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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316131/evaluation-of-potential-rna-interference-target-genes-to-control-cotton-mealybug-phenacoccus-solenopsis-hemiptera-pseudococcuidae
#1
Arif M Khan, Muhammad Ashfaq, Azhar A Khan, Muhammad T Naseem, Shahid Mansoor
RNA interference (RNAi) of vital insect genes is a potential tool for targeted pest control. However, selection of the right target genes is a challenge because the RNAi efficacy is known to vary among insect species. Cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis, is a phloem-feeding economically important crop pest. We evaluated the RNAi of two vital genes, Bursicon (PsBur) and V-ATPase (PsV-ATPase) as potential targets in P. solenopsis for its control. PCR fragments of PsBur and PsV-ATPase were amplified using cDNA synthesized from the total RNA...
March 18, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316018/a-novel-vitivirus-like-sequence-found-in-arracacia-xanthorrhiza-plants-by-high-throughput-sequencing
#2
Layssa M Oliveira, Anelise F Orílio, Alice K Inoue-Nagata, Tatsuya Nagata, Rosana Blawid
High throughput sequencing (HTS) is a very powerful tool for detecting and discovering novel viral-like sequences without prior knowledge of the sequence. Here we describe the complete genome of a new vitivirus-like sequence that was found in arracacha (Arracacia xanthorrhiza) plants using HTS technology. The complete genome sequence was validated by Sanger sequencing. The genomic organization of the new putative vitivirus resembles that of grapevine virus B (GVB) and grapevine virus D (GVD). The putative coat protein showed 41 to 49% identity with similar proteins of known vitiviruses, while the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase shared 52 to 55% identity with those encoded by grapevine vitiviruses...
March 18, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315991/construction-of-an-agroinfectious-clone-of-bean-rugose-mosaic-virus-using-gibson-assembly
#3
Taise Bijora, Rosana Blawid, Danielle K T Costa, Francisco J L Aragão, Eliezer R Souto, Tatsuya Nagata
Construction of agroinfectious viral clones usually requires many steps of cloning and sub-cloning and also a binary vector, which makes the process laborious, time-consuming, and frequently susceptible to some degree of plasmid instability. Nowadays, novel methods have been applied to the assembly of infectious viral clones, and here we have applied isothermal, single-step Gibson Assembly (GA) to construct an agroinfectious clone of Bean rugose mosaic virus (BRMV) using a small binary vector. The procedure has drastically reduced the cloning steps, and BRMV could be recovered from agroinfiltrated common bean twenty days after inoculation, indicating that the infectious clone could spread in the plant tissues and efficiently generate a systemic infection...
March 18, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315718/absolute-quantification-of-cassava-brown-streak-virus-mrna-by-real-time-qpcr
#4
Rudolph R Shirima, Daniel Maeda, Edward Kanju, Gloria Ceasar, Flora I Tibazarwa, James P Legg
Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) is the most important virus disease of cassava and a major food security threat in Africa. Yearly economic losses of up to $100 million USD have been attributed to CBSD. The lack of information on plant-virus interactions has restricted progress in breeding for CBSD resistance. Virus quantification is becoming a major tool for the quick and reliable assessment of plant host resistance. Therefore, a protocol for specific absolute quantification of Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV) was developed...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304098/bacteriophages-as-indicators-of-fecal-pollution-and-enteric-virus-removal
#5
REVIEW
Brian R McMinn, Nicholas J Ashbolt, Asja Korajkic
Bacteriophages are an attractive alternative to fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), particularly as surrogates of enteric virus fate and transport, due to their closer morphological and biological properties. Based on a review of published data, we summarize densities of coliphages (F+ and somatic), Bacteroides spp. and enterococci bacteriophages (phages) in individual human waste, raw wastewater, ambient fresh and marine waters and removal through wastewater treatment processes utilizing traditional treatments...
