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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727829/functional-differentiation-and-spatial-temporal-co-expression-networks-of-the-nbs-encoding-gene-family-in-jilin-ginseng-panax-ginseng-c-a-meyer
#1
Rui Yin, Mingzhu Zhao, Kangyu Wang, Yanping Lin, Yanfang Wang, Chunyu Sun, Yi Wang, Meiping Zhang
Ginseng, Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, is one of the most important medicinal plants for human health and medicine. It has been documented that over 80% of genes conferring resistance to bacteria, viruses, fungi and nematodes are contributed by the nucleotide binding site (NBS)-encoding gene family. Therefore, identification and characterization of NBS genes expressed in ginseng are paramount to its genetic improvement and breeding. However, little is known about the NBS-encoding genes in ginseng. Here we report genome-wide identification and systems analysis of the NBS genes actively expressed in ginseng (PgNBS genes)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727810/cucumber-mosaic-virus-coat-protein-modulates-the-accumulation-of-2b-protein-and-antiviral-silencing-that-causes-symptom-recovery-in-planta
#2
Xiao-Peng Zhang, De-Shui Liu, Teng Yan, Xiao-Dong Fang, Kai Dong, Jin Xu, Ying Wang, Jia-Lin Yu, Xian-Bing Wang
Shoot apical meristems (SAM) are resistant to most plant viruses due to RNA silencing, which is restrained by viral suppressors of RNA silencing (VSRs) to facilitate transient viral invasion of the SAM. In many cases chronic symptoms and long-term virus recovery occur, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we found that wild-type Cucumber mosaic virus (CMVWT) invaded the SAM transiently, but was subsequently eliminated from the meristems. Unexpectedly, a CMV mutant, designated CMVRA that harbors an alanine substitution in the N-terminal arginine-rich region of the coat protein (CP) persistently invaded the SAM and resulted in visible reductions in apical dominance...
July 20, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726740/cyclic-peptides-as-novel-therapeutic-microbicides-engineering-of-human-defensin-mimetics
#3
REVIEW
Annarita Falanga, Ersilia Nigro, Margherita Gabriella De Biasi, Aurora Daniele, Giancarlo Morelli, Stefania Galdiero, Olga Scudiero
Cyclic peptides are receiving significant attention thanks to their antimicrobial activity and high serum stability, which is useful to develop and design novel antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial peptides appear to be key components of innate defences against bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Among the others, defensins possess a strong microbicidial activity. Defensins are cationic and amphipathic peptides with six cysteine residues connected by three disulfide bonds found in plants, insects, and mammals; they are divided in three families: α-, β-, and θ-defensins...
July 20, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725230/genetics-and-genomics-of-cotton-leaf-curl-disease-its-viral-causal-agents-and-whitefly-vector-a-way-forward-to-sustain-cotton-fiber-security
#4
REVIEW
Mehboob-Ur- Rahman, Ali Q Khan, Zainab Rahmat, Muhammad A Iqbal, Yusuf Zafar
Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) after its first epidemic in 1912 in Nigeria, has spread to different cotton growing countries including United States, Pakistan, India, and China. The disease is of viral origin-transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, which is difficult to control because of the prevalence of multiple virulent viral strains or related species. The problem is further complicated as the CLCuD causing virus complex has a higher recombination rate. The availability of alternate host crops like tomato, okra, etc...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725105/porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-prrsv-in-pig-meat
#5
Philippe Raymond, Christian Bellehumeur, Malliga Nagarajan, Diane Longtin, Alexandra Ferland, Peter Müller, Rachel Bissonnette, Carole Simard
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome, caused by the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), is an economically important disease in the swine industry. Previous studies demonstrated the presence of the virus in pig meat and its transmissibility by oral consumption. This study further analyzed the infectivity of PRRSV in commercial pig meat. Fresh bottom meat pieces (n = 1500) randomly selected over a period of 2 y from a pork ham boning plant located in Quebec, Canada, were tested by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)...
