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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929212/an-insight-into-phage-diversity-at-environmental-habitats-using-comparative-metagenomics-approach
#1
Krupa Parmar, Nishant Dafale, Rajesh Pal, Hitesh Tikariha, Hemant Purohit
Bacteriophages play significant role in driving microbial diversity; however, little is known about the diversity of phages in different ecosystems. A dynamic predator-prey mechanism called "kill the winner" suggests the elimination of most active bacterial populations through phages. Thus, interaction between phage and host has an effect on the composition of microbial communities in ecosystems. In this study, secondary phage metagenome data from aquatic habitats: wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), fresh, marine, and hot water spring habitat were analyzed using MG-RAST and STAMP tools to explore the diversity of the viruses...
September 19, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928453/molecular-characterization-of-emaraviruses-associated-with-pigeonpea-sterility-mosaic-disease
#2
Surender Kumar, B L Subbarao, Vipin Hallan
Sterility Mosaic Disease (SMD) of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millspaugh) is a complex disease due to various factors including the presence of a mixed infection. Comparison of dsRNA profile and small RNA (sRNA) deep sequencing analysis of samples from three locations revealed the presence of Pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus-I and II (PPSMV-I and II) from Chevella and only PPSMV-II from Bengaluru and Coimbatore. PPSMV-I genome consisted of four while PPSMV-II encompassed six RNAs. The two viruses have modest sequence homology between their corresponding RNA 1-4 encoding RdRp, glycoprotein precursor, nucleocapsid and movement proteins and the corresponding orthologs of other emaraviruses...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925702/environmentally-friendly-procedure-based-on-supercritical-fluid-chromatography-and-tandem-mass-spectrometry-molecular-networking-for-the-discovery-of-potent-antiviral-compounds-from-euphorbia-semiperfoliata
#3
Louis-Félix Nothias, Stéphanie Boutet-Mercey, Xavier Cachet, Erick De La Torre, Laurent Laboureur, Jean-François Gallard, Pascal Retailleau, Alain Brunelle, Pieter C Dorrestein, Jean Costa, Luis M Bedoya, Fanny Roussi, Pieter Leyssen, José Alcami, Julien Paolini, Marc Litaudon, David Touboul
A supercritical fluid chromatography-based targeted purification procedure using tandem mass spectrometry and molecular networking was developed to analyze, annotate, and isolate secondary metabolites from complex plant extract mixture. This approach was applied for the targeted isolation of new antiviral diterpene esters from Euphorbia semiperfoliata whole plant extract. The analysis of bioactive fractions revealed that unknown diterpene esters, including jatrophane esters and phorbol esters, were present in the samples...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924923/plant-insects-and-mites-uptake-double-stranded-rna-upon-its-exogenous-application-on-tomato-leaves
#4
Anupam Gogoi, Nomi Sarmah, Athanasios Kaldis, Dionysios Perdikis, Andreas Voloudakis
Exogenously applied double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) molecules onto tomato leaves, moved rapidly from local to systemic leaves and were uptaken by agricultural pests namely aphids, whiteflies and mites. Four small interfering RNAs, deriving from the applied dsRNA, were molecularly detected in plants, aphids and mites but not in whiteflies. Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) acts as the elicitor molecule of the RNA silencing (RNA interference, RNAi), the endogenous and evolutionary conserved surveillance system present in all eukaryotes...
