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Athlete, strength, conditioning, performance

Roger L Hammer, Joshua T Linton, Adam M Hammer
The purpose of this investigation was to determine maximal strength and jump performance outcomes of heavy squat training on a low-amplitude (<1.0 mm peak-to-peak) vibration platform (VP). Nineteen recreationally resistance-trained college-aged men (22.3 ± 1.66 years) completed the 6-week study. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two training groups: SQT (n = 10) performed conventional back squats on the floor; SQTV (n = 9) performed back squats on the VP. Supervised training took place over 12 sessions (2 days/week) which utilized an aggressive strength development protocol (85-95 % 1-RM), which was identically followed by both groups...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Kellen Krajewski, Robert LeFavi, Bryan Riemann
The purpose of this study is to analyze biomechanical differences between the bounce and pause styles of deadlifting. Twenty physically active males performed deadlifts at their 75% one repetition maximum testing utilizing both pause and bounce techniques in a within-subjects randomized study design. The average peak height the barbell attained from the three bounce style repetitions was used to compute a compatible phase for analysis of the pause style repetitions. Net joint moment impulse (NJMI), work, average vertical ground reaction force (vGRF), vGRF impulse and phase time were computed for two phases, lift off to peak barbell height and the entire ascent...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Brianna D McKay, Amelia A Miramonti, Zachary M Gillen, Todd J Leutzinger, Alegra I Mendez, Nathaniel D M Jenkins, Joel T Cramer
The purpose of the present report was to provide test- and position-specific normative reference values for combine test results based on a large, nationally-representative sample of high school-aged American football players in their freshman, sophomore, and junior classes. Cross-sectional anthropometric and performance data were obtained from 12 different high school American football recruiting combines between March 7, 2015 and January 9, 2016 across the United States. Subjects included a sample (n=7,478) of high school-aged American football athletes in their junior (n=3,779), sophomore (n=2,514), and freshman (n=1,185) classes...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Irineu Loturco, Timothy Suchomel, Ronaldo Kobal, Ademir F S Arruda, Aristide Guerriero, Lucas A Pereira, Chi Nan Pai
This study examined the force-velocity relationship and tested the possibility of determining the relative loading intensity (% 1RM) in three different variations of prone row exercises. Thirty male top-level athletes from two different sports (National Team rugby union players and professional mixed martial arts fighters) were submitted to maximum dynamic strength assessments in the free prone bench pull, bent over barbell row, and bent over Smith-machine row, following standard procedures encompassing lifts performed from 40 to 100% of 1RM...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Renan F H Nunes, Rodolfo A Dellagrana, Fábio Y Nakamura, Cosme F Buzzachera, Flavia A M Almeida, Lucinar J F Flores, Luiz G A Guglielmo, Sérgio G da Silva
Purpose/Background: Strength asymmetries are related to knee injuries in intermittent sports players. The purpose of this study was to examine whether elite futsal players demonstrate strength asymmetries during knee isokinetic testing applying the Croisier et al.21 criteria. Methods: Forty male elite (27.9 ± 6.5 years) Brazilian futsal players participated in the study. The testing protocol required players to perform concentric contractions of both quadriceps and hamstring muscles at angular velocities of 60 °·s-1 and 240 °·s-1 and eccentric contractions of hamstring at 30 °·s-1 and 120 °·s-1 ...
February 2018: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Boris Ullrich, Thiemo Pelzer, Mark Pfeiffer
Ullrich, B, Pelzer, T, and Pfeiffer, M. Neuromuscular effects to 6 weeks of loaded countermovement jumping with traditional and daily undulating periodization. J Strength Cond Res 32(3): 660-674, 2018-Loaded vertical jumps are routinely used to enhance athlete's power production in the lower extremity and to optimize jumping and sprinting performance. This study compared traditional (TP) and daily undulating (DUP) periodization on muscle strength, jumping performance, electromyographic (EMG) muscle activity, and muscle architecture during preseason loaded jump training...
