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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087646/wheat-genotypes-with-combined-resistance-to-wheat-curl-mite-wheat-streak-mosaic-virus-wheat-mosaic-virus-and-triticum-mosaic-virus
#1
Wen-Po Chuang, Lina Maria Aguirre Rojas, Luaay Kahtan Khalaf, Guorong Zhang, Allan K Fritz, Anna E Whitfield, C Michael Smith
The wheat curl mite, Aceria tosichella Keifer, (WCM) is a global pest of bread wheat that reduces yields significantly. In addition, WCM carries Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV, family Potyviridae, genus Tritimovirus), the most significant wheat virus in North America; High Plains wheat mosaic virus (HPWMoV, genus Emaravirus, formerly High plains virus); and Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV, family Potyviridae, genus Poacevirus). Viruses carried by WCM have reduced wheat yields throughout the U.S. Great Plains for >50 yr, with average yield losses of 2-3% and occasional yield losses of 7-10%...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079053/molecular-evidence-for-the-involvement-of-a-polygalacturonase-inhibiting-protein-ghpgip1-in-enhanced-resistance-to-verticillium-and-fusarium-wilts-in-cotton
#2
Nana Liu, Xueyan Zhang, Yun Sun, Ping Wang, Xiancai Li, Yakun Pei, Fuguang Li, Yuxia Hou
Polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP), belonging to a group of plant defence proteins, specifically inhibits endopolygalacturonases secreted by pathogens. Herein, we showed that purified GhPGIP1 is a functional inhibitor of Verticillium dahliae and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, the two fungal pathogens causing cotton wilt. Transcription of GhPGIP1 was increased in cotton upon infection, wounding, and treatment with defence hormone and H2O2. Resistance by GhPGIP1 was examined by its virus-induced gene silencing in cotton and overexpression in Arabidopsis...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078810/anti-hcv-activity-from-semi-purified-methanolic-root-extracts-of-valeriana-wallichii
#3
Krishna Kumar Ganta, Anirban Mandal, Sukalyani Debnath, Banasri Hazra, Binay Chaubey
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a serious global health problem affecting approximately 130-150 million individuals. Presently available direct-acting anti-HCV drugs have higher barriers to resistance and also improved success rate; however, cost concerns limit their utilization, especially in developing countries like India. Therefore, development of additional agents to combat HCV infection is needed. In the present study, we have evaluated anti-HCV potential of water, chloroform, and methanol extracts from roots of Valeriana wallichii, a traditional Indian medicinal plant...
January 12, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078770/synthetic-plant-virology-for-nanobiotechnology-and-nanomedicine
#4
REVIEW
John F C Steele, Hadrien Peyret, Keith Saunders, Roger Castells-Graells, Johanna Marsian, Yulia Meshcheriakova, George P Lomonossoff
Nanotechnology is a rapidly expanding field seeking to utilize nano-scale structures for a wide range of applications. Biologically derived nanostructures, such as viruses and virus-like particles (VLPs), provide excellent platforms for functionalization due to their physical and chemical properties. Plant viruses, and VLPs derived from them, have been used extensively in biotechnology. They have been characterized in detail over several decades and have desirable properties including high yields, robustness, and ease of purification...
January 11, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078746/a-gly65val-substitution-in-an-actin-ghact_li1-disrupts-cell-polarity-and-f-actin-organization-resulting-in-dwarf-lintless-cotton-plants
#5
Gregory N Thyssen, David D Fang, Rickie B Turley, Christopher B Florane, Ping Li, Christopher P Mattison, Marina Naoumkina
Actin polymerizes to form part of the cytoskeleton and organize polar growth in all eukaryotic cells. Species with numerous actin genes are especially useful for the dissection of actin molecular function due to redundancy and neofunctionalization. Here, we investigated the role of a cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) actin gene in the organization of actin filaments in lobed cotyledon pavement cells and the highly-elongated single-celled trichomes that comprise cotton lint fibers. Using mapping-by-sequencing, virus-induced gene silencing, and molecular modeling, we identified the causative mutation of the dominant dwarf Ligon-lintless Li1 short fiber mutant as a single Gly65Val amino acid substitution in a polymerization domain of an actin gene, GhACT_LI1 (Gh_D04G0865)...
