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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444266/fundamentals-of-glycogen-metabolism-for-coaches-and-athletes
#1
Bob Murray, Christine Rosenbloom
The ability of athletes to train day after day depends in large part on adequate restoration of muscle glycogen stores, a process that requires the consumption of sufficient dietary carbohydrates and ample time. Providing effective guidance to athletes and others wishing to enhance training adaptations and improve performance requires an understanding of the normal variations in muscle glycogen content in response to training and diet; the time required for adequate restoration of glycogen stores; the influence of the amount, type, and timing of carbohydrate intake on glycogen resynthesis; and the impact of other nutrients on glycogenesis...
February 10, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433921/modified-perceptual-training-in-sport-a-new-classification-framework
#2
REVIEW
Stephen Mark Hadlow, Derek Panchuk, David Lindsay Mann, Marc Ronald Portus, Bruce Abernethy
OBJECTIVES: To overview a framework that provides a theoretically-grounded approach to predicting the types of modified perceptual training tasks that will stimulate transfer of improved perceptual skills to sport performance environments. Modified perceptual training (MPT) collectively describes on- or off-field sports training tasks that are specifically designed to develop visual and perceptual-cognitive skill. Traditional training approaches in sport include sports vision training and perceptual-cognitive training, while recently, new technologies have enabled a broad range of additional MPT tools to become available to coaches and athletes...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431595/wheelchair-mobility-performance-enhancement-by-changing-wheelchair-properties-what-is-the-effect-of-grip-seat-height-and-mass
#3
Rienk M A van der Slikke, Annemarie M H de Witte, Monique A M Berger, Daan J J Bregman, Dirk Jan H E J Veeger
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to provide insight in the effect of wheelchair settings on wheelchair mobility performance. METHODS: Twenty elite wheelchair basketball athletes of low (n=10) and high classification (n=10), were tested in a wheelchair basketball directed field test. Athletes performed the test in their own wheelchair, which was modified for five additional conditions regarding seat height (high - low), mass (central - distributed) and grip...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420813/sport-psychology-for-the-soldier-athlete-a-paradigm-shift
#4
Vanessa M Meyer
Background: Competitive athletes train body and mind in preparation for competition with mental fortitude often providing the "winning edge." Similarly, the current-day warfighter faces significant physical and psychological challenges and must be prepared to respond to life-threatening danger with mental and physical agility. Sport Psychology for the Soldier Athlete recognizes the soldier as an elite athlete and provides training required to perform at the highest caliber. Through this curriculum, mental skills coaching in goal setting, imagery, positive self-talk, and heart rate control is integrated into routine physical fitness training...
February 6, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420437/objectively-differentiating-movement-patterns-between-elite-and-novice-athletes
#5
Gwyneth B Ross, Brittany Dowling, Nikolaus F Troje, Steven L Fischer, Ryan B Graham
INTRODUCTION: Movement screens are frequently used to identify abnormal movement patterns that may increase risk of injury or hinder performance. Abnormal patterns are often detected visually based on the observations of a coach or clinician. Quantitative, or data-driven methods can increase objectivity, remove issues related to inter-rater reliability and offer the potential to detect new and important features that may not be observable by the human eye. Applying principal components analysis (PCA) to whole-body motion data may provide an objective data-driven method to identify unique and statistically important movement patterns, an important first step to objectively characterize optimal patterns or identify abnormalities...
February 5, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373426/the-tapering-practices-of-strongman-athletes
#6
P W Winwood, M K Dudson, D Wilson, J K H Mclaren-Harrison, V Redjkins, H J Pritchard, J W L Keogh
This study provides the first empirical evidence of how strongman athletes taper for strongman competitions. Strongman athletes (n=454) (mean ±SD: 33.2 ±8.0y, 178.1 ±10.6cm, 108.6 ±27.9kg, 12.6 ±8.9y general resistance training, 5.3 ±5.0y strongman implement training) completed a self-reported 4-page internet survey on tapering practices. Analysis by gender (male and female), age (≤ 30 and >30y), body mass (≤ 105 and >105kg) and competitive standard (local/regional amateur, national amateur and professional) was conducted...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373425/the-effect-of-heat-stress-on-measures-of-running-performance-and-heart-rate-responses-during-a-competitive-season-in-male-soccer-players
#7
Nicholas A Coker, Adam J Wells, Yftach Gepner
Measures of running performance (RP) and heart rate responses (HR) to matchplay during three different heat stress (HS) conditions were assessed in seven National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I male soccer players. Total distance (TD), as well as distance covered within distinct velocity zones [walking (WALK), jogging (JOG), low speed running (LSR), high-speed running (HSR), sprinting (SPRINT), low-intensity running (LIR), and high-intensity running (HIR)] were assessed using GPS units over 12 matches...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369952/running-performance-in-brazilian-professional-football-players-during-a-congested-match-schedule
#8
Luiz H Palucci Vieira, Rodrigo Aquino, Carlos Lago-Peñas, Guilherme H Munhoz Martins, Enrico F Puggina, Fabio A Barbieri
Palucci Vieira, LH, Aquino, R, Lago-Peñas, C, Munhoz Martins, GH, Puggina, EF, and Barbieri, FA. Running performance in Brazilian professional football players during a congested match schedule. J Strength Cond Res 32(2): 313-325, 2018-The purpose of the study was to examine the influence of playing congested fixtures (2 matches a week) on running performance of Brazilian professional football players, pooled (all performance files regardless players' rotation between games) or individualized data treatment (including only files of athletes' who played pair(s) of noncongested-congested matches which occurred on the same week)...
