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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910741/physiology-and-pathophysiology-in-ultra-marathon-running
#1
REVIEW
Beat Knechtle, Pantelis T Nikolaidis
In this overview, we summarize the findings of the literature with regards to physiology and pathophysiology of ultra-marathon running. The number of ultra-marathon races and the number of official finishers considerably increased in the last decades especially due to the increased number of female and age-group runners. A typical ultra-marathoner is male, married, well-educated, and ~45 years old. Female ultra-marathoners account for ~20% of the total number of finishers. Ultra-marathoners are older and have a larger weekly training volume, but run more slowly during training compared to marathoners...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777386/substrate-metabolism-during-ironman-triathlon-different-horses-on-the-same-courses
#2
Ed Maunder, Andrew E Kilding, Daniel J Plews
Ironman triathlons are ultra-endurance events of extreme duration. The performance level of those competing varies dramatically, with elite competitors finishing in ~ 8:00:00, and lower performing amateurs finishing in ~ 14-15:00:00. When applying appropriate values for swimming, cycling and running economies to these performance times, it is demonstrated that the absolute energy cost of these events is high, and the rate of energy expenditure increases in proportion with the athlete's competitive level...
May 18, 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259560/the-energetics-during-the-world-s-most-challenging-mountain-ultra-marathon-a-case-study-at-the-tor-des-geants%C3%A2
#3
Aldo Savoldelli, Alessandro Fornasiero, Pietro Trabucchi, Eloisa Limonta, Antonio La Torre, Francis Degache, Barbara Pellegrini, Grégoire P Millet, Gianluca Vernillo, Federico Schena
Purpose: To provide insights into the energy requirements as well as the physiological adaptations of an experienced 50-year-old ultra-marathon male athlete during the world's most challenging mountain ultra-marathon (MUM). Methods: The international race supporting the study was the Tor des Geants®, characterized by 330 km with +24,000 m D+ to be covered within 150 h. Before the MUM, we assessed the peak oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) by means of an incremental graded running test. During the MUM we monitored six ascents (once per race day) with a portable gas analyzer, a GPS and a finger pulse oximeter...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955243/the-effect-of-a-100-km-ultra-marathon-under-freezing-conditions-on-selected-immunological-and-hematological-parameters
#4
Alena Žákovská, Beat Knechtle, Daniela Chlíbková, Marie Miličková, Thomas Rosemann, Pantelis T Nikolaidis
Although moderate exercise is beneficial for the human body and its immune system, exhaustive ultra-endurance performance in cold conditions might be harmful. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a 100-km ultra-marathon under cold conditions (temperatures from -1°C to +1°C) on selected immunological, biochemical and hematological parameters. Participants were 15 runners (12 men and three women, age 40.3 ± 9.7 years, body mass 67.3 ± 9.0 kg and body height 1.74 ± 0.10 m, mean ± standard deviation)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674598/cortisol-and-alpha-amylase-changes-during-an-ultra-running-event
#5
Whitney P Deneen, Alexis B Jones
Elevated stress hormone concentrations can positively affect an athlete's overall performance during a competition, and in many cases, are necessary to be able to perform exercise. During extreme exercise, the body's ability to utilize energy efficiently can affect an athlete's performance. Elevated hormonal concentrations can have many benefits in regards to an athlete's overall performance during a competition. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of long distance running, such as seen during an ultra-running event (distances beyond 26...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282421/comparison-of-vitality-states-of-finishers-and-withdrawers-in-trail-running-an-enactive-and-phenomenological-perspective
#6
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Nadège Rochat, Denis Hauw, Roberta Antonini Philippe, Fabienne Crettaz von Roten, Ludovic Seifert
Studies on ultra-endurance suggest that during the races, athletes typically experience three vitality states (i.e., preservation, loss, and revival) at the phenomenological level. Nevertheless, how these states contribute to the management and outcome of performance remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether and how the vitality states experienced by runners and their evolution during a trail race can be used to distinguish finishers from withdrawers. From an enactive and phenomenological framework, we processed enactive interviews and blog posts of race narratives...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018241/master-athletes-are-extending-the-limits-of-human-endurance
#7
REVIEW
Romuald Lepers, Paul J Stapley
The increased participation of master athletes (i.e., >40 years old) in endurance and ultra-endurance events (>6 h duration) over the past few decades has been accompanied by an improvement in their performances at a much faster rate than their younger counterparts. Aging does however result in a decrease in overall endurance performance. Such age-related declines in performance depend upon the modes of locomotion, event duration, and gender of the participant. For example, smaller age-related declines in cycling performance than in running and swimming have been documented...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895900/nutritional-implications-for-ultra-endurance-walking-and-running-events
#8
REVIEW
Eric Williamson
This paper examines the various nutritional challenges which athletes encounter in preparing for and participating in ultra-endurance walking and running events. Special attention is paid to energy level, performance, and recovery within the context of athletes' intake of carbohydrate, protein, fat, and various vitamins and minerals. It outlines, by way of a review of literature, those factors which promote optimal performance for the ultra-endurance athlete and provides recommendations from multiple researchers concerned with the nutrition and performance of ultra-endurance athletes...
