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Plant virus

Chaoqiong Liang, Jianjun Hao, Yan Meng, Laixin Luo, Jianqiang Li
Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) is an economically important pathogen and causes significant reduction of both yield and quality of cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Currently, there were no satisfied strategies for controlling the disease. A better understanding of microRNA (miRNA) expression related to the regulation of plant-virus interactions and virus resistance would be of great assistance when developing control strategies for CGMMV. However, accurate expression analysis is highly dependent on robust and reliable reference gene used as an internal control for normalization of miRNA expression...
2018: PloS One
Katarzyna Otulak-Kozieł, Edmund Kozieł, Benham E L Lockhart
The cell wall provides the structure of the plant, and also acts as a barier against biotic stress. The vein necrosis strain of Potato virus Y (PVYNTN ) induces necrotic disease symptoms that affect both plant growth and yield. Virus infection triggers a number of inducible basal defense responses, including defense proteins, especially those involved in cell wall metabolism. This study investigates the comparison of cell wall host dynamics induced in a compatible (potato cv. Irys) and incompatible (potato cv...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Peng He, Patamarerk Engsontia, Guang-Lei Chen, Qian Yin, Jun Wang, Xu Lu, Ya-Nan Zhang, Zhao-Qun Li, Ming He
BACKGROUND: The white-backed planthopper (WBPH) Sogatella furcifera Horváth, the brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens, and the small brown planthopper (SBPH) Laodelphax striatellus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) are rice pests that damage rice plants by sap-sucking and by transmitting viruses. Host-seeking behavior involves chemosensory receptor genes, which include odorant receptors (ORs), ionotropic receptors (IRs) and gustatory receptors (GRs). RESULTS: We used genome and transcriptome data to identify 141 ORs, 28 GRs and 25 IRs in BPH, 135 ORs, 18 GRs and 16 IRs in WBPH and 37 ORs, 14 GRs and 6 IRs in SBPH...
March 15, 2018: Pest Management Science
Xiaoling Wang, Xiuling Cao, Min Liu, Ruiqi Zhang, Xin Zhang, Zongyu Gao, Xiaofei Zhao, Kai Xu, Dawei Li, Yongliang Zhang
Dissecting the complex molecular interplay between the host plant and invading virus improves our understanding of the mechanisms underlying viral pathogenesis. In this study, immunoprecipitation together with the mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) family homolog, Hsc70-2, was co-purified with beet black scorch virus (BBSV) replication protein p23 and coat protein (CP), respectively. Further experiments demonstrated that Hsc70-2 interacts directly with both p23 and CP, whereas there is no interaction between p23 and CP...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hernan Garcia-Ruiz, Sergio M Gabriel Peralta, Patricia A Harte-Maxwell
Plant viruses are inducers and targets of antiviral RNA silencing. To condition susceptibility, most plant viruses encode silencing suppressor proteins that interfere with antiviral RNA silencing. The NSs protein is an RNA silencing suppressor in orthotospoviruses, such as the tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). The mechanism of RNA silencing suppression by NSs and its role in virus infection and movement are poorly understood. Here, we cloned and tagged TSWV NSs and expressed it from a GFP-tagged turnip mosaic virus (TuMV-GFP) carrying either a wild-type or suppressor-deficient (AS9) helper component proteinase (HC-Pro)...
March 14, 2018: Viruses
Gongti Lai, Peining Fu, Yunxiao Liu, Jiang Xiang, Jiang Lu
RPW8 genes are atypical broad-spectrum genes that provide resistance to powdery mildew, downy mildew, the cauliflower mosaic virus in Arabidopsis thaliana , and powdery mildew in tobacco. They play important roles in basal plant pathogen defense. They also provide insights into a novel disease resistance mechanism. In this study, we report on homologous RPW8 genes in Vitis pseudoreticulata. Five VpRPW8 genes were cloned; their Open Reading Frame (ORF) sequences ranged from 1994 base pairs to 2478 base pairs...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Vittorio Filippo Nicolis, Eduard Venter
Plants respond in a similar manner to aphid feeding as to pathogen attack. Diuraphis noxia is a specialist aphid, feeding only on selected grasses that include wheat, barley, and oats. The wheat-Diuraphis noxia interaction is characterized by very similar responses as seen in wheat-pathogen interactions with none of the underlying resistance pathways and genes characterized yet. From wheat harboring the Dn1 resistance gene, we have identified a nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) gene containing two integrated domains (IDs)...
