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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915230/phi-base-a-new-interface-and-further-additions-for-the-multi-species-pathogen-host-interactions-database
#1
Martin Urban, Alayne Cuzick, Kim Rutherford, Alistair Irvine, Helder Pedro, Rashmi Pant, Vidyendra Sadanadan, Lokanath Khamari, Santoshkumar Billal, Sagar Mohanty, Kim E Hammond-Kosack
The pathogen-host interactions database (PHI-base) is available at www.phi-base.org PHI-base contains expertly curated molecular and biological information on genes proven to affect the outcome of pathogen-host interactions reported in peer reviewed research articles. In addition, literature that indicates specific gene alterations that did not affect the disease interaction phenotype are curated to provide complete datasets for comparative purposes. Viruses are not included. Here we describe a revised PHI-base Version 4 data platform with improved search, filtering and extended data display functions...
December 3, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915129/nicotiana-benthamiana-plants-asymptomatically-infected-by-pelargonium-line-pattern-virus-show-unusually-high-accumulation-of-viral-small-rnas-that-is-neither-associated-with-dcl-induction-nor-rdr6-activity
#2
Miryam Pérez-Cañamás, Marta Blanco-Pérez, Javier Forment, Carmen Hernández
Pelargonium line pattern virus (PLPV, Tombusviridae) normally establishes systemic, low-titered and asymptomatic infections in its hosts. This type of interaction may be largely determined by events related to RNA silencing, a major antiviral mechanism in plants. This mechanism is triggered by double or quasi double-stranded (ds) viral RNAs which are cut by DCL ribonucleases into virus small RNAs (vsRNAs). Such vsRNAs are at the core of the silencing process as they guide sequence-specific RNA degradation Host RNA dependent-RNA polymerases (RDRs), and particularly RDR6, strengthen antiviral silencing by promoting biosynthesis of secondary vsRNAs...
December 1, 2016: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915037/quantification-of-pea-enation-mosaic-virus-1-and-2-during-infection-of-pisum-sativum-by-one-step-real-time-rt-pcr
#3
Juliette Doumayrou, Melissa Sheber, Bryony C Bonning, W Allen Miller
Pea enation mosaic virus 1 (PEMV1) and Pea enation mosaic virus 2 (PEMV2) are two viruses in an obligate symbiosis that cause pea enation mosaic disease mainly in plants in the Fabaceae family. This virus system is a valuable model to investigate plant virus replication, movement and vector transmission. Thus, here we describe growth conditions, virus detection methods, and virus accumulation behavior. To measure the accumulation and movement of PEMV1 and PEMV2 in plants during the course of infection, we developed a quantitative real-time one-step reverse transcription PCR procedure using the SYBR-green(®) technology...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915036/a-rapid-assay-for-detection-of-rose-rosette-virus-using-reverse-transcription-recombinase-polymerase-amplification-using-multiple-gene-targets
#4
Binoy Babu, Brian K Washburn, Steven H Miller, Kristina Poduch, Tulin Sarigul, Gary W Knox, Francisco M Ochoa-Corona, Mathews L Paret
Rose rosette disease caused by Rose rosette virus (RRV; genus Emaravirus) is the most economically relevant disease of Knock Out(®) series roses in the U.S. As there are no effective chemical control options for the disease, the most critical disease management strategies include the use of virus free clean plants for propagation and early detection and destruction of infected plants. The current diagnostic techniques for RRV including end-point reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) are highly sensitive, but limited to diagnostic labs with the equipment and expertise; and is time consuming...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912886/medicinal-plants-and-natural-molecules-with-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-activity-against-rotavirus-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Gopalsamy Rajiv Gandhi, Paula Gurgel Barreto, Bruno Dos Santos Lima, Jullyana de Souza Siqueira Quintans, Adriano Antunes de Souza Araújo, Narendra Narain, Lucindo Jose Quintans-Júnior, Ricardo Queiroz Gurgel
BACKGROUND: Rotaviruses can cause life-threatening health disorders, such as severe dehydrating gastroenteritis and diarrhea in children. Vaccination is the main preventive strategy to reduce rotavirus diarrhea and the severity of episodes, but vaccines are not fully effective and new episodes may occur, even in vaccinated children. The WHO recommends oral rehydration therapy and zinc supplementation for rotavirus-induced diarrhea management. There is little preclinical evidence to support the use of phytotherapeutics in the management of rotaviral infections...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912765/rna-seq-based-digital-gene-expression-analysis-reveals-modification-of-host-defense-responses-by-rice-stripe-virus-during-disease-symptom-development-in-arabidopsis
#6
Feng Sun, Peng Fang, Juan Li, Linlin Du, Ying Lan, Tong Zhou, Yongjian Fan, Wenbiao Shen, Yijun Zhou
BACKGROUND: Virus infection induces and suppresses host gene expression on a global level. Rice stripe virus (RSV) is the type species of the genus Tenuivirus and infects rice and Arabidopsis plants. Microarray-based and next generation sequencing-based transcriptomic approaches have been used to study rice-RSV interactions. However, our knowledge of the response of Arabidopsis plants to RSV infection is limited, and it requires further investigation to determine the similarities (or differences) in virus-host interactions between monocot and dicot hosts infected with RSV...
