exploring-and-comparatively-analyzing-exogenous-micrornas
#5
Ling-Ling Zheng, Kai-Wen Deng, An-Cheng Deng, Jie Wu, Jian-Hua Yang, Zhao-Rong Lun, Liang-Hu Qu
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory RNAs that play important roles in animals, plants, and viruses. Deep-sequencing technology has been widely adopted in miRNA investigations. However, it is still a big mysterious why nearly all sequencing data contain miRNA sequences from exogenous species, called exo-miRNAs. In this study, we developed a novel platform, exo-miRExplorer, for mining and identifying exo-miRNAs from high-throughput small RNA sequencing experiments which originated from tissues and cell lines of multiple organisms...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199446/translational-control-in-plant-antiviral-immunity
#6
João Paulo B Machado, Iara P Calil, Anésia A Santos, Elizabeth P B Fontes
Due to the limited coding capacity of viral genomes, plant viruses depend extensively on the host cell machinery to support the viral life cycle and, thereby, interact with a large number of host proteins during infection. Within this context, as plant viruses do not harbor translation-required components, they have developed several strategies to subvert the host protein synthesis machinery to produce rapidly and efficiently the viral proteins. As a countermeasure against infection, plants have evolved defense mechanisms that impair viral infections...
February 13, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199388/occurrence-of-novel-gii-17-and-gii-21-norovirus-variants-in-the-coastal-environment-of-south-korea-in-2015
#7
Eung Seo Koo, Man Su Kim, Yong Seon Choi, Kwon-Sam Park, Yong Seok Jeong
Human norovirus (HNoV), a positive-sense RNA virus, is the main causative agent of acute viral gastroenteritis. Multiple pandemic variants of the genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4) of NoV have attracted great attention from researchers worldwide. However, novel variants of GII.17 have been overtaking those pandemic variants in some areas of East Asia. To investigate the environmental occurrence of GII in South Korea, we collected water samples from coastal streams and a neighboring waste water treatment plant in North Jeolla province (in March, July, and December of 2015)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198180/engineering-recombinant-virus-like-nanoparticles-from-plants-for-cellular-delivery
#8
Lou Brillault, Philippe V Jutras, Noor Dashti, Eva C Thuenemann, Garry Morgan, George P Lomonossoff, Michael J Landsberg, Frank Sainsbury
Understanding capsid assembly following recombinant expression of viral structural proteins is critical to the design and modification of virus-like nanoparticles for biomedical and nanotechnology applications. Here, we use plant-based transient expression of the Bluetongue virus (BTV) structural proteins, VP3 and VP7, to obtain high yields of empty and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-encapsidating core-like particles (CLPs) from leaves. Single-particle cryo-electron microscopy of both types of particles revealed considerable differences in CLP structure compared to the crystal structure of infection-derived CLPs; in contrast, the two recombinant CLPs have an identical external structure...
February 15, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197973/assessment-and-evaluation-of-an-integrated-hybrid-anaerobic-aerobic-sewage-treatment-system-for-the-removal-of-enteric-viruses
#9
Waled Morsy El-Senousy, Sohair Imam Abou-Elela
The capability of a cost-effective and a small size decentralized pilot wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) to remove enteric viruses such as rotavirus, norovirus genogroup I (GGI), norovirus genogroup II (GGII), Hepatitis E virus (HEV), and adenovirus was studied. This pilot plant is an integrated hybrid anaerobic/aerobic setup which consisted of anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), biological aerated filter (BAF), and inclined plate settler (IPS). Both the UASB and BAF are packed with a non-woven polyester fabric (NWPF)...
February 14, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196487/anti-hsv-2-activity-of-terminalia-chebula-retz-extract-and-its-constituents-chebulagic-and-chebulinic-acids
#10
Ajay Kesharwani, Suja Kizhiyedath Polachira, Reshmi Nair, Aakanksha Agarwal, Nripendra Nath Mishra, Satish Kumar Gupta
BACKGROUND: Development of new and effective therapeutics for sexually transmitted herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) infection is important from public health perspective. With an aim to identify natural products from medicinal plants, in the present study, the potential of Terminalia chebula Retz was investigated for its activity against HSV-2. METHODS: Fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz were used to prepare 50% ethanolic extract. In addition, chebulagic acid and chebulinic acid both purified from T...