February 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363470/understanding-olympic-champions-and-their-achievement-goal-orientation-dominance-and-pursuit-and-motivational-regulations-a-case-study
#9
Javier Fernández-Río, José A Cecchini, Antonio Méndez-Giménez, Nicolás Terrados, Miguel García
BACKGROUND: The goal was to compare the achievement goal profile and the motivational regulations of one world-class and two high-level athletes during their preparation for the Rio Olympic Games. METHOD: Three kayakers from the Spanish Olympic team participated. One (P1) and two (P2) were high-level athletes: finalists at the World and European championships, and several national championships. Participant three (P3) was a world-class athlete: 2 Olympic medals, 7 World championship medals, 4 European championship medals, and several national championships...
February 2018: Psicothema
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359646/the-role-of-coach-athlete-relationship-quality-in-team-sport-athletes-psychophysiological-exhaustion-implications-for-physical-and-cognitive-performance
#10
Louise Davis, Ralph Appleby, Paul Davis, Mark Wetherell, Henrik Gustafsson
The present study aimed to examine associations between the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and athlete exhaustion by assessing physiological and cognitive consequences. Male and female athletes (N = 82) representing seven teams across four different sports, participated in a quasi-experimental study measuring physical performance on a 5-meter multiple shuttle test, followed by a Stroop test to assess cognitive performance. Participants provided saliva samples measuring cortisol as a biomarker of acute stress response and completed questionnaires measuring exhaustion, and coach-athlete relationship quality...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353094/effects-of-scaling-task-constraints-on-emergent-behaviours-in-children-s-racquet-sports-performance
#11
Anna Fitzpatrick, Keith Davids, Joseph A Stone
Manipulating task constraints by scaling key features like space and equipment is considered an effective method for enhancing performance development and refining movement patterns in sport. Despite this, it is currently unclear whether scaled manipulation of task constraints would impact emergent movement behaviours in young children, affording learners opportunities to develop relevant skills. Here, we sought to investigate how scaling task constraints during 8 weeks of mini tennis training shaped backhand stroke development...
January 17, 2018: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351161/effects-of-contrast-strength-vs-plyometric-training-on-lower-limb-explosive-performance-ability-to-change-direction-and-neuromuscular-adaptation-in-soccer-players
#12
Mehrez Hammami, Nawel Gaamouri, Roy J Shephard, Mohamed Souhaiel Chelly
The aim was to compare the effects of two differing 8-week in-season strength training programs (contrast strength training [CST] vs. plyometric training [PT]) on selected performance tests (5 and 40m sprints, S 4 X 5 m change of direction test, squat (SJ) and countermovement (CMJ) jumps , leg peak power on a cycle ergometer force-velocity test, 1-repetition maximal (1-RM) half squat, and electromyographic [EMG] activity of the vastus lateralis, vastus medialis and rectus femoris muscles during vertical jump tests)...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349094/upper-extremity-functional-status-of-female-youth-softball-pitchers-using-the-kerlan-jobe-orthopaedic-clinic-questionnaire
#13
Kaila A Holtz, Russell J O'Connor
Background: Softball is a popular sport with a high incidence of upper extremity injuries. The Kerlan-Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic (KJOC) questionnaire is a validated performance and functional assessment tool used in overhead athletes. Upper extremity pain patterns and baseline KJOC scores have not been reported for active female youth softball pitchers. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence of upper extremity pain and its effect in female youth softball pitchers over a competitive season...