July 2017: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724770/rgs-cam-detects-and-counteracts-viral-rna-silencing-suppressors-in-plant-immune-priming
#6
Eun Jin Jeon, Kazuki Tadamura, Taiki Murakami, Jun-Ichi Inaba, Bo Min Kim, Masako Sato, Go Atsumi, Kazuyuki Kuchitsu, Chikara Masuta, Kenji S Nakahara
Primary infection of a plant with a pathogen that causes high accumulation of salicylic acid in the plant typically via a hypersensitive response confers enhanced resistance against secondary infection with a broad spectrum of pathogens, including viruses. This phenomenon is called systemic acquired resistance (SAR), which is a plant-priming for adaption to repeated biotic stress. However, the molecular mechanisms of SAR-mediated enhanced inhibition, especially of virus infection, remain unclear. Here, we show that SAR against cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) in tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum) involves a calmodulin-like protein, rgs-CaM...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724762/stability-of-cucumber-necrosis-virus-at-the-quasi-six-fold-axis-affects-zoospore-transmission
#7
Michael B Sherman, Kishore Kakani, D'Ann Rochon, Wen Jiang, Neil R Voss, Thomas J Smith
Cucumber necrosis virus (CNV) is a member of the genus Tombusvirus and has a monopartite positive-sense RNA genome. CNV is transmitted in nature via zoospores of the fungus, Olpidium bornovanus As with other members of the Tombusvirus genus, the CNV capsid swells when exposed to alkaline pH and EDTA. We previously demonstrated that a P73G mutation blocks the virus from zoospore transmission while not significantly affecting replication in plants (1). P73 lies immediately adjacent to a putative zinc binding site (2) that is formed by three icosahedrally related His residues in the N-termini of the C subunit at the quasi 6-fold axes...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724405/environmental-drivers-of-viral-community-composition-in-antarctic-soils-identified-by-viromics
#8
Evelien M Adriaenssens, Rolf Kramer, Marc W Van Goethem, Thulani P Makhalanyane, Ian Hogg, Don A Cowan
BACKGROUND: The Antarctic continent is considered the coldest and driest place on earth with simple ecosystems, devoid of higher plants. Soils in the ice-free regions of Antarctica are known to harbor a wide range of microorganisms from primary producers to grazers, yet their ecology and particularly the role of viruses is poorly understood. In this study, we examined the virus community structures of 14 soil samples from the Mackay Glacier region. METHODS: Viral communities were extracted from soil and the dsDNA was extracted, amplified using single-primer amplification, and sequenced using the Ion Torrent Proton platform...
July 19, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721831/transient-production-of-recombinant-pharmaceutical-proteins-in-plants-evolution-and-perspectives
#9
Lilya Kopertekh, Joachim Schiemann
During the last two decades the production of pharmaceutical proteins in plants evolved from proof of concept to established technology adopted by several biotechnological companies. This progress is particularly based on intensive research starting stable genetic transformation and moving to transient expression. Due to its advantages in yield and speed of protein production transient expression platforms became leading plant-based manufacturing technology. Current transient expression methods rely on Agrobacterium-mediated delivery of expression vectors into plant cells...
July 18, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719835/silencing-the-tobacco-gene-for-rna-dependent-rna-polymerase-1-and-infection-by-potato-virus-y-cause-remodeling-of-cellular-organelles
#10
Farshad Rakhshandehroo, Saeed Rezaee, Peter Palukaitis
RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 (RDR1) has been shown to be involved in DNA methylation, RNA silencing and regulating expression of other genes. RDR1 gene expression is stimulated by infection with potato virus Y° (PVY). Transgenic Nicotiana tabacum plants silenced for RDR1 gene expression showed morphological changes in mesophyll cells, associated with remodeling of the nuclei, chloroplasts and mitochondria. RDR1 silencing led to decreased nuclear size, increased heterochromatin content and aggregation, decreased numbers of chloroplasts, plus changes in shape, internal structures and integrity of chloroplasts and mitochondria...