February 14, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194691/rnai-mediated-simultaneous-resistance-against-three-rna-viruses-in-potato
#11
Amir Hameed, Muhammad Nouman Tahir, Shaheen Asad, Rakhshanda Bilal, Joyce Van Eck, Georg Jander, Shahid Mansoor
RNA interference (RNAi) technology has been successfully applied in stacking resistance against viruses in numerous crop plants. During RNAi, the production of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) from template double-standard RNA (dsRNA) derived from expression constructs provides an on-switch for triggering homology-based targeting of cognate viral transcripts, hence generating a pre-programmed immunity in transgenic plants prior to virus infection. In the current study, transgenic potato lines (Solanum tuberosum cv...
February 13, 2017: Molecular Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193737/exogenous-transposable-elements-circumvent-identity-based-silencing-permitting-the-dissection-of-expression-dependent-silencing
#12
Dalen Fultz, R Keith Slotkin
The propagation of epigenetic marks has received a great deal of attention, yet the initiation of epigenetic silencing of a new transgene, virus, or transposable element (TE) remains enigmatic. The overlapping and simultaneous function of multiple silencing mechanisms has obscured this area of investigation. Here, we have revealed two broad mechanisms that can initiate silencing independently: identity-based and expression-dependent silencing. We found that identity-based silencing is targeted by 21-22 or 24 nucleotide small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) generated from previously silenced regions of the genome...
February 13, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193550/genetic-characterization-molecular-epidemiology-and-phylogenetic-relationships-of-insect-specific-viruses-in-the-taxon-negevirus
#13
Marcio R T Nunes, María Angélica Contreras-Gutierrez, Hilda Guzman, Livia C Martins, Mayla Feitoza Barbirato, Chelsea Savit, Victoria Balta, Sandra Uribe, Rafael Vivero, Juan David Suaza, Hamilton Oliveira, Joaquin P Nunes Neto, Valeria L Carvalho, Sandro Patroca da Silva, Jedson F Cardoso, Rodrigo Santo de Oliveira, Poliana da Silva Lemos, Thomas G Wood, Steven G Widen, Pedro F C Vasconcelos, Durland Fish, Nikos Vasilakis, Robert B Tesh
The recently described taxon Negevirus is comprised of a diverse group of insect-specific viruses isolated from mosquitoes and phlebotomine sandflies. In this study, a comprehensive genetic characterization, molecular, epidemiological and evolutionary analyses were conducted on nearly full-length sequences of 91 new negevirus isolates obtained in Brazil, Colombia, Peru, Panama, USA and Nepal. We demonstrated that these arthropod restricted viruses are clustered in two major phylogenetic groups with origins related to three plant virus genera (Cilevirus, Higrevirus and Blunevirus)...
February 10, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192199/viral-hemorrhagic-septicemia-virus-glycoprotein-production-in-tobacco
#14
Nguyen-Quang-Duc Tien, Tae-Jung Kim, Tae-Geum Kim
Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) causes mortality in numerous marine and freshwater fish species resulting in heavy losses in fish farming. The glycoprotein gene of VHSV was fused with the cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) and expressed transiently in leaf tissues of Nicotiana benthamiana via the agroinfiltration method. The glycoprotein gene was divided into two parts to improve assembly of CTB fusion proteins (CTB-VHSV99-235 and CTB-VHSV258-417). Production of CTB fusion proteins was confirmed in the agroinfiltrated leaf tissue by western blot analysis...
February 9, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192163/the-role-of-kenya-in-the-trans-african-spread-of-maize-streak-virus-strain-a
#15
Daniel Pande, Eugene Madzokere, Penelope Hartnady, Simona Kraberger, James Hadfield, Karyna Rosario, Anja Jäschke, Adérito L Monjane, Betty E Owor, Mathews M Dida, Dionne N Shepherd, Darren P Martin, Arvind Varsani, Gordon W Harkins
Maize streak virus (MSV), the causal agent of maize streak disease (MSD), is the most important viral pathogen of Africa's staple food crop, maize. Previous phylogeographic analyses have revealed that the most widely-distributed and common MSV variant, MSV-A1, has been repeatedly traversing Africa over the past fifty years with long-range movements departing from either the Lake Victoria region of East Africa, or the region around the convergence of Zimbabwe, South Africa and Mozambique in southern Africa. Despite Kenya being the second most important maize producing country in East Africa, little is known about the Kenyan MSV population and its contribution to the ongoing diversification and trans-continental dissemination of MSV-A1...