January 12, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077635/virion-structure-of-black-queen-cell-virus-a-common-honeybee-pathogen
#6
Radovan Spurny, Antonín Přidal, Lenka Pálkové, Hoa Khanh Tran Kiem, Joachim R de Miranda, Pavel Plevka
: Viral diseases are a major threat to honeybee (Apis mellifera) populations world-wide and therefore an important factor in reliable crop pollination and food security. Black queen cell virus (BQCV) is the etiological agent of a fatal disease of honeybee queen larvae and pupae. The virus belongs to the genus Triatovirus from the family Dicistroviridae that is part of the order Picornavirales Here we present a crystal structure of BQCV determined to a resolution of 3.4 Å. The virion is formed by sixty copies of each of the major capsid proteins VP1, VP2, and VP3, however there is no density corresponding to a 75-residue-long minor capsid protein VP4 encoded by the BQCV genome...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077064/an-internet-based-bioinformatics-toolkit-for-plant-biosecurity-diagnosis-and-surveillance-of-viruses-and-viroids
#7
Roberto A Barrero, Kathryn R Napier, James Cunnington, Lia Liefting, Sandi Keenan, Rebekah A Frampton, Tamas Szabo, Simon Bulman, Adam Hunter, Lisa Ward, Mark Whattam, Matthew I Bellgard
BACKGROUND: Detection and preventing entry of exotic viruses and viroids at the border is critical for protecting plant industries trade worldwide. Existing post entry quarantine screening protocols rely on time-consuming biological indicators and/or molecular assays that require knowledge of infecting viral pathogens. Plants have developed the ability to recognise and respond to viral infections through Dicer-like enzymes that cleave viral sequences into specific small RNA products. Many studies reported the use of a broad range of small RNAs encompassing the product sizes of several Dicer enzymes involved in distinct biological pathways...
January 11, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073698/ectopic-expression-of-an-apple-cytochrome-p450-gene-mdcypm1-negatively-regulates-plant-photomorphogenesis-and-stress-response-in-arabidopsis
#8
Jian-Ping An, Rui Li, Feng-Jia Qu, Chun-Xiang You, Xiao-Fei Wang, Yu-Jin Hao
Cytochrome P450s play an important role in plant growth and are involved in multiple stresses response. However, little is known about the functions of cytochrome P450s in apple. Here, a Malus × domestica cytochrome P450 monooxygenase 1 gene, MdCYPM1, was identified and subsequently cloned from apple 'Gala' (Malus × domestica). To verify the functions of MdCYPM1, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing the apple MdCYPM1 gene under the control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter...
January 7, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073069/horizontal-pollen-transmission-of-gentian-ovary-ring-spot-virus-is-initiated-during-penetration-of-the-stigma-and-style-by-infected-pollen-tubes
#9
Masamichi Isogai, Yukie Kamata, Syunpei Ando, Misaki Kamata, Asuka Shirakawa, Ken-Taro Sekine, Nobuyuki Yoshikawa
Gentian ovary ring-spot virus (GORV) infected gentian plants by pollination with GORV-infected gentian pollen grains, but the virus was not horizontally transmitted to gentian plants by transfer of pollen from GORV-infected Nicotiana benthamiana plants. However, N. benthamiana plants were infected with the virus by pollination with infected gentian pollen as well as by pollination with infected N. benthamiana pollen. When infected gentian pollen grains were placed on N. benthamiana stigmas, germinating pollen tubes penetrated into the stigmas and the styles (stigma-style)...