2016: Extreme Physiology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877137/an-extreme-mountain-ultra-marathon-decreases-the-cost-of-uphill-walking-and-running
#9
Gianluca Vernillo, Aldo Savoldelli, Spyros Skafidas, Andrea Zignoli, Antonio La Torre, Barbara Pellegrini, Guido Giardini, Pietro Trabucchi, Grégoire P Millet, Federico Schena
Purpose: To examine the effects of the world's most challenging mountain ultramarathon (MUM, 330 km, cumulative elevation gain of +24,000 m) on the energy cost and kinematics of different uphill gaits. Methods: Before (PRE) and immediately after (POST) the competition, 19 male athletes performed three submaximal 5-min treadmill exercise trials in a randomized order: walking at 5 km·h(-1), +20%; running at 6 km·h(-1), +15%; and running at 8 km·h(-1), +10%. During the three trials, energy cost was assessed using an indirect calorimetry system and spatiotemporal gait parameters were acquired with a floor-level high-density photoelectric cells system...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787469/running-performance-nationality-sex-and-age-in-10km-half-marathon-marathon-and-100km-ultra-marathon-iaaf-1999-2015
#10
Pantelis T Nikolaidis, Vincent O Onywera, Beat Knechtle
The aim of the present study was to examine the performance of the world's best runners in 10km, half-marathon, marathon and 100km by age, sex and nationality during 1999-2015 using data from International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF). A total of 38,895 runners (17,136 women and 21,759 men) were considered with 2,594 (1,360 women and 1,234 male) in 10km, 11,595 (5,225 women and 6,370 male) in half-marathon, 23,973 (10,208 women and 13,765 male) in marathon and 733 (343 women and 390 male) in 100km...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770784/effects-of-two-neuromuscular-training-programs-on-running-biomechanics-with-load-carriage-a-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#11
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Bernard X W Liew, Susan Morris, Justin W L Keogh, Brendyn Appleby, Kevin Netto
BACKGROUND: In recent years, athletes have ventured into ultra-endurance and adventure racing events, which tests their ability to race, navigate, and survive. These events often require race participants to carry some form of load, to bear equipment for navigation and survival purposes. Previous studies have reported specific alterations in biomechanics when running with load which potentially influence running performance and injury risk. We hypothesize that a biomechanically informed neuromuscular training program would optimize running mechanics during load carriage to a greater extent than a generic strength training program...
October 22, 2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768506/changes-in-running-mechanics-during-a-6-hour-running-race
#12
Nicola Giovanelli, Paolo Taboga, Stefano Lazzer
PURPOSE: To investigate changes in running mechanics during a 6-h running race. METHODS: Twelve ultraendurance runners (age 41.9 ± 5.8 y, body mass 68.3 ± 12.6 kg, height 1.72 ± 0.09 m) were asked to run as many 874-m flat loops as possible in 6 h. Running speed, contact time (tc ), and aerial time (ta ) were measured in the first lap and every 30 ± 2 min during the race. Peak vertical ground-reaction force (Fmax ), stride length (SL), vertical downward displacement of the center of mass (Δz), leg-length change (ΔL), vertical stiffness (kvert ), and leg stiffness (kleg ) were then estimated...
May 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703854/sex-differences-in-pacing-during-ultraman-hawaii
#13
Beat Knechtle, Pantelis T Nikolaidis
BACKGROUND: To date, little is known for pacing in ultra-endurance athletes competing in a non-stop event and in a multi-stage event, and especially, about pacing in a multi-stage event with different disciplines during the stages. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the effect of age, sex and calendar year on triathlon performance and variation of performance by events (i.e., swimming, cycling 1, cycling 2 and running) in 'Ultraman Hawaii' held between 1983 and 2015...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26892521/metabolic-characteristics-of-keto-adapted-ultra-endurance-runners
#14
Jeff S Volek, Daniel J Freidenreich, Catherine Saenz, Laura J Kunces, Brent C Creighton, Jenna M Bartley, Patrick M Davitt, Colleen X Munoz, Jeffrey M Anderson, Carl M Maresh, Elaine C Lee, Mark D Schuenke, Giselle Aerni, William J Kraemer, Stephen D Phinney
BACKGROUND: Many successful ultra-endurance athletes have switched from a high-carbohydrate to a low-carbohydrate diet, but they have not previously been studied to determine the extent of metabolic adaptations. METHODS: Twenty elite ultra-marathoners and ironman distance triathletes performed a maximal graded exercise test and a 180 min submaximal run at 64% VO2max on a treadmill to determine metabolic responses. One group habitually consumed a traditional high-carbohydrate (HC: n=10, %carbohydrate:protein:fat=59:14:25) diet, and the other a low-carbohydrate (LC; n=10, 10:19:70) diet for an average of 20 months (range 9 to 36 months)...