January 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343176/on-understanding-the-nature-of-interpersonal-conflict-between-coaches-and-athletes
#14
Svenja Wachsmuth, Sophia Jowett, Chris G Harwood
Conflict is a part of coach-athlete relationships and should be carefully considered as it can have effects on the quality of coaching and the level of performance. Despite its practical relevance, there is a dearth of research around coach-athlete conflict. Therefore, the current study aimed to explore the characteristics and topics of conflict, as well as coaches and athletes' emotional, cognitive and behavioural experiences during conflict. A total of 22 independent coaches and athletes participated in semi-structured interviews evolving around the nature of interpersonal conflict...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340004/performance-and-kinematic-differences-in-putting-between-healthy-and-disabled-elite-golfers
#15
Tomáš Gryc, Petr Stastny, František Zahálka, Wojciech Smółka, Piotr Żmijewski, Artur Gołaś, Marek Zawartka, Tomáš Malý
Golfers with disability are limited in the execution of the full golf swing, but their performance in putting may be comparable because this stroke does not demand significant strength, balance and range of motion. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare putting performance, kinetic and kinematic consistency between golfers with different disabilities and healthy athletes. The participants consisted of three disabled athletes (perinatal cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis, below knee lower limb amputee) and three healthy golfers (age 34 ± 4...
December 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339998/planning-training-loads-for-the-400-m-hurdles-in-three-month-mesocycles-using-artificial-neural-networks
#16
Krzysztof Przednowek, Janusz Iskra, Krzysztof Wiktorowicz, Tomasz Krzeszowski, Adam Maszczyk
This paper presents a novel approach to planning training loads in hurdling using artificial neural networks. The neural models performed the task of generating loads for athletes' training for the 400 meters hurdles. All the models were calculated based on the training data of 21 Polish National Team hurdlers, aged 22.25 ± 1.96, competing between 1989 and 2012. The analysis included 144 training plans that represented different stages in the annual training cycle. The main contribution of this paper is to develop neural models for planning training loads for the entire career of a typical hurdler...
December 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337832/comparison-of-step-by-step-kinematics-in-repeated-30m-sprints-in-female-soccer-players
#17
Roland van den Tillaar
The aim of this study was to compare kinematics in repeated 30m sprints in female soccer players. Seventeen subjects performed seven 30m sprints every 30s in one session. Kinematics were measured with an infrared contact mat and laser gun, and running times with an electronic timing device. The main findings were that sprint times increased in the repeated sprint ability test. The main changes in kinematics during the repeated sprint ability test were increased contact time and decreased step frequency, while no change in step length was observed...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336211/the-effect-of-altering-loading-distance-on-skeleton-start-performance-is-higher-pre-load-velocity-always-beneficial
#18
Steffi L Colyer, Keith A Stokes, James L J Bilzon, Danny Holdcroft, Aki I T Salo
Athletes initiating skeleton runs differ in the number of steps taken before loading the sled. We aimed to understand how experimentally modifying loading distance influenced sled velocity and overall start performance. Ten athletes (five elite, five talent; 67% of all national athletes) underwent two to four sessions, consisting of two dry-land push-starts in each of three conditions (preferred, long and short loading distances). A magnet encoder on the sled wheel provided velocity profiles and the overall performance measure (sled acceleration index)...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324575/the-relationship-between-tennis-serve-velocity-and-select-performance-measures
#19
Matthew J Hayes, Dirk R Spits, David G Watts, Vincent G Kelly
The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a relationship between tennis serve speed and isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP) kinetic variables; countermovement jump height (CMJ Height), shoulder internal and external rotation strength and anthropometric measures in elite adolescent tennis players. Twenty-one elite junior tennis players from the Tennis Australia National Academy were recruited for this study (male, n = 12, female, n = 9). Correlations between the performance variables and peak tennis serve speed were calculated using a Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320519/the-effect-of-small-sided-games-with-different-levels-of-opposition-on-the-tactical-behaviour-of-young-footballers-with-different-levels-of-sport-expertise
#20
Alba Práxedes, Alberto Moreno, Alexander Gil-Arias, Fernando Claver, Fernando Del Villar
To optimize players' tactical abilities, coaches need to design training sessions with representative learning tasks, such as, small-sided games. Moreover, it is necessary to adapt the complexity of the tasks to the skill level of the athletes to maximally improve their perceptual, visual and attentive abilities. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of two teaching programs, each utilizing modified games with varied levels of opposition, on decision-making and action execution in young players with different levels of sports expertise...
2018: PloS One
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