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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895900/nutritional-implications-for-ultra-endurance-walking-and-running-events
#1
REVIEW
Eric Williamson
This paper examines the various nutritional challenges which athletes encounter in preparing for and participating in ultra-endurance walking and running events. Special attention is paid to energy level, performance, and recovery within the context of athletes' intake of carbohydrate, protein, fat, and various vitamins and minerals. It outlines, by way of a review of literature, those factors which promote optimal performance for the ultra-endurance athlete and provides recommendations from multiple researchers concerned with the nutrition and performance of ultra-endurance athletes...
2016: Extreme Physiology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877137/an-extreme-mountain-ultra-marathon-decreases-the-cost-of-uphill-walking-and-running
#2
Gianluca Vernillo, Aldo Savoldelli, Spyros Skafidas, Andrea Zignoli, Antonio La Torre, Barbara Pellegrini, Guido Giardini, Pietro Trabucchi, Grégoire P Millet, Federico Schena
Purpose: To examine the effects of the world's most challenging mountain ultramarathon (MUM, 330 km, cumulative elevation gain of +24,000 m) on the energy cost and kinematics of different uphill gaits. Methods: Before (PRE) and immediately after (POST) the competition, 19 male athletes performed three submaximal 5-min treadmill exercise trials in a randomized order: walking at 5 km·h(-1), +20%; running at 6 km·h(-1), +15%; and running at 8 km·h(-1), +10%. During the three trials, energy cost was assessed using an indirect calorimetry system and spatiotemporal gait parameters were acquired with a floor-level high-density photoelectric cells system...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787469/running-performance-nationality-sex-and-age-in-10km-half-marathon-marathon-and-100km-ultra-marathon-iaaf-1999-2015
#3
Pantelis T Nikolaidis, Vincent O Onywera, Beat Knechtle
The aim of the present study was to examine the performance of the world's best runners in 10km, half-marathon, marathon and 100km by age, sex and nationality during 1999-2015 using data from International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF). A total of 38,895 runners (17,136 women and 21,759 men) were considered with 2,594 (1,360 women and 1,234 male) in 10km, 11,595 (5,225 women and 6,370 male) in half-marathon, 23,973 (10,208 women and 13,765 male) in marathon and 733 (343 women and 390 male) in 100km...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770784/effects-of-two-neuromuscular-training-programs-on-running-biomechanics-with-load-carriage-a-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#4
Bernard X W Liew, Susan Morris, Justin W L Keogh, Brendyn Appleby, Kevin Netto
BACKGROUND: In recent years, athletes have ventured into ultra-endurance and adventure racing events, which tests their ability to race, navigate, and survive. These events often require race participants to carry some form of load, to bear equipment for navigation and survival purposes. Previous studies have reported specific alterations in biomechanics when running with load which potentially influence running performance and injury risk. We hypothesize that a biomechanically informed neuromuscular training program would optimize running mechanics during load carriage to a greater extent than a generic strength training program...
October 22, 2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768506/changes-in-running-mechanics-during-a-six-hours-running-race
#5
Nicola Giovanelli, Paolo Taboga, Stefano Lazzer
PURPOSE: To investigate changes in running mechanics during a six hours running race. METHODS: Twelve ultra-runners (age: 41.9±5.8 years; body mass: 68.3±12.6 kg; stature: 1.72±0.09 m) were asked to run as many 874 m flat loops as possible in six hours. Running speed, contact (tc) and aerial (ta) times were measured in the first lap and every 30±2 minutes during the race. Peak vertical ground reaction force (Fmax), stride length (SL), vertical downward displacement of the centre of mass (Δz), leg length change (ΔL), vertical (kvert) and leg (kleg) stiffness were then estimated...
September 26, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703854/sex-differences-in-pacing-during-ultraman-hawaii
#6
Beat Knechtle, Pantelis T Nikolaidis
BACKGROUND: To date, little is known for pacing in ultra-endurance athletes competing in a non-stop event and in a multi-stage event, and especially, about pacing in a multi-stage event with different disciplines during the stages. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the effect of age, sex and calendar year on triathlon performance and variation of performance by events (i.e., swimming, cycling 1, cycling 2 and running) in 'Ultraman Hawaii' held between 1983 and 2015...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26892521/metabolic-characteristics-of-keto-adapted-ultra-endurance-runners
#7
Jeff S Volek, Daniel J Freidenreich, Catherine Saenz, Laura J Kunces, Brent C Creighton, Jenna M Bartley, Patrick M Davitt, Colleen X Munoz, Jeffrey M Anderson, Carl M Maresh, Elaine C Lee, Mark D Schuenke, Giselle Aerni, William J Kraemer, Stephen D Phinney
BACKGROUND: Many successful ultra-endurance athletes have switched from a high-carbohydrate to a low-carbohydrate diet, but they have not previously been studied to determine the extent of metabolic adaptations. METHODS: Twenty elite ultra-marathoners and ironman distance triathletes performed a maximal graded exercise test and a 180 min submaximal run at 64% VO2max on a treadmill to determine metabolic responses. One group habitually consumed a traditional high-carbohydrate (HC: n=10, %carbohydrate:protein:fat=59:14:25) diet, and the other a low-carbohydrate (LC; n=10, 10:19:70) diet for an average of 20 months (range 9 to 36 months)...
