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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332113/the-critical-power-concept-applications-to-sports-performance-with-a-focus-on-intermittent-high-intensity-exercise
#1
REVIEW
Andrew M Jones, Anni Vanhatalo
The curvilinear relationship between power output and the time for which it can be sustained is a fundamental and well-known feature of high-intensity exercise performance. This relationship 'levels off' at a 'critical power' (CP) that separates power outputs that can be sustained with stable values of, for example, muscle phosphocreatine, blood lactate, and pulmonary oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]), from power outputs where these variables change continuously with time until their respective minimum and maximum values are reached and exercise intolerance occurs...
March 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296943/new-approaches-to-determine-fatigue-in-elite-athletes-during-intensified-training-resting-metabolic-rate-and-pacing-profile
#2
Amy L Woods, Laura A Garvican-Lewis, Bronwen Lundy, Anthony J Rice, Kevin G Thompson
BACKGROUND: Elite rowers complete a high volume of training across a number of modalities to prepare for competition, including periods of intensified load, which may lead to fatigue and short-term performance decrements. As yet, the influence of substantial fatigue on resting metabolic rate (RMR) and exercise regulation (pacing), and their subsequent utility as monitoring parameters, has not been explicitly investigated in elite endurance athletes. METHOD: Ten National-level rowers completed a four-week period of intensified training...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271579/self-reported-sleep-quantity-quality-and-sleep-hygiene-in-elite-athletes
#3
Melanie Knufinke, Arne Nieuwenhuys, Sabine A E Geurts, Anton M L Coenen, Michiel A J Kompier
Sleep is essential for recovery and performance in elite athletes. While actigraphy-based studies revealed suboptimal sleep in athletes, information on their subjective experience of sleep is scarce. Relatively unexplored is also the extent to which athletes' sleep is adversely affected by environmental conditions and daytime behaviours, that is sleep hygiene. This study aimed to provide insight in sleep quantity, quality and its putative association with sleep hygiene. Participants were 98 elite (youth) athletes competing at the highest (inter-)national level...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253031/the-relationship-between-training-load-and-injury-in-men-s-professional-basketball-players
#4
Kaitlyn J Weiss, Sian V Allen, Mike R McGuigan, Chris S Whatman
PURPOSE: To establish the relationship between the acute:chronic workload ratio and lower extremity overuse injuries in professional basketball players over the course of a competitive season. METHODS: The acute:chronic workload ratio was determined by calculating the sum of the current week's session rate of perceived exertion (sRPE) training load (acute load) and dividing it by the average weekly training load over the previous four weeks (chronic load). All injuries were recorded weekly using a self-reported injury questionnaire (Oslo Sports Trauma Research Centre Injury Questionnaire(20)) Workload ratios were modelled against injury data using a logistic regression model with unique intercepts for each player...
March 2, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229568/yo-yo-ir1-vs-incremental-continuous-running-test-for-prediction-of-3000-m-performance
#5
Boris Schmitz, Andreas Klose, Katrin Schelleckes, Charlotte M Jekat, Michael Krüger, Stefan-Martin Brand
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to compare physiological responses during the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) test and an incremental continuous running field test (ICRT) and to analyze their predictive value on 3000 m running performance. METHODS: Forty moderately trained individuals (18 females) performed the ICRT and Yo-Yo IR1 test to exhaustion. The ICRT was performed as graded running test with an increase of 2.0 km·h-1 after each 3 min interval for lactate diagnostic...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095065/monitoring-fatigue-status-in-elite-team-sport-athletes-implications-for-practice
#6
Robin T Thorpe, Greg Atkinson, Barry Drust, Warren Gregson
The increase in competition demands in elite team sports over recent years has prompted much attention from researchers and practitioners into the monitoring of adaptation and fatigue in athletes. Monitoring of fatigue and gaining an understanding of athlete status may also provide insights and beneficial information pertaining to player availability, injury and illness risk. Traditional methods used to quantify recovery and fatigue in team sports such as maximal physical performance assessments may not be feasible in order to detect variations in fatigue status throughout competitive periods...
January 17, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054910/examining-effects-of-physical-exertion-on-the-dynamic-visual-acuity-test-in-collegiate-athletes
#7
Jessie N Patterson, Anna M Murphy, Julie A Honaker
BACKGROUND: Acute symptoms of dizziness and/or imbalance commonly experienced in athletes postconcussion are speculated to arise from dysfunction at multiple levels (i.e., inner ear or central vestibular system) to appropriately integrate afferent sensory information. Disruption along any pathway of the balance system can result in symptoms of dizziness, decreased postural control function (vestibulospinal reflex), and reduced vestibulo-ocular reflex function. This may also lead to decreased gaze stability with movements of the head and may account for symptoms of blurred vision or diplopia reported in almost half of athletes sustaining a concussion...