December 2, 2016: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910750/antiretroviral-agents-looking-for-the-best-possible-chemotherapeutic-options-to-conquer-hiv
#7
Tahir Farooq, Arruje Hameed, Kanwal Rehman, Muhammad Ibrahim, Muhammad Imran Qadir, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash
For the last thirty years, ongoing efforts have revolutionized the antiretroviral therapy, which changed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections from terrifying lethal diseases to chronic conditions. However, many challenges, like emergence of drug resistance, limited the scope of activity of currently existing anti-HIV agents. Quite often severe side effects and lifelong dependency are the major concerns of present era. All these issues have compelled the scientists to reconsider and refine the current therapies and also contemplate the pivotal priorities for the developments of novel therapeutic paradigms...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909932/complete-nucleotide-sequences-of-seven-soybean-mosaic-viruses-smv-isolated-from-wild-soybeans-glycine-soja-in-china
#8
Yun-Xia Chen, Mian Wu, Fang-Fang Ma, Jian-Qun Chen, Bin Wang
Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is a devastating plant virus classified in the family Potyviridae, and known to infect cultivated soybeans (Glycine max). In this study, seven new SMVs were isolated from wild soybean samples and analyzed by whole-genome sequencing. An updated SMV phylogeny was built with the seven new and 83 known SMV genomic sequences. Results showed that three northeastern SMV isolates were distributed in clade III and IV, while four southern SMVs were grouped together in clade II and all contained a recombinant BCMV fragment (~900 bp) in the upstream part of the genome...
December 1, 2016: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909411/rnai-efficiency-systemic-properties-and-novel-delivery-methods-for-pest-insect-control-what-we-know-so-far
#9
REVIEW
Mallikarjuna R Joga, Moises J Zotti, Guy Smagghe, Olivier Christiaens
In recent years, the research on the potential of using RNA interference (RNAi) to suppress crop pests has made an outstanding growth. However, given the variability of RNAi efficiency that is observed in many insects, the development of novel approaches toward insect pest management using RNAi requires first to unravel factors behind the efficiency of dsRNA-mediated gene silencing. In this review, we explore essential implications and possibilities to increase RNAi efficiency by delivery of dsRNA through non-transformative methods...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905924/current-knowledge-and-perspectives-of-paenibacillus-a-review
#10
REVIEW
Elliot Nicholas Grady, Jacqueline MacDonald, Linda Liu, Alex Richman, Ze-Chun Yuan
Isolated from a wide range of sources, the genus Paenibacillus comprises bacterial species relevant to humans, animals, plants, and the environment. Many Paenibacillus species can promote crop growth directly via biological nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, production of the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and release of siderophores that enable iron acquisition. They can also offer protection against insect herbivores and phytopathogens, including bacteria, fungi, nematodes, and viruses...