March 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26200192/evaluating-individual-training-adaptation-with-smartphone-derived-heart-rate-variability-in-a-collegiate-female-soccer-team
#8
Andrew A Flatt, Michael R Esco
Monitoring individual responses throughout training may provide insight to coaches regarding how athletes are coping to the current program. It is unclear if the evolution of heart rate variability (HRV) throughout training in team-sport athletes can be useful in providing early indications of individual adaptation. This study evaluated relationships between changes in resting cardiac autonomic markers derived from a novel smartphone device within the first 3 weeks of a 5-week conditioning program and the eventual change in intermittent running performance at week 5 among 12 collegiate female soccer players...
February 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26172546/it-s-a-matter-of-mind-cognitive-functioning-predicts-the-athletic-performance-in-ultra-marathon-runners
#9
Giorgia Cona, Annachiara Cavazzana, Antonio Paoli, Giuseppe Marcolin, Alessandro Grainer, Patrizia Silvia Bisiacchi
The present study was aimed at exploring the influence of cognitive processes on performance in ultra-marathon runners, providing an overview of the cognitive aspects that characterize outstanding runners. Thirty runners were administered a battery of computerized tests right before their participation in an ultra-marathon. Then, they were split according to the race rank into two groups (i.e., faster runners and slower runners) and their cognitive performance was compared. Faster runners outperformed slower runners in trials requiring motor inhibition and were more effective at performing two tasks together, successfully suppressing the activation of the information for one of the tasks when was not relevant...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26101730/the-aspect-of-experience-in-ultra-triathlon-races
#10
Beat Knechtle, Matthias Alexander Zingg, Thomas Rosemann, Christoph Alexander Rüst
Previous experience seems to be an important predictor for endurance and ultra-endurance performance. The present study investigated whether the number of previously completed races and/or the personal best times in shorter races is more predictive for performance in longer non-stop ultra-triathlons such as a Deca Iron ultra-triathlon. All female and male ultra-triathletes who had finished between 1985 and 2014 at least one Double Iron ultra-triathlon (i.e. 7.6 km swimming, 360 km cycling and 84.4 km running), one Triple Iron ultra-triathlon (i...
2015: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26061831/competition-nutrition-practices-of-elite-ultramarathon-runners
#11
Trent Stellingwerff
Anecdotal claims have suggested that an increasing number of ultramarathoners purposely undertake chronic low-carbohydrate (CHO) ketogenic diets while training, and race with very low CHO intakes, as a way to maximize fat oxidation and improve performance. However, very little empirical evidence exists on specific fueling strategies that elite ultramarathoners undertake to maximize race performance. The study's purpose was to characterize race nutrition habits of elite ultramarathon runners. Three veteran male ultrarunners (M ± SD; age 35 ± 2 years; mass 59...
February 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26056498/what-predicts-performance-in-ultra-triathlon-races-a-comparison-between-ironman-distance-triathlon-and-ultra-triathlon
#12
REVIEW
Beat Knechtle, Matthias Alexander Zingg, Thomas Rosemann, Michael Stiefel, Christoph Alexander Rüst
OBJECTIVE: This narrative review summarizes recent intentions to find potential predictor variables for ultra-triathlon race performance (ie, triathlon races longer than the Ironman distance covering 3.8 km swimming, 180 km cycling, and 42.195 km running). Results from studies on ultra-triathletes were compared to results on studies on Ironman triathletes. METHODS: A literature search was performed in PubMed using the terms "ultra", "triathlon", and "performance" for the aspects of "ultra-triathlon", and "Ironman", "triathlon", and "performance" for the aspects of "Ironman triathlon"...
2015: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25941980/saccharide-composition-of-carbohydrates-consumed-during-an-ultra-endurance-triathlon
#13
Patrick B Wilson, Gregory S Rhodes, Stacy J Ingraham
OBJECTIVE: Ingesting a mix of glucose and fructose during exercise increases exogenous carbohydrate oxidation while minimizing gastrointestinal (GI) distress. Several studies have suggested that a glucose-to-fructose ratio of 1.2:1 to 1:1 is optimal. No studies have quantified saccharides consumed during a nonsimulated endurance event. The aim of this investigation was to quantify saccharide sources used during an ultra-endurance triathlon and provide a resource for athletes desiring to manipulate the saccharide content of carbohydrate consumed during training and competition...
2015: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25767784/platelet-rich-plasma-treatment-improves-outcomes-for-chronic-proximal-hamstring-injuries-in-an-athletic-population
#14
Ryan R Fader, Justin J Mitchell, Shaun Traub, Roger Nichols, Michelle Roper, Omer Mei Dan, Eric C McCarty
BACKGROUND: chronic proximal hamstring tendinopathies is a disabling activity related condition. Currently, there is no well-accepted or extensively documented non-operative treatment option that provides consistently successful results. PURPOSE: to evaluate the efficacy of ultrasound guided platelet-rich plasma injections in treating chronic proximal hamstring tendinopathies. METHODS: a total of 18 consecutive patients were retrospectively analyzed...
