Read by QxMD icon Read

Athlete, ultra-running

Nicola Giovanelli, Paolo Taboga, Stefano Lazzer
PURPOSE: To investigate changes in running mechanics during a six hours running race. METHODS: Twelve ultra-runners (age: 41.9±5.8 years; body mass: 68.3±12.6 kg; stature: 1.72±0.09 m) were asked to run as many 874 m flat loops as possible in six hours. Running speed, contact (tc) and aerial (ta) times were measured in the first lap and every 30±2 minutes during the race. Peak vertical ground reaction force (Fmax), stride length (SL), vertical downward displacement of the centre of mass (Δz), leg length change (ΔL), vertical (kvert) and leg (kleg) stiffness were then estimated...
September 26, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Beat Knechtle, Pantelis T Nikolaidis
BACKGROUND: To date, little is known for pacing in ultra-endurance athletes competing in a non-stop event and in a multi-stage event, and especially, about pacing in a multi-stage event with different disciplines during the stages. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the effect of age, sex and calendar year on triathlon performance and variation of performance by events (i.e., swimming, cycling 1, cycling 2 and running) in 'Ultraman Hawaii' held between 1983 and 2015...
2016: PeerJ
G Vernillo, A Savoldelli, A La Torre, S Skafidas, L Bortolan, F Schena
This study aimed to describe injury/illness rates in ultratrail runners competing in a 65-km race to build a foundation for injury prevention and help race organizers to plan medical provision for these events. Prospectively transcribed medical records were analysed for 77 athletes at the end of the race. Number of injuries/illnesses per 1 000 runners and per 1 000-h run, overall injury/illness rate and 90% confidence intervals and rates for major and minor illnesses, musculoskeletal injuries, and skin disorders were analysed...
June 2016: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Rachel Lord, Keith George, John Somauroo, Nikhil Jain, Kristin Reese, Martin D Hoffman, Francois Haddad, Euan Ashley, Helen Jones, David Oxborough
BACKGROUND: Prolonged strenuous exercise has a profound effect on cardiac function. The right heart may be more susceptible to this imposition; yet, right-sided chest leads have not been utilised in this setting. METHODS: Thirty highly trained athletes at the 2014 Western States 100-mile Endurance Run from Squaw Valley to Auburn, California (body mass 68 ± 12 kg, age 45 ± 10 years, 57 ± 15 miles per week) were recruited for the study. Pre- and post-race, a right-sided 12-lead ECG was obtained and data were extracted for P, R and S waves, J point, ST segment and T wave amplitude...
November 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
Jeff S Volek, Daniel J Freidenreich, Catherine Saenz, Laura J Kunces, Brent C Creighton, Jenna M Bartley, Patrick M Davitt, Colleen X Munoz, Jeffrey M Anderson, Carl M Maresh, Elaine C Lee, Mark D Schuenke, Giselle Aerni, William J Kraemer, Stephen D Phinney
BACKGROUND: Many successful ultra-endurance athletes have switched from a high-carbohydrate to a low-carbohydrate diet, but they have not previously been studied to determine the extent of metabolic adaptations. METHODS: Twenty elite ultra-marathoners and ironman distance triathletes performed a maximal graded exercise test and a 180 min submaximal run at 64% VO2max on a treadmill to determine metabolic responses. One group habitually consumed a traditional high-carbohydrate (HC: n=10, %carbohydrate:protein:fat=59:14:25) diet, and the other a low-carbohydrate (LC; n=10, 10:19:70) diet for an average of 20 months (range 9 to 36 months)...
March 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Jin H Yoon, Yongbum Park, Jaeki Ahn, Kyung A Shin, Young J Kim
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare pre- and postcompetition markers of cardiac damage in ultraendurance athletes. METHODS: All the subjects had blood samples collected before starting and immediately after completing the running race, in order to analyze CK, hs-CRP, cTnI, and NT-proBNP. RESULTS: Before starting the marathon, there were no differences between the groups for all of the tests. CK was significantly higher after the 308 km ultra-marathon than after the marathon and the 100 km ultra-marathon (P<0...
March 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Andrew A Flatt, Michael R Esco
Monitoring individual responses throughout training may provide insight to coaches regarding how athletes are coping to the current program. It is unclear if the evolution of heart rate variability (HRV) throughout training in team-sport athletes can be useful in providing early indications of individual adaptation. This study evaluated relationships between changes in resting cardiac autonomic markers derived from a novel smartphone device within the first 3 weeks of a 5-week conditioning program and the eventual change in intermittent running performance at week 5 among 12 collegiate female soccer players...