March 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Karsten Øvretveit
The aim of this study was to describe anthropometric and physiological characteristics of Brazilian jiu-jitsu (BJJ) athletes. For this purpose, 42 male athletes were recruited from one of the largest BJJ academies in central Norway. The subjects were 32 ± 6 (SD) years old, 181.9 ± 7.2 cm tall, had a body mass (mb) of 85.7 ± 10.6 kg, and 5.5 ± 3.7 years of BJJ training experience. The subjects underwent segmental multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) of body composition, direct measurements of pulmonary function and maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max), assessments of one-repetition maximum (1RM) in the parallel squat and paused bench press, and one set of pronated-grip pull-ups to muscular failure...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Brett S Nickerson, Gerald T Mangine, Tyler D Williams, Ismael A Martinez
The purpose of this study was to determine if back squat cluster sets (CS) with varying inter-repetition rest periods would potentiate greater sprint performance compared to a traditional set parallel back squat in collegiate soccer players. Twelve collegiate male soccer players (21.0 ± 2.0 years; 180.0 ± 9.0 cm; 79.0 ± 9.5 kg) performed a 20-meter sprint prior to (PRE) a potentiation complex and at 1-, 4-, 7-, and 10-minutes post-exercise on three separate, randomized occasions. On each occasion, the potentiation complex consisted of 1 set of 3 repetitions at 85% one-repetition maximum (1RM) for the traditional parallel back squat...
January 24, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Marina Saldanha da Silva Athayde, Rafael Lima Kons, Daniele Detanico
This study aimed to verify the effect of caffeine intake on blood lactate concentrations and neuromuscular and technical-tactical performance during simulated judo matches. Fourteen male judo athletes received capsules containing caffeine or placebo and were evaluated in both conditions. Before the baseline and 1 hour after the caffeine/placebo intake, athletes performed the countermovement jump test (CMJ), handgrip strength, judogi grip strength test (JGST), and blood samples were collected. Subsequently, the athletes were submitted to three 5 minute matches with 15 minute intervals...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Capt Matthew T Provencher, Jorge Chahla, George Sanchez, Mark E Cinque, Nicholas I Kennedy, Jim Whalen, Mark D Price, Gilbert Moatshe, Robert F LaPrade
Obesity has been previously noted as a major issue in the National Football League (NFL), where it has been shown that 97% of all players demonstrate a body mass index (BMI) of ≥25.0 with a reported obesity rate of 56% (BMI ≥30.0). However, BMI does not take into account body composition by mass, and may overestimate prevalence of obesity. The purposes of this study were to (1) determine the validity of BMI as a measure of body fat percentage and obesity in athletes at the NFL Combine, to define the obesity rate based on body fat percentage compared to BMI...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Mehrez Hammami, Nawel Gaamouri, Roy J Shephard, Mohamed Souhaiel Chelly
The aim was to compare the effects of two differing 8-week in-season strength training programs (contrast strength training [CST] vs. plyometric training [PT]) on selected performance tests (5 and 40m sprints, S 4 X 5 m change of direction test, squat (SJ) and countermovement (CMJ) jumps , leg peak power on a cycle ergometer force-velocity test, 1-repetition maximal (1-RM) half squat, and electromyographic [EMG] activity of the vastus lateralis, vastus medialis and rectus femoris muscles during vertical jump tests)...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Artur Gołaś, Anna Zwierzchowska, Adam Maszczyk, Michał Wilk, Petr Stastny, Adam Zając
The disabled population varies significantly in regard to physical fitness, what is conditioned by the damage to the locomotor system. Recently there has been an increased emphasis on the role of competitive sport in enhancing health and the quality of life of individuals with disability. One of the sport disciplines of Paralympics is the flat bench press. The bench press is one of the most popular resistance exercises used for the upper body in healthy individuals. It is used not only by powerlifters, but also by athletes in most strength-speed oriented sport disciplines...