January 7, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071648/foliar-application-of-the-leaf-colonizing-yeast-pseudozyma-churashimaensis-elicits-systemic-defense-of-pepper-against-bacterial-and-viral-pathogens
#10
Gahyung Lee, Sang-Heon Lee, Kyung Mo Kim, Choong-Min Ryu
Yeast associates with many plant parts including the phyllosphere, where it is subject to harsh environmental conditions. Few studies have reported on biological control of foliar pathogens by yeast. Here, we newly isolated leaf-colonizing yeasts from leaves of field-grown pepper plants in a major pepper production area of South Korea. The yeast was isolated using semi-selective medium supplemented with rifampicin to inhibit bacterial growth and its disease control capacity against Xanthomonas axonopodis infection of pepper plants in the greenhouse was evaluated...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070655/synthetic-introns-help-identify-sequences-in-the-5-utr-intron-of-the-glycine-max-polyubiquitin-gmubi-promoter-that-give-increased-promoter-activity
#11
Trudi N L Grant, Carola M De La Torre, Ning Zhang, John J Finer
Specific sequences within the leader intron of a soybean polyubiquitin gene stimulated gene expression when placed either within a synthetic intron or upstream of a core promoter. The intron in the 5' untranslated region of the soybean polyubiquitin promoter, Gmubi, seems to contribute to the high activity of this promoter. To identify the stimulatory sequences within the intron, ten different sequential intronic sequences of 40 nt were isolated, cloned as tetrameric repeats and placed upstream of a minimal cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (35S) core promoter, which was used to control expression of the green fluorescent protein...
January 9, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070648/deinbollia-mosaic-virus-a-novel-begomovirus-infecting-the-sapindaceous-weed-deinbollia-borbonica-in-kenya-and-tanzania
#12
Martina Kyallo, Peter Sseruwagi, Robert A Skilton, Mildred Ochwo-Ssemakula, Peter Wasswa, Joseph Ndunguru
Four isolates of a bipartite begomovirus from naturally infected Deinbollia borbonica plants exhibiting yellow mosaic symptoms in Kenya and Tanzania were molecularly characterised. The DNA-A was most closely related to that of tomato leaf curl Mayotte virus (AM701764; 82%), while the DNA-B shared the highest nucleotide sequence identity with that of East African cassava mosaic virus (AJ704953) at 65%. Based on the current ICTV species demarcation criterion for the genus Begomovirus (≥91% sequence identity for the complete DNA-A), we report the full-length genome sequence of this novel bipartite begomovirus...
January 9, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067898/clay-nanosheets-for-topical-delivery-of-rnai-for-sustained-protection-against-plant-viruses
#13
Neena Mitter, Elizabeth A Worrall, Karl E Robinson, Peng Li, Ritesh G Jain, Christelle Taochy, Stephen J Fletcher, Bernard J Carroll, G Q Max Lu, Zhi Ping Xu
Topical application of pathogen-specific double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) for virus resistance in plants represents an attractive alternative to transgenic RNA interference (RNAi). However, the instability of naked dsRNA sprayed on plants has been a major challenge towards its practical application. We demonstrate that dsRNA can be loaded on designer, non-toxic, degradable, layered double hydroxide (LDH) clay nanosheets. Once loaded on LDH, the dsRNA does not wash off, shows sustained release and can be detected on sprayed leaves even 30 days after application...
January 9, 2017: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067424/human-pathogens-in-plant-biofilms-formation-physiology-and-detection
#14
REVIEW
Eduardo Ximenes, Lori Hoagland, Seockmo Ku, Xuan Li, Michael Ladisch
Fresh produce, viewed as an essential part of a healthy life style, usually consumed in the form of raw or minimally processed fruits and vegetables, is a potentially important source of food-borne disease including human pathogenic bacteria and viruses. These are passed on to the consumer since the bacteria can form biofilms or otherwise populate plant tissues, thereby using plants as vectors to infect animal hosts. The life cycle of the bacteria in plants differs from those in animals or humans and results in altered physiochemical and biological properties (e...
January 9, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067229/tubules-of-plant-reoviruses-exploit-tropomodulin-to-regulate-actin-based-tubule-motility-in-insect-vector
#15
Qian Chen, Linghua Zhang, Yanshuang Zhang, Qianzhuo Mao, Taiyun Wei
Plant reoviruses are known to exploit virion-packaging tubules formed by virus-encoding non-structural proteins for viral spread in insect vectors. Tubules are propelled by actin-based tubule motility (ABTM) to overcome membrane or tissue barriers in insect vectors. To further understand which insect factors mediate ABTM, we utilized yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays to test interactions between tubule protein Pns10 of rice dwarf virus (RDV), a plant reovirus, and proteins of its insect vector, the leafhopper Nephotettix cincticeps...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065920/pamps-prrs-effectors-and-r-genes-associated-with-citrus-pathogen-interactions
#16
REVIEW
Ronaldo J D Dalio, Diogo M Magalhães, Carolina M Rodrigues, Gabriella D Arena, Tiago S Oliveira, Reinaldo R Souza-Neto, Simone C Picchi, Paula M M Martins, Paulo J C Santos, Heros J Maximo, Inaiara S Pacheco, Alessandra A De Souza, Marcos A Machado
BACKGROUND: Recent application of molecular-based technologies has considerably advanced our understanding of complex processes in plant-pathogen interactions and their key components such as PAMPs, PRRs, effectors and R-genes. To develop novel control strategies for disease prevention in citrus, it is essential to expand and consolidate our knowledge of the molecular interaction of citrus plants with their pathogens. SCOPE: This review provides an overview of our understanding of citrus plant immunity, focusing on the molecular mechanisms involved in the interactions with viruses, bacteria, fungi, oomycetes and vectors related to the following diseases: tristeza, psorosis, citrus variegated chlorosis, citrus canker, huanglongbing, brown spot, post-bloom, anthracnose, gummosis and citrus root rot...