February 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Giorgia Cona, Annachiara Cavazzana, Antonio Paoli, Giuseppe Marcolin, Alessandro Grainer, Patrizia Silvia Bisiacchi
The present study was aimed at exploring the influence of cognitive processes on performance in ultra-marathon runners, providing an overview of the cognitive aspects that characterize outstanding runners. Thirty runners were administered a battery of computerized tests right before their participation in an ultra-marathon. Then, they were split according to the race rank into two groups (i.e., faster runners and slower runners) and their cognitive performance was compared. Faster runners outperformed slower runners in trials requiring motor inhibition and were more effective at performing two tasks together, successfully suppressing the activation of the information for one of the tasks when was not relevant...
2015: PloS One
Daniela Chlíbková, Beat Knechtle, Thomas Rosemann, Ivana Tomášková, Jan Novotný, Alena Žákovská, Tomáš Uher
BACKGROUND: Exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH), rhabdomyolysis and renal failure appear to be a unique problem in ultra-endurance racers. METHODS: We investigated the combined occurrence of EAH and rhabdomyolysis in seven different ultra-endurance races and disciplines (i.e. multi-stage mountain biking, 24-h mountain biking, 24-h ultra-running and 100-km ultra-running). RESULTS: Two (15.4%) ultra-runners (man and woman) from hyponatremic ultra-athletes (n = 13) and four (4%) ultra-runners (four men) from the normonatremic group (n = 100) showed rhabdomyolysis following elevated blood creatine kinase (CK) levels > 10,000 U/L without the development of renal failure and the necessity of a medical treatment...
2015: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Beat Knechtle, Matthias Alexander Zingg, Thomas Rosemann, Christoph Alexander Rüst
Previous experience seems to be an important predictor for endurance and ultra-endurance performance. The present study investigated whether the number of previously completed races and/or the personal best times in shorter races is more predictive for performance in longer non-stop ultra-triathlons such as a Deca Iron ultra-triathlon. All female and male ultra-triathletes who had finished between 1985 and 2014 at least one Double Iron ultra-triathlon (i.e. 7.6 km swimming, 360 km cycling and 84.4 km running), one Triple Iron ultra-triathlon (i...
2015: SpringerPlus
Trent Stellingwerff
Anecdotal claims have suggested that an increasing number of ultramarathoners purposely undertake chronic low-carbohydrate (CHO) ketogenic diets while training, and race with very low CHO intakes, as a way to maximize fat oxidation and improve performance. However, very little empirical evidence exists on specific fueling strategies that elite ultramarathoners undertake to maximize race performance. The study's purpose was to characterize race nutrition habits of elite ultramarathon runners. Three veteran male ultrarunners (M ± SD; age 35 ± 2 years; mass 59...
February 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Beat Knechtle, Matthias Alexander Zingg, Thomas Rosemann, Michael Stiefel, Christoph Alexander Rüst
OBJECTIVE: This narrative review summarizes recent intentions to find potential predictor variables for ultra-triathlon race performance (ie, triathlon races longer than the Ironman distance covering 3.8 km swimming, 180 km cycling, and 42.195 km running). Results from studies on ultra-triathletes were compared to results on studies on Ironman triathletes. METHODS: A literature search was performed in PubMed using the terms "ultra", "triathlon", and "performance" for the aspects of "ultra-triathlon", and "Ironman", "triathlon", and "performance" for the aspects of "Ironman triathlon"...
2015: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine
Christoph A Rüst, Thomas Rosemann, Matthias A Zingg, Beat Knechtle
BACKGROUND: This study investigated changes in normalised running speed as a proxy for effort distribution over segments in male elite and age group 100 km ultra-marathoners with the assumption that older runners would slow down more than younger runners. METHODS: The annual ten fastest finishers (i.e. elite and age group runners) competing between 2000 and 2009 in the '100 km Lauf Biel' were identified. Normalised average running speed (i.e. relative to segment 1 of the race corrected for gradient) was analysed as a proxy for pacing in elite and age group finishers...
2015: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation
Solvej Videbæk, Andreas Moeballe Bueno, Rasmus Oestergaard Nielsen, Sten Rasmussen
BACKGROUND: No systematic review has identified the incidence of running-related injuries per 1000 h of running in different types of runners. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present review was to systematically search the literature for the incidence of running-related injuries per 1000 h of running in different types of runners, and to include the data in meta-analyses. DATA SOURCES: A search of the PubMed, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, PEDro and Web of Science databases was conducted...