December 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
Matthew J Hayes, Dirk R Spits, David G Watts, Vincent G Kelly
The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a relationship between tennis serve speed and isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP) kinetic variables; countermovement jump height (CMJ Height), shoulder internal and external rotation strength and anthropometric measures in elite adolescent tennis players. Twenty-one elite junior tennis players from the Tennis Australia National Academy were recruited for this study (male, n = 12, female, n = 9). Correlations between the performance variables and peak tennis serve speed were calculated using a Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Pierre Samozino, Jean Romain Riviere, Jérémy Rossi, Jean-Benoit Morin, Pedro Jimenez-Reyes
Velocity strength training requires exercise modalities allowing athletes to reach very high movement velocity, which is limited during vertical movements involving body weight. PURPOSE: Our aim was to quantify the mechanical outputs developed during horizontal squat jumps, and notably the movement velocity, in comparison to vertical squat jumps with and without loads. METHODS: Thirteen healthy male athletes performed squat jumps without additional loads (SJ0), with a load of ~60% of body mass (SJ60) and during horizontal squat jumps performed lying down on a roller device with (AHSJ) and without (HSJ) a rubber band assistance...
December 28, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Darryl Wilson, Girish Ramchandani
Purpose: There is a paucity of home advantage research set in the context of para-sport events. It is this gap in the knowledge that this paper addresses by investigating the prevalence and size of home advantage in the Summer Paralympic Games. Methods: Using a standardised measure of success, we compared the performances of nations when competing at home with their own performances away from home in the competition between 1960 and 2016. Both country-level and individual sport-level analyses were conducted for this time frame...
2017: Sport Sciences for Health
Flávio F Silva, Guilherme A C de Oliveira, Hugo C Martins Costa, Wiliam C B Regis
People seek a greater quality of life and healthy aging that culminates in improved self-esteem and vitality in the performance of daily activities; this is generating a growing number of people enrolled in gyms in search of quick results. However, this training can result in physical and metabolic damage. During physical exercise, under conditions of oxidative stress, changes take place that lead to the onset of fatigue. The Agaricus brasiliensis mushroom is native to Brazil and has therapeutic potential, with widely studied antioxidant and immunomodulatory capabilities...
2017: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Daniel Niederer, Jan Wilke, Lutz Vogt, Winfried Banzer
OBJECTIVE: To assess how different decision-guiding factors, such as health and performance related actuators, as well as evidence based guidelines, support the process-orientated final positive return to play (RTP) decision of head coaches responsible for semi-professional sport teams. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: and Participants: A survey consisting of questions on the importance of different decision-guiding factors used when making the RTP decision following injuries was administered to and completed by 238 head coaches of semi-professional players' teams...
November 18, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Katia Kitamura, Lucas Adriano Pereira, Ronaldo Kobal, Cesar Cavinato Cal Abad, Ronaldo Finotti, Fábio Yuzo Nakamura, Irineu Loturco
The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in loaded and unloaded jump performances between different age categories of top-level volleyball players from the same club. Forty-three volleyball players were divided into four age groups: under-17, under-19, under-21 and professional. Vertical jumping height for squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ) and CMJ with arm swing (CMJa) and mean propulsive velocity (MPV) in the loaded jump squat exercise with 40% of the athlete's body mass were compared among the different age categories, considering body mass as a covariate...
September 2017: Biology of Sport
Jon Brazier, Sean Maloney, Chris Bishop, Paul J Read, Anthony N Turner
Brazier, J, Maloney, S, Bishop, C, Read, PJ, and Turner, AN. Lower extremity stiffness: considerations for testing, performance enhancement, and injury risk. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2017-Force-deformation characteristics of the lower limb have been associated with athletic performance and may modulate the risk of injury. Despite these known associations, measurements of lower extremity stiffness are not commonly administered by strength and conditioning coaches. This review provides an overview of the available literature pertaining to the effects of lower extremity stiffness on physical performance and injury risk...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Christopher Rosimus
The body composition of a squash player may affect athletic performance as carrying excessive body fat may increase injury risk and impair agility and speed. This case study outlines the effect of a nutritional intervention on body composition, vitamin D status and physical performance of a female squash player. A structured, 6-week moderate energy-restricted diet (70-78% of Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) of 2300 kcal was implemented with weekly support. A daily supplement of vitamin D, omega 3 fatty acids, and a multivitamin/multimineral and whey protein was used...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
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