December 1, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905101/a-review-on-antiviral-activity-of-the-himalayan-medicinal-plants-traditionally-used-to-treat-bronchitis-and-related-symptoms
#11
REVIEW
Rahila Amber, Muhammad Adnan, Akash Tariq, Sakina Mussarat
OBJECTIVES: Bronchitis is a common respiratory tract infection of humans mainly caused by influenza virus, rhinovirus, adenovirus, coronavirus and respiratory syncytial virus. The aim of this review was to gather fragmented literature on ethnomedicinal plants used against bronchitis in the Himalayan region and their in-vitro validation against bronchitis causing viral pathogens. KEY FINDINGS: Present review contains ethnomedicines of total 55 plants from different countries of the Himalayas...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904946/chlorophyll-fluorescence-lifetime-imaging-provides-new-insight-into-the-chlorosis-induced-by-plant-virus-infection
#12
Rong Lei, Hongshan Jiang, Fan Hu, Jin Yan, Shuifang Zhu
Leaf chlorosis induced by plant virus infection has a short fluorescence lifetime, which reflects damaged photosynthetic complexes and degraded chloroplasts. Plant viruses often induce chlorosis and necrosis, which are intimately related to photosynthetic functions. Chlorophyll fluorescence lifetime measurement is a valuable noninvasive tool for analyzing photosynthetic processes and is a sensitive indicator of the environment surrounding the fluorescent molecules. In this study, our central goal was to explore the effect of viral infection on photosynthesis by employing chlorophyll fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM), steady-state fluorescence, non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and pigment analysis...
November 30, 2016: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902910/recombinant-hemagglutinin-of-avian-influenza-virus-h5-expressed-in-the-chloroplast-of-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-and-evaluation-of-its-immunogenicity-in-chickens
#13
Inkar Castellanos-Huerta, Bernardo Bañuelos-Hernández, Guillermo Téllez, Sergio Rosales-Mendoza, Luis G Brieba, Elizabeth Esquivel-Ramos, Josué I Beltrán-López, Gilberto Velazquez, Isidro Fernandez-Siurob
Globally, avian influenza (AI) is a serious problem in poultry farming. Despite vaccination, the prevalence of AI in México highlights the need for new approaches to control AI and to reduce the economic losses associated with its occurrence in susceptible birds. Recombinant proteins from avian influenza virus (AIV) have been expressed in different organisms, such as plants. The present study investigated the feasibility of designing and expressing the HA protein of AIV in the transplastomic microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a novel approach for AIV control and taking advantage of culture conditions, its reproductive range, and safe use in consideration of the generally regarded as safe food ingredient regulatory classification...
December 2016: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902403/the-non-canonical-tomato-yellow-leaf-curl-virus-recombinant-that-displaced-its-parental-viruses-in-southern-morocco-exhibits-a-high-selective-advantage-in-experimental-conditions
#14
Zineb Belabess, Michel Peterschmitt, Martine Granier, Abdessalem Tahiri, Abdelali Blenzar, Cica Urbino
Recombination events are frequently inferred from the increasing number of sequenced viral genomes, but their impact on natural viral populations has rarely been evidenced. TYLCV-IS76 is a recombinant (Begomovirus, Geminiviridae) between the Israel strain of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV-IL) and the Spanish strain of Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV-ES) that was generated most probably in the late 1990s in Southern Morocco (Souss). Its emergence in the 2000s coincided with the increasing use of resistant tomato cultivars bearing the Ty-1 gene, and led eventually to the entire displacement of both parental viruses in the Souss...
October 14, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902397/vesivirus-2117-capsids-more-closely-resemble-sapovirus-and-lagovirus-particles-than-other-known-vesivirus-structures
#15
Michaela Conley, Edward Emmott, Richard Orton, David Taylor, Daniel Carneiro, Kazuyoshi Murata, Ian Goodfellow, Grant Hansman, David Bhella
Vesivirus 2117 is an adventitious agent that in 2009, was identified as a contaminant of CHO cells propagated in bioreactors at a pharmaceutical manufacturing plant belonging to Genzyme. The consequent interruption in supply of Fabrazyme and Cerezyme (drugs used to treat Fabry and Gaucher disease respectively), caused significant economic losses. Vesivirus 2117 is a member of the Caliciviridae; a family of small icosahedral viruses encoding a positive sense RNA genome. We have used cryo-electron microscopy and three dimensional image reconstruction to calculate a structure of vesivirus 2117 virus like particles as well as feline calicivirus and a chimeric sapovirus...