July 2015: Sports Medicine
Patrick B Wilson, Gregory S Rhodes, Stacy J Ingraham
OBJECTIVE: Ingesting a mix of glucose and fructose during exercise increases exogenous carbohydrate oxidation while minimizing gastrointestinal (GI) distress. Several studies have suggested that a glucose-to-fructose ratio of 1.2:1 to 1:1 is optimal. No studies have quantified saccharides consumed during a nonsimulated endurance event. The aim of this investigation was to quantify saccharide sources used during an ultra-endurance triathlon and provide a resource for athletes desiring to manipulate the saccharide content of carbohydrate consumed during training and competition...
2015: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Gerard Carmona, Emma Roca, Mario Guerrero, Roser Cussó, Alfredo Irurtia, Lexa Nescolarde, Daniel Brotons, Josep L Bedini, Joan A Cadefau
OBJECTIVE: To investigate changes after a mountain ultramarathon (MUM) in the serum concentration of fast (FM) and slow (SM) myosin isoforms, which are fiber-type-specific sarcomere proteins. The changes were compared against creatine kinase (CK), a widely used fiber-sarcolemma-damage biomarker, and cardiac troponin I (cTnI), a widely used cardiac biomarker. METHODS: Observational comparison of response in a single group of 8 endurance-trained amateur athletes. Time-related changes in serum levels of CK, cTnI, SM, and FM from competitors were analyzed before, 1 h after the MUM, and 24 and 48 h after the start of the MUM by 1-way ANOVA for repeated measures or Friedman and Wilcoxon tests...
November 2015: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Beat Knechtle, Thomas Rosemann, Matthias A Zingg, Michael Stiefel, Christoph A Rüst
Pacing strategy has been investigated in elite 100 km and elite 161 km (100 mile) ultra-marathoners, but not in age group ultra-marathoners. This study investigated changes in running speed over segments in male elite and age group 100 km ultra-marathoners with the assumption that running speed would decrease over segments with increasing age of the athlete. Running speed during segments in male elite and age group finishers for 5-year age groups (ie, 18-24 to 65-69 years) in the 100 km Lauf Biel in Switzerland was investigated during the 2000-2009 period...
2015: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine
Ryan R Fader, Justin J Mitchell, Shaun Traub, Roger Nichols, Michelle Roper, Omer Mei Dan, Eric C McCarty
BACKGROUND: chronic proximal hamstring tendinopathies is a disabling activity related condition. Currently, there is no well-accepted or extensively documented non-operative treatment option that provides consistently successful results. PURPOSE: to evaluate the efficacy of ultrasound guided platelet-rich plasma injections in treating chronic proximal hamstring tendinopathies. METHODS: a total of 18 consecutive patients were retrospectively analyzed...
October 2014: Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal
Tobias Romer, Christoph Alexander Rüst, Matthias Alexander Zingg, Thomas Rosemann, Beat Knechtle
We investigated age and performance in distance-limited ultra-marathons held from 50 km to 1,000 km. Age of peak running speed and running speed of the fastest competitors from 1969 to 2012 in 50 km, 100 km, 200 km and 1,000 km ultra-marathons were analyzed using analysis of variance and multi-level regression analyses. The ages of the ten fastest women ever were 40 ± 4 yrs (50 km), 34 ± 7 yrs (100 km), 42 ± 6 yrs (200 km), and 41 ± 5 yrs (1,000 km). The ages were significantly different between 100 km and 200 km and between 100 km and 1,000 km...
2014: SpringerPlus
Christoph Alexander Rüst, Matthias Alexander Zingg, Thomas Rosemann, Beat Knechtle
BACKGROUND: Recent studies found that the athlete's age of the best ultra-marathon performance was higher than the athlete's age of the best marathon performance and it seemed that the athlete's age of peak ultra-marathon performance increased in distance-limited races with rising distance. METHODS: We investigated the athlete's age of peak ultra-marathon performance in the fastest finishers in time-limited ultra-marathons from 6 hrs to 10 d. Running performance and athlete's age of the fastest women and men competing in 6 hrs, 12 hrs, 24 hrs, 48 hrs, 72 hrs, 144 hrs (6 d) and 240 hrs (10 d) were analysed for races held between 1975 and 2012 using analysis of variance and multi-level regression analysis...
2014: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"