March 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26200192/evaluating-individual-training-adaptation-with-smartphone-derived-heart-rate-variability-in-a-collegiate-female-soccer-team
#15
Andrew A Flatt, Michael R Esco
Monitoring individual responses throughout training may provide insight to coaches regarding how athletes are coping to the current program. It is unclear if the evolution of heart rate variability (HRV) throughout training in team-sport athletes can be useful in providing early indications of individual adaptation. This study evaluated relationships between changes in resting cardiac autonomic markers derived from a novel smartphone device within the first 3 weeks of a 5-week conditioning program and the eventual change in intermittent running performance at week 5 among 12 collegiate female soccer players...
February 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26172546/it-s-a-matter-of-mind-cognitive-functioning-predicts-the-athletic-performance-in-ultra-marathon-runners
#16
Giorgia Cona, Annachiara Cavazzana, Antonio Paoli, Giuseppe Marcolin, Alessandro Grainer, Patrizia Silvia Bisiacchi
The present study was aimed at exploring the influence of cognitive processes on performance in ultra-marathon runners, providing an overview of the cognitive aspects that characterize outstanding runners. Thirty runners were administered a battery of computerized tests right before their participation in an ultra-marathon. Then, they were split according to the race rank into two groups (i.e., faster runners and slower runners) and their cognitive performance was compared. Faster runners outperformed slower runners in trials requiring motor inhibition and were more effective at performing two tasks together, successfully suppressing the activation of the information for one of the tasks when was not relevant...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26101730/the-aspect-of-experience-in-ultra-triathlon-races
#17
Beat Knechtle, Matthias Alexander Zingg, Thomas Rosemann, Christoph Alexander Rüst
Previous experience seems to be an important predictor for endurance and ultra-endurance performance. The present study investigated whether the number of previously completed races and/or the personal best times in shorter races is more predictive for performance in longer non-stop ultra-triathlons such as a Deca Iron ultra-triathlon. All female and male ultra-triathletes who had finished between 1985 and 2014 at least one Double Iron ultra-triathlon (i.e. 7.6 km swimming, 360 km cycling and 84.4 km running), one Triple Iron ultra-triathlon (i...
2015: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26061831/competition-nutrition-practices-of-elite-ultramarathon-runners
#18
Trent Stellingwerff
Anecdotal claims have suggested that an increasing number of ultramarathoners purposely undertake chronic low-carbohydrate (CHO) ketogenic diets while training, and race with very low CHO intakes, as a way to maximize fat oxidation and improve performance. However, very little empirical evidence exists on specific fueling strategies that elite ultramarathoners undertake to maximize race performance. The study's purpose was to characterize race nutrition habits of elite ultramarathon runners. Three veteran male ultrarunners (M ± SD; age 35 ± 2 years; mass 59...
February 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26056498/what-predicts-performance-in-ultra-triathlon-races-a-comparison-between-ironman-distance-triathlon-and-ultra-triathlon
#19
REVIEW
Beat Knechtle, Matthias Alexander Zingg, Thomas Rosemann, Michael Stiefel, Christoph Alexander Rüst
OBJECTIVE: This narrative review summarizes recent intentions to find potential predictor variables for ultra-triathlon race performance (ie, triathlon races longer than the Ironman distance covering 3.8 km swimming, 180 km cycling, and 42.195 km running). Results from studies on ultra-triathletes were compared to results on studies on Ironman triathletes. METHODS: A literature search was performed in PubMed using the terms "ultra", "triathlon", and "performance" for the aspects of "ultra-triathlon", and "Ironman", "triathlon", and "performance" for the aspects of "Ironman triathlon"...
2015: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25941980/saccharide-composition-of-carbohydrates-consumed-during-an-ultra-endurance-triathlon
#20
Patrick B Wilson, Gregory S Rhodes, Stacy J Ingraham
OBJECTIVE: Ingesting a mix of glucose and fructose during exercise increases exogenous carbohydrate oxidation while minimizing gastrointestinal (GI) distress. Several studies have suggested that a glucose-to-fructose ratio of 1.2:1 to 1:1 is optimal. No studies have quantified saccharides consumed during a nonsimulated endurance event. The aim of this investigation was to quantify saccharide sources used during an ultra-endurance triathlon and provide a resource for athletes desiring to manipulate the saccharide content of carbohydrate consumed during training and competition...
2015: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
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