January 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997264/decrease-in-ionized-and-total-magnesium-blood-concentrations-in-endurance-athletes-following-an-exercise-bout-restores-within-hours-potential-consequences-for-monitoring-and-supplementation
#8
Rieneke Terink, Michael G J Balvers, Maria T Hopman, Renger F Witkamp, Marco Mensink, Jacqueline M T Klein Gunnewiek
Magnesium is essential for optimal sport performance, generating an interest to monitor its status in athletes. However, before measuring magnesium status in blood could become routine, more insight into its diurnal fluctuations and effects of exercise itself is necessary. Therefore, we measured the effect of an acute bout of exercise on ionized (iMg) and total plasma magnesium (tMg) in blood obtained from 18 healthy well-trained endurance athletes (age, 31.1 ± 8.1 yr.; VO2max, 50.9 ± 7.5 ml/kg/min) at multiple time points, and compared this with a resting situation...
December 20, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991484/relationship-between-the-handball-specific-complex-test-and-intermittent-field-test-performance-in-elite-professional-handball-players
#9
René Schwesig, Souhail Hermassi, Birgit Hoffmeyer, Lars Irlenbusch, Georg Fieseler, Frank Noack, Karl S Delank, Tim J Gabbett, Mohamed S Chelly
BACKGROUND: We investigated the relationship between the handball complex-test (HBCT) and two selected field tests in elite handball players. METHODS: Twenty one handball players (age: 25.2 ± 5.1 years) from the First Professional German League completed; the HBCT performed twice, total distance (TD) covered in the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test and repeated shuttle sprint ability (RSA) (6 x (15 + 15 m)) starting every 20 s. RSA results were evaluated in three ways: best time (RSAbest), total time (RSATT) and decrement (RSAdec)...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27967274/a-new-method-to-individualize-monitoring-of-muscle-recovery-in-athletes
#10
Anne Hecksteden, Werner Pitsch, Ross Julian, Mark Pfeiffer, Michael Kellmann, Alexander Ferrauti, Tim Meyer
PURPOSE: Assessment of muscle recovery is essential for the daily fine-tuning of training load in competitive sports, but individual differences may limit the diagnostic accuracy of group-based reference ranges. We report an attempt to develop individualized reference ranges using a Bayesian approach comparable to that developed for the athlete biological passport. METHODS: Urea and creatine kinase (CK) were selected as indicators of muscle recovery. For each parameter, prior distributions and repeated measures standard deviations were characterized based on data of 883 squad athletes (1758 data points, 1-8 per athlete, years 2013-2015)...
December 14, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918666/quantification-of-training-and-competition-loads-in-endurance-sports-methods-and-applications
#11
Iñigo Mujika
Training quantification is basic to evaluate an endurance athlete's responses to the training loads, ensure adequate stress/recovery balance and determine the relationship between training and performance. Quantifying both external and internal workload is important, because the external workload does not measure the biological stress imposed by the exercise sessions. Generally used quantification methods include retrospective questionnaires, diaries, direct observation and physiological monitoring, often based on the measurement of oxygen uptake, heart rate and blood lactate concentration...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857520/secondary-elements-of-blood-ph-variation-can-influence-the-effort-effectiveness-based-on-adaptive-changes-within-a-group-of-elite-athletes
#12
Ştefan Adrian Martin, Valeriu Tomescu, Septimiu Voidăzan
AIM: pH is the direct indicator of the body reaction following the activities performed. Establishing precise correlations between pH and blood biochemical parameters might support the balancing of values during periods of marked physical activity. METHOD: We conducted a case study in a group of elite rowers. Twelve athletes were included in the study. Monitoring was carried out by collecting biological samples several times a day: in the morning, 80 minutes pre-workout, 12 hours after the last physical effort performed, at two different times, 10 days apart...