March 13, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
P K Christova, N K Christov, P V Mladenov, R Imai
Expression of the TaMDC1 in transgenic tomato plants confer resistance to bacterial and fungal pathogens, as well as an insect pest and thus prove in planta function of the wheat cystatin. Cystatins are the polypeptides with cysteine proteinase inhibitory activities. Plant cystatins or phytocystatins are known to contribute to plant resistance against insect pests. Recently, increasing data proved that some of the phytocystatins also have antifungal activities in vitro. Here, we functionally characterized a wheat multidomain cystatin, TaMDC1, using in planta assays...
March 12, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
Hirotaka Yamaguchi, Jun Ohnishi, Atsushi Saito, Akio Ohyama, Tsukasa Nunome, Koji Miyatake, Hiroyuki Fukuoka
An NB-LRR gene, TYNBS1, was isolated from Begomovirus-resistance locus Ty-2. Transgenic plant analysis revealed that TYNBS1 is a functional resistance gene. TYNBS1 is considered to be synonymous with Ty-2. Tomato yellow leaf curl disease caused by Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is a serious threat to tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) production worldwide. A Begomovirus resistance gene, Ty-2, was introduced into cultivated tomato from Solanum habrochaites by interspecific crossing. To identify the Ty-2 gene, we performed genetic analysis...
March 12, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
C A Rajabu, G G Kennedy, J Ndunguru, E M Ateka, F Tairo, L Hanley-Bowdoin, J T Ascencio-Ibáñez
Geminiviruses are devastating single-stranded DNA viruses that infect a wide variety of crops in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Tomato, which is a host for more than 100 geminiviruses, is one of the most affected crops. Developing plant models to study geminivirus-host interaction is important for the design of virus management strategies. In this study, "Florida Lanai" tomato was broadly characterized using three begomoviruses (Tomato yellow leaf curl virus, TYLCV ; Tomato mottle virus, ToMoV; Tomato golden mosaic virus, TGMV) and a curtovirus (Beet curly top virus, BCTV)...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
Andrew Galimberti, Andrei Alyokhin
Mineral oil is a product used to reduce Potato Virus Y transmission in potato fields. However, there is little information available about other effects that oil may have on insect pests of potato. To better understand how mineral oil affects potato pests, we performed a series of experiments testing the effects of oil on mortality, behavior, and development of potato aphids, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), green peach aphids, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and Colorado potato beetles, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Rashmi Raj, Charanjeet Kaur, Lalit Agrawal, P S Chauhan, Susheel Kumar, S K Raj
Narcissus tazetta L. is a bulbous ornamental plant popular for its notable fragrant flowers which make it the plant of high importance. In spite of its economic value, narcissus is found to be susceptible for a number of diseases borne by fungi, bacteria, nematodes, and viruses. A potyvirus, Cyrtanthus elatus virus - A isolate NBRI16 (CEVA-NBRI16), associated with leaf chlorotic stripe disease of N . tazetta cv. Paperwhite was reported for first time in India from our laboratory based on the partial coat protein gene sequence...
March 2018: 3 Biotech
C R Gedling, E M Ali, A Gunadi, J J Finer, K Xie, Y Liu, N Yoshikawa, F Qu, A E Dorrance
Background: Virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a powerful genomics tool for interrogating the function of plant genes. Unfortunately, VIGS vectors often produce disease symptoms that interfere with the silencing phenotypes of target genes, or are frequently ineffective in certain plant genotypes or tissue types. This is especially true in crop plants like soybean [ Glycine max (L.) Merr]. To address these shortcomings, we modified the inoculation procedure of a VIGS vector based on Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV)...