September 18, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923956/arabidopsis-m-6-a-demethylase-activity-modulates-viral-infection-of-a-plant-virus-and-the-m-6-a-abundance-in-its-genomic-rnas
#5
Mireya Martínez-Pérez, Frederic Aparicio, Maria Pilar López-Gresa, Jose María Bellés, Jesus A Sánchez-Navarro, Vicente Pallás
N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) is an internal, reversible nucleotide modification that constitutes an important regulatory mechanism in RNA biology. Unlike mammals and yeast, no component of the m(6)A cellular machinery has been described in plants at present. m(6)A has been identified in the genomic RNAs of diverse mammalian viruses and, additionally, viral infection was found to be modulated by the abundance of m(6)A in viral RNAs. Here we show that the Arabidopsis thaliana protein atALKBH9B (At2g17970) is a demethylase that removes m(6)A from single-stranded RNA molecules in vitro...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922766/altered-accumulation-of-osa-mir171b-contributes-to-rice-stripe-virus-infection-by-regulating-disease-symptoms
#6
Aizi Tong, Quan Yuan, Shu Wang, Jiejun Peng, Yuwen Lu, Hongying Zheng, Lin Lin, Hairu Chen, Yifu Gong, Jianping Chen, Fei Yan
Viral infection affects the pattern of plant miRNA expression. It has been presumed that reduction of miR171 and several other miRNAs influences viral symptoms in plants. We here experimentally demonstrate the association of osa-miR171b with rice stripe virus (RSV) symptoms in rice. Inhibition of osa-miR171b caused stunting with reduced chlorophyll content in leaves similar to viral symptoms. Overexpression of osa-miR171b by an artificial miRNA extended vegetative growth and enhanced chlorophyll accumulation in leaves...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922761/rapid-mapping-and-cloning-of-the-virescent-1-gene-in-cotton-by-bulked-segregant-analysis-next-generation-sequencing-and-virus-induced-gene-silencing-strategies
#7
Jiankun Zhu, Jiedan Chen, Fengkai Gao, Chenyu Xu, Huaitong Wu, Kun Chen, Zhanfeng Si, Hu Yan, Tianzhen Zhang
Map-based gene cloning is a vital strategy for the identification of the quantitative trait loci or genes underlying important agronomic traits. The conventional map-based cloning method is powerful but generally time-consuming and labor-intensive. In this context, we introduce an improved bulked segregant analysis method in combination with a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) strategy for rapid and reliable gene mapping, identification and functional verification. This method was applied to a multiple recessive marker line of upland cotton, Texas 582 (T582), and identified unique genomic positions harboring mutant loci, showing the reliability and efficacy of this method...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921459/chimeric-virus-as-a-source-of-the-potato-leafroll-virus-antigen
#8
Eugene V Skurat, Konstantin O Butenko, Olga A Kondakova, Nikolai A Nikitin, Olga V Karpova, Yuri F Drygin, Joseph G Atabekov
Large quantities of potato leafroll virus (PLRV) antigen are difficult to obtain because this virus accumulates in plants at a low titer. To overcome this problem, we constructed a binary vector containing chimeric cDNA, in which the coat protein (CP) gene of the crucifer infecting tobacco mosaic virus (crTMV) was substituted for the coat protein gene of PLRV. The PLRV movement protein (MP) gene, which overlaps completely with the CP gene, was doubly mutated to eliminate priming of the PLRV MP translation from ATG codons with no changes to the amino acid sequence of the CP...
September 18, 2017: Molecular Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918545/increased-postharvest-life-of-tomlox-b-silenced-mutants-of-tomato-solanum-lycopersicum-var-ta234
#9
Elizabeth León-García, Gilber Vela-Gutiérrez, Oscar A Del Ángel-Coronel, Cristobal Torres-Palacios, Javier De La Cruz-Medina, Miguel A Gómez-Lim, Hugo Sergio García
A healthy lifestyle includes fruits and vegetables consumption. Tomato is one of the most consumed vegetables, although it is susceptible to physical damage through postharvest handling, thus leading to important losses. Softening is an important variable during tomato ripening; excessive softening is undesirable and leads to postharvest losses. TomloxB plays an important role in ripening, mainly in the loss of cellular integrity caused by fatty acids released from the lipid matrix of membranes that initiate oxidative deterioration, which is in turn carried into senescence...
September 16, 2017: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916427/simultaneous-detection-and-differentiation-of-three-potyviridae-viruses-in-sweet-potato-by-a-multiplex-taqman-real-time-rt-pcr-assay
#10
Pingxiu Lan, Fan Li, Jorge Abad, Lingling Pu, Ruhui Li
A multiplex TaqMan real time RT-PCR was developed for detection and differentiation of Sweet potato virus G, Sweet potato latent virus and Sweet potato mild mottle virus in one tube. Amplification and detection of a fluorogenic cytochrome oxidase gene was included as an internal control. The assay was compared with a multiplex RT-PCR developed in the initial study for the detection and differentiation of the three viruses and host 18S rRNA. Primers and/or probes of the two assays were designed from conserved regions of each virus...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916111/icosahedral-plant-viral-nanoparticles-bioinspired-synthesis-of-nanomaterials-nanostructures
#11
REVIEW
Kannan Badri Narayanan, Sung Soo Han
Viral nanotechnology utilizes virus nanoparticles (VNPs) and virus-like nanoparticles (VLPs) of plant viruses as highly versatile platforms for materials synthesis and molecular entrapment that can be used in the nanotechnological fields, such as in next-generation nanoelectronics, nanocatalysis, biosensing and optics, and biomedical applications, such as for targeting, therapeutic delivery, and non-invasive in vivo imaging with high specificity and selectivity. In particular, plant virus capsids provide biotemplates for the production of novel nanostructured materials with organic/inorganic moieties incorporated in a very precise and controlled manner...