2016: Clujul Medical (1957)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787466/relationship-between-running-performance-and-recovery-stress-state-in-collegiate-soccer-players
#13
Nicholas A Coker, Klarie M Ake, David L Griffin, Stephen J Rossi, Jim L McMillan, Adam J Wells
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between changes in running performance and the stress-recovery state in collegiate soccer players. Running performance was evaluated in seven Division I NCAA male soccer players (179.39±5.24 cm; 75.46±5.98 kg; 20.37±1.41 yrs.) via global positioning system over the course of 12 competitive games in a single season. The regular season was divided into four competitive blocks: B1 (n=3), B2 (n=3), B3 (n=3) and B4 (n=3). Total distance and distance covered while engaging in walking, jogging, low-speed running, high-speed running, sprinting, low-intensity running and high-intensity running were assessed during each block...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736255/assessing-the-measurement-sensitivity-and-diagnostic-characteristics-of-athlete-monitoring-tools-in-national-swimmers
#14
Stephen Crowcroft, Erin McCleave, Katie Slattery, Aaron J Coutts
PURPOSE: To assess measurement sensitivity and diagnostic characteristics of athlete monitoring tools to identify performance change. METHODS: Fourteen nationally competitive swimmers (11 males, 3 females, age: 21.2 ± 3.2 y) recorded daily monitoring over 15 months. The "Self-report" group (n=7) reported general health, energy levels, motivation, stress, recovery, soreness and wellness. The "Combined" group (n=7) recorded sleep quality, perceived fatigue, total quality recovery (TQR) and heart rate variability measures...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707536/interpreting-change-on-the-scat3-in-professional-ice-hockey-players
#15
Timo Hänninen, Jari Parkkari, Markku Tuominen, Grant L Iverson, Juha Öhman, Matti Vartiainen, Teemu M Luoto
OBJECTIVES: To examine test-retest reliability of the SCAT3 for two consecutive seasons using a large sample of professional male ice hockey players, and to make recommendations for interpreting change on the test. DESIGN: A cross-sectional descriptive study. METHODS: Preseason baseline testing was administered in the beginning of the seasons 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 to 179 professional male hockey players in rink side settings. RESULTS: The test-retest reliabilities of the SCAT3 components were uniformly low...
May 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625753/acute-responses-to-10%C3%A3-15-m-repeated-sprint-ability-exercise-in-adolescent-athletes-the-role-of-change-of-direction-and-sport-specialization
#16
Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis, Panagiotis Meletakos, Ioannis Tasiopoulos, Ioannis Kostoulas, Panagiotis Ganavias
BACKGROUND: The repeated sprint ability (RSA) has been studied with protocols using distances longer than 20 m per sprint, whereas basketball players cover on average less than 20-meter distance per sprint during match. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to examine the physiological impact of 10 × 15 m RSA test in straight-line (RSASL) or with change of direction (RSACOD), i.e. 10 × (7.5 + 7.5 m)) in young national level basketball players. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Young basketball players (n = 11, age 17...
June 2016: Asian Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617566/assessing-overreaching-with-hrr-what-is-the-minimal-exercise-intensity-required
#17
Yann Le Meur, Martin Buchheit, Anaël Aubry, Aaron J Coutts, Christophe Hausswirth
PURPOSE: Faster heart rate recovery (HRR) following high-to-maximal exercise (≥90% HRmax) has been reported in athletes suspected of functional overreaching (f-OR). This study investigated whether this response would also occur at lower exercise intensity. METHODS AND RESULTS: HRR and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) responses were compared during an incremental intermittent running protocol to exhaustion in twenty experienced male triathletes (8 control and 13 overload subjects led to f-OR) before (Pre), immediately after an overload training period (Mid) and following a 1-week taper (Post)...
September 6, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574913/ischemic-preconditioning-increases-muscle-perfusion-oxygen-uptake-and-force-in-strength-trained-athletes
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Pénélope Paradis-Deschênes, Denis R Joanisse, François Billaut
Muscle ischemia and reperfusion induced by ischemic preconditioning (IPC) can improve performance in various activities. However, the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of IPC on muscle hemodynamics and oxygen (O2) uptake during repeated maximal contractions. In a cross-over, randomized, single-blind study, 10 strength-trained men performed 5 sets of 5 maximal voluntary knee extensions of the right leg on an isokinetic dynamometer, preceded by either IPC of the right lower limb (3×5-min compression/5-min reperfusion cycles at 200 mm Hg) or sham (20 mm Hg)...
September 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27491620/the-impact-of-sleeping-with-reduced-glycogen-stores-on-immunity-and-sleep-in-triathletes
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Julien Louis, Laurie-Anne Marquet, Eve Tiollier, Stéphane Bermon, Christophe Hausswirth, Jeanick Brisswalter
PURPOSE: We investigated the effects of a 3-week dietary periodization on immunity and sleep in triathletes. METHODS: 21 triathletes were divided into two groups with different nutritional guidelines during a 3-week endurance training program including nine twice a day sessions with lowered (SL group) or maintained (CON group) glycogen availability during the overnight recovery period. In addition to performance tests, sleep was monitored every night. Systemic and mucosal immune parameters as well as the incidence of URTI were monitored every week of the training/nutrition protocol...
October 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27465696/story-behind-meldonium-from-pharmacology-to-performance-enhancement-a-narrative-review
#20
REVIEW
Wolfgang Schobersberger, Tobias Dünnwald, Günther Gmeiner, Cornelia Blank
Recent reports from the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) indicate an alarming prevalence in the use of meldonium among elite athletes. Therefore, in January 2016, meldonium was added to WADA's prohibited list after being monitored since 2015. Meldonium has been shown to have beneficial effects in cardiovascular, neurological and metabolic diseases due to its anti-ischaemic and cardioprotective properties, which are ascribed mainly to its inhibition of ß-oxidation and its activation of glycolysis. Despite its widespread use, there are only a few clinical studies or clinical trials available...
January 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
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