2018: Plant Methods
Bing Wang, Na Song, Qiong Zhang, Ning Wang, Zhensheng Kang
Highly conserved mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades regulate numerous plant processes, including hormonal responses, stress, and innate immunity. In this research, TaMAPK4 was predicted to be a target of tae-miR164. We verified the binding and suppression of TaMAPK4 by co-expression in Nicotiana benthamiana . Moreover, we found TaMAPK4 was localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus using transient expression analyses. TaMAPK4 transcripts increased following salicylic acid (SA) treatment and when host plants were infected with an avirulent race of the stripe-rust pathogen...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Hyun G Kong, Teak S Shin, Tae H Kim, Choong-Min Ryu
The volatile compound 2,3-butanediol, which is produced by certain strains of root-associated bacteria, consists of three stereoisomers, namely, two enantiomers (2R,3R- and 2S,3S-butanediol) and one meso compound (2R,3S-butanediol). The ability of 2,3-butanediol to induce plant resistance against pathogenic fungi and bacteria has been investigated; however, little is known about its effects on induced resistance against viruses in plants. To investigate the effects of 2,3-butanediol on plant systemic defense against viruses, we evaluated the disease control capacity of each of its three stereoisomers in pepper...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
E Munganyinka, E M Ateka, A W Kihurani, M C Kanyange, F Tairo, P Sseruwagi, J Ndunguru
Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) was first observed on cassava ( Manihot esculenta ) in Rwanda in 2009. In 2014 eight major cassava-growing districts in the country were surveyed to determine the distribution and variability of symptom phenotypes associated with CBSD, and the genetic diversity of cassava brown streak viruses. Distribution of the CBSD symptom phenotypes and their combinations varied greatly between districts, cultivars and their associated viruses. The symptoms on leaf alone recorded the highest (32...
February 2018: Plant Pathology
E S Orton, C M Brasier, L J Bilham, A Bansal, J F Webber, J K M Brown
The ash dieback fungus, Hymenoscyphus fraxineus , a destructive, alien pathogen of common ash ( Fraxinus excelsior ), has spread across Europe over the past 25 years and was first observed in the UK in 2012. To investigate the relationship of the pathogen's population structure to its mode of arrival, isolates were obtained from locations in England and Wales, either where established natural populations of ash had been infected by wind-dispersed ascospores or where the fungus had been introduced on imported planting stock...
February 2018: Plant Pathology
Ovokeroye A Abafe, Jana Späth, Jerker Fick, Stina Jansson, Chris Buckley, Annegret Stark, Bjoern Pietruschka, Bice S Martincigh
South Africa has the largest occurrence of the human immune deficiency virus (HIV) in the world but has also implemented the largest antiretroviral (ARV) treatment programme. It was therefore of interest to determine the presence and concentrations of commonly used antiretroviral drugs (ARVDs) and, also, to determine the capabilities of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) for removing ARVDs. To this end, a surrogate standard based LC-MS/MS method was optimized and applied for the detection of thirteen ARVDs used in the treatment and management of HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in two major and one modular WWTP in the eThekwini Municipality in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa...
February 20, 2018: Chemosphere
Yu Yan, Xinyi He, Wei Hu, Guoyin Liu, Peng Wang, Chaozu He, Haitao Shi
MeCIPK23 interacts with MeCBL1/9, and they confer improved defense response, providing potential genes for further genetic breeding in cassava. Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is an important food crop in tropical area, but its production is largely affected by cassava bacterial blight. However, the information of defense-related genes in cassava is very limited. Calcium ions play essential roles in plant development and stress signaling pathways. Calcineurin B-like proteins (CBLs) and CBL-interacting protein kinases (CIPKs) are crucial components of calcium signals...
March 9, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
Katherine Lavelle, James Murphy, Brian Fitzgerald, Gabriele A Lugli, Aldert Zomer, Horst Neve, Marco Ventura, Charles M Franz, Christian Cambillau, Douwe van Sinderen, Jennifer Mahony
Phages of Streptococcus thermophilus present a major threat to the production of many fermented dairy products. To date, only a handful of studies have assessed the biodiversity of S. thermophilus phages in dairy fermentations. In order to develop strategies to limit phage predation in this important industrial environment, it is imperative that such studies are undertaken and that phage-host interactions of this species are better defined. The present study investigated the biodiversity and evolution of phages within an Irish dairy fermentation facility over an eleven year period...
March 9, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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