August 31, 2017: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914771/geminiviruses-and-plant-hosts-a-closer-examination-of-the-molecular-arms-race
#12
REVIEW
Shunmugiah V Ramesh, Pranav P Sahu, Manoj Prasad, Shelly Praveen, Hanu R Pappu
Geminiviruses are plant-infecting viruses characterized by a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) genome. Geminivirus-derived proteins are multifunctional and effective regulators in modulating the host cellular processes resulting in successful infection. Virus-host interactions result in changes in host gene expression patterns, reprogram plant signaling controls, disrupt central cellular metabolic pathways, impair plant's defense system, and effectively evade RNA silencing response leading to host susceptibility...
September 15, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914770/silicon-and-nitrate-differentially-modulate-the-symbiotic-performances-of-healthy-and-virus-infected-bradyrhizobium-nodulated-cowpea-vigna-unguiculata-yardlong-bean-v-unguiculata-subsp-sesquipedalis-and-mung-bean-v-radiata
#13
Maria Luisa Izaguirre-Mayoral, Miriam Brito, Bikash Baral, Mario José Garrido
The effects of 2 mM silicon (Si) and 10 mM KNO₃ (N)-prime signals for plant resistance to pathogens-were analyzed in healthy and Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) or Cowpea mild mottle virus (CMMV)-infected Bradyrhizobium-nodulated cowpea, yardlong bean and mung bean plants. In healthy plants of the three Vigna taxa, nodulation and growth were promoted in the order of Si + N > N > Si > controls. In the case of healthy cowpea and yardlong bean, the addition of Si and N decreased ureide and α-amino acids (AA) contents in the nodules and leaves in the order of Si + N> N > Si > controls...
September 15, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914754/investigation-of-antimicrobial-peptide-genes-associated-with-fungus-and-insect-resistance-in-maize
#14
Joseph Noonan, William Paul Williams, Xueyan Shan
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are small defense proteins present in various organisms. Major groups of AMPs include beta-barrelin, hevein, knottin, lipid transfer protein (LTP), thionin, defensin, snakin, and cyclotide. Most plant AMPs involve host plant resistance to pathogens such as fungi, viruses, and bacteria, whereas a few plant AMPs from the cyclotide family carry insecticidal functions. In this research, a genome-wide investigation on antimicrobial peptide genes in maize genome was conducted. AMPs previously identified from various plant species were used as query sequences for maize genome data mining...
September 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913792/what-will-be-the-benefits-of-biotech-wheat-for-european-agriculture
#15
Agnès E Ricroch
In European countries, wheat occupies the largest crop area with high yielding production. France, a major producer and exporter in Europe, ranks the fifth producer worldwide. Biotic stresses are European farmers' major challenges (fungal and viral diseases, and insect pests) followed by abiotic ones such as drought and grain protein composition. During the last 40 years, 1136 scientific articles on biotech wheat were published by USA followed by China, Australia, Canada, and European Union with the UK. European research focuses on pests and diseases resistances using widely marker-assisted selection (MAS)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913593/interaction-of-arabidopsis-tga3-and-wrky53-transcription-factors-on-cestrum-yellow-leaf-curling-virus-cmylcv-promoter-mediates-salicylic-acid-dependent-gene-expression-in-planta
#16
Shayan Sarkar, Abhimanyu Das, Prashant Khandagale, Indu B Maiti, Sudip Chattopadhyay, Nrisingha Dey
This paper highlighted a salicylic acid-inducible Caulimoviral promoter fragment from Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus (CmYLCV). Interaction of Arabidopsis transcription factors TGA3 and WRKY53 on CmYLCV promoter resulted in the enhancement of the promoter activity via NPR1-dependent salicylic acid signaling. Several transcriptional promoters isolated from plant-infecting Caulimoviruses are being presently used worldwide as efficient tools for plant gene expression. The CmYLCV promoter has been isolated from the Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus (Caulimoviruses) and characterized more than 12 years ago; also we have earlier reported a near-constitutive, pathogen-inducible CmYLCV promoter fragment (-329 to +137 from transcription start site; TSS) that enhances stronger (3×) expression than the previously reported fragments; all these fragments are highly efficient in monocot and dicot plants (Sahoo et al...