November 14, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902342/functional-analysis-of-a-viroid-rna-motif-mediating-cell-to-cell-movement-in-nicotiana-benthamiana
#16
Dongmei Jiang, Meng Wang, Shifang Li
Cell-to-cell trafficking through different cellular layers is a key process for various RNAs including those of plant viruses and viroids, but the regulatory mechanisms involved are still not fully elucidated and good model systems are important. Here, we analyze the function of a simple RNA motif (termed "loop19") in Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) which is required for trafficking in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Northern blotting, RT-PCR and in situ hybridization analyses demonstrated that unlike wild type PSTVd, which was present in the nuclei in all cell types, the trafficking-defective loop19 mutants were visible only in the nuclei of upper epidermal and palisade mesophyll cells, which shows that PSTVd loop19 plays a role in mediating RNA trafficking from palisade to spongy mesophyll cells in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves...
October 14, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902333/plant-produced-anti-dengue-virus-monoclonal-antibodies-exhibit-reduced-antibody-dependent-enhancement-of-infection-activity
#17
Matthew Dent, Jonathan Hurtado, Amber M Paul, Haiyan Sun, Huafang Lai, Ming Yang, Adrian Esqueda, Fengwei Bai, Herta Steinkellner, Qiang Chen
The monoclonal antibody (mAb) E60 has the potential to be a desirable therapeutic molecule since it efficiently neutralizes all four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV). However, mammalian cell-produced E60 exhibits antibody-dependent enhancement of infection (ADE) activity, rendering it inefficacious in vivo and subjects treated animals more susceptible to develop more severe diseases during secondary infection. In this study, we evaluated a plant-based expression system for the production of therapeutically suitable E60...
October 20, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901124/analysis-of-chikungunya-virus-proteins-reveals-that-non-structural-proteins-nsp2-and-nsp3-exhibit-rna-interference-rnai-suppressor-activity
#18
Kalika Mathur, Abhishek Anand, Sunil Kumar Dubey, Neeti Sanan-Mishra, Raj K Bhatnagar, Sujatha Sunil
RNAi pathway is an antiviral defence mechanism employed by insects that result in degradation of viral RNA thereby curbing infection. Several viruses including flaviviruses encode viral suppressors of RNAi (VSRs) to counteract the antiviral RNAi pathway. Till date, no VSR has been reported in alphaviruses. The present study was undertaken to evaluate chikungunya virus (CHIKV) proteins for RNAi suppressor activity. We systematically analyzed all nine CHIKV proteins for RNAi suppressor activity using Sf21 RNAi sensor cell line based assay...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900537/rnai-mediated-resistance-to-rice-black-streaked-dwarf-virus-in-transgenic-rice
#19
Mohamed M S Ahmed, Shiquan Bian, Muyue Wang, Jing Zhao, Bingwei Zhang, Qiaoquan Liu, Changquan Zhang, Shuzhu Tang, Minghong Gu, Hengxiu Yu
Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), a member of the genus Fijivirus in the family Reoviridae, causes significant economic losses in rice production in China and many other Asian countries. Development of resistant varieties by using conventional breeding methods is limited, as germplasm with high level of resistance to RBSDV have not yet been found. One of the most promising methods to confer resistance against RBSDV is the use of RNA interference (RNAi) technology. RBSDV non-structural protein P7-2, encoded by S7-2 gene, is a potential F-box protein and involved in the plant-virus interaction through the ubiquitination pathway...
November 30, 2016: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900468/complete-genome-sequence-of-a-variant-of-maize-associated-totivirus-from-ecuador
#20
Robert A Alvarez-Quinto, Rodrigo F Espinoza-Lozano, Carlos A Mora-Pinargote, Diego F Quito-Avila
The complete genomic sequence of a variant of the recently reported maize-associated totivirus (MATV) from China was obtained from commercial maize in Ecuador. The genome of MATV-Ec (Ecuador) (4,998 bp) is considerably longer than that of MATV-Ch (China) (3,956 bp), the main difference due to a ≈ 1-kb-long capsid-protein-encoding fragment that is completely absent from the Chinese genome. Sequence alignments between MATV-Ec and MATV-Ch showed an overall identity of 82% at the nucleotide level, whereas at the amino acid level, the viruses exhibited 95% and 94% identity for the putative capsid protein and the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), respectively...
November 30, 2016: Archives of Virology
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