March 17, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303345/detection-and-characterization-of-hepatitis-a-virus-circulating-in-egypt
#6
Hazem Hamza, Dina Nadeem Abd-Elshafy, Sayed A Fayed, Mahmoud Mohamed Bahgat, Nagwa Abass El-Esnawy, Emam Abdel-Mobdy
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) still poses a considerable problem worldwide. In the current study, hepatitis A virus was recovered from wastewater samples collected from three wastewater treatment plants over one year. Using RT-PCR, HAV was detected in 43 out of 68 samples (63.2%) representing both inlet and outlet. Eleven positive samples were subjected to sequencing targeting the VP1-2A junction region. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all samples belonged to subgenotype IB with few substitutions at the amino acid level...
March 16, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303034/searching-for-wheat-resistance-to-aphids-and-wheat-bulb-fly-in-the-historical-watkins-and-gediflux-wheat-collections
#7
G I Aradottir, J L Martin, S J Clark, J A Pickett, L E Smart
Insect pests can reduce wheat yield by direct feeding and transmission of plant viruses. Here we report results from laboratory and field phenotyping studies on a wide range of wheat, including landraces from the Watkins collection deriving from before the green revolution, more modern cultivars from the Gediflux collection (north-western Europe) and modern UK Elite varieties, for resistance to the bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi (Homoptera: Aphididae) and the English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (Homoptera: Aphididae)...
March 2017: Annals of Applied Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300406/enzymatic-synthesis-of-a-novel-kaempferol-3-o-%C3%AE-d-glucopyranosyl-1%C3%A2-4-o-%C3%AE-d-glucopyranoside-using-cyclodextrin-glucanotransferase-and-its-inhibitory-effects-on-aldose-reductase-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress
#8
Woo-Jae Choung, Seung Hwan Hwang, Dam-Seul Ko, Set Byeol Kim, Seo Hyun Kim, Sung Ho Jeon, Hee-Don Choi, Soon Sung Lim, Jae-Hoon Shim
Kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (astragalin, AS), a major flavonoid that exists in various plants, exerts anti-oxidant, anti-tumor, anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the low water solubility of AS limits its use. In this study, we used cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase) with maltose (G2) as a donor molecule to enzymatically modify AS to improve its water solubility and physiochemical properties. We isolated the glycosylated astragalin (G1-AS) and identified the structure of G1-AS as kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-α-D-glucopyranoside, where one glucose residue was transferred to AS...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299798/sterol-glycosyltransferases-required-for-adaptation-of-withania-somnifera-at-high-temperature
#9
Gaurav Singh, Manish Tiwari, Surendra Pratap Singh, Ruchi Singh, Surendra Singh, Pramod Arvind Shirke, Prabodh K Trivedi, Pratibha Misra
Heat is a major environmental stress factor that confines growth, productivity, and metabolism of plants. Plants respond to such unfavorable conditions through changes in their physiological, biochemical and developmental processes. Withania somnifera, an important medicinal plant, grows in hot and dry conditions, however, molecular mechanisms related to such adaptive properties are not known. Here, we elucidated that members of the SGT gene family play important roles in the survival of W. somnifera under adverse conditions through maintaining the integrity of the membrane...
March 16, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299485/characterization-of-lettuce-big-vein-associated-virus-and-mirafiori-lettuce-big-vein-virus-infecting-lettuce-in-saudi-arabia
#10
M Umar, M A Amer, M A Al-Saleh, I M Al-Shahwan, M T Shakeel, A M Zakri, N I Katis
During 2014 and 2015, 97 lettuce plants that showed big-vein-disease-like symptoms and seven weed plants were collected from the Riyadh region. DAS-ELISA revealed that 25% and 9% of the lettuce plants were singly infected with LBVaV and MiLBVV, respectively, whereas 63% had a mixed infection with both viruses. The results were confirmed by multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction using primers specific for LBVaV and MiLBVV. LBVaV and MiLBVV were also detected in Sonchus oleraceus and Eruca sativa, respectively...