September 14, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912786/co-infection-of-sweet-orange-with-severe-and-mild-strains-of-citrus-tristeza-virus-is-overwhelmingly-dominated-by-the-severe-strain-on-both-the-transcriptional-and-biological-levels
#17
Shimin Fu, Jonathan Shao, Changyong Zhou, John S Hartung
Citrus tristeza is one of the most destructive citrus diseases and is caused by the phloem-restricted Closterovirus, Citrus tristeza virus. Mild strain CTV-B2 does not cause obvious symptoms on indicators whereas severe strain CTV-B6 causes symptoms, including stem pitting, cupping, yellowing, and stiffening of leaves, and vein corking. Our laboratory has previously characterized changes in transcription in sweet orange separately infected with CTV-B2 and CTV-B6. In the present study, transcriptome analysis of Citrus sinensis in response to double infection by CTV-B2 and CTV-B6 was carried out...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910391/different-rates-of-spontaneous-mutation-of-chloroplastic-and-nuclear-viroids-as-determined-by-high-fidelity-ultra-deep-sequencing
#18
Amparo López-Carrasco, Cristina Ballesteros, Vicente Sentandreu, Sonia Delgado, Selma Gago-Zachert, Ricardo Flores, Rafael Sanjuán
Mutation rates vary by orders of magnitude across biological systems, being higher for simpler genomes. The simplest known genomes correspond to viroids, subviral plant replicons constituted by circular non-coding RNAs of few hundred bases. Previous work has revealed an extremely high mutation rate for chrysanthemum chlorotic mottle viroid, a chloroplast-replicating viroid. However, whether this is a general feature of viroids remains unclear. Here, we have used high-fidelity ultra-deep sequencing to determine the mutation rate in a common host (eggplant) of two viroids, each representative of one family: the chloroplastic eggplant latent viroid (ELVd, Avsunviroidae) and the nuclear potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd, Pospiviroidae)...
September 14, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910089/reduction-of-human-norovirus-gi-gii-and-surrogates-by-peracetic-acid-and-monochloramine-in-municipal-secondary-wastewater-effluent
#19
Nathan Dunkin, ShihChi Weng, Caroline G Coulter, Joseph G Jacangelo, Kellogg Schwab
The objective of this study was to characterize human norovirus (hNoV) GI and GII reductions during disinfection by peracetic acid (PAA) and monochloramine in secondary wastewater (WW) and phosphate buffer (PB) as assessed by reverse transcription-qPCR (RT-qPCR). Infectivity and RT-qPCR reductions are also presented for surrogate viruses murine norovirus (MNV) and bacteriophage MS2 under identical experimental conditions to aid in interpretation of hNoV molecular data. In WW, RT-qPCR reductions were less than 0...
September 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906473/engineered-disease-resistance-in-cotton-using-rna-interference-to-knock-down-cotton-leaf-curl-kokhran-virus-burewala-and-cotton-leaf-curl-multan-betasatellite-expression
#20
Aftab Ahmad, Muhammad Zia-Ur-Rehman, Usman Hameed, Abdul Qayyum Rao, Ammara Ahad, Aneela Yasmeen, Faheem Akram, Kamran Shahzad Bajwa, Jodi Scheffler, Idrees Ahmad Nasir, Ahmad Ali Shahid, Muhammad Javed Iqbal, Tayyab Husnain, Muhammad Saleem Haider, Judith K Brown
Cotton leaf curl virus disease (CLCuD) is caused by a suite of whitefly-transmitted begomovirus species and strains, resulting in extensive losses annually in India and Pakistan. RNA-interference (RNAi) is a proven technology used for knockdown of gene expression in higher organisms and viruses. In this study, a small interfering RNA (siRNA) construct was designed to target the AC1 gene of Cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus-Burewala (CLCuKoV-Bu) and the βC1 gene and satellite conserved region of the Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB)...
September 14, 2017: Viruses
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