July 15, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719102/plant-viral-and-bacteriophage-delivery-of-nucleic-acid-therapeutics
#11
REVIEW
Patricia Lam, Nicole F Steinmetz
Nucleic acid therapeutics have emerged as a powerful method for treatment of many diseases. However, the challenge lies in safe and efficient delivery of nucleic acids to their target site, as they need to cross various extracellular and intracellular barriers. Mammalian viruses have initially been favored for delivery of nucleic acid therapeutics, but safety concerns regarding their immunogenicity and potential of integration have fueled the search for alternative delivery strategies. For example, chemistry and bioengineering have led to advances in the use of nonviral vectors composed of lipids and other polymers; nevertheless, the synthetic systems often do not match the efficiency achieved using the biological systems...
July 18, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718885/virulence-determines-beneficial-trade-offs-in-the-response-of-virus-infected-plants-to-drought-via-induction-of-salicylic-acid
#12
Emmanuel Aguilar, Carmen Cutrona, Francisco J Del Toro, José G Vallarino, Sonia Osorio, María Luisa Pérez-Bueno, Matilde Barón, Bong-Nam Chung, Tomás Canto, Francisco Tenllado
It has been hypothesized that plants can get beneficial trade-offs from viral infections when grown under drought conditions. However, experimental support for a positive correlation between virus-induced drought tolerance and increased host fitness is scarce. We investigated whether increased virulence exhibited by the synergistic interaction involving Potato virus X (PVX) and Plum pox virus (PPV) improves tolerance to drought and host fitness in Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis thaliana. Infection by the pair PPV/PVX and by PPV expressing the virulence protein P25 of PVX conferred an enhanced drought-tolerant phenotype compared to single infections with either PPV or PVX...
July 18, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716408/molecular-and-biochemical-characterization-of-a-vigna-mungo-map-kinase-associated-with-mungbean-yellow-mosaic-india-virus-infection-and-deciphering-its-role-in-restricting-the-virus-multiplication
#13
Anju Patel, Nrisingha Dey, Shubho Chaudhuri, Amita Pal
Yellow Mosaic Disease caused by the begomovirus Mungbean Yellow Mosaic India Virus (MYMIV) severely affects many economically important legumes. Recent investigations in Vigna mungo - MYMIV incompatible interaction identified a MAPK homolog in the defense signaling pathway. An important branch of immunity involves phosphorylation by evolutionary conserved Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) that transduce signals of pathogen invasion to downstream molecules leading to diverse immune responses. However, most of the knowledge of MAPKs is derived from model crops, and functions of these versatile kinases are little explored in legumes...
September 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716183/the-c-jun-n-terminal-kinase-pathway-of-a-vector-insect-is-activated-by-virus-capsid-protein-and-promotes-viral-replication
#14
Wei Wang, Wan Zhao, Jing Li, Lan Luo, Le Kang, Feng Cui
No evidence has shown whether insect-borne viruses manipulate the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway of vector insects. Using a system comprising the plant virus Rice stripe virus (RSV) and its vector insect, the small brown planthopper, we have studied the response of the vector insect's JNK pathway to plant virus infection. We found that RSV increased the level of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α and decreased the level of G protein Pathway Suppressor 2 (GPS2) in the insect vector. The virus capsid protein competitively bound GPS2 to release it from inhibiting the JNK activation machinery...
July 18, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716126/the-effects-of-potato-virus-y-derived-virus-small-interfering-rnas-of-three-biologically-distinct-strains-on-potato-solanum-tuberosum-transcriptome
#15
Lindani Moyo, Shunmugiah V Ramesh, Madhu Kappagantu, Neena Mitter, Vidyasagar Sathuvalli, Hanu R Pappu
BACKGROUND: Potato virus Y (PVY) is one of the most economically important pathogen of potato that is present as biologically distinct strains. The virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) from potato cv. Russet Burbank individually infected with PVY-N, PVY-NTN and PVY-O strains were recently characterized. Plant defense RNA-silencing mechanisms deployed against viruses produce vsiRNAs to degrade homologous viral transcripts. Based on sequence complementarity, the vsiRNAs can potentially degrade host RNA transcripts raising the prospect of vsiRNAs as pathogenicity determinants in virus-host interactions...