October 2014: Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25520912/age-and-ultra-marathon-performance-50-to-1-000%C3%A2-km-distances-from-1969-2012
#15
Tobias Romer, Christoph Alexander Rüst, Matthias Alexander Zingg, Thomas Rosemann, Beat Knechtle
We investigated age and performance in distance-limited ultra-marathons held from 50 km to 1,000 km. Age of peak running speed and running speed of the fastest competitors from 1969 to 2012 in 50 km, 100 km, 200 km and 1,000 km ultra-marathons were analyzed using analysis of variance and multi-level regression analyses. The ages of the ten fastest women ever were 40 ± 4 yrs (50 km), 34 ± 7 yrs (100 km), 42 ± 6 yrs (200 km), and 41 ± 5 yrs (1,000 km). The ages were significantly different between 100 km and 200 km and between 100 km and 1,000 km...
2014: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25337390/will-the-age-of-peak-ultra-marathon-performance-increase-with-increasing-race-duration
#16
Christoph Alexander Rüst, Matthias Alexander Zingg, Thomas Rosemann, Beat Knechtle
BACKGROUND: Recent studies found that the athlete's age of the best ultra-marathon performance was higher than the athlete's age of the best marathon performance and it seemed that the athlete's age of peak ultra-marathon performance increased in distance-limited races with rising distance. METHODS: We investigated the athlete's age of peak ultra-marathon performance in the fastest finishers in time-limited ultra-marathons from 6 hrs to 10 d. Running performance and athlete's age of the fastest women and men competing in 6 hrs, 12 hrs, 24 hrs, 48 hrs, 72 hrs, 144 hrs (6 d) and 240 hrs (10 d) were analysed for races held between 1975 and 2012 using analysis of variance and multi-level regression analysis...
2014: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25280550/what-is-the-age-for-the-fastest-ultra-marathon-performance-in-time-limited-races-from-6%C3%A2-h-to-10%C3%A2-days
#17
Beat Knechtle, Fabio Valeri, Matthias Alexander Zingg, Thomas Rosemann, Christoph Alexander Rüst
Recent findings suggested that the age of peak ultra-marathon performance seemed to increase with increasing race distance. The present study investigated the age of peak ultra-marathon performance for runners competing in time-limited ultra-marathons held from 6 to 240 h (i.e. 10 days) during 1975-2013. Age and running performance in 20,238 (21%) female and 76,888 (79%) male finishes (6,863 women and 24,725 men, 22 and 78%, respectively) were analysed using mixed-effects regression analyses. The annual number of finishes increased for both women and men in all races...
2014: Age (2005-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25221734/a-comparison-of-performance-of-deca-iron-and-triple-deca-iron-ultra-triathletes
#18
Beat Knechtle, Thomas Rosemann, Romuald Lepers, Christoph Alexander Rüst
This study intended to compare the performance of ultra-triathletes competing in a Deca Iron ultra-triathlon (i.e. 10 times 3.8 km swimming, 180 km cycling, and 42.2 km running) with the performance of athletes competing in a Triple Deca Iron ultra-triathlon (i.e. 30 times 3.8 km swimming, 180 km cycling, and 42.2 km running). Split and overall race times of six male finishers in a Deca Iron ultra-triathlon and eight male finishers in a Triple Deca Iron ultra-triathlon were analysed using multiple t-tests, linear and non-linear regression analyses, and analysis of variance...
2014: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25202846/risk-perception-influences-athletic-pacing-strategy
#19
Dominic Micklewright, David Parry, Tracy Robinson, Greg Deacon, Andrew Renfree, Alan St Clair Gibson, William J Matthews
PURPOSE: The objective of this study is to examine risk taking and risk perception associations with perceived exertion, pacing, and performance in athletes. METHODS: Two experiments were conducted in which risk perception was assessed using the domain-specific risk taking (DOSPERT) scale in 20 novice cyclists (experiment 1) and 32 experienced ultramarathon runners (experiment 2). In experiment 1, participants predicted their pace and then performed a 5-km maximum effort cycling time trial on a calibrated Kingcycle mounted bicycle...
May 2015: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25117400/effects-of-the-etna-uphill-ultramarathon-on-energy-cost-and-mechanics-of-running
#20
Stefano Lazzer, Desy Salvadego, Paolo Taboga, Enrico Rejc, Nicola Giovanelli, Pietro E di Prampero
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of an extreme uphill marathon on the mechanical parameters that are likely to affect the energy cost of running (Cr). METHODS: Eleven runners (27-59 y) participated in the Etna SuperMarathon (43 km, 0-3063 m above sea level). Anthropometric characteristics, maximal explosive power of the lower limb (Pmax), and maximal oxygen uptake were determined before the competition. In addition, before and immediately after the race, Cr, contact (tc) and aerial (ta) times, step frequency (f), and running velocity were measured at constant self-selected speed...
March 2015: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
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