March 16, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299484/characterization-of-a-new-badnavirus-from-wisteria-sinensis
#11
Yongqiang Li, Congliang Deng, Yan Qiao, Xiaoli Zhao, Qi Zhou
The complete genome sequence of a previously undescribed badnavirus isolated from a wisteria plant exhibiting mosaic and crinkle symptoms in Beijing, China, was determined. The circular double-stranded DNA genome of this virus was 7362 bp in size with four open reading frames (ORFs 1 to 4) on the plus strand. Sequence analysis showed that this virus shared the highest (69%) nucleotide (nt) sequence identity with pagoda yellow mosaic associated virus (PYMAV). In the RT-RNase H region of the ORF-3 encoded polyprotein, this virus shared 74% nt sequence identity with PYMAV...
March 15, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296575/live-cell-imaging-reveals-the-relocation-of-dsrna-binding-proteins-upon-viral-infection
#12
Deborah Barton, Elke Roovers, Quentin Gouil, Guilherme C da Fonseca, Rodrigo S Reis, Craig Jackson, Robyn Overall, Adriana Fusaro, Peter Waterhouse
Viral infection triggers a range of plant responses such as the activation of the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. The double-stranded RNA binding (DRB) proteins, DRB3 and DRB4, are part of this pathway and aid in defending against DNA and RNA viruses, respectively. Using live cell imaging, we show that DRB2, DRB3 and DRB5 relocate from their uniform cytoplasmic distribution to concentrated accumulation in nascent viral replication complexes (VRCs) that develop following cell invasion by viral RNA. Inactivation of the DRB3 gene in Arabidopsis, by T-DNA insertion, rendered these plants less able to repress RNA viral replication...
March 15, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296178/photosynthetic-bacterium-rhodopseudomonas-palustris-gj-22-induces-systemic-resistance-against-viruses
#13
Pin Su, Xinqiu Tan, Chenggang Li, Deyong Zhang, Ju'e Cheng, Songbai Zhang, Xuguo Zhou, Qingpin Yan, Jing Peng, Zhuo Zhang, Yong Liu, Xiangyang Lu
Photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) have been extensively used in agriculture to promote plant growth and to improve crop quality. Their potential application in plant disease management, however, is largely overlooked. In this study, the PSB strain Rhodopseudomonas palustris GJ-22 was investigated for its ability to induce resistance against a plant virus while promoting plant growth. In the field, a foliar spray of GJ-22 suspension protected tobacco plants against tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Under axenic conditions, GJ-22 colonized the plant phyllosphere and induced resistance against TMV...
March 14, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293795/a-workflow-for-in-silico-design-of-hil-10-and-ebvil-10-inhibitors-using-well-known-miniprotein-scaffolds
#14
Salvador Dueñas, Sergio A Aguila, Genaro Pimienta
The over-expression of immune-suppressors such as IL-10 is a crucial landmark in both tumor progression, and latent viral and parasite infection. IL-10 is a multifunctional protein. Besides its immune-cell suppressive function, it also promotes B-cell tumorigenesis of lymphomas and melanoma. Human pathogens like unicellular parasites and viruses that remain latent inside B cells promote the over-expression of hIL-10 upon infection, which inhibits cell-mediated immune surveillance, and at the same time mediates B cell proliferation...
April 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293725/a-nano-au-c-mwcnt-based-label-free-amperometric-immunosensor-for-the-detection-of-capsicum-chlorosis-virus-in-bell-pepper
#15
Anshul Sharma, Ankur Kaushal, Saurabh Kulshrestha
Accurate and on time diagnosis of plant viruses is an essential prerequisite for efficient control in field conditions. A number of diagnostic methods have been reported with the required level of sensitivity. Here, we propose a label free immunosensor for efficient and sensitive detection of capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV) in bell pepper. Antigen was immobilized over the surface of gold nanoparticle/multi-walled carbon nanotube (Nano-Au/C-MWCNT) screen printed electrodes using 1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide (EDC)/N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) cross linking chemistry followed by interaction with groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV)/CaCV specific polyclonal antibody...