July 17, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715654/generation-of-stable-infectious-clones-of-plant-viruses-by-using-rhizobium-radiobacter-for-both-cloning-and-inoculation
#16
Decai Tuo, Lanlan Fu, Wentao Shen, Xiaoying Li, Peng Zhou, Pu Yan
A novel Rhizobium radiobacter (synonym Agrobacterium tumefaciens)-mediated approach was developed to generate stable infectious clones of plant viruses. This method uses R. radiobacter for both cloning and inoculation of infectious clones, bypassing the requirement of cloning in E. coli to avoid the instability. Only three steps are included in this method: (i) construct viral genome-encoding plasmids in vitro by one-step Gibson assembly; (ii) transform the assembled DNA products into R. radiobacter; (iii) inoculate plants with the R...
July 14, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714846/ictv-virus-taxonomy-profile-benyviridae
#17
David Gilmer, Claudio Ratti, Ictv Report Consortium
The Benyviridae is a family of multipartite plant viruses with rod-shaped virions. Genomes are segmented and comprised of single-stranded, positive-sense RNAs, each with a 5' m7G cap. Unlike rod-shaped viruses classified in the Virgaviridae family, the genome segments have a 3' polyA tract and there is post-translational cleavage of the viral replicase. The better-known members are transmitted by root-infecting vectors in the Plasmodiphorales family, once described as fungi but now classified as Cercozoa. The family has a single genus...
July 17, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714602/genome-wide%C3%A2-identification-and-characterization%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-hsp-gene-superfamily-in-whitefly-bemisia-tabaci-and-expression-profiling%C3%A2-analysis%C3%A2-under-temperature-stress
#18
Xin-Ru Wang, Chao Wang, Fei-Xue Ban, Dan-Tong Zhu, Shu-Sheng Liu, Xiao-Wei Wang
Heat shock proteins (Hsp) are essential molecular chaperones that play important roles in the stress stimulation of insects. Bemisia tabaci, a phloem feeder and invasive species, can cause extensive crop damage through direct feeding and transmission of plant viruses. Here we employed comprehensive genomics approaches to identity HSP superfamily members in Middle East Asia Minor 1 whitefly genome. In total, we identified 26 Hsp genes, including 3 Hsp90, 17 Hsp70, 1 Hsp60 and 5 sHSP (small heat shock protein, sHSP) genes...
July 17, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712809/near-atomic-resolution-structure-of-a-plant-geminivirus-determined-by-electron-cryomicroscopy
#19
Katharina Hipp, Clemens Grimm, Holger Jeske, Bettina Böttcher
African cassava mosaic virus is a whitefly-transmitted geminivirus which forms unique twin particles of incomplete icosahedra that are joined at five-fold vertices, building an unusual waist. How its 22 capsomers interact within a half-capsid or across the waist is unknown thus far. Using electron cryo-microscopy and image processing, we determined the virion structure with a resolution of 4.2 Å and built an atomic model for its capsid protein. The inter-capsomer contacts mediated by the flexible N termini and loop regions differed within the half-capsids and at the waist, explaining partly the unusual twin structure...
July 5, 2017: Structure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712496/engineering-molecular-immunity-against-plant-viruses
#20
Syed Shan-E-Ali Zaidi, Manal Tashkandi, Magdy M Mahfouz
Genomic engineering has been used to precisely alter eukaryotic genomes at the single-base level for targeted gene editing, replacement, fusion, and mutagenesis, and plant viruses such as Tobacco rattle virus have been developed into efficient vectors for delivering genome-engineering reagents. In addition to altering the host genome, these methods can target pathogens to engineer molecular immunity. Indeed, recent studies have shown that clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9) systems that target the genomes of DNA viruses can interfere with viral activity and limit viral symptoms in planta, demonstrating the utility of this system for engineering molecular immunity in plants...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
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