January 8, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063980/plant-viral-nanoparticles-based-her2-vaccine-immune-response-influenced-by-differential-transport-localization-and-cellular-interactions-of-particulate-carriers
#17
Sourabh Shukla, Jay T Myers, Sarah E Woods, Xingjian Gong, Anna E Czapar, Ulrich Commandeur, Alex Y Huang, Alan D Levine, Nicole F Steinmetz
Cancer vaccines are designed to elicit an endogenous adaptive immune response that can successfully recognize and eliminate residual or recurring tumors. Such approaches can potentially overcome shortcomings of passive immunotherapies by generating long-lived therapeutic effects and immune memory while limiting systemic toxicities. A critical determinant of vaccine efficacy is efficient transport and delivery of tumor-associated antigens to professional antigen presenting cells (APCs). Plant viral nanoparticles (VNPs) with natural tropism for APCs and a high payload carrying capacity may be particularly effective vaccine carriers...
December 27, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062535/the-effects-of-bean-leafroll-virus-on-life-history-traits-and-host-selection-behavior-of-specialized-pea-aphid-acyrthosiphon-pisum-hemiptera-aphididae-genotypes
#18
T S Davis, Y Wu, S D Eigenbrode
Intraspecific specialization by insect herbivores on different host plant species contributes to the formation of genetically distinct "host races," but the effects of plant virus infection on interactions between specialized herbivores and their host plants have barely been investigated. Using three genetically and phenotypically divergent pea aphid clones (Acyrthosiphon pisum L.) adapted to either pea (Pisum sativum L.) or alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), we tested how infection of these hosts by an insect-borne phytovirus (Bean leafroll virus; BLRV) affects aphid performance and preference...
January 6, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062387/molecular-diversity-recombination-and-population-structure-of-alphasatellites-associated-with-begomovirus-disease-complexes
#19
R Vinoth Kumar, Divya Singh, Achuit K Singh, S Chakraborty
The genus, begomovirus (family Geminiviridae) includes a large number of viruses infecting a wide range of plant species worldwide. The majority of monopartite begomoviruses are associated with satellites (betasatellites) and/or satellite-like molecules (alphasatellites). In spite of the Indo-China region being regarded as the centre of origin of begomoviruses and satellites, a detailed study on the emergence and evolution of alphasatellites in India has not yet conducted. Our present analysis indicated the association of 22 alphasatellites with monopartite and bipartite begomovirus-betasatellite complexes in India...
January 4, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061784/inhibition-of-influenza-virus-via-a-sesquiterpene-fraction-isolated-from-laggera-pterodonta-by-targeting-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-p38-pathways
#20
YuTao Wang, Beixian Zhou, Jingguang Lu, QiaoLian Chen, Huihui Ti, WanYi Huang, Jing Li, ZiFeng Yang, Zhihong Jiang, XinHua Wang
BACKGROUND: Influenza virus poses serious threats to human health, especially human infection with avian influenza virus. Laggera pterodonta (DC.) Benth is a medicinal plant that is widely used in Traditional Chinese Medicine, especially in Yunnan province, and has been used to treat influenza, pharyngolaryngitis, and bronchitis. However, the compound(s) responsible for the activity and their mechanisms of action against the influenza virus remain to be elucidated. METHODS: L...
January 6, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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