March 14, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293244/efficient-transient-expression-of-recombinant-proteins-in-plants-by-the-novel-peff-vector-based-on-the-genome-of-potato-virus-x
#16
Eugenia S Mardanova, Elena A Blokhina, Liudmila M Tsybalova, Hadrien Peyret, George P Lomonossoff, Nikolai V Ravin
Agroinfiltration of plant leaves with binary vectors carrying a gene of interest within a plant viral vector is a rapid and efficient method for protein production in plants. Previously, we constructed a self-replicating vector, pA7248AMV, based on the genetic elements of potato virus X (PVX), and have shown that this vector can be used for the expression of recombinant proteins in Nicotiana benthamiana. However, this vector is almost 18 kb long and therefore not convenient for genetic manipulation. Furthermore, for efficient expression of the target protein it should be co-agroinfiltrated with an additional binary vector expressing a suppressor of post-transcriptional gene silencing...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292241/microbial-pest-control-agents-are-they-a-specific-and-safe-tool-for-insect-pest-management
#17
Caroline Deshayes, Myriam Siegwart, David Pauron, Josy-Anne Froger, Bruno Lapied, Véronique Apaire-Marchais
Microorganisms (viruses, bacteria and fungi) or their bioactive agents can be used as active substances and therefore are referred as Microbial Pest Control Agents (MPCA). They are used as alternative strategies to chemical insecticides to counteract the development of resistances and to reduce adverse effects on both environment and human health. These natural entomopathogenic agents, which have specific modes of action, are generally considered safer as compared to conventional chemical insecticides. Baculoviruses are the only viruses being used as the safest biological control agents...
March 14, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288321/phomopsis-longicolla-rna-virus-1-novel-virus-at-the-edge-of-myco-and-plant-viruses
#18
Lenka Hrabáková, Igor Koloniuk, Karel Petrzik
The complete nucleotide sequence of a new RNA mycovirus in the KY isolate of Phomopsis longicolla Hobbs 1985 and its protoplasts subcultures p5, p9, and ME711 was discovered. The virus, provisionally named Phomopsis longicolla RNA virus 1 (PlRV1), was localized in mitochondria and was determined to have a genome 2822 nucleotides long. A single open reading frame could be translated in silico by both standard and mitochondrial genetic codes into a product featuring conservative domains for an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp)...
March 10, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285085/silencing-of-the-fro1-gene-and-its-effects-on-iron-partition-in-nicotiana-benthamiana
#19
Florinda Gama, Teresa Saavedra, Susana Dandlen, Amarilis de Varennes, Pedro J Correia, Maribela Pestana, Gustavo Nolasco
To evaluate the dynamic role of the ferric-chelate reductase enzyme (FCR) and to identify possible pathways of regulation of its activity in different plant organs an investigation was conducted by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) using tobacco rattle virus (TRV) to silence the ferric reductase oxidase gene (FRO1) that encodes the FCR enzyme. Half of Nicotiana benthamiana plants received the VIGS vector and the rest remained as control. Four treatments were imposed: two levels of Fe in the nutrient solution (0 or 2...
March 6, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284246/ictv-virus-taxonomy-profile-ourmiavirus
#20
Massimo Turina, Brad I Hillman, Keramat Izadpanah, Mina Rastgou, Cristina Rosa, Ictv Report Consortium
Members of the plant virus genus Ourmiavirus are characterized by having non-enveloped bacilliform virions with a series of discrete lengths from 30 to 62 nm composed of a single coat protein (CP). The genome consists of three positive-sense single-stranded RNAs, each encoding a single protein. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) has closest similarity to that of viruses from the family Narnaviridae; the movement protein (MP) is similar to the MPs of tombusviruses; the CP shows limited similarity to the CPs of several plant and animal viruses...
February 2017: Journal of General Virology
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