February 9, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183327/characteristics-of-sirnas-derived-from-southern-rice-black-streaked-dwarf-virus-in-infected-rice-and-their-potential-role-in-host-gene-regulation
#16
Donglin Xu, Guohui Zhou
BACKGROUND: Virus-derived siRNAs (vsiRNAs)-mediated RNA silencing plays important roles in interaction between plant viruses and their hosts. Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) is a newly emerged devastating rice reovirus with ten dsRNA genomic segments. The characteristics of SRBSDV-derived siRNAs and their biological implications in SRBSDV-rice interaction remain unexplored. METHODS: VsiRNAs profiling from SRBSDV-infected rice samples was done via small RNA deep sequencing...
February 10, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182966/characterization-of-a-small-gtp-binding-protein-gene-tarab18-from-wheat-involved-in-the-stripe-rust-resistance
#17
Zhengning Jiang, Hui Wang, Guoqin Zhang, Renhui Zhao, Tongde Bie, Ruiqi Zhang, Derong Gao, Liping Xing, Aizhong Cao
The stripe rust resistance gene, Yr26, is commonly used in wheat production. Identification of Yr26 resistance related genes is important for better understanding of the resistance mechanism. TaRab18, a putative small GTP-binding protein, was screened as a resistance regulated gene as it showed differential expression between the Yr26-containing resistant wheat and the susceptible wheat at different time points after Pst inoculation. TaRab18 contains four typical domains (GI to GIV) of the small GTP-binding proteins superfamily and five domains (RabF1 to RabF5) specific to the Rab subfamily...
January 30, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182745/prosystemin-overexpression-induces-transcriptional-modifications-of-defense-related-and-receptor-like-kinase-genes-and-reduces-the-susceptibility-to-cucumber-mosaic-virus-and-its-satellite-rnas-in-transgenic-tomato-plants
#18
Giovanni Bubici, Anna Vittoria Carluccio, Livia Stavolone, Fabrizio Cillo
Systemin is a plant signal peptide hormone involved in the responses to wounding and insect damage in the Solanaceae family. It works in the same signaling pathway of jasmonic acid (JA) and enhances the expression of proteinase inhibitors. With the aim of studying a role for systemin in plant antiviral responses, a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) transgenic line overexpressing the prosystemin cDNA, i.e. the systemin precursor, was inoculated with Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) strain Fny supporting either a necrogenic or a non-necrogenic satellite RNA (satRNA) variant...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179422/viruses-comprise-an-extensive-pool-of-mobile-genetic-elements-in-eukaryote-cell-cultures-and-human-clinical-samples
#19
Jakob Thannesberger, Hans-Joerg Hellinger, Ingeborg Klymiuk, Marie-Theres Kastner, Franz J J Rieder, Martina Schneider, Susanne Fister, Thomas Lion, Karin Kosulin, Johannes Laengle, Michael Bergmann, Thomas Rattei, Christoph Steininger
Viruses shape a diversity of ecosystems by modulating their microbial, eukaryotic, or plant host metabolism. The complexity of virus-host interaction networks is progressively fathomed by novel metagenomic approaches. By using a novel metagenomic method, we explored the virome in mammalian cell cultures and clinical samples to identify an extensive pool of mobile genetic elements in all of these ecosystems. Despite aseptic treatment, cell cultures harbored extensive and diverse phage populations with a high abundance of as yet unknown and uncharacterized viruses (viral dark matter)...
February 8, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179391/the-nuclear-cap-binding-complex-mediates-meiotic-silencing-by-unpaired-dna
#20
Logan M Decker, Hua Xiao, Erin C Boone, Michael M Vierling, Benjamin S Shanker, Shanika L Kingston, Shannon F Boone, Jackson B Haynes, Patrick K T Shiu
In the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, cross walls between individual cells are normally incomplete, making the entire fungal network vulnerable to attack by viruses and selfish DNAs. Accordingly, several genome surveillance mechanisms are maintained to help the fungus to combat these repetitive elements. One of these defense mechanisms is known as meiotic silencing by unpaired DNA (MSUD), which is an RNA silencing system that identifies and silences unpaired genes during meiosis. Utilizing common RNAi proteins such as Dicer and Argonaute, MSUD targets mRNAs homologous to the unpaired sequence to achieve silencing...
February 7, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
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